DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND APPLIED GEOPHYSICS

TPG4140 NATURAL GAS

Fractionation of Natural Gas Liquids to produce LPG

Submitted To Prof. Jon Steinar Gudmundsson

Submitted By Ahmad, Rafiq Malla, Majed A. Osama El-Majzoub Det Hladky ,Maros Shadman Far, Amir Usman, Muhammad

Trondheim Nov 24, 2011

Table of Contents
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................... i 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. Properties .................................................................................................................................. 1 Uses of LPG ............................................................................................................................... 3 The future for LPG ................................................................................................................. 3

Natural Gas Liquids Processing ............................................................................................................. 5 2.1 LPG Recovery Processes ................................................................................................................ 5 Recontacting-compression ................................................................................................... 6 Refrigeration ......................................................................................................................... 6 Lean oil absorption................................................................................................................ 6 Adsorption............................................................................................................................. 6

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2

LPG Manufacturing ....................................................................................................................... 6 Acid gas removal ................................................................................................................... 7 Extraction Unit ...................................................................................................................... 7 Fractionation Unit ................................................................................................................. 7 Deethanizer Section .......................................................................................................... 8 Depropanizer Section ........................................................................................................ 8 Debutanizer Section .......................................................................................................... 9 Product Treatment Plant ...................................................................................................... 9

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.3.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.4 3.

Feed Specifications for NGL Fractionation .................................................................................. 10 Product Specifications................................................................................................................. 10

Simulation ........................................................................................................................................... 12 3.1 3.2 Feed conditioning ....................................................................................................................... 12 Fractionation columns ............................................................................................................ 13 3.2.1 Deethanizer ................................................................................................................. 13 Debutanizer............................................................................................................. 14 Depropanizer .......................................................................................................... 15 Butane splitter .................................................................................................... 16

3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

4.

LPG Transport ..................................................................................................................................... 17 4.1 4.2 Continuous flow of LPG – Pipe system ....................................................................................... 17 Discrete (bulk) means of LPG transport .................................................................................. 18

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3

Vessel tanker transport ................................................................................................... 19 Rail, truck, car transport ............................................................................................. 20 Economic analysis ....................................................................................................... 20

Conclusions and Discussions ....................................................................................................................... 23 References .................................................................................................................................................. 24 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

.... K....................... 15 Figure 9: Butane splitter ....................................................................................................... 29 Figure A4: Jamnanagar New Delhi ............................................................................................. 14 Figure 7: Debutanizer column ..Surinder ............................... Inc.............................. 12 Figure 4: Feed conditioning alt....) ................................................................................................List of Tables Table 1: Typical Properties of LPG ...et al 2003) ............. 2011) ........................ 9 Table 4: Specifications of feed for NGL fractionation unit (Manley ..................................................................................................B) ..................... 9 Table 3:Different Contaminants in LPG (Abdel-Aal...........................................................................SSM .......... Distribution Chain (World LP Gas Association 2009) .........................2 ... 29 Figure A5: SST............................................... 2 Table 2:Fractionator types for LPG Production (Abdel-Aal................................................. K............................ 31 FigureA 8: World autogas consumption (Fundamentals of the World Gas Industry.............................................................. 11 Table A1:Simulation reults ................. 26 Figure A2.......................................................................................................................... 28 Figure A3: Mid-America Pipeline (Willbros Group.......... 27 List of Figures Figure 1:Blockdiagram for LPG Manufacturing (Parkash ......................................3 ........................... 31 ................Surinder 2009) ......................... 13 Figure 5:Feed conditioning alt.................. 10 Table 5:Product specifications for LPG (Manley .......B..................... 30 Figure A7: World LPG gas consumption (Fundamentals of the World Gas Industry....................................................................................... 2008) ............................ H........... 2008) ...................................... 30 Figure A6: amerigas Canister ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... H......................... 16 Figure A1: Process Flow Sheet (Simulation sheet from Hysys) ............................................................................................... 15 Figure 8: Depropanizer column..........................................................................D............. 13 Figure 6: Deethanizer column ........D.................................................................................. 7 Figure 2: Typical Fractionator train for NGL (Parkash .......................................................................2009) ...1 ......... 8 Figure3: Feed conditioning alt.......................................et al 2003) .........

An overview of LPG transportation through canisters and pipeline. . butane and fraction of higher hydrocarbons. The purpose of this report is to see the method to fractionate different NGL’s to produce LPG. Further. propane. Natural gas liquids are fractionated to produce LPG. Economic analysis and future market for LPG has been highlighted to see whether this product can be an alternative to high fuel consumption and demands or not. which is a new thing. must be recovered from the gas in order to control the dew point of natural gas stream and to earn revenue by selling these components as products for different industries. These associated hydrocarbons. known as natural gas liquids (NGL).Abstract Raw natural gas contains valuable heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane. process has been described for LPG production from NGL by fractionation. Different processes for LPG production and recovery from natural gas are discussed. has been highlighted in the report. Simulation for fractionation columns has been done in order to investigate the material and energy balance.

