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2 J u n e 2004
Development of Malacca-Maximized VLCC
MITSUTAKE Hideo : Ship & Offshore Basic Design Department, IHI Marine United Inc. ITABASHI Masahiro : Manager, Ship & Offshore Basic Design Department, IHI Marine United Inc. TAKAHASHI Hiroyuki : Ship & Offshore Basic Design Department, IHI Marine United Inc.
A design of VLCC of the maximum deadweight to pass the Strait of Malacca (Malacca-Maximized VLCC) was developed. The loading capacity of 300 500 metric tons deadweight was achieved at a draught able to pass the Strait of Malacca. To achieve high propulsive performance at sea, the hull particulars and the fore section of the hull were designed to prevent the resistance increase in waves and the stern form was optimized using CFD code to maintain low viscous resistance. Moreover, vibration response analysis for the superstructure was carried out using the three dimensional finite element model of the whole ship at the design stage. Measurement results of the vibration response of the superstructure were confirmed under the lower boundary of ISO 6954 :1984 at the official sea trial.
IHI Marine United Inc. *1 (hereafter called IHIMU) constructed more than 20 double hull VLCCs, including “SUPER ZEARTH” in 1995. (See note.) In particular, we constructed the 280 000 metric tons deadweight VLCC series, including “TAKACHIHO II” in 1998, as well as the 300 000 metric tons deadweight VLCC series. A total of 17 VLCCs of 280 000 and 300 000 metric tons deadweight have already been delivered. If this type of VLCC is loaded with 300 000 metric tons, it is unable to pass through the Strait of Malacca, a point of crude oil transportation from the Persian Gulf to Japan, because the VLCC’s draft exceeds the navigable draft limits for the Strait of Malacca. This forces VLCCs to make a detour by selecting deeper waters, for example, the Selat Lomboku. Making a detour means increasing the voyage days and fuel consumption. Given this background, the need for a VLCC with the draft suited to the draft limits of the Strait of Malacca and a larger deadweight capacity is increasing. Furthermore, as port-related deregulations have progressed in recent years, more ports allow a much larger deadweight to be loaded on crude oil carriers. In this situation, the type of VLCC capable of loading
more crude oil and meeting the draft limits of each loading port at the same time is strongly desired. To meet this need, IHIMU developed a MalaccaMaximized VLCC that has a larger deadweight capacity than conventional VLCCs and can navigate in the Straits of Malacca with its shallow draft, based on the knowhow and experience accumulated through years of ship development and construction. This paper describes this Malacca-Maximized VLCC with a focus on the development of an extremely full ship and the advancement of anti-vibration design techniques.
2. Overview of Malacca-Maximized VLCC
The following main design objectives were established in the planning stage of the Malacca-Maximized VLCC project. (1) Loading capacity of 300 000 metric tons deadweight must be achieved at a draught able to pass the Strait of Malacca. (2) The cargo oil tank must have a capacity of 350 000 m3. (3) The hull form must be designed with an emphasis on propulsive performance in actual seas. (4) The vibration response of the superstructure must be in the lower boundary level specified in the ISO Guideline. (5) Guidelines of manifold positions and mooring fittings of the Oil Companies International Marine Forum must be taken into consideration. Table 1 shows the principal particulars of this VLCC. Figure 1 shows the general arrangement. In Table 1,
*1: October 2002 marks the inauguration of IHI Marine United Inc. as a shipbuilding and offshore industry company with all the traditions inherited from the shipbuilding & offshore division of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., as well as the naval shipbuilding sector of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.
