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Communication Theory
(EC 2252)
Prof.J .B.Bhattacharjee
K.Senthil Kumar

ECE Department

Rajalakshmi Engineering College
www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Review of Spectral characteristics
Periodic and Non-periodic Signals: A signal is said to
be periodic, if it exhibits periodicity. i.e.,
x(t +T)=x(t) , for all values of t.
Periodic signal has the property that it is unchanged
by a time shift of T. A signal that does not satisfy the
above periodicity property is called a non-periodic
signal.
Periodic signals can be represented using the
Fourier Series. Non-periodic signals can be
represented using the Fourier Transform.
Both Fourier series and Fourier Transform deal with
the representation of the signals as a combination of
sine and cosine waves.

Fourier Series
Fourier series: a complicated waveform analyzed
into a number of harmonically related sine and
cosine functions

A continuous periodic signal x(t) with a period T
may be represented by:
x(t)=

k=1
(A
k
cos k t + B
k
sin k t)+ A
0

Dirichlet conditions must be placed on x(t) for the
series to be valid: the integral of the magnitude of
x(t) over a complete period must be finite, and the
signal can only have a finite number of
discontinuities in any finite interval
Fourier Series Equations
The Fourier series represents a periodic
signal T
p
in terms of frequency components:

We get the Fourier series coefficients as
follows:

The complex exponential Fourier coefficients
are a sequence of complex numbers
representing the frequency component
0
k.
p
T / 2 where , e X x(t)
0
k
t ik
k
0
t = =

=
}

=
p
0
T
t ik
p
k
dt x(t)e
T
1
X
Periodic signals represented by Fourier Series
have Discrete spectra.

The Fourier Transform
Fourier transform is used for the non-
periodic signals. A Fourier transform
converts the signal from the time domain
to the spectral domain.
Continuous Fourier Transform:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
}
}

=
=
df e f H t h
dt e t h f H
ift
ift
t
t
2
2
Non-periodic signals represented by Fourier
transform have Continuous spectra.

Fourier Transform Pairs
Note: stands for rectangular function. stands for triangular function.
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Introduction to Communication
Systems
Communication Basic process of
exchanging information from one location
(source) to destination (receiving end).
Refers process of sending, receiving and
processing of information/signal/input from
one point to another point.
Source
Destination
Flow of information
Figure 1 : A simple communication system
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Electronic Communication System
defined as the whole mechanism of
sending and receiving as well as
processing of information electronically
from source to destination.
point-to-point, mobile communications,
satellite systems.
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Objectives
Communication System to produce an
accurate replica of the transmitted
information that is to transfer information
between two or more points (destinations)
through a communication channel, with
minimum error.
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NEED FOR COMMUNICATION
Interaction purposes enables people to
interact in a timely fashion on a global level in
social, political, economic and scientific areas,
through telephones, electronic-mail and video
conference.

Transfer Information Tx in the form of audio,
video, texts, computer data and picture through
facsimile, telegraph or telex and internet.

masses, through radio, television or teletext.
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Terms Related To Communications
Message physical manifestation produced by the
information source and then converted to electrical
signal before transmission by the transducer in the
transmitter.

Transducer Device that converts one form of energy
into another form.

Input Transducer placed at the transmitter which
convert an input message into an electrical signal.

Example Microphone which converts sound energy to
electrical energy.
Message
Input
Transducer
Electrical
Signal
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Output Transducer placed at the receiver
which converts the electrical signal into the
original message.
Example Loudspeaker which converts
electrical energy into sound energy.

Signal electrical voltage or current which
varies with time and is used to carry message or
information from one point to another.

Electrical
Signal
Output
Transducer
Message
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Elements of a Communication
System
The basic elements are : Source,
Destination.

Information
Source
Transmitter
Channel
Transmission
Medium
Noise
Figure : Basic Block Diagram of a Communication System
EEE Exclusive
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Function of each Element.
Information Source the communication system
exists to send messages. Messages come from
voice, data, video and other types of information.

Transmitter Transmit the input message into
electrical signals such as voltage or current into
electromagnetic waves such as radio waves,
microwaves that is suitable for transmission and
compatible with the channel. Besides, the
transmitter also do the modulation and encoding
(for digital signal).
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Block Diagram of a Transmitter

5 minutes exercise;
Describe the sequence of events that happen at
Modulating
Signal
Audio
Amplifier
Modulator
RF
Amplifier
Carrier
Signal
Transmitting
Antenna
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Channel/Medium is the link or path over
which information flows from the source to
establish a communication networks.
There are 5 criteria of a transmission
system; Capacity, Performance, Distance,
Security and Cost which includes the
installation, operation and maintenance.
2 main categories of channel that
commonly used are; line (guided media)
and free space (unguided media)
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electromagnetic waves that are sent by the
transmitter through the channel. It is also
separate the information from the received
signal and sent the information to the
destination.

