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Civil Engineering : Fluid Mechanics lab Report

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CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Introduction:

From this experiment we are enable to measure the moment due to the total fluid thrust on a wholly, or

partially, submerged plane surface to be directly measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The

plane area may be tilted relative to the vertical so that the general case may be studied.

The water is contained in a clear Perspex quadrant, the cylindrical sides of which have their central axes

coincident with the axis about which the turning moments are measured. The total fluid pressures on these

curved surfaces therefore exert no moment about this pivot, the only moment being due to the fluid

pressure on the plane test surface. This moment is simply measured by weights suspended from a level

arm.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the hydrostatic thrust acting on a plane surface immersed in water.

To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the

position determined by experiment with the theoretical position.

The object of this experiment was to calculate the hydrostatic force a fluid

exertson a submerged plane surface and then compare the experimental

hydrostatic force to thetheoretical hydrostatic force.

THEORY:

Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical

dimensions, this nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion. Whilst the

theory for the partly submerged and fully submerged plane is the same, it will be

clearer to consider the two separately.

Where:

L is the horizontal distance between the pivot point and the balance pan.

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

1

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

D is the height of the quadrant face.

B is the width of the quadrant face.

H is the vertical distance between the bottom of the quadrant face and the pivot arm.

C is the centroid of the quadrant.

P is the Centre of Pressure on the quadrant face.

Theory-Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface

Below is a diagrammatic represented of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions,

in addition to those shown earlier. This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory

discussion.

Where:

d is the

depth of

submersion.

F is the

hydrostatic

thrust exerted on the quadrant.

h is the depth of the centroid.

h is the depth of the Pressure P.

h is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of action passes

through the Centre of Pressure, P.

Theory - Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Thrust on Surface

The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as:

F = gAh (Newtons)

Where area A = Bd

And

2

d

C h

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

2

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Hence

2

Bd

pg F

2

.. (1)

Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of Centre of

Pressure

The Moment, M, can be defined as:

M = Fh (Nm)

A balancing moment is produced by the weight, applied to the hanger at the end of the

balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L

For the static equilibrium the two moments are equal.

That is:

Fh = WL = mgL

By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F from (1) we have:

(meters)

Bd

2mL

F

mgL

h"

2

Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of Centre of

Pressure

The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure P, below the free- Surface is:

Ah

I

h'

x

.. (2)

Where:

Ix is the 2

nd

moment of the area in immersed section about an axis in the free surface. By

use of the parallel axes theorem.

Ix = Ic + Ah

( )

4

3

2

2

x

m

3

Bd

2

d

Bd

12

Bd

I

,

_

+ .. (3)

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

3

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot is

h = h + H d (m) .. (4)

Substitution of (3) into (2) and thence to (4) yield the theoretical result of:

3

d

H h"

Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane surface

Where:

d is the depth of submersion.

F is the hydrostatic thrust exerted on the quadrant.

h is the depth of the centroid.

h is the depth of Centre of Pressure, P.

h is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of action passes

through the centre of pressure, P.

Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Hydrostatic Thrust

The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as:

( ) N

2

D

d gBD gAh F

,

_

.. (5)

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

4

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Theory Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of

Centre of Pressure

The moment, M, can be defined as:

M = Fh (Nm)

A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of

the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance ann, L

For static equilibrium the two moments are equal.

That is:

Fh = WL = mgL

By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F, from (5) we have:

( ) m

2

D

d BD

mL

h"

,

_

Pressure

The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure, F, below the free-surface is:

Ah

I

h'

x

Where:

Ix is the 2

nd

moment of the area of immersed section about an axis in the free-surface.

By use of the parallel axes theorem:

Ix = Ic + Ah

( )

4

2

2

m

2

D

d

12

D

BD I"

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

The depth of the centre of Pressure below the pivot is:

h = h + H d (m)

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

5

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

substitution as before yield the theoretical result of:

d H

2

D

d

2

D

d

12

D

h"

2

2

+

,

_

Apparatus/EQUIPMENT:

The Hydraulics Bench

The Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus

A set of weights

A jug

Calipers or ruler, for measuring the dimension of the quadrant

A measuring cylinder, or other container of water of similar height to the hydrostatic

pressure tank

A length of small bore flexible tubing

Technical Data

The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If

required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced

with your own measurements.