9 20. sailing in waves.4 300 000 154 700 340 000 333.0 324.84 specific gravity. 37 N o . (3) The VLCC was designed with the same midship is closely related to the resistance increase in waves.0 319.0 28. optimizing the balance between the tank arrangement For VLCCs and other full ships cruising at low speeds.0 316.1 (kW × rpm) NOR (normal rating) the same time clearing the 16. Development of the extremely full ship Diesel United-Sulzer Diesel United-Sulzer 7RTA84T 7RTA84T The hull form of this ship was designed to obtain a maximum 27 160 × 74.5 300 500 160 300 350 000 Diesel United-Sulzer 7RTA84T enables the VLCC to deliver the same high reliability performance as the previous VLCC series. 3.8 15.0 29.6 60. The hull form design and antiand aft fullness: the fore fullness concerns the wave vibration design of this VLCC are described in the next making resistance and the increase in resistance during and the following chapters. the trim can be the ratio of wave making resistance to the total resistance maintained approximately 0 with all tanks filled with is relatively small during sailing on still water. 1 60 General arrangement . The fore fullness.0 60. The main features of this of the hull must be examined by considering fore fullness VLCC are as follows. As a result. and the hull form. moulded Depth. overall Length. It was also designed to achieve the highest the principal particulars of previous 280 000 and 300 000 propulsive performance by minimizing the performance metric tons deadweight VLCCs are also shown for the degradation due to the increased fullness. and the crude oil of 0.7 (kt) Service speed restrictions on hull dimensions on each sea route and at each port.5 21.4 280 000 149 600 328 000 333. and the aft fullness concerns the (1) The stowage efficiency was increased by viscous resistance and the propulsive performance. it is conceivable to increase the the main engine room to cancel the change in the deadweight capacity by increasing the level of fore trim condition resulting from the decreasing weight fullness if we consider the performance only during of fuel oil being consumed.0 27 160 × 74. The fullness purposes of comparison. This Fig. (4) The fuel oil tank was designed as a double hull structure without changing the hull form.0 27 160 × 74. while at 23 090 × 70.1 15. Therefore. far as the fore fullness remains in a certain limited (2) Ballast tanks were established on both sides of range. in the half bunker wave making resistance does not change very much as condition. section as that of the previous VLCC series.1 23 090 × 70. moulded Deadweight Gross tonnage Cargo oil tank capacity Main engine Comparison of principal particulars 280 000 MTDW type 300 000 MTDW type Malacca-Maximized type (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m3) 330. moulded Scantling draught.6 60. between perpendiculars Breadth.0 20.0 MCR (maximum continuous rating) (kW × rpm) deadweight capacity.V o l . sailing on smooth water. however. 2 J u n e 2004 Table 1 Hull form Length.0 29.1 23 090 × 70.
CFD is one of the design tools that IHIMU has long been using to optimize the hull form. the position of FP was optimized. Fore fullness Added resistance in waves Increased fullness if only the performance on smooth water is considered. 2 J u n e 2004 If the fullness in the fore part of the hull is increased to improve the performance on smooth water. the vortex shedding and separation will greatly disturb the flow field around the propellers. the fore perpendicular (hereafter called FP) was moved forward to make the length between perpendiculars longer. In designing the form of the fore half of the hull. Because this VLCC operates in a fully-loaded condition as much as in a ballasted condition after being placed into service. The main dimensions of this VLCC were analyzed and a hull form that enables us to meet these two requirements was developed. with consideration given to the balance between the wave-making resistance on still water and the resistance increase in waves. With this in mind. however. we made the most of these data and our experience. causing vibration to occur and the propulsive performance to decline. (2) For the aft part of the hull. the level of the aft half fullness is higher than that of the conventional ship. 2. Upper limit of the fore fullness relative to the resistance increase in waves The resistance increase in waves is inhibited by optimizing the form of the fore half of the hull. the aft fullness must be increased. 37 N o . This design concept is shown in Fig. and to design a hull form that can inhibit the resistance increase in waves. the hull form was designed so that. Range of the previous VLCC Decreased fullness (Decreased resistance Aft fullness Viscous resistance Increased fullness Increased resistance) Fig. IHIMU imposes restrictions on the fore fullness based on the experience and the results of analyses of experimental data. As is clear from the foregoing. it is possible to restrain the fore fullness to the level of the previous VLCC. which leads to a loss in the efficiency of decreasing Increased fullness Increased resistance) : Previous VLCC : Malacca-Maximized VLCC Plane view Side view FP (Note) FP : Fore perpendicular Fig. To increase the deadweight capacity. the same performance could be maintained in waves as on still water. How the hull form was designed is described as follows. the length of the bulbous bow inevitably becomes shorter. even in a ballasted condition. extreme attention must be paid when designing the aft hull form. Malacca-Maximized VLCC Decreased fullness (Decreased resistance The flow field at the stern is improved and viscous resistance is decreased by optimizing the form of the aft half of the hull. 2 Schematic diagram for design of the hull form with fullness Example of flow field calculation around the aft hull section by CFD code 61 . To decrease the viscous resistance and increase the self propulsion factor by improving the flow field around the stern. Because the accuracy of the data yielded by CFD has been evaluated in relation to several factors comprising the ship performance for each hull form. If FP is moved forward. As shown in the side and plane views of the fore half of the hull in Fig. To prevent the resistance increase in waves. 4). In addition. 2. 3. a breakthrough in the hull form design is required to meet the following two requirements. there is the risk that the performance may drop when the ship is sailing on rolling waves. As shown in Fig. (1) For the fore part of the hull.(1) In designing the hull form of this VLCC. 3 Schematic diagram for design of the fore section of the hull the wave-making resistance during sailing on still water.V o l . the resistance will increase due to vortex shedding and separation from the hull. while at the same time the flow field must be improved and the viscous resistance must be decreased to maintain the propulsive performance. 4 Fig. while at the same time the displacement must be increased. If it is increased. computational fluid dynamics (hereafter called CFD) was introduced as a tool for evaluating the flow field around the stern (Fig. and developed a hull form that can achieve two conflicting objectives: increased aft fullness and increased propulsive performance. an increase in the fore fullness must be minimized. however. the aft fullness must also be increased. Therefore. IHIMU has sufficient data available. optimized the stern form using CFD.