Basically, a receiver consists of several stages
of amplification, frequency conversion and
filtering.
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Destination is where the user receives the
information, such as loud speaker, visual
display, computer monitor, plotter and printer.
RF
Amplifier
Mixer
Local
Oscillator
Intermediate
Frequency
Amplifier
Demodulator
Audio
Amplifier
Destination
Receiving Antenna
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Analog Modulation
Baseband Transmission
Baseband signal is the information either in a
digital or analogue form.
Transmission of original information whether
analogue or digital, directly into transmission
medium is called baseband transmission.
Example: intercom (figure below)

Microphone Voice
Audio
Amplifier
Audio
Amplifier
Speaker
Voice
Wire
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Baseband signal is not suitable for
long distance communication.
Hardware limitations
Requires very long antenna
Baseband signal is an audio signal of low frequency.
For example voice, range of frequency is 0.3 kHz to
3.4 kHz. The length of the antenna required to
transmit any signal at least 1/10 of its wavelength ().
Therefore, L = 100km (impossible!)
Interference with other waves
Simultaneous transmission of audio signals will cause
interference with each other. This is due to audio
signals having the same frequency range and
receiver stations cannot distinguish the signals.
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Modulation
Modulation defined as the process of modifying a
carrier wave (radio wave) systematically by the
modulating signal.

This process makes the signal suitable for transmission
and compatible with the channel.

Resultant signal modulated signal

2 types of modulation; Analog Modulation and Digital
Modulation.

Analogue Modulation to transfer an analogue low pass
signal over an analogue bandpass channel.

Digital Modulation to transfer a digital bit stream the
carrier is a periodic train and one of the pulse parameter
(amplitude, width or position) changes according to the
audio signal.
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Purpose of Modulation Process in
Communication Systems
To generate modulated signal that is suitable for
transmission and compatible with the channel.

To allow efficient transmission increase transmission
speed and distance, eg;
1. By using high frequency carrier signal, the information
(voice) can travel and propagate through the air at
greater distances and shorter transmission time
2. Also, high frequency signal is less prone to noise and
interference. Certain types of modulation have the useful
property of suppressing both noise and interference
3. For example, FM use limiter to reduce noise and keep
the signals amplitude constant. PCM systems use
repeaters to generate the signal along the transmission
path.
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Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Objectives:-
Recognize AM signal in the time domain, frequency
domain and trigonometric equation form
Calculate the percentage of modulation index
Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and
bandwidth of an AM signal by given the carrier and
modulating signal frequencies
Calculate the power related in AM signal
Define the terms of DSBSC, SSB and VSB
Understand the modulator and demodulator
operations

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Introduction
Modulation
The alteration of the amplitude, phase or frequency of an
oscillator in accordance with another signal.
Input signal is encoded in a format suitable for transmission
A low frequency information signal is encoded over a higher
frequency signal
Carrier Signal
Sinusoidal wave,
Modulating Signal/Base band
Information signal,
Modulated Wave
Higher frequency signal which is being modulated
Modulation Schemes
To counter the effects of multi path fading and time-delay

t f V v
c c c
t 2 sin =
t f V v
m m m
t 2 sin =
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Carrier Signal,
Vc
Modulating Signal,
Vm
Modulation Schemes
Modulated Signal

V
AM

V
PM

V
FM

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Amplitude Modulation
Time Domain

Frequency Domain
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t f V v
m m m
t 2 sin =
) 2 (sin 2 sin
2 sin
t f t f V
t f V V
c m m
c c AM
t t
t
+
=

Modulator

Information Signal
Carrier Signal
Output
t f V v
c c c
t 2 sin =
AM Modulator
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Amplitude Modulation
Vc
- Vc
Vm
- Vm
Vam
- Vam
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Modulation Index
Modulation Index, m
Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is
modulated.
It is an expression of the amount of power in the
sidebands.
Modulation level ranges = 0-1 where
0 = no modulation
1 = full modulation
>1 = distortion

Vc
Vm
m =
min max
min max
V V
V V
m
+

=
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Modulation Index
Vc
Vm
m =
33
Modulation Index
Vmin
Vmin (p-p)
Vmax
Vmax (p-p)
min max
min max
V V
V V
m
+

