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The Effects of Gender Discrimination on Women in Kashim Ibrahim College Of

The Effects of Gender Discrimination on Women in Kashim Ibrahim College Of

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Published by Francis Abulude
ABSTRACT
The global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominated
the world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutions
on how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method and
field survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as study
population out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and female
lecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used to
comprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little gender
discrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within the
Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, the
researchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation.

KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMEN
ABSTRACT
The global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominated
the world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutions
on how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method and
field survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as study
population out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and female
lecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used to
comprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little gender
discrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within the
Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, the
researchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation.

KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMEN

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Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011 ISSN: 2141 - 4181 © Wilolud Journals, 2011 http://www.wiloludjournal.

com ` Printed in Nigeria

THE EFFECTS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION ON WOMEN IN KASHIM IBRAHIM COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, (KICOE), MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
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Alimi Baba Gana and 2 Bukar Jamri Department of Social Services (Social Works), Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, 2 Department of Sociology, Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu, Yobe State Nigeria ABSTRACT The global gender discrimination against women in public and private organisations today dominated the world affairs, raises alarm, attracts the attention of sociologists, managers and head of institutions on how to confront the phenomenon is the concern of this study. A descriptive research method and field survey were employed to this study using a sample size of sixty-six (66) respondents as study population out of which thirty-three (33 (questionnaires each were allocated for both male and female lecturer. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages were used to comprehend the work. The findings of the study revealed that there was no or little gender discrimination against women in area of recruitment and in administrative interactions within the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. In an attempt to address the problem, the researchers proposed some recommendations in order to reverse the situation. KEYWORDS: EFFECTS, GENDER, DISCRIMINATION, WOMEN

1

INTRODUCTION Women all over the world are often seen and regarded as second class citizens, lesser half of the men, machinery for producing children, mothers cum slaves, object of sexual satisfaction (Alimi 2008). Gender discrimination shows its face through varied expression. There are varying patterns of gender discrimination; these patterns cannot be attributed to natural variations: they are man-made structures with important selfperpetuating properties and as such, cannot be considered a necessary feature of the society, since no human community is completely homogenous even in the simplest agrarian and primitive society. These are groups which tend to institutionalise gender inequality; this is seen in gender, class and status of our society. Other scholars attributed gender inequality to the nature, but forgotten that duties and responsibilities of either sex are clearly spelt out without bias, particularly in the Islamic perspective. Similarly, Ogedengbe (1986) described women best for the kitchen only. On the other hand, Perry (1985) described women as those who are mentally, physically, socially, politically and economically inferior to their male counterpart. Discrimination pervades every facet of our life. Everyone seems to be aware of it but ironically, it is itself discrimination against one’s self in that no one seems ready to address it properly, we at best pay lip services to it. For instance, the Constitution of every country across the globe granted a clause against discrimination. (Jaja, et al 1998) Discrimination is already a popular subject that attracts the attention and interest of many people in the society, probably because it is being used negatively. According to Peil (1972) discrimination is an intolerant, unfair, irrational and unfavourable towards one another on grounds of sex, birth, market orientation, circumstances and situations among others. Best (2006) thinks discrimination is synonymous with distinction, differentiation, percentage critique and related to phrase like “to separate the chaff from the wheat”. Gender discrimination and all gender issues have become areas of national concern in the past years, because of the need to redress social and gender inequalities. Since the Fourth Beijing World Conference on Women in 1995, the government and people of Nigeria have renewed their efforts to advance the rights of women and how to protect them from all forms of discrimination and to help them achieve equality in all aspects of life in their societies (Federal Ministry of Women Affairs Manual, 2009).

