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Treasury bond offers a 4 percent coupon rate, paid semiannually. The market price of the bond is $1,000, equal to its par value. a. What is the payback period for this bond? b. With such a long payback period, is the bond a bad investment? c. What is the discounted payback period for the bond assuming its 4 percent coupon rate is the required return? What general principle does this example illustrate regarding a project’s life, its discounted payback period, and its NPV?

A8-1. a. Payback on this bond is 25 years. You pay $1,000. You receive $40 a year for 25 years, a total of $1,000.

b. The bond is not necessarily a bad investment. Payback does not take time value of money into account, nor does it account for cash flows received after the payback period. It is more appropriate to calculate the NPV of an investment. Given the risk level of the bond, is 4% a fair return? If the answer is yes, then the bond may be a good investment. c. The discounted payback, using a 4% discount rate, is 30 years. This shows that unless the acceptable payback period is decreased when discounted payback is used, vs. regular payback, then projects which return money late in the life of the investment are even more disadvantaged under discounted payback than under regular payback. NPV is a more appropriate method to use to determine the value of an investment project. P8-4. Calculate the net present value (NPV) for the following 20-year projects. Comment on the acceptability of each. Assume that the firm has an opportunity cost of 14%. a. Initial cash outlay is $15,000; cash inflows are $13,000 per year. b. Initial cash outlay is $32,000; cash inflows are $4,000 per year. c. Initial cash outlay is $50,000; cash inflows are $8,500 per year.

A8-4. a. Project A has CF0 = −$15,000, and 20 inflows of $13,000. At a 14% discount rate, its NPV is $71,100.70. This is positive NPV and an acceptable project.

b. Project B has CF0 = −$32,000 and 20 inflows of $4,000. At 14%, its NPV is −$5507.48. This is negative NPV and is not acceptable. c. Project C has CF0 = −$50,000, and 20 inflows of $8,500. At a 14% discount rate, its NPV is $6,296.61. This is positive NPV and an acceptable project P8-9. A certain investment requires an initial outlay of $12 million and subsequently produces annual cash inflows of $1.4 million in perpetuity. A firm evaluating this

investment uses a discount rate of 10%. What is the investment's NPV? What is the EVA each period? What is the present value of the stream of EVAs? A8-9. Project NPV = -$12 million + ($1.4 million / 0.10) = $2,000,000 Project EVA each period = $1.4 million – (0.10 × $12 million) = $0.2 million Present value of EVA stream = $0.2 million / 0.10 = $2,000,000

Internal Rate of Return P8-10. For each of the projects shown in the following table, calculate the internal rate of return (IRR). Project A Initial cash outflow (CF0) Year (t) 1 2 3 4 5 A8-10. Project A B C D Project B Project C Project D

$72,000 $16,000 20,000 24,000 28,000 32,000 IRR 17.4% 8.7% 27.2% 21.4%

$440,000 $135,000 135,000 135,000 135,000 -

$18,000

$215,000

Cash Inflows (CFt) $7,000 $108,000 7,000 90,000 7,000 72,000 7,000 54,000 7,000 -

Choosing the Right Discount Rate P10-1. Puritan Motors has a capital structure consisting almost entirely of equity. a. If the beta of Puritan stock equals 1.6, the risk-free rate equals 6 percent, and the expected return on the market portfolio equals 11 percent, what is the cost of equity? b. Suppose that a 1 percent increase in expected inflation causes a 1 percent increase in the risk-free rate. Holding all other factors constant, what will this do to the firm’s cost of equity? Is it reasonable to hold all other factors constant? What other part of the calculation of the cost of equity is likely to change if expected inflation rises? A10-1. a. Puritan Motor’s cost of equity is: 6% + 1.6(11% – 6%) = 14%

b. If inflation causes a 1% increase in the risk-free rate, the firm’s cost of equity will decrease: 7% + 1.6 (11% – 7%) = 13.4%. It is probably not reasonable to hold all other factors constant – if the risk free rate increases by 1%, it is likely that the expected return on the market, which also has an inflation compensation factor, will increase by 1%. If the expected market return and the risk-free rate both increase by

1%, then the cost of equity will also increase by 1%.

P10-3. In its 2009 annual report, The Coca Cola Company reported sales of $30.99 billion for fiscal year 2009 and $31.94 billion for fiscal year 2008. The company also reported operating income (roughly equivalent to EBIT) of $8.23 billion in 2009 and $8.45 billion in 2008. Meanwhile, arch-rival PepsiCo, Inc. reported sales of $43.23 billion in 2009 and $43.25 billion in 2008. PepsiCo’s operating income was $8.04 billion in 2009 and $6.96 billion in 2008. Based on these figures, which company had higher operating leverage?

A10-3. Using equation 10.2, simply divide the percentage change in EBIT by the percentage change in sales for each firm. The firm with the higher ratio has more operating leverage. Given the numbers in this problem, as shown below, PepsiCo has higher operating leverage (-335,56) than Coca Cola (0.88).

Coca Cola: [($8.23 – $8.45) ÷ $8.45] ÷ [($30.99 – $31.94) ÷ $31.94] = 0.88 PepsiCo: [($8.04 – $6.96) ÷ $6.96] ÷ [($43.23 – $43.25) ÷ $43.25] = -335.56

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