=
34
Modulation Index
m = 0 m = 0.5
m = 1
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fc
Bandwidth
2
mVc
2
mVc
V
C
fm B
fm fc fm fc B
2
) ( ) (
=
+ =

Bandwidth for AM signal,
fc-fm fc+fm

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Power Distributions
Total transmitted power, P
T

If R= 1,

USB LSB C T
P P P P + + =

2
m
1 P P
2
C T
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
fc-fm fc+fm

fc

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Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
It is a technique where it is transmitting both the
sidebands without the carrier (carrier is being
suppressed/cut)
Characteristics:
Power content less
Same bandwidth
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Single Side Band
(SSB)
Improved DSBSC
and standard AM,
which waste
power and
occupy large
bandwidth

SSB is a process
of transmitting
one of the
sidebands of the
standard AM by
suppressing the
carrier and one of
the sidebands
Saving power
Reduce BW by 50%
Increase efficiency,
increase SNR
Complex circuits for
frequency stability
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Vestigial Side Band (VSB)
VSB is mainly used in TV broadcasting for
their video transmissions.
TV signal consists of
Audio signal transmitted by FM
Video signal transmitted by VSB
A video signal consists a range of frequency
and fmax = 4.5 MHz.
If it transmitted using conventional AM, the
required BW is 9 MHz (BW=2fm). But
according to the standard, TV signal is
limited to 7 MHz only
So, to reduce the BW, a part of the LSB of
picture signal is not fully transmitted.

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Vestigial Side Band (VSB)
The frequency spectrum for the TV signal / VSB:

Lower
Video
Bands
Upper
Video
Bands
Total TV signal bandwidth = 7 MHz
Video
Carrier
Audio
Carrier
4.5 MHz
Upper
Audio
Bands
Lower
Audio
Bands
1.25 6.75 5.75 7.0 6.25 0
f (MHz)

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Modulator Circuits
R
1
R
2
R
3
Diode
C
L
Modulating
Signal
Output
Carrier
A
B
C
D
E
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Modulator Circuits
A. Modulating Signal
B. Carrier
C. Sum of carrier and
modulating signal
D. Diode current
E. AM output across
tuned circuit
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Demodulator

R
1
Diode
C
1
C
R
AM
Signal
A B
C
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Demodulator

A. AM signal
B. Current pulses
through diode
C. Demodulating signal
D. Modulating signal
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Frequency Modulation (FM)
Objectives:-
Recognize FM signal in the time domain, frequency
domain and trigonometric equation form
Calculate the percentage of modulation index
Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and
bandwidth of an FM signal by Carsonss Rule and
Bessel Function Table
Calculate the power related in FM signal
Understand the modulator and demodulator of FM
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Introduction
FM is the process of varying the frequency of a
carrier wave in proportion to a modulating signal.
The amplitude of the carrier is kept constant while its
frequency is varied by the amplitude of the
modulating signal.
In all types of modulation, the carrier wave is varied
by the AMPLITUDE of the modulating signal.
FM signal does not have an envelope, therefore the
FM receiver does not have to respond to amplitude
variations it can ignore noise to some extent.

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Frequency Modulation
48
Frequency Modulation
The importance features about FM waveforms
are:
The frequency varies
The rate of change of carrier frequency changes is
the same as the frequency of the information signal
The amount of carrier frequency changes is
proportional to the amplitude of the information
signal
The amplitude is constant
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Carrier Signal
Sinusoidal wave

Modulating Signal/Base band
Information signal

Modulated Wave
Higher frequency signal which is being modulated

Where

t f V v
c c c
t 2 sin =
t f V v
m m m
t 2 sin =
Frequency Modulation
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
t | t + =
m
f
KVm
t
|
2
=
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Frequency Modulation
Time Domain

Frequency Domain
51
FM Modulator
52
FM Modulator
t f V v
m m m
t 2 sin =
t f V v
c c c
t 2 sin =

Modulator

Information Signal
Carrier Signal
Output
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
t | t + =
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Frequency
Carrier Frequency
As in FM system, carrier frequency in FM systems
must be higher than the information signal frequency.
Maximum Frequency

Minimum Frequency

Carrier Swing

f fc f A =
min
f fc f
x
ma
A + =
f f
cs
A =2
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Modulation Index
Modulation Index, m @
Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is
modulated.
It is an expression of the amount of power in the
sidebands.
Modulation level ranges = 0
Where
f = fd = frequency deviation
fm = modulating frequency
Vm = amplitude of modulating signal

fm
f
m
A
=

t 2
kVm
f = A
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Modulation Index
= 1
= 5