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Marginalisation of women in decision-making and participation in developmental activities has had a negative effect on national development. Gender bias and gender disparities have perpetuated exploitation of women for centuries (Becker, 1971). According to Adeyemi, (2003) Gender discrimination and segregation in employment of organisations is prevalent in Nigeria, where sex rather than individual skills and qualifications play a large part in determining types of jobs and chances of promotion. (FMWAN Manual, 2009) Gender segregation is the unequal distribution of men and women on the occupational structure and sometimes called “Occupational Segregation by Sex”. Vertical segregation”, however describes the clustering of men at the top of occupational hierarchies and women at the bottom. “Horizontal Segregation” describes the fact that, at the same occupational level (that is within occupational classes or even occupations themselves) men and women have different job tasks (Marshal and Gordon, 1998). Studies reveal that Nigerian women face more challenges than the men in any working environment. Despite constitution guarantees of equality between the sexes, many spheres of human endeavour are greatly dominated by men. For example, in the Ministry of Justice, there has been a very low representation of women. The representation of women on the bench may be the major reason why it took forty-two (42) years to produce a female Justice of the Supreme Court (Ojong, 2010). The glaring absence of women in national decision-making positions in Nigeria and their continued subjugation are to a large extent due to their relative inaccessibility to political and economic power (Ojong, 2010). Even in the military and paramilitary agencies like the police, Immigration, Customs and academic institutions including Kashim Ibrahim College of Education (KICOE) and the likes you can see a partial discrimination in that women are not evenly represented in sensitive positions. Investigations reveals that women who are described as weak, yet physically endowed and capable as men and hence productive are still being discriminated in employment. Therefore, this research is necessitated by the quest to understand the problem associated with gender discrimination, its nature and cause using Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri (KICOE). The existence of a “male managerial model” has perpetuated our societal norms and biased our expectations as to the level of job performance to be expected from a female manager or heads of institution. The belief is pervasive in that when women are compared to men, they are usually rated less capable for management positions. Consequently, many women, even if they are as qualified as their male colleagues, have been given lower-status jobs. The fortifier is a contribution to the ingoing sensitization on gender discrimination and the productivity of female heads in Nigeria institution. It is guarantee scholarly that equality among individual without discrimination is the cardinal objective of every meaningful institution. Therefore, neutrality and equality practice is central to every organisational success for that statement to be proved, the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri must embrace the practice of gender equality and negate gender discrimination in order to achieve their set goals and objectives intended to establish the institution. The subject of the equality in the KICOE bring us to questions like: which of the equality policies of recruitment consistent to the female employee or lecturer and to what extent the institution marginalize women, if and how these problem would be solved are the principal concern of the researchers. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY I. To find out whether the recruitment policies of the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education is discriminated against women. II. To find out whether the female lecturers were discriminated in all administrative capacity or not and evaluate whether female lecturers benefiting encouragement from husbands to further their education and develop potentials or not. III. To suggests and recommends policies and strategies in order to arrest the abnormality and prevent future occurrences. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Is the recruitment policy of Kashim Ibrahim College of Education (KICOE), Maiduguri favour male than female?

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

2. 3.

Does husband encourage female lecturer always to further education and develop potentials? Are female lecturer denied any entitlements or maltreated you because of your gender?

REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDY/LITERATURES In African traditional society and indeed in most developing community or nations, women are made to retain and accept the saying of Alimi (2008) in respect of the caricature of a human burden amongst others while the men carry the day. Women cultivating or planting seed, harvest the crops, process and preserve the farm product into finished goods, fetch the water, hew the woods for cooking, make the pottery, the basket and clothing, yet women are made to care for children while their husbands and other adults male do very little or virtually nothing (Ogedengbe 1986 in Alimi, 2008). The persistent discrimination against women worldwide led to the establishment of the gender, discrimination Act in 1975 by the United Nations. According to Arejuku (1980) the purpose of this was an attempt to provide equal opportunity for women and to deal with unfair discrimination against either sex in seeking for jobs, accommodation and obtaining financial facilities for themselves. Gender discrimination is said to occur if a group of men or women are restricted access to legitimate values, positions or rewards in a society for which they are ascribed status is not a relevant criterion. As gender discrimination in the work place proves to be a problem that is continuous, the question at hand should not be, if discrimination still exists, but rather what society should do to inhibit and hopefully put an end to this issue in the future while this is not a simple matter that can be solved at once, there are ways to prevent it. The productivity and satisfaction of female staff would likely increase if they see that their needs are met (Ojong, 2010). However, gender discrimination is a problem that needs to be understood not just by those in organisations but also the society as a whole. Everyone needs to be aware of the negative effects of gender discrimination and many often unnoticed ways that our culture enforces the issues through gender-related stereotypes, perceptions and attitudes. We could work towards changing our belief, actions and finally end discrimination once and for all. Gender discrimination violates the objective notion of social injustice against a background: administrative consideration is particular deleterious form of choice; it is now the basis that has become the public concern. An important factor of such judgement about it nature is the perception of its effect (Becker, 1971 in Ojong, 2010). When gender discrimination pervades the expression of free choice become especially pernicious. For instance, if a competent woman is deprived of employment on the basis of gender, she is not only deprived of a means of income but also means of development. Statistics reveals that women constitute more than two thirds of the world’s population and are mentally and physically able and capable of being productive like their male counterparts (Ojong, 2010). Thorough studies have shown proliferation of women’s population in all works of life, the inadequacies of statistics have made obvious the understatement of the degree of women participation in productivity. Although, women account for an over-whelming majority (70%) of over one billion people living in poverty, women suffer higher rates of under-employment and unemployment than men; the bottom line is that more women are simply swelling the number of the working poor (World of Work, 1996; CNN 2011, Euronews, 2011). In analysing gender discrimination, it is important to be clear as to what is meant by gender discrimination and recognise that it can be in different types and in different forms. A large number of administrative factors will explain the difference in average female earning. The term statistical discrimination reflects an employment discrimination of equally productive men and women employed in the same job (Chiplin and Sloane, 1976). It is essential to distinguish between pre-entry and post entry discrimination. The former occurs before the worker enters the labour force and the most important type of it would appear to be difference in educational qualification and opportunities. The latter is practiced within occupations, in effect the two are interrelated, and pre-entry discriminations may be necessary though not sufficient conditions for entry discrimination (Chiplin and Sloane, 1976).

