Applications of nonwoven in Medical Textile

Introduction: The term medical textile literally means textile used for medical purposes. Textile apart from being a vital part human life is long since been used in medical field, though the term has been coined very recently. Textile materials have wide range properties such as flexibility, elasticity, strength etc. Textiles used for medical purposes should be nonallergic, noncarcenogenic, non-toxic, and antistatic in nature, optimum fatigue endurance, biocompatibility, flame proof, dyes must be non-irritant. An important and growing part of the textile industry is the medical and related health care and hygiene sectors. The extent of the growth is due to the constant improvements and innovations in both textile technology and medical procedures. They are used in a number of separate and specialized applications, which can be categorized as follows:

In the present scenario, Medical textile market is totally saturated with nonwoven products today. Nonwovens, because of their easily modifiable properties and excellent performance have become indispensable in this field. Nonwovens are developed to impart special properties to product. In order to be competitive today, nonwovens producers must show high productivity at low cost. At the same time, the market demands higher quality. In the medical and sanitary domain the use of appropriate fibers is an important condition for obtaining the required properties. The Medical Textiles includes vast range of applications viz. adhesive tapes, bandages, beddings, blankets, castings, diapers, dressings, eye pads, gauzes, protective clothing's, sutures, surgical covers, surgical clothing's, swabs, supports, sanitary products, hospital gowns

nasal strips. filter media. those are required to undergo stringent testing and hygienic criteria. artificial ligaments. dressings. etc. bed linen and blankets. artificial skins etc. lint wadding etc. surgical gowns. diapers. Categories of medical textiles Based on applications the medical textile can be broadly categorised as follows:  Personal health care/hygienic products: Bedding. gauge. wipes surgical curves.  Non-implantable material or medical dressings & auxiliaries: Wound dressing. bandage. ligaments. surgical hosiery.  Personal health care/hygienic products: Bedding. Cloths. gauge. apparel for patients and staff. gowns. diapers. took place in this area. shoe covers. liver & lungs. cloths. and artificial joints  Extra corporal devices: Artificial kidneys. bandage. and artificial joints. vascular grafts. Wound care was and still is the primary use for medical and surgical nonwovens. drug delivery devices. clothing. clothing. sponges. Since the medical textile applications are directly related to the life of human being. towels. It also finds application in extra-corporeal devices like artificial kidney.  Extra corporal devices: Artificial kidneys. Baby diapers. The article will discuss the development in Medical Textiles field. liver & lungs etc. pillows. which will continue to help to improve the life of human being considerably with the aid of non-woven textiles. Range of natural fibers and biodegradable polymers with non-biodegradable synthetic polymers is being utilized for developing new products in medical textiles. vascular grafts. disposable underwear. artificial ligaments. surgical gowns. plasters. wipes surgical curves. face masks.etc. sutures. blood vessels. burn dressings.  Implantable materials: sutures. etc. Medical Textiles: Based on applications the medical textile can be broadly categorized as follows.  Non-implantable material or medical dressings & auxiliaries: wound dressing. tissue scaffolds. surgical hosiery. The nonwovens are used for the given applications in different forms.  Implantable materials: Sutures. heart valves. lint wadding. plasters. vascular grafts. The nonwovens are used for the given applications in different forms. etc. which led to innovative use of variety of fibers and lot of developments. etc. Nonwovens find applications in a variety of products viz. absorbent pads. heart & mechanical lung. . incontinence products. liver. wraps etc.

Suspensory and reinforcing surgical meshes are used in plastic surgery for repairing defects of the abdominal wall. Generally the following boding processes are used for nonwovens made of pulp fibres: thermal bonding. for duplications as found in human body. binder bonding. etc). Filament texturised yarns used nowadays. .made fibers designed for treatment of bums and different dermatological defects. Surgical treatments of hernia in Urology etc… Hydrophobic sanavel felt dressings are high porosity textiles made from man. artificial ligaments. spunlace bonding. There are of many shapes and sizes. combined bonding. is forming on the inner walls. Implantable Medical Textiles: The materials are used in effecting repair to the body whether it is wound closure (sutures) or replacements Surgery like vascular grafts. Carbon fiber is a popular material for tissue repair. which are coated to prevent leakage of blood while tissue.

carded and cleaned cotton fabrics. Nonwoven with a binder content of 60% and made from cellulose fabrics are being used. They are different types. They are made form co-polymer of two amino acids.  Primary wound dressings: Placed next to the wound surface.  Absorbent: Similar to wound pads used in surgery. They are employed as covering. Manufactured from well-bleached. Non – implantable materials: These materials are used for external applications on the body and may or may contact with skin. protective and supports for injured or diseased part. . absorbent.