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Modulation Index
= 25
57
Modulation Index
58
Bandwidth

Using Bessel Function, the bandwidth for
FM signal,

n = number of pairs of the significant sidebands
fm = the frequency the modulating signal

nfm BW 2 =
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Bandwidth
Using Carsons Rule, to estimate the
bandwidth for an FM signal transmission.

f = peak frequency deviation
f
m(max)
= highest modulating signal frequency

) ( 2
(max) m
f f BW + A =
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Power Distributions
FM transmitted power, P
FM

where

2R
P

R
V
P
2
C
2
rms
FM
= =
2
V
V
rms
=
Narrowband FM and Wideband FM
Narrowband FM has only a single pair of significant
sidebands. The value of modulation index <1.

Wideband FM has a large number (theoretically
infinite) number of sidebands. The value of
modulation index >=1.

Generation of Narrowband FM (NBFM)

The modulator splits the carrier into two paths. One path is
direct. The other path contains a -90 degree phase shift unit
and a product modulator. The difference between the signals
in the two paths produces the NBFM signal.
INTEGRATOR
-90 PHASE
SHIFTER
PRODUCT
MODULATOR

_
+
NBFM
WAVE
CARRIER
WAVE
MODULATING
WAVE
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
t | t + =
) 2 sin( ) 2 sin( ) 2 ( cos
, 1
t f t f V t f V v
have we then If
m c c c c NBFM
t t | t
|
=
<
Frequency Modulators
A frequency modulator is a circuit that varies carrier
frequency in accordance with the modulating signal.

There are two types of frequency modulator circuits.

(1) Direct FM: Carrier frequency is directly varied by the
message through voltage-controlled oscillator.
Eg: Varactor diode modulator.

(2) Indirect FM: Generate NBFM first, then NBFM is
frequency multiplied for targeted f.
Eg: Armstrong modulator
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FM Varactor Modulator
The Operation of the Varactor Modulator

The info signal is applied to the base of the input
transistor and appears amplified and inverted at the
collector.

This low freq signal passes through the RF choke
(L1) and is applied across the varactor diode.

Varactor diode behaves as voltage controlled
capacitor.

When low reverse biased voltage is applied, more
capacitance is generated and thus decrease the
frequency.

When high reverse biased voltage is applied,
less capacitance is generated and thus increase
the frequency.

The varactor diode changes its capacitance in
sympathy with the info signal and therefore
changes the total value of the capacitance in the
tuned circuit.

The changing value of capacitance causes the
oscillator freq to increase and decrease under
the control of the information signal.

The output is therefore an FM signal.

Armstrong of indrect FM generation
In this method the message signal is first
subjected to NBFM modulator using a crystal-
controlled oscillator for generating carrier.

Crystal control provides frequency stability.

The NBFM wave is next multiplied in frequency by
using a frequency multiplier so as to produce the
desired wideband FM.

Frequency Demodulator
The FM demodulating circuits used to recover
the original modulating signal.

Any circuit that will convert a frequency
variation in the carrier back into a proportional
voltage variation can be used to demodulate or
detect FM signals.

A popular method used for FM demodulation
is the Frequency discriminator.

Frequency discriminator
Output of the Frequency discriminator
The Frequency discriminator circuit consists of
the slope ciruit followed by the envelope
detector.

The slope circuit converts the instantaneous
frequency variations of the FM input signal to
instantaneous amplitude variations.

These amplitude variations are rectified by the
envelope detector to provide a DC output
voltage which varies in amplitude and polarity
with the input signal frequency.

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FM vs AM:
Better noise
immunity
Rejection of
interfering signals
because of capture
effect
Better transmitter
efficiency
Excessive use of
spectrum
More complex and
costly circuits

Review of Probability
Sample Spacethe space of all possible outcomes ()
Eventa collection of outcomessubset of
Probabilitya measure assigned to the events of a
sample space with the following properties
1. for all event A in S
2.
3. If A and B are mutually exclusive,

Theorem:

The Conditional probability of an event A given the
occurrence of event B is

0 > ) (A P
1 ) ( = S P
) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P + =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( B A P B P A P B A P + =

) (
) (
) | (
B P
B A P
B A P

=
Two events A and B are independent if

Random Variables
A rule which assigns a numerical value to
each possible outcomes of a chance
experiment.
If the experiment is flipping a coin. Then a
random variable X can be defined as :
) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P =
S
1
H X(S
1
)=1
S
2
T X(S
2
)=-1
Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)

Properties of CDF
1.
2.
3.