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

More of the standard models and analysis of discrimination in employment primarily reflect post-entry discrimination; this is also generally an empirical literature. Thus, we may appropriately define pure labour market discrimination on the part of an employee as any form of unequal treatment between male and female employees. Employment discrimination is any form of behaviour which does not directly result in maximisation of organisational aims and objectives. In each case, this represents relation behaviour to the extent that parties are attempting to maximise a utility function including discrimination coefficient. It is a known fact that education is a major determinant of life changes in the society. Education favours the male population and gender discrimination extends from education to the work place (World of Work, 1996). It can be stated that poor investment in education of women has helped to retard the participation of women in the labour force and to channel them into a narrow range of occupations. Sexism, the prejudicial attitude of discriminatory behaviours towards women is linked to the theory of male supremacy which serves to justify discrimination against women, these contributes to the imbalance of sex roles in the labour force hence, it becomes imperative to examine how sexism play a role in the discrimination against women in employment. A woman administrator and subjected to additional scrutiny, if she succeeds she is seen as exceptional and can be elevated to all high ranking position in life be it the manager or a professor (Sandier,2000 in Ojong, 2010). Many will regard this as a proof that women are incapable of doing the job. One way society supports the inequality of women at work is through sex stereotypes and the strong emphasis that is placed on the differences between men and women. Sex stereotypes is defined as socially shared belief that link various traits, attributes and skills with one sex or the other, stereotype often push women down while elevating the status or position of men (Padavic and Reskin, 1999). Common sex stereotypes postulate that men are more rational, aggressive, competitive and powerful while women are more emotional, passive, soft and dependent (Padavic and Raskin. 1999). Such stereotypes also lead to the labelling of jobs as either “male” or “female”. According to Stanton (2003) occupations that require strong leadership or involve important decisions such as corporate executive jobs, political office, high-ranking military positions and administrative positions and a professor are often reserved for men because they have the masculine traits necessary to perform such jobs while women are viewed as unqualified for these senior positions. This belief that men are superior does not augur well for the productivity of females in management positions as it will bring down their morals and impede their performances hence their low productivity. According to Marshall and Gordon (1976) as women create their individual lives in organisations or in management, they therefore encounter deep rooted respect for culture that values the characteristics that they come either to symbolise or to carry. Living in this potentially hostile world, women often describe themselves as struggling to survive rather than thriving, this makes women often vulnerable to guard their competence, maintain credibility and struggling in a membership precarious manner. Marshall and Gordon (1976) also suggested that women in organisations: • Have difficulty in asserting their authority, difficult in considering themselves as authorities. Have problems expressing themselves in public. • Have difficulties in gaining the respect of others for their minds and ideas. • Have problems in fully utilising their capabilities and training in the world of work. Smith (2000) observes that Women rights to life and participation were denied in most community of the third world. though recent studies reported that women were partially allowed to join an organisation on the strict understanding that they know their place which at best was to be seen and not heard, and at worst to enter via back door silently going about their menial tasks as personal assistants, secretaries, typist, cleaners and cooks after all, a women’s place is to cater for and service her man’s needs in the some, so why not at work as well? As pointed out by Valian (1998) women are in practiced judged to be less competent than men even by people who consciously believe in equality. For instance, men’s success is attributed to talent and ability but women to extraordinary effort. According to him, studies have shown that if same resume or curriculum vitae is evaluated differently by men and women, if it has a male name attached to it rather than a female name that the women leader are less likely to obtain the automatic difference that marks the leadership conferred upon men.