It is used with other pads to conform them to the injury. . Ex: Plaster of Paris Bandage.  Protective eye paid: Scientifically shaped 2 ¾” x2 ¾ x to lit over the eye used in outpatient clinic and industrial medical department. Bandages: These are narrow cotton or linen. either woven or knitted. plain weave fabric having a coating of adhesive paste. plain weave cloth of low texture. orthopaedic bandage.  Adhesive tapes: It is narrow. crepe Bandage.

. about the size of a two – cell flashlight.  Artificial liver: Made with hollow viscose to separate and dispose patients plasma and supply fresh plasma. Extra corporeal devices: Extra corporal devices are mechanical organs that are used for blood purification and include the artificial kidney. Made with hollow hair sized cellulose fibres or hollow polyester fibre slightly latest than capillary vessels.  Artificial heart: An 8 – ounce plastic pump lined with dacom velour to reduce damage to blood and is a chambered apparatus about the size of a human heart. the artificial liver and the mechanical lung. Fabric which is used to remove waste products from patient‟s blood.  Artificial kidney: Tiny instrument. Silastic backing makes the fabric imperious to emerging gas that is not desirable in the blood.

but they are typically used either in the operation theatre or in the hospital wards for hygiene. care and safety of the staff and patients. Mechanical lung: Made with hollow polypropylene fibre or a hollow silicone membrane.  Health care textiles An important area of the textiles is the health care and hygiene sector among other medical applications. The range of products available for health care and hygiene is vast. . Used to remove carbon-di-oxide from patient‟s blood and supply fresh oxygen.

Rayon now appears relegated to little more than a niche in a global fiber market driven by the ready availability of cheap fossil fuels and the demand for commodity textiles and nonwovens.and polyurethanederived nonwovens can be effectively manipulated through control of the manufacturing processes. particularly compliance (extension per unit pressure or stress). Polyester. synthetics have grown to dominate the market. comfort. abrasion resistance etc  Various parameters can be controlled easily like Porosity. Viscose. water vapor transmission and air permeability. Weight of fabric and Thickness  Nonwovens are easy to sterilize  Various manufacturing technique options according to applications  Economical manufacturing process etc. Nonwoven production . Wood fluff & Polyamide Chitin Layocell Developments in medical nonwoven Advanced cellulosic nonwovens: Previously regenerated cellulosic fibers enjoyed half century of rapid expansion.t. Fibers used in manufacturing of Nonwovens for medical applications  Cotton.  Better performance w.r.Application of non woven in medical The properties of non-woven fabrics are determined by those of the constituent polymer or fiber and by the bonding process. Since then. can expand to fill the needle hole made in a tissueallowing for tissue in growth in applications such as arterial and patch grafts. these materials compress easily and then expand-a suture.  Increased protection for user  better physical properties like tensile. Hence by controlling the various parameter of non-woven they can utilize effectively in different applications of medical. For instance.  Excellent barrier properties  Superior efficiency  Less potential for cross contamination. Polyurethane-based nonwovens produce a product that resembles collagen us material in both structure and mechanical properties. tear resistance. thickness and weight. Because of the expanded nature of their microstructure. Cotton. for example. Polypropylene. The porosity of both PTFE. for centuries the most important of all fibers is taking second place to the combined weight of synthetics and viscose rayon. expanded PTFE products can be formed to meet varying porosity requirements. Glass Fiber. Reasons due to which Nonwovens became famous in medical field: Nonwoven possesses following properties due to which they became famous in medical field.

