Overview of Data Communications and Networking

Topics discussed in this section: •Components •Data Representation •Data Flow . The word data refers to information presented in whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating and using the data. Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable.1-1 DATA COMMUNICATIONS The term telecommunication means communication at a distance.

1 Five components of data communication .Figure 1.

and full-duplex) .2 Data flow (simplex.Figure 1. half-duplex.

A node can be a computer. or any other device capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network. printer. Topics discussed in this section: •Distributed Processing •Network Criteria •Physical Structures •Network Models •Categories of Networks •Interconnection of Networks: Internetwork .1-2 NETWORKS A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links.

3 Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint .Figure 1.

4 Categories of topology .Figure 1.

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Categories of networks .

An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet MAN .

Figure 1.11 WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN .

1-3 THE INTERNET  Internet today The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of our daily lives. It has affected the way we do business as well as the way we spend our leisure time. The Internet is a communication system that has brought a wealth of information to our fingertips and organized it for our use. .

12 A heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs .Figure 1.

Figure 1.13 Hierarchical organization of the Internet .

1-4 PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS •Protocols •First. Why standards? •Required to allow for interoperability between equipment Advantages • Ensures a large market for equipment and software • Allows products from different vendors to communicate Disadvantages • Freeze technology • May be multiple standards for the same thing Defacto and Dejure standards . we define protocol. which is synonymous with rule •Standards •which are agreed-upon rules.

developing draft standards.Key Organizations      Standards organizations provide forums for discussion. including those relevant to networking. voting on all or certain aspects of the standards. They all iterate through several rounds of organizing ideas. . and finally formally releasing the completed standard to the public. This organization is responsible for the OSI reference model and the OSI protocol suite. Some of the better-known standards organizations follow: International Organization for Standardization (ISO)—An international standards organization responsible for a wide range of standards. help turn discussion into formal specifications Most standards organizations have specific processes for turning ideas into formal standards. discussing the ideas.

The best-known ITU-T standard is X.Key Organizations (con’t)  American National Standards Institute (ANSI)—The coordinating body for voluntary standards groups within the United States. ANSI is a member of ISO. Electronic Industries Association (EIA)—A group that specifies electrical transmission standards. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)—A professional organization that defines:  Network standards. International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) (formerly the Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone [CCITT])—An international organization that develops communication standards.25.5) are the best-known IEEE communications standards and are the predominant LAN standards in the world today. ANSI’s best-known communications standard is FDDI.3 and IEEE 802.    . IEEE LAN standards (including IEEE 802. EIA’s best-known standard is EIA/TIA-232 (formerly RS-232).

. Some Request for Comments (RFC) documents are designated by the IAB as Internet standards. including Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).Key Organizations (con’t)   Internet Activities Board (IAB)—A group of internetwork researchers who meet regularly to discuss issues pertinent to the Internet. This board sets much of the policy for the Internet through decisions and assignment of task forces to various issues.

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