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Write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false on the left side of each stem 1. At rest adequate ventilation can be maintained by a) external intercostal muscle. b) internal intercostal muscle. c) scatene. d) the diaphragm. e) stenocledomastoid. 2. During inspiration a) intrapulmonary pressure falls. b) intrathoracic pressure rises. c) intraabdominal pressure rises. d) intrapleural pressure falls. e) dead space volume falls. Oxyhaemoglobin dissociationb curve a) is linear in shape. b) shifted to the right in exercise. c) shifted to the right in PCO2. d) Shifted to the left in foetal Hb. e) has two parts. CO2 is carried in the blood a) as carboxyhaemoglobin. b) in physical solution in plasma. c) mainly in combination with Hb. d) in combination with plasma protein. e) mainly as bicarbonate. The surfactant lining the lung alveoli a) decreases surface tension of the alveolar fluid. b) decreases compliance of the lung. c) is a phospholiopoprotein complex. d) when deficient results in respiratory distress in the adult. e) produced by type II alveolar cells. In normal lungs a) tidal volume is 500 ml. b) expiratory reserve volume is 1200 ml. c) residual volume is 1200 ml. d) vital capacity is 6000 ml. e) inspiratory capacity is 3500 ml. Hypoxia a) never occurs is anaemic subject. b) occurs is high altitude. c) produces polycythaemia. d) occurs in carbon mono-oxide poisoning. e) always need O2 therapy.
Proteolytic enzymes of pancreas are a) trypsinogen. b) aminopeptidase. c) pepsinogen. d) chymotrysinogen. e) isomaltase. Secretin a) stimulates hydrolytic type of secretion from pancreas. b) stimulates enzyme rich secretion from pancreas. c) is secreted in response to fatty acid mainly. d) begins to release when duodenal PH become 6-7. e) activation occurs by acid chyme. Factors that Stimulate gastric juice secretion are a) acetylcholine. b) gastrin. c) histamine. d) epinephrine. e) secretin. The liver is the principle site for a) synthesis of plasma albumin. b) synthesis of plasma globulin. c) synthesis of prothrombin. d) storage of iron. e) storage of Vitamin C. Absence of bile in the intestine causes a) prolonged prothrombin time. b) pteatorrhoea. c) defective iron absorption from the ileum. d) defective absorption of Vitamin B12. e) impaired fat absorption. The renal clearance of a substance a) is inversely related to its urinary concentration. b) is directly related to the rate of urine formation. c) is directly related to its plasma concentration. d) is expressed in units of volume per unit time. e) must fall in the presence of metabolic poisons.
Substances completely reabsorbed by PCT are a) amino acid. b) HCO -3. c) Water. d) glucose. e) urea.
Hormones acts on DCT are a) ADH. b) angiotensin. c) erythropoietin. d) calcitonin. e) aldosterone. Concentration of following ions in ECF are a) Na+ is 142 m. mol/L. b) K+ is 140 m. mol/L. c) CL- is 108 m. mol/L. d) HCO -3 is 10 m. mol/L. e) Ca+2 is 2.5 m. mol/L. Renal blood flow is a) 21% of cardiac output. b) not autoregulated. c) increased by sympathetic Stimulation. d) decreased by sympathetic Stimulation. e) 650 ml/min. GFR is increased when a) plasma colloid osmotic pressure is increased. b) plasma colloid osmotic pressure is decreased. c) glomerular hydrostatic pressure is increased. d) renal blood flow is decreased. e) bowman’s capsular pressure is increased. Plasma clearance value of a) inulin is 125 ml/min. b) glucose is 180 ml/min. c) creatinine is 140 ml/min. d) urea is 70 ml/min. e) PAH is 550 ml/min. In normal healthy people urinary a) specific gravity ranges from 1.010 to 1.020. b) osmolarity ranges from 200 to 400 m. osmole/L. c) volume is 1.5 L/day. d) has PH range of 4.5 to 8. e) straw color is due to presence of bile pigments.