while it has established itself in several profitable niches. The introduction of the more convenient one-piece diaper pushed mothers concerns about flush ability into the background. especially in those processes that allow its superior aesthetics shine through. but in 1974 coverstocks containing 50% polyester were market-tested for the first time. This time the mothers could express a preference for the patterned over the plain and a "unique" new product was born. However when treated with the standard wetstrength agents used in the paper industry it became strong enough in use and remained disintegratable in toilet turbulence. Unfortunately. Lyocell dope is no exception and many of the characteristics of the lyocell process make it a better basis for spun-laid nonwovens than the viscose process ever was. 'flush ability' was becoming a key development issue. Lyocell nonwovens: Lyocell makes excellent nonwovens. its premium positioning has so far prevented its use in mainstream disposables. the development of surface micro fiber on wet abrasion or in high-pressure entanglement. At this time. Spun-laid lyocell: Most fiber-forming polymer solutions can also be converted into continuous yarns. Latex-bonded 100% rayon continued as the leading cover on one-piece diapers. Technically speaking the challenges is not great. film sponges or indeed nonwoven fabrics. Its high strength is of little intrinsic value in disposables. In nonwoven industry the leading product are nearly always with those the lowest cost and justification of spun laid cellulosic on added value alone has failed several times already. Fibrillation. like needle punching and HE. Previously when disposable diapers came in two pieces (reusable plastic pant with rectangular absorbent pad). Since then the reducing cost of synthetics coupled with their easy conversion into binder-free spun-laid and melt-blown fabrics caused a steady decline in rayon's nonwoven market share. This first use of synthetic fibre in what had been regarded as an absorbent fibre 'fortress' appeared to be driven by nothing more than the concern over the escalating price of rayon.was founded on the ready availability of low-cost viscose rayon fibers and these continued to dominate the industry until the mid seventies. Its freedom from shrinkage and high wet stability allows higher area yields in HE processes and its high modulus prevents it from collapsing in the wet to the same extent as viscose rayon. adds an additional dimension for the nonwoven development. The ultimate in economy is arises from inherently low cost raw material converted on state of the art machinery at the largest possible . Consumers found they could not really spot the difference from the 100% rayon fibre versions so in a second test the latex bonded rayon/polyester blend was put through a point embossing calendar to give it a textured surface. New wet-laid nonwovens made from the specially developed self-bonding collapsed-tube rayon fibers had no wet-strength at all and dispersed easily in flowing water. but enables the nonwoven producer to reduce basis weight while meeting targets. latex bonded rayon was the cover of choice. The rectangular inserts with their heat-sealed latex-bonded rayon covers were too stable to be disposed of in the toilet even after tearing in half.

The fibres used have changed from almost exclusively biodegradable to most exclusively non-biodegradable despite concern for the environment among consumers becoming progressively stronger. Viscose rayon. cover stock for disposal diapers. metre) Depth of penetration (mm) Particulars 350 250 9 It is observed the thermal insulation value increases with increase in the nonwoven bulk density and needling density. requires the most costly grades of wood pulp. It also have potential to achieve very high level of scale in textile. These methods are not economical and for that purpose a special technique has been developed known as needle punching. in the disposables area at least. Application development foam substitution The objective for research is to develop a suitable nonwoven for the medical applications. a premium product of the timber industry. but its simple production process has the so far unexplored potential to use cheaper pulps. metre) Needling density (p/sq. appears to meet an unmet need. An expressed consumer preference for “environmentally friendly” products. and biodegradable products are non-existent. environmentally-sensitive market. Air permeability value reduces as there is increase in the nonwoven bulk density. New development in biodegradable nonwovens Over the last 30 years the nonwovens industry fibre usage has not only grown by a factor of ten. In fact in the largest and most potentially. . The nonwoven industry enjoys the economies of (say) polypropylene because PP is a byproduct of the world's largest industry. energy. How the nonwovens are manufactured? Various techniques are used for manufacturing of nonwovens but some of the techniques that are used specially for the medical applications point of view are as follows: Needle punched nonwoven blankets Traditionally woven blankets where used in the Far East and Middle East countries. Lyocell is currently similar. This process consists of three main stages:  Predatory process  Web formation  Needling the fibres web The various particulars areas as follows: Variables Fabric weight (g/sq.scale. and hence the economies of scale that may ultimately interest the major nonwoven converters.

as the layering carriage reduces its speed during reversal and is slowed down to zero so that it leads to accumulation of fibres in that area. which are used for implantation purpose effectively. The optimum random effect is obtained when original panel is electrified to 2kv between cylinder and doffer. The research indicates that the best panel shape is the circular holes and is positioned between the cylinder and doffer. Spunbonding is used when more strong webs are needed. Manufacturing processes for medical nonwovens Web Formation: The most popular techniques for medical nonwovens are spunbonding. This process becomes very useful: i) To maintain the uniformity of web ii) Iin manufacturing hybrid and composite products. the card web enters the lappers with constant speed. the layering carriage has to perform an oscillating movement. Spunbonded webs are strong in both machine direction (MD) and cross direction (CD).3 mm – 25 mm & 6. They are soft. ie.0 dtex max iii)Fibres are dispersed and suspended in water at 0.05 % concentration Cross-lapped nonwovens Cross-lapped nonwoven differs in many ways from other production process for nonwovens and the biggest advantage of this development is the flexibility regarding product and weight. Wet-laid nonwovens i) "Borrowed” technology from the paper industry ii)Fibres: 0. meltblowing and their composites (SMS) in specific end uses. batt of several layers are being formed. or the panel with the circular holes is electrified with 20kv and placed over conveyor belts. Needle loom for nonwoven In recent years development has taken place for manufacturing all types of needle loom of nonwoven having the following advantagesI) The linger needle path results in better fibre orientation and fibre entanglement than the conventional needle machine II) Superior web properties can be obtained with fewer needle preparation III)It greatly enhances the construction of composites and hybrid products which are very useful for medical applications.Web forming process development Forming a random nonwoven webs with the static method This development has taken place for random fibre arrangements of the roller card in nonwoven processed by different voltages and electro panel shapes. Here the delivery belt is doubled. porous . In this development it has been found that by changing shape of electrode panel can provide better random effects when the same voltage is used.