Probability Density Function (PDF)

Properties of PDF , ,
) ( x F
X
} { Prob x X s
0 ) ( , 1 ) ( , 1 ) ( 0 = = s s
X X X
F F x F
). ( ) ( lim ) (
0
0
i.e. right, from continuous is x F x F x F
X X
x x
X
=
+

## . of function ing nondecreas a is ) ( x x F

X
) ( x f
X dt t f x F
dx
x dF
x
X X
X
}

= ) ( ) (
) (
0 ) ( > x f
X
1 ) ( =
}

dx x f
X
df x f x F x F x X x P
x
x
X X X
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2 2 1 }
= = s <
Random Processes: A random process is
a mapping from the sample space to an
ensemble of time functions.
X
1
(t)

X
2
(t)

X
N
(t)
Sample function
t
The totality of all sample
functions is called
an ensemble
For a specific time
X(tk) is a random variable
A random process X(t) is a Gaussian process if
for all n and for all (t
1
t
2
... t
n
), the sequence of
random variables { X(t
1
), X(t
2
)... X(t
n
) } has a
jointly Gaussian density function.

Central limit theorem
The sum of a large number of independent
and identically distributed(i.i.d) random
variables getting closer to Gaussian
distribution.

Thermal noise can be closely modeled by
Gaussian process.

Gaussian process
Property 1
For Gaussian process, knowledge of the
mean(m) and covariance(C) provides a
complete statistical description of process.

Property 2
If a Gaussian process X(t) is passed through
a LTI system, the output of the system is also
a Gaussian process. The effect of the system
on X(t) is simply reflected by the change in
mean(m) and covariance(C) of X(t).

Noise Theory
Shot noise: It results from the shot effect in the
amplifying devices and active device. It is
caused by random variation in the arrival of
electrons (or holes) at the output of the devices.

For diode, the rms shot noise current is given by:
system of bandwidth
current diode direct i
electron of charge e
noise shot rms i
2ei i
f
p
n
f p n
=
=
=
=
=
Thermal noise is the electrical noise arising from
the random motion of electrons in a conductor.
The noise power generated by a resistor is given
by:

system of bandwidth
e temperatur absolute T
constant s Boltzmann' k
power noise P
kT P
f
n
f n
=
=
=
=
=
White noise: It is the idealized form of noise,
whose spectrum is independent of the
operating frequency. The power spectral
density of white noise w(t) is S
w
(f)=N
0
/2. The
autocorrelation R
w
(t) of white noise is an
impulse as shown below.

S
w
(f)
R
w
(t)
) (t o
2
N
0
2
0
N
f
t
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Narrow band noise (Ideal case)

w(t) n(t)
filtered noise is narrow-band noise
n(t) = n
I
(t)cos(2tf
C
t) - n
Q
(t)sin(2tf
C
t)
where n
I
(t) is inphase, n
Q
filtered signal x(t)
x(t) = s(t) + n(t)
- Average Noise Power = N
0
B
T

BPF
Noise Figure
Consider a signal source. The signal to noise
ratio (SNR) available from the source is given by:

Consider that the source is connected to an
amplifier with gain G. Since all amplifiers
contribute noise, the available output SNR will be
less than the SNR of the source.

system of bandwidth
e temperatur absolute T
constant s Boltzmann' k
source the from power signal P
/kT P (S/N)
f
si
f si in
=
=
=
=
=
The noise power at the output of the amplifier will
be

The noise factor F is defined as :

When noise factor is expressed in decibels, it is
called noise figure.
Noise figure = (F) dB = 10logF

f
no
si
no
f
si
GkT
P

P
P
kT
P
F
output at ratio power S/N available
input at ratio power S/N available
F
o o
= =
=
G
f no
GkT P o =
The noise power expressed in terms of a
temperature is callled Noise Temperature.

If the amplifier noise is P
na
, then the equivalent
noise temperature T
e
of the amplifier is given by
the equation k / P Te
f na
o =
0
0 f f 0 f na
f 0 na
1)T - (F Te
1)T - (F k / 1)kT - (F k / P Te
as written be can re temperatu noise The
1)kT - (F P Since
=
= = =
=
o o o
o
RF section: It generally consists of a pre-selector
and an amplifier stage. The pre-selector is a
center frequency that is tuned to the desired
carrier frequency. The other functions of the RF
section are detecting, band limiting and

Mixer/converter section: It is the stage of down-
converts the received RF frequencies to
intermediate frequencies (IF) which are simply
frequencies that fall somewhere between the RF
and information frequencies, hence the name
intermediate. This section also includes a local
oscillator (LO).
IF Section: IF or intermediate frequency section
is the stage where its primary functions are
amplification and selectivity.

