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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Introduction:

From this experiment we are enable to measure the moment due to the total fluid thrust on a wholly, or
partially, submerged plane surface to be directly measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The
plane area may be tilted relative to the vertical so that the general case may be studied.
The water is contained in a clear Perspex quadrant, the cylindrical sides of which have their central axes
coincident with the axis about which the turning moments are measured. The total fluid pressures on these
curved surfaces therefore exert no moment about this pivot, the only moment being due to the fluid
pressure on the plane test surface. This moment is simply measured by weights suspended from a level
arm.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the hydrostatic thrust acting on a plane surface immersed in water.
To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the
position determined by experiment with the theoretical position.
The object of this experiment was to calculate the hydrostatic force a fluid
exertson a submerged plane surface and then compare the experimental
hydrostatic force to thetheoretical hydrostatic force.
THEORY:
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical
dimensions, this nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion. Whilst the
theory for the partly submerged and fully submerged plane is the same, it will be
clearer to consider the two separately.

Where:
L is the horizontal distance between the pivot point and the balance pan.
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D is the height of the quadrant face.
B is the width of the quadrant face.
H is the vertical distance between the bottom of the quadrant face and the pivot arm.
C is the centroid of the quadrant.
P is the Centre of Pressure on the quadrant face.
Theory-Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface
Below is a diagrammatic represented of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions,
in addition to those shown earlier. This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory
discussion.
Where:
d is the
depth of
submersion.
F is the
hydrostatic
thrust exerted on the quadrant.
h is the depth of the centroid.
h is the depth of the Pressure P.
h is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of action passes
through the Centre of Pressure, P.
Theory - Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Thrust on Surface
The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as:

F = gAh (Newtons)
Where area A = Bd
And
2
d
C h
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CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Hence

2
Bd
pg F
2
.. (1)
Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of Centre of
Pressure
The Moment, M, can be defined as:

M = Fh (Nm)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, applied to the hanger at the end of the
balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L
For the static equilibrium the two moments are equal.
That is:
Fh = WL = mgL
By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F from (1) we have:

(meters)
Bd
2mL
F
mgL
h"
2

Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of Centre of
Pressure
The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure P, below the free- Surface is:
Ah
I
h'
x
.. (2)
Where:
Ix is the 2
nd
moment of the area in immersed section about an axis in the free surface. By
use of the parallel axes theorem.
Ix = Ic + Ah
( )
4
3
2
2
x
m
3
Bd
2
d
Bd
12
Bd
I
,
_

+ .. (3)
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CENTRE OF PRESSURE
The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot is
h = h + H d (m) .. (4)
Substitution of (3) into (2) and thence to (4) yield the theoretical result of:
3
d
H h"
Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane surface
Where:
d is the depth of submersion.
F is the hydrostatic thrust exerted on the quadrant.
h is the depth of the centroid.
h is the depth of Centre of Pressure, P.
h is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of action passes
through the centre of pressure, P.
Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Hydrostatic Thrust
The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as:

( ) N
2
D
d gBD gAh F
,
_


.. (5)
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of
Centre of Pressure
The moment, M, can be defined as:
M = Fh (Nm)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of
the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance ann, L
For static equilibrium the two moments are equal.
That is:
Fh = WL = mgL
By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F, from (5) we have:

( ) m
2
D
d BD
mL
h"

,
_

Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of Centre of


Pressure
The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure, F, below the free-surface is:

Ah
I
h'
x

Where:
Ix is the 2
nd
moment of the area of immersed section about an axis in the free-surface.
By use of the parallel axes theorem:
Ix = Ic + Ah
( )
4
2
2
m
2
D
d
12
D
BD I"
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
The depth of the centre of Pressure below the pivot is:
h = h + H d (m)
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
substitution as before yield the theoretical result of:
d H
2
D
d
2
D
d
12
D
h"
2
2
+