head wears. swabs and dressings. bed sheets etc. Hydroentangling as the fastest growing bonding technique is used explicitly in medical nonwovens for that textile-like hand and feel that's desirable in products like gauzes. industrial wipes and others. dressings and sutures. gowns. The different types of finishes used in medical nonwovens are:  Soil Release Agents: for bed linens. pillows. surgical gowns. Nonwovens in disposable applications Disposable literally means designed for or capable of being thrown away after being used or used up. apparel. They are bound by “use and throw” concept. gowns and apparel which are designed for multiple usages. barrier apparel etc. Needlepunching is fast.  Softeners: to make the webs feel soft against the skin. curtains. May also be used on curtains. stitchbonding is also used. Dry laying. drapes and drape pack parts account for almost two third. The external feminine care products include sanitary napkins and pads. Following are the advantages of nonwovens in medical textiles:  Excellent barrier     Low linting Tear resistant Single use Always available . shoe covers. Carding is adapted for lightweight web production for technical and hygienic products. Disposable textiles are textiles used in or as apparel for functional applications. medical. Medical nonwovens include drapes and gowns. sterile wrap. Chemical bonding is often used for making elastic nonwovens. training pants.  Antibacterial Finish: very commonly applied to gauzes. wet laying and carding are used for different web properties depending on web thickness required. Post process for medical nonwovens is to give the product a suitable finish for its specific end use. Disposable nonwovens are those nonwovens for short life applications in single use including hygiene. Among them. lab coats etc. The most popular one is silver nanocrystal finish. Carding produces very high quality webs at very high speeds.  Water repellents: used for bed sheets for kids. bed linens and disposable clothing etc. dressings. bed linens etc. hospital apparel etc.  Resin and Hand Builders: used for apparel. Bonding is carried out by many methods including thermal bonding for synthetic fibers and their blends.  Flame Retardant Finishes: used for bed linens. speed of bonding technique to be used etc. The internal feminine care products refer to tampons. Apart from all these techniques. Spunbonding is mostly used for products like face masks. blankets etc. Hygiene nonwovens include baby diapers. May be used for disposable undergarments. designed to be disposed off after use. effective and often chosen technique for varied applications. consumer wipes. Needlepunching finds application in bonding various fibers or webs of medium thickness. adult diapers (adult incontinence) and feminine care products (external and internal).and dimensionally stable. It is also cost effective.

viscose. be sterile lint free and non – toxic. knitted or non-woven made from silk. absorption and exudation of blood and excess fluids. healing and application of medication ideally a wound dressing should be soft pliable pad the wound to protect it from further injury. An absorbent cotton swab placed at the wound and tied with gauze forms the oldest form of wound dressing. . be easily applied and removed. However. It can be woven. (c) Base Material: It provides a means by which the dressing is applied to the wound. this traditional method of wound covering is found to stick to the wound and does not provide a moist microclimate to the wound conducive to its faster healing.If has to absorb blood or liquids while providing a cushioning effect to protect the wound. eliminates the need for bandage. The wound dressing should not adhere to the wound allowing easy removal without disturbing new tissue growth.It should not stick to the wound or cause maceration of the skin if the dressing is not changed. The modern wound dressing is usually made of three layers(a) Wound contact layer: . The material is coated with acrylic adhesive to hold the dressing in place.    No repair Decreased storage space No hidden costs Cost effective to use Some application of nonwovens in medical textiles Products used for medical surgical dressings  Wound care products: A wound dressing is used for many purposes including protection against infection. (b) Middle absorbing layer: . polyamide or polyethylene. It is generally a non-woven composed of cotton or viscose.

