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Baking Soda Lab (1)

# Baking Soda Lab (1)

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chemistry lab from sophmore honors chemistry
chemistry lab from sophmore honors chemistry

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03/29/2014

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February 12, 2008

Decomposition of Baking Soda Lab
Purpose: To determine which reaction occurred from the decomposition of baking soda. Data Table: Mass of crucible (grams) 10.630 Mass of crucible + NaHCO3 (grams) 12.029 Mass of crucible decomposition products (grams) 11.512

Calculations: 1. Mass of sodium bicarbonate and crucible – Mass of crucible = Mass of NaHCO3 12.029 grams – 10.630 grams = 1.399 grams 2. Mass of crucible and decomposition products – Mass of crucible = Mass of solid 11.512 grams- 10.630 = .882 grams 3. NaHCO3(s) → CO2(g) + NaOH(s) 2NaHCO3(s) → CO2(g) + H2O(g) + Na2CO3(s) 2NaHCO3(s) → 2CO2(g) + H2O(g) + Na2O (s)

4. Molar Mass of NaHCO3: Na- 23 grams Mass of NaHCO3/Molar Mass of NaHCO3= Moles of NaHCO3 H- 1 grams 1.399 grams/84 grams = .01665 moles of NaHCO3 C- 12 grams O- 16*3 grams 84 grams 5. NaHCO3(s) → CO2(g) + NaOH(s) 1 mole of NaHCO3 .01665 moles of NaHCO3
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1 mole of NaOH x moles of NaOH x = .01665 moles of NaOH Na- 23 Moles of NaOH*Molar Mass of NaOH= Grams of NaOH H- 1 .01665 moles*40 = .666 grams of NaOH O- 16 40 2NaHCO3(s) → CO2(g) + H2O(g) + Na2CO3(s) 2 moles of NaHCO3 .01665 moles of NaHCO3
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1 mole of Na2CO3 x moles of Na2CO3 2x = .01665 x = .008325 moles of Na2CO3

05098% 3. There are many sources of error in question #2 that occurred. They are both very similar because the mass of Na2CO3 is .88245 grams while the experimental mass is . if tare wasn’t pressed before.01665 moles of NaHCO3 ______________________________________ = ___________________________ 1 mole of Na2O x moles of Na2O 2x = . Percent Error = (theoretical value – actual value)/theoretical value * 100 (.23*2 C. Also. when we heated the sodium bicarbonate.88245 . That is because that reaction is the one that has sodium carbonate as a product. The experimental mass is . it might not have been heated for enough time.12 O.88254 * 100 .882 grams and the calculated mass that is closest to that is the calculated mass of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3). and that could have changed the total mass of the crucible. and caused the products not to be fully decomposed.008325 moles*106 = .01665 x = .16 62 Moles of Na2O*Molar Mass of Na2O= Grams of Na2O .88245 grams of Na2CO3 2NaHCO3(s) → 2CO2(g) + H2O(g) + Na2O (s) 2 moles of NaHCO3 . One source is that when we weighed the crucible by itself.001 grams.882)/.Na.882 grams.16*3 106 Moles of Na2CO3*Molar Mass of Na2CO3= Grams of Na2CO3 . 2. I think that the reaction that is occurring is 2NaHCO3(s) → CO2(g) + H2O(g) + Na2CO3(s).008325 moles of Na2O Na. which is the compound that has the closest mass to the experimental mass.23*2 O. it could have added an extra .51615 grams of Na2O Conclusion/Analysis Questions: 1..008325 moles*62 = . And that could’ve .

and also to heat the substance at the right amount of time. The theoretical value tells us the substance in the reactions which has the closest value to the actual value of the mass. . Calculation of product mass with ideal conditions in mind would be the theoretical yield.changed the mass of the crucible and the decomposed products. Theoretical yield is what you would theoretically get as a mass for a specific reaction. some other factors that could’ve affected it are temperature.99949 *100 = 99. And percent yield is a quantity that describes this less-than-ideal yield.882/.95% 5. Percent Yield = Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield *100 (. of the reaction (. to get the mass of the solid (actual yield). Lastly.88245) * 100 .88245 grams of Na2CO3. which was . percent yield tells us the relationship between the actual value and the theoretical value. and it is a way on seeing how successful the experiment is. I obtained the theoretical yield by seeing which substance from the three reactions had the closest mass to the mass of the solid. The actual value tells us what the actual amount of mass in the experiment is. and physical state.882 grams). which could have changed the mass of the solid. I calculated the actual yield by just subtracting the mass of the crucible from the mass of crucible and decomposition products. the container. Some things you could do to lessen the error. in the lab. is to always make sure that you press tare before putting something to weigh on the balance scale. and it is a way of measuring how successful a reaction has been. Also. 4. Actual yield is what you actually got in the experiment as the mass of the products formed.

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