,
_

Apparatus/EQUIPMENT:
The Hydraulics Bench
The Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus
A set of weights
A jug
Calipers or ruler, for measuring the dimension of the quadrant
A measuring cylinder, or other container of water of similar height to the hydrostatic
pressure tank
A length of small bore flexible tubing
Technical Data
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced
with your own measurements.
Length of Balance L 275 mm Distance from weight hanger to pivot
Quadrant to Pivot H 200 mm Base of quadrant face to pivot height
Height of Quadrant D 100 mm Height of vertical quadrant face
Width of Quadrant B 75 mm Width of vertical quadrant face
Method/PROCEDURE:
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The dimensions B, D of the quadrant end-face and the distance H and L was be
measured.
EQUIPMENT SET UP
The empty F1-12 tank on the hydraulic bench is positioned, and the screwed foot is
adjusted until the built-in circular spirit level indicated that the based is horizontal. The
balance arm is positioned on the knife edges. The weight hangar was located in the
groove at the end of the balance aim is horizontal.
TAKING A SET OF RESULTS
1) A small mass (50g) is added to the weight hangar.
2) Water is added to the tank. This can be done in one or two ways:
The jug is used, and water is poured into the tank the triangular aperture
adjacent to the pivot point. Time is allowed for the water in the tank to
settle.
Alternately, the measuring cylinder frill of water is set beside the tank.
The small bore tubing is filled with water, and the end sealed (a thumb
over each end is suitable) is hold. One end is placed below the water
surface in the cylinder and the other end into the tank. This will set up a
siphon system. Water can be added to the tank by pouring it into the
measuring cylinder using the jug, then allowing time for the water levels
to balance. Siphoning allows greater control over the water entering the
tank and less disturbance of the water is produced within the tank.
3) Water is added until the hydrostatic thrust on the end-face of the quadrant causes
the balance arm to rise. There is ensured that is no water spilled on the upper
surfaces of the quadrant or the sides, above the water level.
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
4) Add of the water is continued until the balance arm is horizontal, this is measured
by the base of the balance arm is aligned with the top or bottom of the central
marking on the balance rest (either can be used but it must be kept consistent
during the experiment). It is founded easier to slightly over-fill the tank, and the
equilibrium position is obtained by the drain cock is opened to allow a small
outflow. The depth of immersion from the scale on the face of the quadrant is
read; more accurate results can be obtained from the reading with the line of sight
below the surface, to avoid the effects of surface tension.
5) The above procedure is repeated for each load increment produced by adding a
further weight to the weight hanger. The weights supplied allow increments of
ten, twenty, and fifty grains to be used, depending on the number of samples
required. Fifty gram intervals are suggested for initial set of results, which will
give a total of nineteen samples.
6) This procedure is continued until the water reaches the top of the upper scale on
the quadrant face. The procedure is repeated in reverse, by progressively
removing the weights.
7) Any factors that we think are likely to affect the accuracy of our results is noted.
Result/Data& CALCULATION:
Result
Height
of
quadrant
D (m)
Width of
quadrant
B (m)
Length
of
Balance
L (m)
Quadrant
of Pivot
H (m)
Mass
m
(kg)
Depth
d (m)
Thrust
F (N)
2
nd
moment
Expt.
h (m)
2
nd
moment
theory
h (m)
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.050 0.048 0.848 0.159 0.184
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.100 0.066 1.602 0.168 0.178
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.150 0.082 2.474 0.164 0.173
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.200 0.096 3.390 0.159 0.168
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.250 0.108 4.291 0.157 0.164
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.300 0.120 5.297 0.153 0.160
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.350 0.131 6.313 0.150 0.156
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.400 0.144 7.628 0.141 0.152
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.450 0.156 8.953 0.136 0.148
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.500 0.169 10.507 0.128 0.144
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.510 0.172 10.883 0.126 0.143
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
Height
of
quadrant
D (m)
Width
of
quadrant
B (m)
Length
of
Balance
L (m)
Quadran
t of
Pivot H
(m)
Mass
m
(kg)
Depth
d (m)
Thrust
F (N)
2
nd
moment
Expt.
h (m)
2
nd
moment
theory
h (m)
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.05
0
0.048 -0.147 -0.917 -0.267
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.10
0
0.066 1.177 0.229 0.202
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.15
0
0.082 2.354 0.172 0.176
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.20
0
0.096 3.384 0.160 0.168
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.25
0
0.108 4.267 0.158 0.164
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.30
0
0.120 5.150 0.157 0.162
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.35
0
0.131 5.960 0.158 0.160
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.40
0
0.1.44 6.916 0.156 0.158
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.45
0
0.156 7.800 0.156 0.158
0.100 0.75 0.275 0.200 0.50
0
0.169 8.755 0.154 0.157
0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.51
0
0.172 8.976 0.153 0157
Calculation
1) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Thrust on Surface
F = g Bd
2
= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.075 x( 0.048)
2