Length of Balance L 275 mm Distance from weight hanger to pivot

Quadrant to Pivot H 200 mm Base of quadrant face to pivot height

Height of Quadrant D 100 mm Height of vertical quadrant face

Width of Quadrant B 75 mm Width of vertical quadrant face

Method/PROCEDURE:

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

6

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

The dimensions B, D of the quadrant end-face and the distance H and L was be

measured.

EQUIPMENT SET UP

The empty F1-12 tank on the hydraulic bench is positioned, and the screwed foot is

adjusted until the built-in circular spirit level indicated that the based is horizontal. The

balance arm is positioned on the knife edges. The weight hangar was located in the

groove at the end of the balance aim is horizontal.

TAKING A SET OF RESULTS

1) A small mass (50g) is added to the weight hangar.

2) Water is added to the tank. This can be done in one or two ways:

The jug is used, and water is poured into the tank the triangular aperture

adjacent to the pivot point. Time is allowed for the water in the tank to

settle.

Alternately, the measuring cylinder frill of water is set beside the tank.

The small bore tubing is filled with water, and the end sealed (a thumb

over each end is suitable) is hold. One end is placed below the water

surface in the cylinder and the other end into the tank. This will set up a

siphon system. Water can be added to the tank by pouring it into the

measuring cylinder using the jug, then allowing time for the water levels

to balance. Siphoning allows greater control over the water entering the

tank and less disturbance of the water is produced within the tank.

3) Water is added until the hydrostatic thrust on the end-face of the quadrant causes

the balance arm to rise. There is ensured that is no water spilled on the upper

surfaces of the quadrant or the sides, above the water level.

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

4) Add of the water is continued until the balance arm is horizontal, this is measured

by the base of the balance arm is aligned with the top or bottom of the central

marking on the balance rest (either can be used but it must be kept consistent

during the experiment). It is founded easier to slightly over-fill the tank, and the

equilibrium position is obtained by the drain cock is opened to allow a small

outflow. The depth of immersion from the scale on the face of the quadrant is

read; more accurate results can be obtained from the reading with the line of sight

below the surface, to avoid the effects of surface tension.

5) The above procedure is repeated for each load increment produced by adding a

further weight to the weight hanger. The weights supplied allow increments of

ten, twenty, and fifty grains to be used, depending on the number of samples

required. Fifty gram intervals are suggested for initial set of results, which will

give a total of nineteen samples.

6) This procedure is continued until the water reaches the top of the upper scale on

the quadrant face. The procedure is repeated in reverse, by progressively

removing the weights.

7) Any factors that we think are likely to affect the accuracy of our results is noted.

Result/Data& CALCULATION:

Result

Height

of

quadrant

D (m)

Width of

quadrant

B (m)

Length

of

Balance

L (m)

Quadrant

of Pivot

H (m)

Mass

m

(kg)

Depth

d (m)

Thrust

F (N)

2

nd

moment

Expt.

h (m)

2

nd

moment

theory

h (m)

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.050 0.048 0.848 0.159 0.184

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.100 0.066 1.602 0.168 0.178

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.150 0.082 2.474 0.164 0.173

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.200 0.096 3.390 0.159 0.168

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.250 0.108 4.291 0.157 0.164

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.300 0.120 5.297 0.153 0.160

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.350 0.131 6.313 0.150 0.156

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.400 0.144 7.628 0.141 0.152

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.450 0.156 8.953 0.136 0.148

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.500 0.169 10.507 0.128 0.144

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.510 0.172 10.883 0.126 0.143

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

8

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Height

of

quadrant

D (m)

Width

of

quadrant

B (m)

Length

of

Balance

L (m)

Quadran

t of

Pivot H

(m)

Mass

m

(kg)

Depth

d (m)

Thrust

F (N)

2

nd

moment

Expt.

h (m)

2

nd

moment

theory

h (m)