1. The rest is manufactured indirectly from petroleum drilled from the Earth in wells. Propylene and butylenes are present in small concentrations too. so a small amount of a pungent gas such as ethanethiol are added to help people smell potentially dangerous gas leaks. Liquefied Petroleum Gas.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 1. Introduction Natural gas is one of the world’s favorite and promising fuels. almost two third of the LPG that is used is extracted directly from the Earth in the same way as Natural gas. LPG can be compressed at a ratio of 1:250 which enables it to be marked in portable containers in liquid form as mentioned above.1 Properties LPG is as twice as heavy as air and half as heavy as water and it is colorless and odorless. (Crude oil) LPG is considered to be a mixture of two flammable nontoxic gases known as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). which is a super pressurized gas stored in a liquid form in tanks or canisters. it helps to reduce the emissions of the typical house 1|Page . LPG is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fossil fuel closely linked to oil. Mainly the LPG gas is of no odor which makes it hard for people to detect the leakage if it happens. LPG also produces less air pollutants and carbon dioxide than most other fuels. Transportation of gas is not something easy therefore converting this gas into liquid simplifies and eases the transportation process. is a known type of Natural gas that we are going to look very close into.

90-2.57 Btu/deg 0-0.02% 3. LPG has a high heating (the amount of heat released during combustion of a specified amount of it) of 12.5 MJ/Sm3 which is a SpecificGravity Property Liquid Density Conversion(Ltr per ton) Gas Density/air Boiling Point (C) Latent Heat of Vaporization Specific Heat(as liquid) Sulfur Content Calorific Value Propane 0.500 Btu/ft3 Butane 0.51 1968 1.57-0. commercial and industrial applications.55 -45 358 KJ/Kg 0. Table 1: Typical Properties of LPG GrossHeatValue ) of 73. Both propane and butane are gaseous hydrocarbons at normal temperatures (15 degrees Celsius) and atmospheric pressure. LPG can be used as an alternative fuel to natural gas (methane) in residential. However.58 1732 1.60 Btu/deg 0-0. Also LPG has a very high Wobbe index (an indicator of the interchangeability of fuel gases: WI  high combustion energy output.40-1.02% 2.5 tones of CO2 a year.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG by almost 1.467 kcal/m³ which is much higher than the average heat value of most Natural gas (9350 kcal/m3). and as a feedstock in petrochemical applications. they can be stored and distributed in liquid from at temperatures of under -42 degrees and -2 degrees Celsius for propane and butane respectively.10 -2 372 KJ/Kg 0.50-0.5-87.270 Btu/ft3 2|Page . The Fig below shows the typical properties of LPG. as an alternative to gasoline for automotive fuel purposes. LPG reduced black carbon emissions as well which are the second biggest contributor of global warming and causes serious health hazards.

This is because propane has a low boiling point. most industries can exceed Kyoto greenhouse gas reduction targets by switching to LPG. Another popular use is as a cooking fuel. Another use is as a refrigerant. LPG can claim to be ahead of its time.3 The future for LPG LP Gas has played a valuable role in meeting the world’s energy needs. LPG is used as a cooking fuel for households and even businesses such as restaurants. 1. Propane gas and butane gas are used to make hydrocarbon refrigerants. especially for vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. for its clean-burning. For example. which is why it is suitable to be used as refrigerants. LPG can be used as a back-up or secondary fuel in generating the energy for the household. When propane and butane combine together. low-carbon advantage is available at once. Hydrocarbons are known to be more energy efficient and cheaper than other chemicals. especially among countries like India and other Asian countries. LPG is used alongside a solar panel to provide enough energy for this purpose. LPG has the opportunity to enhance this role by also helping to combat climate change. so that even using today’s technology. By releasing fewer harmful pollutants when used as a domestic and automotive fuel source LPG is not only a cleaner alternative but also a healthy one.2 Uses of LPG LPG is used as fuel. LPG produces lower greenhouse gas 3|Page . is famously bottled as fuel for lighters and deodorants. it is more popularly being used as fuel for barbeques and portable stoves. on the other hand. LPG is very popular. they become LPG. It is an advantage to use LPG as a fuel for vehicles because it burns cleaner than petrol and diesel. Butane. so it will vaporize once it is released from the container.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 1. in order to heat water in winter. combined with its clean burning characteristics. It seems that the portable nature of bottled LPG. In the future. presents an immediate winning solution to rapidly expand the availability of modern energy to those that have been without it. also as an aerosol propellant and refrigerant to avoid damage to the ozone. As for propane.