AM detector Section: AM detector section is the
stage that demodulates the AM wave and
converts it to the original
information signal.

Audio section: Audio section is the stage that
amplifies the recovered information.
88
Performance of CW Modulation
Systems
Introduction
- Receiver Noise (Channel Noise) :
1. RX Model

S
w
(f)
R
w
(t)
) (t o
2
N
0
2
N
0
f
t
N0 = KTe where K = Boltzmanns constant
Te = equivalent noise Temp.
Average noise power per unit bandwidth

SNR
The signal x(t) available for demodulation is defined by

The output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
O
is defined as the
ratio of the average power of the demodulated message
signal to the average power of the noise, both measured
The channel signal-to-noise ratio, (SNR)
C
is defined as the
ratio of the average power of the modulated signal to the
average power of the channel noise in the message
bandwidth, both measure at the receiver input.
For the purpose of comparing different CW modulation
systems, we normalize the receiver performance by
dividing (SNR)O by (SNR)C. This ratio is called figure of
merit for the receiver and is defined as

) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + =
C
O
SNR
SNR
) (
) (
merit of Figure =
90
Lets consider the case of DSB-SC. The expression for the
modulated signal is given as
The carrier wave is statistically independent of the message
signal. The average power of DSB-SC modulated
component of s(t) is
+
BPF
x(t)
Product
modulator
y(t)
DSB-SC
signal s(t)
Noise
w(t)
LPF
v(t)
Local
Oscillator
cos(w
c
t)
Coherent
detector
) ( ) 2 cos( ) ( t m t f A t s
c C
t =
2
2
m c
P A
With a noise PSD of N
0
/2 the average noise power in the
message bandwidth W equals WN
0
(baseband
scenario).

Pm is the power of the message. Hence we have

Finding an expression for (SNR)
O
, we have

0
2
C
2
(SNR)
WN
P A
m c
=
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + =
( ) ( ) ( ) t f t n t f t n t m t f A
c Q c I c c
t t t 2 sin ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( 2 cos + =
( )
| | ( ) ( ) t f t n t f t n t m A t n t m
A
t f t x t v
c Q c I c I
c
c
t t
t
4 sin ) (
2
1
4 cos ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
2 cos ) ( ) (
+ + + =
=
Output of the LPF is

The power of the signal component at the
receiver output is . The average power of
the filtered noise is 2WN
0
.

The average noise power at the receiver output
is

Hence we have,

) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) ( t n t m A t y
I c
+ =
4 /
2
m
P A
C

s s + +
= =
elsewhere
W f W f f S f f S
f S f S
c N c N
N N
Q I
, 0
), ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
WN WN =
|
.
|

\
|
0
2
0
2
2 2 /
4 /
WN
P A
WN
P A
(SNR)
m c m c
O,DSB-SC
= =
1
) (
) (
merit of Figure = =
C
O
SNR
SNR
Noise in AM receiver using envelope detection
The expression for AM signal is given as

where it is assumed that

The average power of the carrier in the AM signal s(t) is
The average power of the information bearing component
is
Average power of the full AM signal s(t) is

| | ( ) t f t m k A t s
c a c
t 2 cos ) ( 1 ) ( + =
1 ) ( < t m k
a
+
BPF
x(t)
Envelope
Detector
y(t)
AM signal
s(t)
Noise
w(t)
. 2 /
2
C
A
( ) t f t m k A
c a c
t 2 cos ) (
2 /
2 2
m a C
P k A
2 / ) 1 (
2 2
m a C
P k A +
Hence, the channel signal to noise ratio for AM is

Finding an expression for (SNR)
O
, we have

| |
0
2 2
,
2
1
) (
WN
P k A
SNR
m a C
AM C
+
=
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t m k A t y
I a C
+ ~
0
2 2
,
2
) (
WN
P k A
SNR
m C
AM O
a
=
m
m
AM
C
O
P k
P k
SNR
SNR
Merit of Figure
a
a
2
2
1 ) (
) (
+
=
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + =
| | ) 2 sin( ) ( ) 2 cos( ) ( ) ( ) ( t f t n t f t n t m k A A t x
c Q c I a C C
t t + + =
) ( of envelope ) ( t x t y =
Threshold Effect
When carrier-to-noise ratio is small as compared
to unity the noise term dominates the
performance of the envelope detector and is
completely different. Representing the
narrowband noise n(t) in terms of its envelope and
phase, we have
The phasor diagram for x(t) = s(t) + n(t) becomes

| | ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( t t f t r t n
c
+ + = t
R
e
s
u
lt
a
n
t

y
(
t
)
r(t)
) (t +
|
|
)
(
1
t
m
k
A
a
C
+
| | | | ) ( cos ) ( 1 t t m k A
a C
+ +
|
|
|
|
)
(
s
i
n
)
(
1
t
t
m
k
A
a
C
+
+
The noise envelope is used as a reference here due to its
dominance. Here it is assumed that Ac is small as
compared to r(t). If we neglect the quadrature component
of the signal with respect to the noise we have

