# Guide for electrical design engineers

Power Quality
Krzysztof Piatek
AGH-University of Science & Technology

Voltage drop calculation: voltage change during drive start
110 kV S SC 160 MVA S 16 MVA u 11 20 kV PPC 2 S 5 MVA u 7 6 kV PPC 1

S 1 MVA u 7

S 1 MVA u 7

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P 1450 kVA U 800 V

The converter drive data: .1 = 247.starting overload coefficient: .5 mΩ SSC 160 2 . what can lead to large error in low-voltage systems.leonardo-energy.7 kVA/kW q = 0. X. The first step is to determine short-circuit capacities at all points by calculating the components impedances and subsequently the short-circuit capacity at the required point.8 110 kV S SC 160 MVA S 16 MVA u 11 20 kV PPC 2 S 5 MVA u 7 6 kV PPC 1 S 1 MVA u 7 S 1 MVA u 7 P 1450 kVA U 800 V Solution The relative voltage change coefficient can be determined using the formula for the voltage drop across the power system components R.1 2 UN 62 =1. The power system impedance Z SEE =1. Q transmitted in the system ΔU = PR + QX UN Assuming R=0 we obtain Ku = Q ΔU ≈ 1. For the sake of simplicity all coefficients will be calculated from the parameters reflected to the 6kV side. The voltage change coefficient during the drive start shall be determined at PCC 1 and PCC 2. In this formula the resistances of components are disregarded.1 max UN SSC where Qmax is the maximum reactive power.reactive power reduction due to the sequence control: kr =1. Ssc is the short-circuit capacity at the point for which the voltage change coefficient is calculated.Power Quality http://www.org Problem A converter drive is connected as in figure. expressed in terms of the active and reactive power P. The voltage change coefficient calculated this way is lower than that obtained from the accurate calculation.

059 .972 =1. PPC1 ≈ 1.11 = 247 mΩ 100 STr1 16 u% U 2 62 = 0. for PCC 1 we obtain Q 1.494 The reactive power during start we calculate from the given coefficients and the rated drive power. we calculate the impedance at PCC 2 SPPC1 =1.1 ZPPC2 = Z SEE + Z Tr1 = 0.7% 80. The above calculations suggest also the solution – reactive power of the drive during start should be decreased in order to satisfy the limit value at PCC 1. we obtain 62 = 39.e. This publication is subject to copyright and a disclaimer.1 = 0. i. therefore the drive must not be connected directly to the network. For example.972 K u. According to this limit value.8⋅1450 =1972 kVAr Using the simplified formula we calculate the voltage change coefficient.1 where ZPPC1 is the total impedance at PCC 1. PPC1 ≈ 5. if the planned number of starts is 20 per hour.494 Ω and then the apparent power SPPC2 =1. PPC2 ≈ 1.7⋅0.6 SPPC1 whereas for PCC 2 we obtain K u. where the voltage change satisfy the limit.07 = 507 mΩ 100 STr2 5 2 UN ZPPC1 The Tr2 20/6 kV transformer impedance Z Tr2 = The short-circuit capacity at PCC 1 we obtain from the formula SPPC1 =1.1 Qmax 1.1 = 80. K u. Please refer to the Leonardo ENERGY website.9% 39. Qmax = qkr PN =1.6 MVA 1 Similarly.leonardo-energy.1 = 0. the permissible level of the voltage change coefficient is 3%. 3 . ZPPC1 = Z SEE + Z Tr1 + Z Tr2 =1Ω thus.2 SPPC2 The obtained coefficients should be compared with it’s permissible levels. or sensitive equipments should be feed from PCC 2.027.1 max =1.1 2 UN 62 =1. K u.Voltage drop calculation: voltage change during drive start http://www.2 MVA ZPPC2 0. the voltage change is to large in PCC 1. PPC2 ≈ 2.org The Tr1 110/20 kV transformer impedance Z Tr1 = u% U 2 62 = 0.