space heating. from stationary applications such as water heating.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG emissions compared to conventional energy supplies in every application it is used. cooking and industrial boilers to transportation applications. 4|Page .

propane.al 2003). The heavier hydrocarbons which are associated with the raw natural gas are ethane. Refrigeration 3. butane and heavier hydrocarbons along with varying amount of water vapors. propane. These NGL components must be recovered to control the dew point of natural gas stream and also to earn revenue by selling out the separated components. H. 2.1 LPG Recovery Processes Natural gas mainly contains methane and smaller amounts of ethane. butane and propane are known as associated gases. Ethane. butane and natural gasoline (condensate from). These associated hydrocarbons are called natural gas liquids. (Abdel-Aal. Absorption 4. carbon dioxide. We will discuss first different LPG manufacturing processes. Adsorption 5. Following are the different processes used to separate impurities:     Oil and condensate removal Water Removal Separation of natural gas liquids Sulfur and carbon dioxide removal Our aim/objective of this report is to study the fractionation of natural gas liquids to produce LPG. sulfur compounds and other non-hydrocarbons. The removal of these gases from raw natural gas is necessary to meet the desired consumer specifications of natural gas and to extract valuable products such as LPG from natural gas. Various techniques are used to recover LPG from natural gas/oil. A combination of above 5|Page . K et.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 2. propane. Natural Gas Liquids Processing Raw natural gas contains valuable heavier hydrocarbons when extracted from the well head. Recontacting-compression 2. 1.

1 Recontacting-compression This process is normally used for the recovery of LPG from crude oil fractionator. This process is used in refineries and also in gas processing plants. cooled and fed to the separator. LPG manufacturing process starts with acid gas removal and extraction unit. The recovery of LPG by this technique is 75% (Elvers .3 Lean oil absorption This method employs the hydrocarbon oil to recover lighter fractions.1. This technique is hardly used in gas industry. Barbara 2008).Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 2. then fractionation unit and ends with the product treatment plant.2 Refrigeration This technique is more common for recovery of LPG from gas streams. delayed cokers and hydrocrackers. This top product stream is compressed.1. The LPG recovery by this process is significantly lower than other two processes.4 Adsorption Adsorbents are used in this process so that gas molecules are bonded to the surface. 2.2009) 6|Page .1.2 LPG Manufacturing LPG is produced by fractionation of natural gas liquids and from crude oil by distillation. The principle behind this technique is to refrigerate the gas stream and LPG fractions are obtained. combined with top liquid product. catalytic cracking. Normally silica gel. Liquid product of Deethanizer is LPG. 2.Surinder . The simple process is described in the following block diagram. The top product from a crude oil fractionator consists of lighter fractions namely methane. Recovered fractions are fractionated to get the LPG components. 2. (Parkash . activated carbon and alumina are used as adsorbent. The liquid phase from separator is passed through Deethanizer and the vapor phase containing some LPG fractions is used as fuel gas. The technique is employed in three different processes:    Low temperature separation Expander Plants Combined Processes 2. LPG recovery by this process is 98%. ethane.1. propane and butane.

Depropanizer and Debutanizer.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Raw Natural Gas from gas well Acid Gas Removal Extraction Unit Fractionation Unit Product Treatment Unit Finished Product LPG Fig1:Blockdiagram for LPG Manufacturing 1 (Parkash .2. 7|Page . The oil field gases contain corrosive acid gases like CO2 and H2S.1 Acid gas removal Raw gas from the well head is received in knock out drums to separate gas and liquid phases. 2. These acid gases are removed by amine treatment or Benfield processes .2. butane. butane and pentane is treated in the fractionator trains to separate them and sold as LPG.2009) 2.After this. Complete process flow sheet is shown in figure 2.Surinder . Fractionation tower consists of three columns: Deethanizer.Removal of these gases is necessary to further process the gas for LPG production or more products. and gasoline is sent to the fractionation tower for LPG production and other two streams to the product gas unit for further processing. 2. The product streams are divided into three steps . propane.3 Fractionation Unit Liquid stream consisting of ethane.One having the liquid stream rich in propane.2 Extraction Unit The feed of extraction unit is the combination of associated gases and condensate.2. acid gases free natural gas is sent to extraction unit. The whole process description is as follows.

