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Composition and Structure of Earth’s Interior

Composition and Structure of Earth’s Interior

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7/12/04 CIDER/ITP Short Course

Composition and Structure of
Earth’s Interior
A Perspective from Mineral
Physics
Mineral Physics Program
Fundamentals of mineralogy, petrology, phase equilibria
• Lecture 1. Composition and Structure of Earth’s Interior (Lars)
• Lecture 2. Mineralogy and Crystal Chemistry (Abby)
• Lecture 3. Introduction to Thermodynamics (Lars)
Fundamentals of physical properties of earth materials
• Lecture 4. Elasticity and Equations of State (Abby)
• Lecture 5. Lattice dynamics and Statistical Mechanics (Lars)
• Lecture 6. Transport Properties (Abby)
Frontiers
• Lecture 7. Experimental Methods and Challenges (Abby)
• Lecture 8. Electronic Structure and Ab Initio Theory (Lars)
• Lecture 9. Building a Terrestrial Planet (Lars/Abby)
Tutorials
• Constructing Earth Models (Lars)
• Constructing and Interpreting Phase Diagrams (Abby)
• Interpreting Lateral Heterogeneity (Abby)
• Molecular dynamics (Lars)


Outline
• Earth as a material
– What is Earth made of?
– What are the conditions?
– How does it respond?
– How do we find out?
• Structure and Composition
– Pressure, Temperature,
Composition
– Phases
– Radial Structure
• Origins of Mantle
Heterogeneity
– Phase
– Temperature
– Composition

What is Earth made of?
• Atoms
– Contrast plasma ...
– All processes governed by
• Atomic arrangement
(structure)
• Atomic dynamics
(bonding)
• F = kx
– F : Change in energy,
stress
– x : Change in temperature,
phase, deformation
– k : Material property
• Beyond continuua
– Measure k
– Understanding

What is Earth made of?
• Condensed Matter
– Potential Energy, i.e. bonds,
are important
– No simple theory (contrast
ideal gas)
• Pressure Scale
– Sufficient to alter bonding,
structure
– Not fundamental state
– P
bond
~eV/Å
3
=160 GPa~P
mantle


What is Earth made of?
• Solid (mostly)
– Response to stress
depends on time scale
– Maxwell relaxation time




t
M
~1000 years
• Crystalline
– Multi-phase
– Anisotropic


t
M
=
q
G
viscosity
shear modulus
How does it respond?
• To changes in energy
– Change in temperature
• Heat Capacity C
P
, C
V

– Change in Density
• Thermal expansivity, o
– Phase Transformations
• Gibbs Free Energy, G
• Influence all responses
in general

How does it respond?
• To hydrostatic stress
– Compression
• Bulk modulus, K
S
, K
T

– Adiabatic heating
• Grüneisen parameter
• ¸=oK
S
/µc
P

– Phase Transformations
• Gibbs Free Energy
• To deviatoric stress
– Elastic deformation
• Elastic constants, c
ijkl

– Flow
• Viscosity, q
ijkl

– Failure

How does it respond?
• Rates of Transport of
– Mass: chemical diffusivity
– Energy: thermal
diffusivity
– Momentum: viscosity
– Electrons: electrical
conductivity
• Other Non-equilibrium
properties
– Attenuation (Q)
– …

How do we find out?
• How does interior differ from
laboratory?
– The significance of the differences
depends on the property to be
probed
• Equilibrium thermodynamic
properties
– Depend on Pressure, Temperature,
Major Element Composition.
– So: Control them and measure
desired property in the laboratory!
Or compute theoretically
• Non-equilibrium properties
– Some also depend on minor element
composition, and history
– These are more difficult to control
and replicate

How do we find out?
• Experiment
• Production of high
pressure and/or
temperature
• Probing of sample in
situ
1.08
1.07
1.06
1.05
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.01
1.00
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
,

V
/
V
0
2000 1600 1200 800 400
Temperature (K)
Forsterite
0 GPa
Bouhifd et al.
(1996)
¸
0
±0.1
q
0
±1
How do we find out?
• Theory
• Solve Kohn-Sham
Equations (QM)
• Approximations
35
30
25
20
15
10
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

D
e
r
i
v
a
t
i
v
e

o
f

G
,

-
d
G
/
d
T

(
M
P
a

K
-
1
)
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Pressure (GPa)
MgSiO
3
Perovskite
2500 K
Marton & Cohen
(2002)
Wentzcovitch et al.
(2004)
Oganov et al.
(2002)
q
S

q
S
~q
q
S
~¸q
q
S
=q
S0
Pressure, Temperature,
Composition
• P/T themselves depend on
material properties
• Pressure: Self-gravitation
modified significantly by
compression
• Temperature: Self-
compression, energy,
momentum transport
• Composition
– Heterogeneous
– Crust/Mantle/Core
– Within Mantle?