For the new design ships. 2 J u n e 2004 Besides the hull form design. Point where data are collected and analyzed Magnified view Fig. It was found that even the largest vibration response was around the level of the lower boundary (4 mm/s) given in ISO 6954 : 1984. water tank tests were conducted by IHIMU. 4. it was verified that the vibration response satisfies the specified design target. Although there were some deviations between the analyzed results at the design stage and measured results at sea trial. a whole ship model shown in Fig. 5 Calculation model of whole ship 4. The response analyses were carried out with modeling the propeller surface force. Specifically. For a Malacca-Maximum VLCC to be newly constructed. 5 is used. various energy-saving devices.. Figure 6 shows one result of vibration mode analyses. and cavitation occurring. etc. An official sea trial was conducted. Effects of seawater in contact with side shell plating and those of the cargo oil in a cargo oil tank for vibration of the ship structure were analyzed using a virtual mass which is calculated by the interactive method of the finite element method and the boundary element method. the modeling and evaluation methods are subjected to calibrations by using the vibration measurements results of the sea trial and the results of vibration response analyses using the whole ship model of the ships that IHIMU has constructed over the years. 37 N o . radar mast. The anti-vibration design is then carried out for these selected vibration modes. funnel and hull. Based on the results of vibration response analyses. we used the results of vibration response analyses made with a high degree of accuracy. a guideline for the vibration of the superstructure. To ensure the comfort of the crew and to prevent the unfavorable effect on navigation equipment. the vibration characteristics of the superstructure cannot be simulated accurately. In the anti-vibration design that we now use. It is impracticable to carry out anti-vibration design against all these vibration modes whose frequencies 62 are in the range of frequencies of excitation forces. Figure 7 shows one result of vibration response analyses.V o l . For this VLCC. because the model represents only a part of a ship and the interactions between the main engine and the hull structure cannot be simulated. a detailed.2 Results of vibration measurements At the sea trial of this VLCC. so that we were able to make the superstructure highly vibration resistant.(2)-(4) (2) Vibration response analyses The vibration of the superstructure is affected by the interactions between the main engine. high-efficiency propellers. Anti-vibration design for the superstructure 4. and other parts installed is prepared to simulate the vibration characteristics of the superstructure and to perform analyses with a high degree of accuracy. threedimensional model of the whole ship with a funnel. however. To verify the effectiveness of this newly introduced equipment. the vibration responses of the superstructure were evaluated for each exciting force in both ballasted and fully loaded conditions. and the guide moment of the main engine. and it was verified that this VLCC cruises at the design speed. the axial shafting force of the main engine.1 Anti-vibration design The vibration of the superstructure affects the comfort of crew at sea. Test results show that they can be used without the risk of performance degradation. mutual interference. Results of vibration measurement show that the vibration response of the superstructure is less than the lower . based on the latest technical information. the propeller bearing force. that using this type of model. Besides. the superstructure was designed to avoid resonance. It was found. The background to introducing this anti-vibration design is as follows. main engine. a counter-rotating propeller will be introduced in order to decrease the horsepower by 13 to 15% from the horse power of a VLCC with conventional single propellers. The vibration modes which may be seriously excited by the exciting force are selected by the vibration response analyses. Therefore natural frequency analyses reveal an unlimited number of vibration modes. and based on the analysis results. devices and facilities. we carried out vibration measurements on the hull structure and equipment. (1) Use of the whole ship model A model of the superstructure and its surrounding parts was previously used to analyze the natural frequencies. Vibration response analyses were carried out for the two operation conditions: the ballasted condition and the fully loaded condition. In order to improve the prediction of the response accuracy. IHIMU makes it a rule to carry out the anti-vibration design based on vibration response analyses by the finite element method with the whole ship model. the superstructure was designed to decrease its vibration response to the lower boundary level (4 mm/s) specified in the ISO 6954 : 1984. were introduced to achieve high propulsive performance. there is concern that it has an unfavorable effect on navigation equipment.