Surinder 2009) 2.1 Deethanizer Section Raw gas containing associated gases is fed from the top of the Deethanizer. Deethanizer operated at approximately 390lb/in2. which is partially condensed in the condenser by using propane at 20oF and collected in the reflux drum.2. The bottom product from Deethanizer enters into the next columns.3.3. We separated out ethane from this column. The condensed product is collected in the reflux drum. 8|Page . Some amount of this is refluxed back to the column. Condensed product is recycled to the Deethanizer tower and non-condensed vapors (mainly ethane) are sent to the fuel gas system. Heat is supplied through direct fired heater.2 Depropanizer Section The pressure of Deethanizer bottom product is reduced to 290 lb/in2 and then entered into the depropanizer. Temperature inside tower is maintained by supplying heat from reboiler. depropanizer. The overhead product of this column is propane rich and is condensed in the condenser by using cooling water. 2.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure 2: Typical Fractionator train for NGL (Parkash .2. The overhead product is ethane in the form of vapors.

9|Page .2. K.3. Bottom products are the heavier hydrocarbons. H2S. H.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 2. Table 2:Fractionator types for LPG Production (Abdel-Aal. H. The contaminants and their reasons for removal have been listed in the table below. Propane is separated as top product and condensed further in condenser by using cooling water. Carbon disulfide and sulfur compounds. Fractionators of different types are commonly used in gas plant. These impurities should be removed in order to meet the desired product specifications. Table 3:Different Contaminants in LPG (Abdel-Aal.4 Product Treatment Plant Propane and butane products separated from the fractionation plant contain some impurities as residual water. K.2.et al 2003) Type of fractionator Demethanizer Deethanizer Depropanizer Debutanizer Deisobutanizer Feed C1/C2 LPG Deethanizer bottoms Top product Methane Ethane Propane Bottom product Ethane Propane plus Butanes plus Natural gasoline(pentanes plus) Normal butane Depropanizer bottoms Butanes Debutanizer top Isobutane 2.et al 2003) Contaminants         Hydrogen sulfide Carbon dioxide Carbonyl sulfide Carbon disulfide Mercaptans Organic sulfides Nitrogen Water       Reasons for Removal Safety and Environmental Corrosion control Product specification Prevention of freeze out at low temperatures Prevention of catalyst poisoning in downstream facilities Numerous processes are available to remove contaminants but two of them are the most important and commonly used.3 Debutanizer Section Depropanizer bottom product is expanded to a pressure of 110 lb/in2 and fed to the top of the tower. Commonly used fractionators for LPG are listed in the table below.

90 13.C2 Propane.50 95. Vapor pressure and temperature are the most important parameters which should be controlled during operation.52 5.14 3. propane.0 26. ethane.2 14.18 2.0 96.0 2. 10 | P a g e .D.50 4. Feed composition is important for design considerations.iC4 N-Butane.0 33. butane and heavier ones.5 4.C3 Isobutane.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG a.50 7. The feed composition for NGL fractionation column is shown in the table below.36 95.8 1. The products specifications must be met to sale the qualitative gas.0 3.4 Product Specifications The product specification for LPG plant is shown in the following table.5 37.13 0. which receives feed directly from gas reservoirs.0 2.0 3.iC5 Pentanes N-pentane. This data has been provided by the US Gas Processors Association.C1 Ethane. Adsorptive Purification 2. Absorptive Purification b. The feed for NGL fractionation trains contain methane.NC5 N-hexane. Table 4: Specifications of feed for NGL fractionation unit (Manley .50 23.NC7 Feed Ethane Propane Iso-Butane N-Butane Gasoline 0.0 2.0 26.B. Feed composition is different from different reservoirs.3 Feed Specifications for NGL Fractionation Feed for NGL (Natural gas liquid) fractionation plants comes from upstream processing plants.45 2. Iso-pentane.C4 Butanes.) Liquid volume% Methane.0 7.32 90.NC6 N-heptane.

05 0. vol% Pentane heavier.grains/100 cu ft Moisture content Free water content pass d none none pass d pass c 15 15 15 pass c 10 0.D. vol% Residual matter. 208 70 208 208 HD- and propene and butene propane – propene and butane – butene volatile residue: °F b Butane and heavier. .Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Table 5:Product specifications for LPG (Manley .) psig b Temperature of – 37 36 36 – 37 at pressure 100°F.5 11 | P a g e .05 and 2.0 2.5 2.0 2. mL Oil stain observation Volatile sulfur. not more than 5 % propene Vapor (max.B) Product characteristics Composition Commercial propane mainly propane Commercial butane mainly butane Commercial propane – butane mix mainly mixes of Propane 5a not less than 90 % propane.