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

Valian (1998) observed that discrimination could originate with female supervisors who might block promotion. Alternatively, the subordinates of women might not work as effectively, diminishing team productivity hence promotion chances of the supervisor. This could be because of reduced effort stemming from prejudices against female authority or because female supervisor experience discrimination in productivity, this means that the most talented subordinates might attempt to work for female supervisor or head to enhance their future opportunities further reducing the productivity of the subordinates of women. In addition, studies carried out by Adeyemi et al, (2003) revealed that subordinates of female supervisors or heads earn less than subordinates of male supervisors or heads. Women salaries average only 72% - 80% of men’s position, even after controlling such variables as education, age, position, levels and jobs tenure. Employment discrimination means that some persons are not hired because of non-administrative characteristics such as sex, when two people with the same educational qualification and experience apply for a job, if one is a woman the other a man and both don’t have the same chance of getting the job, discrimination has entered into the decision making process and likely favour the man (Alimi, 2008). Difference in unemployment between male and female may suggest discrimination but does not prove it exists although religious barrier is inevitable. However, when one considers administrative productivity and discovers that unemployment rates are much higher among women than men or when one looks at identical educational level and finds unemployment rates higher among women than men, the evidence of gender discrimination in employment becomes more conclusive (Leftwich, 1986). The International Labour Organisation (ILO) noted that 45% of the world’s women (aged 15-65) are administratively active in industrialised countries, with over half of all women working compared to roughly 37% just a decade ago, even in regions where female participation in work force is comparatively low, the percentage increasingly proved higher. However, while there has been some notably progress in industrial countries, women academic and administrative activities remain highly concentrated in low wage, low productivity and precarious forms of employment with men dominating the highly paid occupations and women the lowest (World of Work, 1996 in Ojong, 2010).Bukar (2000) observed that the female population in Nigerian Universities has risen from the ratio 1:40 around 1950 to about 1:50 in 1980s, this significant achievement rends to give higher economic and social status to women. This has led to the present situation in which educated women are found in virtually all professions. As pointed out by Okogie in (Bukar, 2000) women not only work hard whether in the formal or informal sectors of the economy but it could be noted that women are good staff no matter the situation whether in the home, at the farm, at places of worship, mosque, at work setting etc. These are staff people, challenge change and adapt to circumstances of scarcity and certainly in the economy. Yet, in Nigeria today, less than 5% of staff in strategic sectors is women. He further stated that the inability of women staff in Nigeria to be readily mobile because of domestic responsibilities has been the main stumbling block to the upward movement of married women staff in the country (Ojong, 2010). Jaja et al (1998) argued that biological differences between the sexes are of effective division of labour by sex in all social institutions including the work place. Furthermore, they submit that women are biologically inferior to men hence the subsequent natural roles of men as their protectors, the women role according to them, should be reproductive and domestic while the spare of politics and public belongs exclusively to men. Gerdes (1999) summarised several models that have been offered to account for the difficulties that academic and administrative women have had in gaining full equality with their male peer. The first is that women invest less in their careers and thus for fully rational reasons are not chosen by decision makers for high-level positions and awards. According to this theory, men and women do not have different degree of success because they are treated differently; people who bring fewer years of education, less willingness to relocate, fewer years of continuous service and the like have less successful outcomes whether they are men or women. This is no inequitable outcomes between men and women in employment (Stover, 1996; Valian, 1998 in Ojongs 2010). Most recent studies revealed that when men and women present equal vent credentials, being female is negatively related to the level of promotion (Gerdes, 1999 in Stanton, 2003). Socialisation is another explanation, this model suggest that women are less motivated to seek high-level position and are less qualified for them because of traits and skills developed in gender socialisation. Gender and others point out however, that even if there are fewer women than men who actively seek certain high-level position in academia, women and men express comparable levels of ambition when they have comparable work status and experience. If certain differences distinguish men and women more generally, those differences can be attributed to

