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Dr. Aliyu Adebayo Sulaimon (email@example.com)
Lecture 2 – Formation Damage
Causes, Sources and Diagnosis
students should be able to: Understand and explain the concept of formation damage Identify and describe different types of formation damage Describe with illustrations. causes of formation damage Mention and explain the sources of formation damage during well operations Suggest ways by which formation damage could be prevented and/or recommend mitigation strategies Recommend diagnostic tools for identifying formation damage .Learning Outcomes At the end of this lecture.
Formation damage Introduction Damage mechanisms • • • • Mechanically induced Chemically induced Biologically induced Thermally induced Operational sources of formation damage • • • • Drilling operation Completion operation Production operation Injection operations Reference: Bennion et al (SPE 30320) .
Introduction Investigations show that significant portions of the sand-face do not contribute to fluid inflow Characterized by reduction in permeability around the wellbore (Figure 1) Formation damage means reduced current production Reserves may remain trapped in a high percentage of the potentially productive zone With radial flow. the ‘Critical Area’ is the first few feet away from the wellbore Production reduces through • • • Decrease in absolute permeability due to plugging Decrease in relative permeability to oil due to increase in water saturation or wettability reversal Increase in oil viscosity due to emulsion or high-viscosity treating fluids .
Figure 1: Schematics of Formation Damage .
Damage mechanisms Mechanically induced • Plugging by solid particles • • • Large particles bridge over the pore surfaces and form a filter cake Small fines adhere to the surface of the pore bodies or bridge in the pore throats Bridging occurs when the size of the particles are more than one-third (1/3) the size of the pore throat Fig. 2B:surface deposition of adhering particles Fig. 2C:plugging by depositing particles .2A:cake formation by large particles Fig.
Mechanically induced (Cont’d) • • Pulverization and compaction of the rock around perforation (Figure 3) Collapse of weak formation material around the wellbore • Friable formations or those by acidizing in the near wellbore region Figure 3: Damage Due to Perforation .
• the ionic composition changes • Water sensitivity depends on • • • Type of cations (monovalent types more damaging) PH (the higher the more sensitive the formation becomes as salinity changes) Rate of change of salinity To prevent clay dispersion. Chemically induced (Cont’d) • Clay Dispersion • Dispersion of clay particles occurs when • the interstitial water salinity is suddenly reduced particularly during flow in sandstone reservoir – ‘Water Sensitivity’. the injection fluid should contain more divalent cations .
or removal of CO2 (due to pressure reduction) may lead to precipitation • Organic species that usually cause formation damage are waxes and asphaltenes • • Waxes due to Temperature reduction below the cloud point and/or when Pressure drops. Chemically induced • • • • • Inorganic and Organic precipitation – From Brine & Oil Initially. Composition changes due to liberation of lighter components Asphaltenes in colloidal state flocculates when resins are removed . HCO3-.g. SO42-) Ca2+ + 2HCO3CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Addition of Ca2+ (through fluid injection e. CaCl2 completion fluid) into a reservoir with high bicarbonate conc. ionic species in connate water in chemical equilibrium with formation minerals Changes in Pressure & Temperature near the wellbore Alteration in phase composition (X) by injected fluid Inorganic precipitates are commonly divalent cations (Ca2+. Ba2+.
Biologically induced Common in water injection wells and largely due to bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic) growth • Bacteria normally injected to reduce permeability of thief zones during drilling operations • They plug pore spaces • They cause precipitates due to their biological activities Best prevented by aggressive treating of injection fluids with biocides .
Thermally induced Damage unique to heavy oil production by EOR methods: • • • Hot water Steam In-situ combustion • Mineral transformation • • • T > 200oC Inert clay (kaolinite) transform to water-sensitive clay (smectite) Subsequent swelling and expansion resulting from contact with steam condensate lead to permeability reduction .
carbonates and silica become more soluble in aqueous solution Dissolution of partially soluble clasts (fragments) of carbonaceous and silicates material releases the immobilized the fines that migrate to plug pore throats (Figure 4a) Mineral saturated brine can encounter colder formation materials which may trigger re-precipitation (Figure 4b) • . Thermally induced (Cont’d) • Solubilization and precipitation • • At high temperatures.
SPE 30320) .(a) (b) Figure 4: Mineral dissolution (Source: Bennion et al.
SPE 30320) .Figure 5: Temperature effect on relative permeability/wettability (Source: Bennion et al.
drilling fluids order than the water-based mud should be used.0ft) Mud filtrate can damage the formation by • Fines movement • Precipitation • Water blocking Fines migration and precipitation damage are mitigated by ensuring that the ionic composition of the mud is compatible with the formation fluid. • • • . To avoid water blocking.0 – 6. Operational sources of formation damage • Drilling operation • • Most common. by perforating. most severe Damage due to invasions by both the drilling fluid particles and filtrates Depth of particle invasion usually small (< one foot) Minimized when mud particles are designed larger than the pores. or by acidizing Depth of filtrate invasion usually more ( 1.
Operational sources (Cont’d) • Production operation • • • Damage caused by fines migration or by precipitation Above critical velocity (determined by core-flood tests) near the w/b. acids to remove carbonate precipitates and solvents to remove waxes.e. fines are capable of plugging pore throats Fines move when the phase they wet is mobile (water-wet). It can be prevented with chemical squeeze treatment using sequestering agents . fines migration subsequently leads to formation damage (Figure 6) • Precipitation of solids (inorganic/organic) may commence as pressure drops near the wellbore Damage is overcome with stimulation treatment i.
Figure 6: Fines migration (Source: Bennion et al. SPE 30320) .
.Mg. Operational sources (Cont’d) • Injection operations Damage caused by • Precipitation due to incompatibility of injected and formation fluids • Pronounced when water with relatively high concentration of sulphate or carbonate ions is injected into formation with divalent cations (Ca. Ba) • Filtration to remove all particles larger than 2µm is desirable • Growth of bacteria • Injection water may contain bacteria which can plug the formation • Bacteria may grow near the wellbore to cause damage • Injected fluids should be tested for bacteria and biocides should be added if there is risk of damage by bacteria.
Production logging surveys may identify zones not contributing to the total inflow Comparison of well’s productivity with offset wells’ may indicate possible damage Careful analysis of well completion or workover reports utilizing adequate knowledge of damage mechanisms and sufficient field experience in well operations could be very useful .Identification of Formation Damage Formation damage can be recognized through the following techniques: Well tests – Pressure build-up or fall-off test may indicate the extent of damage.
pages 5-14 to 5-15 for a different enumeration of formation damage during well operations Refer also to the excellent presentation on ‘Laboratory Identification of Minerals’ in Appendix 5B. ‘Production Operations 2. pages 5-16 to 5-43 .HOMEWORK Read Appendix 5A of Allen & Roberts.
ASSIGNMENT 1 A well has a radius rw = 0.0ft 1) What is the damage skin factor if permeability impairment results in k/ks = 5 and 10.328 ft and damage penetration of 3. respectively? 2) What would be the required damage depth to give the same skin as with k/ks = 10 but the actual permeability impairment being k/ks = 5? .
ASSIGNMENT 2 • A well has a drainage area of 640 acres (re = 2980 ft) and wellbore radius of 0.328 ft with 3 ft of damage beyond the well (rs = 3. • Compare portions of the pressure drop due to damage within the near-wellbore zone versus total pressure drop. .328 ft) and permeability impairment in the damage zone of k/ks equal to 10.
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