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 3. depropanizer. Before the Deethanizer column the feeds are to be conditioned. First alternative is to mix both feeds before Deethanizer column and then expand the mixed feed. A separator is used to remove the lighter hydrocarbons that are methane and ethane. An illustration of this alternative is shown in figure (3) Figure3: Feed conditioning alt. Each section is described as under. debutanizer and butane splitter. The bottom stream from the separators in each stream are mixed in mixer and then sent to deethanizer as shown in figure (4). The temperature and pressure of the feeds are given to be 25°C and 30 bar but they have different flow rates. 3. Simulation The modelling of LPG extraction from fractionation of NGL is done using Aspen Hysys as simulation tool. The first feed stream is coming from separation unit from well stream and the second feed from dehydration unit. The products were selected based on demand in LPG market. These feeds are to be processed in order to extract LPG products that are propane. 12 | P a g e . isobutane and n-butane. These sections are feed conditioning.1 The second alternative is to expansion and separation of methane in each stream. The process is divided into 5 sections.1 Feed conditioning The feed streams are NGL and their compositions are given in appendix. There are three alternatives for conditioning. Deethanizer.

expand the mixed feed and let it into the Deethanizer column as shown in figure (5).Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure 4: Feed conditioning alt.2. See Figure (6). 13 | P a g e .2 The third alternative is to mix both feeds. The first column is deethanizer where no condenser is used and the top product gases (methane and ethane) are withdrawn from top if gas phase.3 3.1 Deethanizer In this project no refrigeration is used in order to minimize the cost.2 Fractionation columns 3. Figure 5:Feed conditioning alt. The feed is fed to the column from top. In this project the third alternative was considered to be the best choice.

Since there is no condenser. The specification in the deethanizer is selected in order to converge the column. since the more the number of stages the higher the column will be and the more expensive expensive the cost will be but in the same time the purer the product will be. In modelling the debutanizer two specifications are required in order to converge the column since both condenser and reboiler are present.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG The condition inside the column is set such as 26 bar pressure and number of trays to be 15 trays. In this case both distillate rate and component recovery of both propane and butane in top are selected. Figure 6: Deethanizer column 3. In debutanizer the butane and lighter hydrocarbons are withdrawn as top products and condensed in condenser while heavier hydrocarbons are withdrawn from bottom as bottom products. In modelling the 14 | P a g e . In this column the bottom product rate was used since both methane and ethane are light and would be difficult to stay in the bottom stream.2. The number of trays in the column is very important.2 Debutanizer Here the debutanizer was used before depropanizer for economic reason so that the next separation will be easier and the depropanizer will be smaller. Other specifications such as component recovery and component fraction were used but it was difficult to converge the column. The optimum number of stages in this project is 15 stages. only one specification would be enough to converge the column. A debutanizer model is shown in figure (7).

With thses specifications over 99. Figure 8: Depropanizer column 15 | P a g e . Since there are only butane and propane in the feed. The condition inside the column is as follow: 15 stages.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG debutanizer. Both component recovery and component ratio are selected as specification.3 Depropanizer Depropanizer separates propane from butane with a similar modelling to debutanizer.9% of propane and 966% of butane recovered in the top product.2. specification has an influence of the purity of the top products as it is expected over 99.8% of propane was recovered in the top product. The number of stages were 15 and top and bottom pressure were 16 and 17 bar respectively. top and bottom pressure 9 and 10bar respectively. Figure 7: Debutanizer column 3. the modelling is easier. Propane is withdrawn from top as top product after condensing and butane as bottom product. Figure (8) shows depropanizer column.

2. 16 | P a g e . A model of butane splitter is shown in figure (9). The separation of iso and n-butane is more difficult and therefore the number of stages is higher than in depropanizer.6% was achieved.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 3.4 Butane splitter The last column is butane splitter in which butane is separated in iso-butane as top product and nbutane as bottom product. In butane splitter distillate rate and component recovery are selected as specification. Figure 9: Butane splitter Note: All simulation results have been pasted in table A1 in appendix. With this specifications and manipulating the pressure in the column an iso-butane recovery of 96.

many problems had to be overcome and wide network of transport systems was developed. At the same time. This way of LPG transport is most economic and safe. the result if are build and correctly maintained is significant. unequal distribution in area. localized storage terminals and additional extended network of delivery. trains. With increasing access to LPG and many new market possibilities. constant and simple access to LPG at the expense of high preliminary investments. Each of those two branches contains special types of transport and is described by different safety measures and precautions. alongside with many already in planning stage. the historic levels of oil prices are pushing the transportation demands of LPG. that with population growth bonded with energy demand. Although the initial construction expanses ale high.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 4. providing cheap. highly localized production. the use of clean liquid and gaseous fuels will continue to increase.1 Continuous flow of LPG – Pipe system LPG flow in certain time of its migration to consumers through pipelines. The LPG distribution chain can be seen in fig 2A in appendix.  “Discrete” (bulk) means of transport characterized by moving certain amount of LPG in pressurized canisters carried by cars. particularly residential and commercial sectors of developed or developing countries. 20°C) has gaseous form. that LPG in normal conditions (1 bar. seasonal consumption and static. 4. two main types of LPG distribution was introduced:  Continuous flow of gas characterized by all types of pipe technologies. and moreover. complex and innovative solutions for transport problems will play important role in those projects. It is used in all energy requiring areas. Due to the fact. To fulfill certain pressure and market requirements. It is expected. ships. New transportation projects are expected to come. LPG Transport Demand for LPG is growing constantly. Due to their complexity it’s necessary to describe that in few paragraphs bellow. has some other advantages such as :   Better availability of LPG in hardly accessible areas Significant LPG transport reduction costs 17 | P a g e .