Hence, when carrier-to-noise ratio is small the detector
has no component that is strictly proportional to the
message signal m(t). Recalling that is uniformly
distributed over radians. Hence, it follows that we have a
complete loss of information at the detector output (as
expected value will be zero). This loss of information m(t)
at the output of the envelope detector is called the
threshold effect.

| | | | ) ( cos ) ( ) ( cos ) ( ) ( t t m k A t A t r t y
a C C
+ + + + ~
) (t +
Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis
FM results is an unacceptably low SNR at the high
frequency end of the message spectrum. To offset this
undesirable occurrence, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
technique is used.
Pre-emphasis consists in artificially boosting the spectral
components in the higher part of the message spectrum.
This is accomplished by passing message signal m(t) ,
through the pre-emphasis filter, denoted Hpe(f) . The pre-
emphasized signal is used to frequency modulate the carrier
at the transmitting end.
In the receiver, the inverse operation, de-emphasis, is
performed. This is accomplished by passing the
discriminator output through a filter, called the de-emphasis
filter, denoted Hde(f ) .

98
Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM

P.S.D. of noise at FM Rx output

P.S.D. of typical message signal

otherwise 0
2
f
A
f N
(f) S
output tor discrimina the at (t) n noise of P.S.D
W f W - ,
) (
1
) (
2
C
2
0
Nd
d

s
=
s s =
T
pe
de
B
f H
f H
Information theory
What is information theory ?
Information theory is needed to enable the
communication system to carry information
(signals) from sender to receiver over a
communication channel
it deals with mathematical modelling and analysis
of a communication system
signal compression and data transfer rate.
Those answers can be found and solved by
entropy and channel capacity

Information is a measure of uncertainty. The less
is the probability of occurrence of a certain
message, the higher is the information.

Since the information is closely associated with
the uncertainty of the occurrence of a particular
symbol, When the symbol occurs the information
associated with its occurrence is defined as:

k'. ' symbol by carried n informatio the is I and
k' ' symbol of occurrence of y probabilit the is P where
) log(P - )
P
1
( log I
k
k
k
k
k
= =
Entropy
Entropy is defined in terms of probabilistic
behaviour of a source of information
In information theory the source output
are discrete random variables that have a
certain fixed finite alphabet with certain
probabilities
Entropy is an average information content for
the given source symbol. (bits/message)

=
=
1
0
2
)
1
( log
K
k
k
k
p
p H
Rate of information:

If a source generates at a rate of r
messages per second, the rate of
information R is defined as the average
number of bits of information per second.

H is the average number of bits of
information per message. Hence
R = rH bits/sec
Source Coding
Source coding (a.k.a lossless data
compression) means that we will remove
redundant information from the signal prior
the transmission.

Basically this is achieved by assigning short
descriptions to the most frequent outcomes
of the source output and vice versa.

The common source-coding schemes are
prefix coding, huffman coding, lempel-ziv
coding.
Source Coding Theorem
Source coding theorem states that the output of
any information source having entropy H units per
symbol can be encoded into an alphabet having N
symbols in such a way that the source symbols
are represented by code words having a weighted
average length not less than H/logN.

Hence source coding theorem says that encoding
of messages from a source with entropy H can be
done, bounded by the fundamental information
theoretic limitation that the Minimum average
number of symbols/message is H/logN.
Source coding example
Prefix coding has an important
feature that it is always uniquely
decodable and it also satisfies Kraft-
McMillan (see formula 10.22 p. 624)
inequality term
Prefix codes can also be referred to
as instantaneous codes, meaning
that the decoding process is achieved
immediately
Shannon-Fano Coding: In ShannonFano
coding, the symbols are arranged in order from
most probable to least probable, and then
divided into two sets whose total probabilities
are as close as possible to being equal. All
symbols then have the first digits of their codes
assigned; symbols in the first set receive "0" and
symbols in the second set receive "1".