Pressure, Temperature,
Composition

Pressure

• Combine


• K=bulk modulus
• Must account for phase
transformations…


350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
G
P
a
)
6000 4000 2000 0
Depth (km)
Inner
Core
Outer
Core
Lower
Mantle
T
r
a
n
s
i
t
i
o
n

Z
o
n
e
U
p
p
e
r

M
a
n
t
l
e
PREM

cP
cr
= µ(r)g(r)

cP

=
K
µ
Temperature
• Constraints: near surface
– Heat flow
– Magma source
– Geothermobarometry
• Constraints: interior
– Phase transformations
– Grüneisen parameter
– Physical properties
• Properties of Isentrope
AT≈1000 K
– Verhoogen effect
• Questions
– Boundary layers?
– Non-adiabaticity?
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
K
)
3000 2000 1000 0
Depth (km)
Composition
• Constraints: extraterrestrial
– Nucleosynthesis
– Meteorites
• Constraints: near surface
– Xenoliths
– Magma source
• Constraints: Interior
– Physical properties
• Fractionation important
– Earth-hydrosphere-space
– Crust-mantle-core
• Mantle homogeneous
because well-mixed?
– Not in trace elements
– Major elements?
Pyrolite/Lherzolite/Peridotite/…
Phases
• Upper mantle
– Olivine, orthopyroxene,
clinopyroxene,
plag÷spinel÷garnet
• Transition Zone
– Olivine÷Wadsleyite÷Ringwoo
dite
– Pyroxenes dissolve into garnet
• Lower mantle
– Two perovksites + oxide
• What else?
– Most of interior still relatively
little explored
Radial Structure
• Influenced by
– Pressure
– Phase
transformation
– Temperature
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
S
h
e
a
r

W
a
v
e

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
k
m

s
-
1
)
600 400 200 0
Depth (km)
plg
sp
ol
wa
ri
opx cpx
C2/c
gt
mj
capv pv
mw
ak
Radial Structure of Pyrolitic
Mantle
• Lower mantle
• Questions
– Homogeneous in
composition, phase?
• Problems
– Physical properties at
lower mantle conditions
– Phase transformations
within lower mantle?
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
g

c
m
-
3
)
3000 2000 1000 0
Depth (km)
Pyrolite
100 Ma
Radial Structure of Pyrolitic
Mantle
• Upper Mantle and
Transition Zone
• Shallow discontinuities
• Local minimum
• 410, 520,660
• High gradient zone at
top of lower mantle
• Questions
– Role of anisotropy
– Role of attenuation
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
g

c
m
-
3
)
1000 800 600 400 200 0
Depth (km)
Pyrolite
100 Ma
Radial Structure of Pyrolitic
Mantle
• “Discontinuities”
• Questions:
– Structure as
f(composition)
– How well do we know
phase equilibria?
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
g

c
m
-
3
)
700 680 660 640 620 600
Depth (km)
Origin of Mantle Heterogeneity

Mantle Heterogeneity
Temperature
• Most physical
properties depend on
temperature
• Elastic constants mostly
decrease with
increasing T
• Rate varies
considerably with P, T,
composition, phase
• Few measurements,
calculations at high P/T
• Dynamics: thermal
expansion drives

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
E
l
a
s
t
i
c

M
o
d
u
l
u
s

(
G
P
a
)
2000 1500 1000 500 0
Temperature (K)
C
11
C
12
C
44
Periclase
P=0
Anderson &
Isaak (1995)
Mantle Heterogeneity
Phase
• Mantle phase
transformations are
ubiquitous
• Phase proportions
depend on T: vary
laterally
• Different phases have
different properties
• Dynamics: heat, volume
of transformation
modifies

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
A
t
o
m
i
c

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
30 25 20 15 10 5
Pressure (GPa)
ol wa ri
opx
cpx
gt
pv
Ca-pv
mw
il
C2/c
Pyrolite
Stacey Geotherm
150 450 300 600 750
Depth (km)
Mantle Heterogeneity
Composition
• Physical properties
depend on composition
• Phase proportions
depend on composition
• Major element
heterogeneity is
dynamically active

Origin of Lateral Heterogeneity

Temperature Composition
Phase
Differentiation
Radioactivity
Chemical
Potential
Entropy
Latent
Heat

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