583-590 63 5. Neki and H. Takeda and I. Ohmori and T. I.5 Acceleration (Gal/t) 1.43 No. REFERENCES (1) T. 37 N o . Fig.V o l . As shown in this figure. we would like to extend our sincerest appreciation to Nippon Oil Tanker Corporation. Journal of The Society of Naval Architects of Japan Vol. cooperation and support rendered during the development of this VLCC. 7 Results of vibration response analysis boundary (4 mm/s) given in ISO 6954 : 1984. 6 1. 2003 pp.0 0. Neki : Identification Method of Damping for Ship Structural Vibration (1st Report). Propulsive Performance and Sea-Keeping Performance. I. Journal of The Society of Naval Architects of Japan Vol. 2 J u n e 2004 : Results of analyses in longitudinal direction : Results of measurements in longitudinal direction : Results of analyses in transverse direction : Results of measurements in transverse direction 100. Two VLCCs of this type are already delivered. Ishikawajima-Harima Engineering Review Vol. 189 June 2001 pp. Kusumoto : Identification Method of Damping for Ship Structural Vibration (3rd Report) . Conclusion The Malacca-Maximized VLCC with a loading capacity of 300 500 metric tons deadweight and a draft appropriate for navigating in the Strait of Malacca was developed.151-155 (2) Y.Separation of Damping Factor for Interaction of Structure and Fluid -.1 1 10 Vibration frequency (Hz) (Note) *1 : Upper limit of the onboard vibration that is usually experienced and considered acceptable *2 : Lower limit of the onboard vibration that is usually experienced and considered acceptable Position where the vibration response was measured : Wheel house 100 Fig. — Acknowledgment – Taking this opportunity. .0 Velocity (mm/s) Upper Boundary*1 (9 mm/s) Lower Boundary*2 (4 mm/s) Ballasted conditions Fully loaded condition 1. Figure 8 shows a comparison between the results of vibration response analyses made when the anti-vibration design for the superstructure was carried out and the results of measurements at the sea trial. 191 June 2002 pp.Identification Results of Exciter Test of Actual Ship-. Furthermore. Journal of The Society of Naval Architects of Japan Vol. It was verified as a result of a sea trial that the performance of this VLCC satisfies all performance values defined in the design stage.5 Sep. Takeda.0 40 45 50 Vibration mode 10.0 55 60 65 70 75 80 Adverse comments not probable Number of propeller shaft revolutions (rpm) (Note) Condition : Fully loaded Position where data are analyzed : Wheel house (Longitudinal direction) 0. 192 Dec. This shows that the accuracy of vibration response analyses of this VLCC using the whole ship model is sufficiently high. Kusumoto : Identification Method of Damping for Ship Structural Vibration (2nd Report) . Ishiguro : Hull Form Design at Initial Design Stage Considering Maneuverability.0 Vibration response of the superstructure Adverse comments probable Fig. a target vibration response defined in the design stage was achieved. Takeda.283-290 (4) Y. the level of vibration response of the superstructure established in the antivibration design stage was in good agreement with the level of vibration response measured during the sea trial.5 0. 8 Results of analyses on design stage and results of measurement of vibration response during sea trials NYK Line.273-279 (3) Y. This VLCC was developed with sufficient considerations given to the hull form design and the anti-vibration design. and highly evaluated by the ship owners as the VLCC that displays superior propulsive performance and has the lowest level of vibration at sea. Neki and H. 2002 pp. and other companies and people concerned for their kind advice. a satisfactory level of vibration response was obtained.
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