2
= 0.848 N
2) ,Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Hydrostatic Thrust
F = gBD (d D)
2
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.075 x 0.1 (0.048 0.1)
2
= -0.147N
3) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth
of Centre of Pressure
h = mgL
F
= 0.05 x 9.81 x 0.275
0.848
= 0.159 m
4) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of
Centre of Pressure
h = H d
3
= 0.2 0.048
3
= 0.184 m
5) Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of
Centre of Pressure
h = mL
BD (d D)
2
= 0.050 x 0.275
1000 x 0.075 x 0.1 x (0.048 0.1)
2
= -0.917 m
6) Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of
Centre of Pressure
D
2
+ (d D)
2
h = 12 2 + H d
d D
2
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
0.1
2
+ (0.048 0.1)
2
= 12 2 + 0.2 0.048
0.048 0.1
2
= -0.267m
DISCUSSION & Recommendation:

Discussion

For summing the moments about the pivot of the apparatus, the buoyant force
isneglected. As seen in the apparatus setup, the fluid resides inside the torus.The presence
of buoyancy comes from the air outside of the torus. Because the densityof air is a mere
fraction of that of the material of the torus and the fluid it contains, it canbe neglected in
the hydrostatic force calculations.The weight of the torus can also be neglected. Because
the center of the curvatureof the torus is at the location of the pivot, it is negated. The
weight of the torus was notincluded in the calculations because the device was calibrated
with ballast water so as tobegin the experiment with a net moment of zero about the pivot
RECOMMENDATION

source of error would be the use of the accepted density of water, 1000kg/m^3, for the
theoretical calculation of the hydrostatic force. This accepted value is thedensity of sea
water at 4oC. The water used in this experiment was tap water atapproximately 23oC.
However, if the actual density of the tap water was used, thetheoretical calculations
would not differ greatly enough to compensate for the magnitudeof the error.
CONCLUSION
IT WAS NOTED THAT A LARGE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTALVALUES
OCCURRED. THIS IS MOST LIKELY DUE TO ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT OF THE HEIGHT OF THEFLUID INSIDE
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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1
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OF THE TORUS. ANOTHER POSSIBLE CAUSE COULD BE THAT THE APPARATUS WAS NOTSITTING LEVEL ON
THE COUNTER WHERE THE EXPERIMENT WAS PERFORMED. IF THE APPARATUS IS NOTSITTING LEVEL, THE
MOMENT CALCULATIONS WILL YIELD INACCURATE RESULTS. A LEVELING DEVICE ONOR NEAR THE
TESTING APPARATUS WOULD AID IN ENSURING THE MOMENT BALANCE IS ACCURATE.

References
REFERENCE
Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3
rd
Edition
William S. Janna (1993)
A Manual for the Mechanics of Fluids Laboratory
William S. Janna (2008)
Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Application
E. John Finnemore
Theory and Problems of College Physics
Frederick J. Bueche
Fluid Mechanics (with Engineering Application)
Joseph B. Franzini
R.J Grade, Fluid Mechanics through Problem
New Age International Publishers, 1997.
Fluid and Hydraulic Practice, 2
nd
Edition, the Millennium.
Lab sheet.
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Appendix
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