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

socialisation, the differences disappears when men and women in the same occupation are compared (Lepton, 1996). Focuses on organisational discrimination explanation are factors that make it harder for women to be accepted, achieve or be recognised. Gerdes (1999) notes that the strongest evidence of women’s achievement is due to situational factors. In experimental studies carried out in which hypothetical male and female candidates are considered to be equally qualified, in very large number of such studies, many of them involve women who accept the challenge of high administrative positions thereby facing isolation as well. As gender discrimination in workplace proves to be a problem that continues to persist, the issue is what the society should do to inhibit and hopefully put an en to this issue in the future, while this is no a simple matter that can be solved all at once there are ways to reduce discrimination in the work place. Generally, organisations need to raise employee awareness about gender discrimination and ways to prevent it. However, gender discrimination is a problem that needs to be understood not just by those in organisations but by the society as a whole. Everyone needs to be aware of the negative effects of sex discrimination and many often unnoticed ways that our culture enforces the issue through the gender-related stereotypes, perceptions and attitudes. Perhaps, if we all had a better discernment of gender discrimination, we would all work towards changing our belief, actions and finally end discrimination once and for all (Ojongs, 2010). STUDY METHODOLOGY The population of the study includes female lecturers of all level and cadre (senior and junior). A total of sixtysix (66) out of two hundred and ten (210) members of academic staffs of the College spread across the existing schools and departments. A sample size of (66) staff of either sex lecturers were selected as a respondent out of which both male and female lecturers from each of the six (6) schools were randomly selected and allocated with questionnaire without discrimination with regards to seniority in academic qualification, work experience that made up of the sixty-six (66) respondents. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used for the research exercise as an instrument of data collection. The data gathered from the field were translated into tables and analysed using statistical method of simple distribution and frequency distribution and percentages in order to understand the difference in opinions and responses in relations to the subject matter. The study was carried out without regards to respondent’s demographic variables. RESULTS AND QUESTIONS TESTING This section focus on the statistical testing of the research questions formulated for this study and interpreted the results using the said simple frequency distribution and percentages. Table 1: Respondents opinion on recruitment policy of KICOE S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Frequency 33 33 66 Percentage (%) 50.00 50.00 100

Source: Field work, 2011 Table 1 shows that about 50.00% of the either sex respondents in respect of the recruitment policy of the KICOE responded that the policy is not undermining the chances of women to become a lecturer since the employment process has claimed partial discrimination against the women in the recruitment. While, equal percentages number of 50.00% of the responded a satisfaction that the recruitment policy is nice on right direction, neutral to either gender. This implies that the majority of the respondents agreed that the discrimination against the either gender in the recruitment policy of the Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri was too minimal. Therefore, there is need for amends to the policy.

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Table 2: Whether respondents maltreated during recruitment or not. S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Source: Field work, 2011 Frequency 3 35 66 Percentage (%) 46.97 53.03 100

Table 2 vindicates that 46.97% of the respondents responded that there were not maltreatment in the recruitment exercise, but abnormality of favouring one against the other is inevitable, though as exaggerated by public. On the other hand 53.03% the respondents also said that they have never been mal-treated nor demand something against the ethics of the exercise. Therefore, the above responses show that the women applicants were not discriminated against the male counterpart. Table 3: Whether there are female head of department in KICOE or not. S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Source: Field work, 2011 Frequency 34 32 66 Percentage (%) 51.52 48.48 100

Table 3 shows clearly that about 51.52% percents of the respondents agreed that there were once a female head of department and schools. While 48.48% who are 32 in number out of the sixty-six respondents admitted that as at during the compiling of this report or research outcome, no woman had been saddled with the responsibility of being neither a head of department nor head of school respectively. This implies that women heads of school or department in Kashim Ibrhaim College of Education is rare and scarce. Table 4: Whether husbands encouraging wives to further education or not. S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Source: Field work, 2011 Frequency 20 46 66 Percentage (%) 30.30 69.70 100

Table 4 indicates that 30.30% of the respondents who are only 20 agreed that their husbands encourage them always to further their academic qualification while about 69.70% who are the majority 46 in number disagreed with the position of the minority and responded that their husbands are not encouraging them to further their education, rather discouraging them to resign. This means that majority of the female lecturer husbands not happy with their wife lecturing engagements. Table 5: Whether denied promotion due to gender affiliation or not S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Source: Field work, 2011 Frequency 06 60 66 Percentage (%) 9.1 90.91 100

Table 5 appears to be wide gap responses between the two options supporters. It is clear that only 9.1% who are 6 in number said they were denied their promotion because of their gender traits, but overwhelmingly about 90.91% who are 60 in number responded that there were no time that their right for promotion undermined or denied due to their gender inability or ability since their recruitment in the College (KICOE) to present. This implies that the majority of the respondents in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education (KICOE) Maiduguri responded that there were no iotas of discrimination in respect of annual promotion.