was constructed in 1960. The same works for price. 18 | P a g e . 2 operating terminals. other than pipeline systems are used whenever the pipes would be economically unjustifiable. The pipes are mostly made from carbon steel and are 1” to 6” wide. The pipeline map is shown in fig. Where pipe system was rigid in delivery. As a result. It is 3540 km ANSI900 system of 4”to 10” pipeline. One example is double pipeline from New Mexico to Minnesota and Wisconsin – Mid-America Pipeline. Also. As a result. A3 in appendix . however. where LPG is mainly used in residential areas for water heating.6 million Indian households in 2001 were using LPG for cooking. First system devoted only for LPG. Similar example with different goal was established in India. pipe network is not so wide. it is not evenly spread over the globe and differs by continents and final usage. in the terms of place. 1300 km branch connects Jamnagar on the west with New Delhi area on the north. but the existing pipes are larger. and generate higher gas flow to Gas plants. The LPG transmission system has a capacity 3. Detailed view to each type can be read below. Primary cooking usage. where 33. lack of developed infrastructure. but overall expenses are higher in order. Different situation occurs on USA. 4.8 MMTPA LPG. where LPG is used for distributed power generation.2 Discrete (bulk) means of LPG transport The discrete transport system is completely opposite than Continuous system. the discrete system is flexible. and includes 6 delivery. 14 pumping stations and underground storage.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG  Environmental impact in terms of reducing exhaust emissions and energy consumptions LPG pipeline system is not as wide as NG and oil pipeline system. amount and time. initial investments are lover in comparison. and vast unsupplied areas had lead to building 1900 km LPG mostly 12” to 16” pipeline network. Most widespread network is in Europe. The Jamnagar – New Delhi branch can be seen on figure A4 in appendix. And 600 km of network is connecting Vizag on the east coast with midlands Secenderabad. it still follows all “LP gas production – consumer” steps.

Floating buoy allows connection of all types of tankers.g. without scent and unrecognizable by naked eye. Due to the fact that it is safer to transport huge amounts under low temperature. ambient temperatures) used in short to medium haul trades.2. There is a fleet of more than 1000 tankers around the globe. connected by flexible pipelines. By the nature of LPG. rather than high pressure. semi-pressurized or refrigerated LPG can work as a LPG tanker. Semi-pressurized tankers (5-8 bar. because of possibility to carry other gases. SPM consist of onshore LPG storage facility and LPG offshore buoy. Japan. static shore terminal (SST). short sea and inland-river trades. Carrying capacity differs from 3 000 – 10 000 m3. and are shielded from outside area by innerwall layer of inert gas. -15 ± 5°C) for medium haul trades. divided by size. there are three types of LPG vessels. Thanks to the pipeline connection. with capacity 10 000 – 30 000 m3. -43°C for pure propane) are used for long haul trades. Vessel transport itself can be considered as simple and safe in comparison to on-loading and offloading. Those tankers are not single-function vessels dedicated only for LPG. SPM can be considered as middle-step between pipe and vessel transport. The containers for LPG have usually strong walls. and single point mooring system (SPM). mostly nitrogen. e.    Pressurized tankers (18 bar.1 Vessel tanker transport Provide the vast majority of LPG discrete transportation. some safety precautions was introduced to avoid leakage or any disaster. Those carrying capacity varies from 30 000 to 100 000 m3. 360° movement grants tanker possibility to moor from all sides depending on bathymetry 19 | P a g e . Because the LPG vapors are highly flammable. derived from system of keeping the gas in liquid form. Fully refrigerated vessels (ambient pressure. There is also considerable fleet of very small vessels used mainly for coastal. with high LPG demand. Also. There are two main systems of transfer nowadays. before loading are cleaned by CNG vapors blow. every ship capable of carrying pressurized. and major amount of transported LPG is transported by sea.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG 4.