As long as any sets with more than one member
remain, the same process is repeated on those
sets, to determine successive digits of their
codes. When a set has been reduced to one
symbol, of course, this means the symbol's code
is complete and will not form the prefix of any
other symbol's code.
Huffman Coding: Create a list for the symbols, in
decreasing order of probability. The symbols with
the lowest probability are assigned a 0 and a 1.

These two symbols are combined into a new
symbol with the probability equal to the sum of
their individual probabilities. The new symbol is
placed in the list as per its probability value.

The procedure is repeated until we are left with 2
symbols only for which 0 and 1 are assigned.

Huffman code is the bit sequence obtained by
working backwards and tracking sequence of 0s
and 1s assigned to that symbol and its
successors.
Lempel-Ziv Coding: A drawback of Huffman
code is that knowledge of probability model of
source is needed. Lempel-Ziv coding is used to
overcome this drawback.

while Huffmans algorithm encodes blocks of
fixed size into binary sequences of variable
length, Lempel-Ziv encodes blocks of varying
length into blocks of fixed size.
Lempel-Ziv coding is performed by parsing the
source data into segments that are the shortest
subsequences not encountered before.
Mutual Information

Consider a communication system with a source of entropy
H(X). The entropy on the receiver side be H(Y).

H(X|Y) and H(Y|X) are the conditional entropies, and H(X,Y)
is the joint entropy of X and Y.

Then the Mutual information between the source X and the
receiver Y can be expressed as:
I(X,Y) = H(X) - H(X|Y)

H(X) is the uncertainty of source X and H(X/Y) is the
uncertainty of X given Y. Hence the quantity H(X) - H(X|Y)
represents the reduction in uncertainty of X given the
knowledge of Y. Hence I(X,Y) is termed mutual information.

Source
X
Channel
Y
Channel Capacity
Capacity in the channel is defined as a
intrinsic ability of a channel to convey
information.

Using mutual information the channel
capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is
the maximum average mutual information in
any single use of channel over all possible
probability distributions.

Thus Channel capacity C=max( I(X,Y) ).
Shannons Channel Coding theorem

The Shannon theorem states that given a noisy channel
with channel capacity C and information transmitted at a
rate R, then if R < C there exist codes that allow the
small. This means that theoretically, it is possible to transmit
information nearly without error at any rate below a limiting
rate, C.

The converse is also important. If R > C, an arbitrarily small
probability of error is not achievable. All codes will have a
probability of error greater than a certain positive minimal
level, and this level increases as the rate increases. So,
information cannot be guaranteed to be transmitted reliably
across a channel at rates beyond the channel capacity.
Shannon-Hartley theorem or Information
Capacity Theorem

An application of the channel capacity concept to
an additive white Gaussian noise channel with B
Hz bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio S/N is the
Information Capacity Theorem.

It states that for a band-limited Gaussian channel
operating in the presence of additive Gaussian
noise, the channel capacity is given by
C = B log
2
(1 + S/N)
where C is the capacity in bits per second, B is the
bandwidth of the channel in Hertz, and S/N is the
signal-to-noise ratio.

As the bandwidth of the channel increases, it
is possible to make faster changes in the
information signal, thereby increasing the
information rate.
However, as B , the channel capacity
does not become infinite since, with an
increase in bandwidth, the noise power also
increases.
As S/N increases, one can increase the
information rate while still preventing errors
due to noise.
For no noise, S/N and an infinite
information rate is possible irrespective of
bandwidth.

Implications of the Information Capacity
Theorem
Rate distortion theory
Rate distortion theory is the branch of information
theory addressing the problem of determining the
minimal amount of entropy or information that
should be communicated over a channel such
that the source can be reconstructed at the

Rate distortion theory can be used for the given
below situations:
1. Source coding in which the coding alphabet
cannot exactly represent the source information.
2. when the information is to be transmitted at a
rate greater than channel capacity.
Lower the bit rate R by allowing some
acceptable distortion D of the signal
Rate Distortion Function:
The functions that relate the rate and
distortion are found as the solution of the
following minimization problem.

In the above equation, I(X,Y) is the Mutual
information.
Rate distortion function for Gaussian
memory-less source
If Px(X) is Gaussian, variance is o
2
and if
we assume that successive samples of the
signal x are stochastically independent, we
find the following analytical expression for
the rate distortion function.
A Plot of the Rate distortion function for
Gaussian source
Lossy Source Coding
Lossy source coding is the representation of the
source in digital form with as few bits as possible
while maintaining an acceptable loss of
information.

In lossy source coding, the source output is
encoded at a rate less than the source entropy.

Hence there is reduction in the information content
of the source.

Eg: It is not possible to digitally encode an analog
signal with a finite number of bits without producing
some distortion.