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Table 6: Whether female lecturer express opinion or not S/No 1 2 Respondents Yes No Total Source: Field work, 2011 Frequency 33 33 66 Percentage (%) 50.00 50.00 100

Table 6 shows similar and equal responses from the respondent that each scored same number of percentages i.e. 50.00% respectively. Therefore, the outcome of the study establish an equal division that half of the respondents support and agreed that the female lecturers like any other sex have comfortable sense of freedom and free to express an opinion in every interactions without fear or favour nor intimidation or discrimination. Likewise, other group of the respondents who are having equal number with the other group opposed that the female lecturers are not comfortable to express their feeling or views. Though the respondents are further silent on whether they are personally wilful refusal to express the feelings or they are being intimidated by co-lecturers or students during a session. This means that the female lecturers like all other lecturers are free to express and interact with colleagues or students without discrimination as to gender or sex variety. DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY The findings of the study in respect of the subject “Gender Discrimination and Women in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri have been vehemently upheld. The findings were conducted with the use of six (6) selected related questions on whether gender discrimination against women lecturers is existing in the College (KICOE) or not. The findings of the study reveals inconsistent with the opinion of one interviewee – Saleh (2011) which opined that there are gender discrimination in the KICOE recruitment system or policy. According to him, many women were qualified to be recruited as a lecturer but unfortunately, the recruitment committee playing politics and gender sentiment disqualify the female applicants and favour the males and finally recruited them. He said, the fewer women lecturer seen employed were either scale through the recruitment panel through high profile personality from the state or one among the panel members facilitated way for her for reasons only known to them (Survey, 2011). Similarly, in Fati (2011) like other contributors submitted that the gender discrimination against women is clear and visible, particularly during departmental and students lecturers interactive session. The women in either session are not given enough chance of contributing her quota or views and even when such are granted, it is very difficult for the colleagues to unanimously reach consensus on her opinion and subsequently rejected, likewise students’ respects male lecturers much than female counterpart due to the gender bias and misconception guiding the students (Survey, 2011). On the contrary, Abba (2011) appeared to challenge the earlier views submitted by Saleh and Fati (2011) on the discrimination effects of female lecturers in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. Abba (2011) argued that there were no gender discrimination in the whole College of Education policies, since male and female staff of either levels and cadre were equally benefiting all entitlements without discrimination, e.g. the annual promotions and welfare packages and to some extent, the women staff because they are enjoying labour recovery leave and general annual leave. Bukar (2011) contributed in support of Abba (2011) statement or opinions that some of the vital competition, due to one feminism or a natural phenomenon associated with women creature, but not the existing policies that denied them a chance of being employed or qualifying, rather a nature. He therefore concludes that most of the negative views about the gender discrimination in most of the organisations are either bias or politically architected to demoralise the success of the institution or organisation. In view of the contributors said and sayings in respect of the subject gender discrimination and women in Kashim Ibrahim college of Education, Maiduguri remains a debateable and divisional conclusion. CONCLUSION The global inequality, marginalisation, subordination and exploitation of one group of individual against the other group referred to as human discrimination but when the discrimination is central only to male and female dichotomy, it is otherwise known as gender discrimination. In these contexts, it is imperative to understand the dimension of gender differentiation phenomena that persist or exist in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri since the gender discrimination, marginalisation and exploitation receiving world attention and mandated several scholars to find ultimate solutions to the problems that invaded our baby organisations or institutions. It was scholarly reported and noted that gender discrimination in public organisations could