SPM grants much quicker transfer. In comparison with SST. So the gas inside the canister is allowed to evaporate. other types of distribution come to play. the situations on markets looks different. 4. one of the biggest. easing of prices. able to keep high internal pressure and sustain significant damage without leakage. Next. or to the consumers directly. Both SST and SPM are illustrated in Fig. The LPG is mostly kept liquefied by pressure. As well.2. This is necessary because of high differences of external temperature changes. Following receipt at terminals from ships. For instance in Italy is LPG exclusively transported by trains. In terms of visual recognition. international regulations demands white or red color.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG and environmental condition at given time. The demand for LPG on market over years is stable. This increase is however inevitable. therefore canisters of all types must be robust. where no pipeline network was developed. After vessels offload the cargo. It is caused by many factors. For illustration.3 Economic analysis Supplies of LPG are continually rising. the estimations show. showing the content of canister. closely followed by prices.A5. that in combination with rising supply would for commonly thinking mind signalize. Quick rise of prices choke the demand for LPG few times in 20 | P a g e . Example of unified canister can be seen on fig. truck. However. canisters never can be fulfilled more than 40% of water equivalent capacity. And. and exact signs on visible places. without significant increase on pressure. Because of the highest number of single transports and high concentration of population in comparison to pipe or ship. canisters must be equipped with overpressure valves and mechanical safety cover around valve. SST-SPM. is close link to price of crude oil and constantly weakening dollar. car transport Rail with truck transport fulfills the role of ship on the land. LPG is transported to localized storage stations for further distribution by smaller cars. independent of weather and lower maintenance costs.A6 in appendix. 4. that it will have positive future. certain precautions were taken. mostly Industry.2 Rail. the price of propane rose during last few years from 500 dollars/tone to 900 d/t in late 2007 and 1500 d/t in 2011.

6%. that petrochemical industry will not be able to consume these increasing amounts. Asia and Africa domestic sector – rising Transport sector (autogas) in Europe and Asia – Pacific – rising North America . Over year growth in consumption is app.A7 in appendix. domestic market in Asia shows positive numbers.3m t/year The increase in demand is highly fractionated. Autogas sector was rising in last years probably in highest pace from all sectors. geographically or by sector. the increase is stable thanks to easy access to LPG cylinders. Future estimations in this direction are unwise. Similarity with natural gas is next key reason for rising LPG demand. resulting in higher demand for flexible LPG. Recovery came hand to hand with rising prices mainly thanks to constant petrochemical demand and never-ending rising of petrol prices.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG the past. mainly in long term NG prices predictions. for large-scale capital investors. growing infrastructure. LPG is used also as a backup plan for NG using industry. Population and income are rising quicker than grid based energy sources. Demand     Petrochemical industry in western Europe and Middle East .falling around 2. substitution of other types of fuel by LPG etc. by timescale. Two thirds of this consumption is located in only 7 21 | P a g e . Also. In domestic sector.rising Middle East. resulting in LPG price moderation. Iran. In the past was estimated. UAE and Nigeria. Unfortunately. possibility to relative easy switch from natural gas to LPG means high valued advantage. as actual prices show. Main sources of LPG    Refinery production – increasing Crude oil associated gases processing – moderate increase Non-associated natural gas processing – significant increase due to new started up discoveries and large volumes originated from Qatar. For industry. and not surprisingly. it didn’t happen. See Fig.

A8 in appendix. This trend is not caused only by usual gasoline and diesel rising prices. And future estimations. Despite the continuously rising prices. the clean burning LPG remains a growing source of energy. See Fig. confirms its rising role in energy-demanding world. where government – car manufacturers cooperation led to 16% growth in LPG consumption. This boom is illustrated on South Korean example. 22 | P a g e . almost 80% of autogas consuming cars. Where. are another key for demand. was introduced by domestic manufactures. although was wrong sometimes. but by cars manufacturers. Similar picture occur in Turkey.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG countries. Their new introduced cars running on autogas.

LPG can be recovered from natural gas liquids by different methods. Although these projects are underway but it would be proved as a safe and economic.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Conclusions and Discussions    LPG can be an alternative fuel for vehicles as it burns cleaner and greenhouse gas emissions can be controlled. it can help us to combat climate change.     Cost for fractionation operation can be reduced by adapting refrigeration of …. So. Debutanizer has been used before depropanizer in order to become it more economical and to make separation easy at next stage. LPG transportation cost can be reduced by employing the pipeline technology. Refrigeration method is more common of all because recovery from this process is 98%. 23 | P a g e . The separation of iso and n-butane is more difficult and more number of stages are required in order to do the separation which in turn increases the overall cost. There are three alternatives to condition the feed stream for fractionation unit. It has been found to be the best choice to mix the two feed streams from the wells having different compositions and feeding it to deethanizer first.