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.05

0

0.048 -0.147 -0.917 -0.267

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.10

0

0.066 1.177 0.229 0.202

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.15

0

0.082 2.354 0.172 0.176

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.20

0

0.096 3.384 0.160 0.168

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.25

0

0.108 4.267 0.158 0.164

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.30

0

0.120 5.150 0.157 0.162

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.35

0

0.131 5.960 0.158 0.160

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.40

0

0.1.44 6.916 0.156 0.158

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.45

0

0.156 7.800 0.156 0.158

0.100 0.75 0.275 0.200 0.50

0

0.169 8.755 0.154 0.157

0.100 0.075 0.275 0.200 0.51

0

0.172 8.976 0.153 0157

Calculation

1) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Thrust on Surface

F = g Bd

2

= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.075 x( 0.048)

2

2

= 0.848 N

2) ,Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Hydrostatic Thrust

F = gBD (d D)

2

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.075 x 0.1 (0.048 0.1)

2

= -0.147N

3) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth

of Centre of Pressure

h = mgL

F

= 0.05 x 9.81 x 0.275

0.848

= 0.159 m

4) Calculation for Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of

Centre of Pressure

h = H d

3

= 0.2 0.048

3

= 0.184 m

5) Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Experimental Depth of

Centre of Pressure

h = mL

BD (d D)

2

= 0.050 x 0.275

1000 x 0.075 x 0.1 x (0.048 0.1)

2

= -0.917 m

6) Calculation for Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theoretical Depth of

Centre of Pressure

D

2

+ (d D)

2

h = 12 2 + H d

d D

2

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

10

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

0.1

2

+ (0.048 0.1)

2

= 12 2 + 0.2 0.048

0.048 0.1

2

= -0.267m

DISCUSSION & Recommendation:

Discussion

For summing the moments about the pivot of the apparatus, the buoyant force

isneglected. As seen in the apparatus setup, the fluid resides inside the torus.The presence

of buoyancy comes from the air outside of the torus. Because the densityof air is a mere

fraction of that of the material of the torus and the fluid it contains, it canbe neglected in

the hydrostatic force calculations.The weight of the torus can also be neglected. Because

the center of the curvatureof the torus is at the location of the pivot, it is negated. The

weight of the torus was notincluded in the calculations because the device was calibrated

with ballast water so as tobegin the experiment with a net moment of zero about the pivot

RECOMMENDATION

source of error would be the use of the accepted density of water, 1000kg/m^3, for the

theoretical calculation of the hydrostatic force. This accepted value is thedensity of sea

water at 4oC. The water used in this experiment was tap water atapproximately 23oC.

However, if the actual density of the tap water was used, thetheoretical calculations

would not differ greatly enough to compensate for the magnitudeof the error.

CONCLUSION

IT WAS NOTED THAT A LARGE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTALVALUES

OCCURRED. THIS IS MOST LIKELY DUE TO ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT OF THE HEIGHT OF THEFLUID INSIDE

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

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KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

OF THE TORUS. ANOTHER POSSIBLE CAUSE COULD BE THAT THE APPARATUS WAS NOTSITTING LEVEL ON

THE COUNTER WHERE THE EXPERIMENT WAS PERFORMED. IF THE APPARATUS IS NOTSITTING LEVEL, THE

MOMENT CALCULATIONS WILL YIELD INACCURATE RESULTS. A LEVELING DEVICE ONOR NEAR THE

TESTING APPARATUS WOULD AID IN ENSURING THE MOMENT BALANCE IS ACCURATE.

References

REFERENCE

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3

rd

Edition

William S. Janna (1993)

A Manual for the Mechanics of Fluids Laboratory

William S. Janna (2008)

Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Application

E. John Finnemore

Theory and Problems of College Physics

Frederick J. Bueche

Fluid Mechanics (with Engineering Application)

Joseph B. Franzini

R.J Grade, Fluid Mechanics through Problem

New Age International Publishers, 1997.

Fluid and Hydraulic Practice, 2

nd

Edition, the Millennium.

Lab sheet.

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

12

KAS 1331: LABORATORY 1

CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Appendix

UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR (UNISEL)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

13

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