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

generate poor performance and productivity and eventually may render the organisation success abortive. The findings of this study revealed that gender discrimination is none or partially existing in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, particularly, in the area of recruitment, participation in decision making and interactions session between lecturers, colleagues and students and inability of the female lecturers’ husband to encourage and motivate their wives to further their academic qualification among other things are the problems the College (KICOE) currently experience that require immediate action plan in order to provide panacea to the said little abnormality of discrimination againts women the study reported, yet no substantive and genuine evidence to proves the claims. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations and suggestions are proffered: 1. That the management of Kashim Ibrahim College of Edcuation, Maiduguri should amend and reshape some section of their recruitment policy in order to give way for equality and equal treatment of applicants in the process of employment, particularly the women must be the principal priority. 2. That the management of Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri must provide a clear level ground for both male and female lecturers in every doing, particularly in areas of participation in activities and decision making in respect of department or schools. 3. That the management should grant some percentages for women in all matters related for human development of the schools. 4. That the husbands and parents of the women lecturers should encourage and motivate their wives and daughters to further their academic qualification and develop potentials through cash and kind incentives coupled with moral courage. 5. That management should design a policy that prohibits discrimination of sort in the KICOE and students should be sensitized to inculcate a culture of respect for women lecturers in their interactions, including a class session. REFERENCES Abba, K. (2011). A respondent of the survey study on the effects of gender Discrimination and women in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. An oral interview session, Borno State, Nigeria Adeyemi, G.T. et al. (2003). Gender issues in Nigeria politics. Data and Partners Logistic Ltd, Lagos, Nigeria Alimi, B.G. (2008). Gender differentiation and women in public Organisation (A case study of Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria) Unpublished PGDE Thesis submitted to Department of Consultancy Unit, KICOE Arejuku, D. (1980). Constrain of women labour force participation in women Development progress. Africana Press, Nigeria Becker, J. (1971). Women and ethics in environment. Longman Press, London Best, K.C. (2006).”Gender, money and politics in Nigeria. In IFES, Money, Politics and Corruption in Nigeria, IFES, Abuja, Nigeria Bukar, Z. (2011). A respondent of the survey study on the effects of gender Discrimination and women in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. An oral interview session, Borno State, Nigeria Bukar, M. (2000). Gender inequality practice in public and private Organisation. An unpublished B.Sc. project, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Chiplin and Sloane (1976). Women and responsibilities in interactions. Free Press, U.S.A. CNN (2001). Global issues and G ender reports. CNN.live.com.live reports on TV-satellite Euronews (2011). Women and development report. Euronews.live.com.live Report on TV-Satellite

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

Fati, S. (2011). A respondent of the survey study on the effects of gender Discrimination and women in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. An oral interview session, Borno State, Nigeria Gerdes, M. (1999). Women in developmental challenge. The issues and myths on female. Macmillan, England Jaja et al. (1998). Gender discrimination amongst peoples and Marginalization traits. Africana FEP Printing Press, Anambra, Nigeria Leftwich.M, (1986). Sex and working morale. Macmillan, London Lepton.K (1996). Women involvement and restructuring of their roles. Free Press, New York Manual (2009). Federal Ministry of Women Affairs, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Federal Government Press. Abuja, Nigeria Marshal and Gordon (1998). Feminism and women agitation: towards Equality. Cleverlene World Publishing Company Ltd. New York Okogie, A. M. (2004). Political Behaviour. Academic Publishing Company, Enugu, Nigeria Ogedengbe, C. (1986). The women roles and practice. An NYSC Camp Conference, N.Y.S.C. Manual, Rivers, Nigeria Ojong, E.J. (2010). An assessment of gender discrimination and its effect on the productivity of female staff in Federal Neuro Psychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri. An unpublished Masters in Industrial Labour relations (MILR), Department of Sociology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria Padavic and Raskin (1999). Women and exploitation antics in management. Harper and Bell Press, Alabama, U.S.A. Perry,R.(1985).Women Status and Gender Dimension in society. Free Press.USA. Peil, B. (1972). Human rights and women in perspective. A Journal of Social and Legal Development Vol. 6 No.286 Saleh, B. (2011) A respondent of the survey study on the effects of gender discrimination and women in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. An oral interview session, Borno State, Nigeria Sandier, O. (2000). The clamour for women rights on the earth. West Harford Press, America Smith, D.M. (2000). Women at work: Leadership for the next century. Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, New York Stanton, et al. (2003). Women participation and development of society. A Reality of forward. Longman Inc. New York Stover, J. (1996). The situational factor in women interactions at public Organisation. McGraw Hill Company, New York Vilian, S. (2003). Gender issues and management. Press Walk Ltd, Aba, Nigeria World of Work (1996). Labour Relations Statistics. Breth Press Ltd

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Alimi Baba Gana and Bukar Jamri: Continental J. Education Research 4 (2): 11 - 21, 2011

Received for Publication: 15/08/2011 Accepted for Publication: 16/09/2011 Corresponding author Alimi Baba Gana Department of Social Services (Social Works), Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State Email: bgalimi@yahoo.com

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