Aggour . WileyVCH-Verlag GmbH & Co. “Thermodynamically efficient distillation: NGL fractionation”. Fahim.Peter . 2011.James “Achieving product specifications for ethane through to pentane plus from NGL fractionation plants”. Rolla. http://www.Essam .B.org 2011. (AIChE Fall Conference. Foster Wheeler).com/downloads/PT26_LPG%20SPM_bluewater. Marcel Dekker INC. K. “Offshore terminals for the transportation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas”. Department of chemical engineering.in/gailnewsite/businesses/lpgpipeline.nic. .pdf 24 | P a g e . Missouri [8] Naturalgas.Mohamed. http://naturalgas. http://gail.html [7] Manley.Surinder (2009) “Petroleum Fuels Manufacturing Handbook: including Specialty Products and Sustainable Manufacturing Techniques ” McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.bluewateroffshore. Inc.64/page_attachments/0000/0330/Petroleum_Economist.asp [9] Parkash . pp. H.21.121. Fleshman . Alderton. pp-142-149 [5] Fundamentals of the World Gas Industry. 2005 [4] Elvers ..Abdul Rahman . Al.(2003) [3] Bahnassi .D. pp-4-10 [10] René Raaijmakers. New York Basel. Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (USA).Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG References [1] Abdel-Aal.Barbara (2008) “ Handbook of fuels: energy sources for transportation”. M. 2008. http://91. (2003) “ Petroleum and Gas Field Processing”. university of missouri – rolla. Khouri.317-329 [2] Asian development bank “PROJECT COMPLETION REPORT ON THE LPG PIPELINE PROJECT (Loan 1591-IND) IN INDIA “.org/naturalgas/transport.pdf [6] Gail India Limited.

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG [11] Stellman .M.J. http://www. Geneva [12] Stopford .com/Gaz/International. “LPG pipeline system”. http://www. 2011.html [15] World LP Gas Association 2009. 3rd edition. (1998) “Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety”. Inc.com/what-is-lp-gas/interactivemaps/ 25 | P a g e .totalgaz. http://willbros.worldlpgas.Martin (2009) “Maritime economics”. International Labor Office.com/About/Areas-ofOperation/United-States-398. Rutledge [13] Total 2011.nsf/VS_OPM/8AFAE12EA35EC563C125718100509959? OpenDocument [14] Willbros Group.

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Appendix Figure A1: Process Flow Sheet (Simulation sheet from Hysys) 26 | P a g e .

954 1.19 22.0 3000 24.06 2600 37.954 1.17 500 29.986e+ 007 7.0000 Kgm ol/hr Kg/h r M /h r 3 Feed2 0.300e+ 004 3.0 242.2392 5.0000 Feed 0.485e+0 07 5.3064 C5+ 0.1 62. Pressur e Molar Flow Mass Flow Liquid Volume flow Heat Flow kJ/hr 5.0000 Feed in 0.87 3000 25.2 348.916e+ 004 41.27 27 | P a g e .0000 0.7 1700 225.0000 5.38 49.81 46.00 8000 3.50 1000 44 74.0 3000 25.016e+ 007 C4 in 0.0000 C3+ in 0.0000 C KPa 25.0000 7.2 1119 76.016e+ 007 iC4 0.485e+0 07 7.500e+ 004 36.2062 C4 0.289 2.82 900 14.0000 C1.9985 C3+ 0.0000 1.151e+ 004 3.1 1702 583.300e+ 004 49.67 1600 44 56.12 0.485e+ 007 C3.0 3.39 4.Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Table A1:Simulation Results (Material Streams) Feed1 Vapor Fraction Temp.016e+0 07 4.27 2.0 2.986e+0 07 7.203e+ 007 5.499e+00 7 1.07 50.C2 0.243 4.203e+0 07 5.C4 in 0.499e+ 007 C3.016e+0 07 5.C4 Vapor Fraction Temperature Pressure Molar Flow C KPa Kg mol /hr Mass Flow Kg/ hr Liquid flow M3 /hr Heat Flow kJ/ hr 5.2 1700 251.09 286.038 1.93 500 19.095 190 10.243 2.9 122.54 1800 246.0 286.0000 4.916 2356 2356 1702 653.151e+ 004 45.02 13.19 5.485e+ 007 C3 0.39 1487.71 1000 29.1 348.524e+ 007 nC4 0.119 45.7 2600 235.

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure A2. Distribution Chain (World LP Gas Association 2009) 28 | P a g e .

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure A3: Mid-America Pipeline (Willbros Group. 2011) Figure A4: Jamnanagar New Delhi 29 | P a g e . Inc.

Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure A5: SST.SSM (René Raaijmakers) Figure A6: amerigas Canister 30 | P a g e .

2008) FigureA 8: World autogas consumption (Fundamentals of the World Gas Industry. 2008) 31 | P a g e .Fractionation of NGL to produce LPG Figure A7: World LPG gas consumption (Fundamentals of the World Gas Industry.