This polysaccharide can infiltrate the biological activities in the body and hence accelerate wound healing. Elasticated yarns are incorporated into bandages to form elastic bandage for providing support and comfort.Because sterilization is a major concern for surgical dressings. non – woven or composite in structure. Nonwovens can be smooth and lint-free for the most part. knitted. Adhesive bandage. Depending upon the compression they provide. Further some ointment dressing can also be given along with paraffin to aid faster healing of the wound. polymers/nonwoven welded laminate and metalised nonwoven are used. For post–operative dressing. A simple non – elastic bandage is required to the dressing in proper place over the wound. It is extracted from corn bran and has water soluble properties. The structure of bandage is more stable with crossing warp threads in the leno woven structures. They can be woven. cohesive bandages and tubular bandages belong to this class. bleached and sterilized. These can be further coated with paraffin to prevent sticking of the bandage to the wound.  Bandages: Bandages are designed to perform a whole variety of specific functions depending upon the final medical requirement. Abundantly available alginates and their relatively ease of solubility in particular have been instrumental in developing these fibres and their applications as vehicles for drug delivering. sophisticated nonwoven structures such as perforated films on absorbent base. The other polysaccharide is Branan ferulate that is gel spun. Polysaccharide based dressings have increasingly become viable alternative to biologically incompatible and often problematic cotton and viscose gauzes used for wound dressings. The problems of fraying in the plain woven bandage are overcome by use of non-fraying cotton leno bandage. Elastic crepe bandages are used for sprained wrist or ankle support. (a) Simple bandages – These are fixation bandages that can be elastic or inelastic in nature. Nonwoven can be made softer and more absorbent by latex or thermal calendaring. (b) Light support bandages – Woven light support bandages are used for sprains or strains. Stretch and recovery properties of these bandages apply sufficient tension to support the sprained limb. (c) Compression bandages – Compression bandages are used to exert a certain compression for the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis. Polypropylene is promoted as most unwettable fibre. but it can also be quite wettable if converted to a fibrous web by melt blowing. compression . This allows lesser chance for debris to be left at the wound. One such bandage is simple. Traditionally polypropylene is used in wound dressings in fibre or fabric form. This gives polypropylene a role of absorbable dressing‟s material. They can be classified into various classes depending upon the function they serve as. open weave cotton or viscose fabric cut into strips which have been scoured. In melt blowing a stream of molten polymer is subjected to blasts of air which form tiny fibrils that fall randomly as a web. coupled with absorbent material. Similar properties can also be achieved by combination of two warp sets with normal and high tension. leg ulceration and varicose veins. The elasticated properties of these bandages are obtained by weaving cotton crepe yarns that have twist content. nonwovens are considered.

Since these garments are to be continuously worn. Fabric shaping can be controlled by modifying the structure of fabric within the garment or altering the stitch length. The generated pressure on the affected area should help alleviate the itching of the scars.. tubular lengths of different diameters. the warp knitting machines is used to manufacture mainly the wound dressings. During this burns rehabilitation process the pressure garment has to be worn continuously may be for periods as long as 12 months. the seams should be strong enough to resist strong transverse forces.  Pressure garments for hypertrophic skin This is a special class of bandages used for healing wounds caused by burns. Similarity.bandages are classified as light. Knitting is commonly used for manufacture of bandages in tubular form with varying diameters. Tubigrip is a circular weft knitted cotton fabric with rubber yarn laid – in. warp or weft knitted from cotton and elastomeric yarns. Also the seam should have high extensibility and recovery to allow for body movement. Tubigrip is an example of circular weft knitted cotton fabric with rubber yarn laid – in. So it is best for the hospitals to buy the pressure fabrics and make garments to suit the patient‟s needs. Two main types of fabrics are currently used for making pressure garments. (d) Orthopaedic bandages – These bandages are used under plaster casts and compression bandages to provide padding and prevent discomfort. support bandages and elastic bandages. The tubular structures can best be produced on circular warp knitting machines. However. these are traditionally produced on double bar Rachel machines due to the limitation of patterning on these machines. Since these garments are to be continuously worn. Polyurethane foam can also be used. Spacer knitted fabrics can be used as bandages in normal or composite form. Firm elastic fabric containing elastane yarns is used for making pressure garments. manufactured in tubular lengths of different diameters. Electronic speed monitoring and variable speed drive to the let – off for the feed packages have helped to obtain consistent yarn quality. In bandage applications control of elasticized yarn can be made using such electronically controlled pattern ring to alter the underlap or the stitch length being knitted. This fabric is usually warp knitted. the . Light needle punching gives bulk and left to the structure for greater cushioning effect. bandages and vascular grafts. Circular warp knitting machines can be used for making stockings that can be sued provide pressure gradients along the leg after surgery aiding blood circulation. They can be woven. The weft knitting machine is chiefly used for production of two classes of medical textiles. The average pressure to be applied to the treated tissue area is about 25 mm of Hg. With the new developments of electronically controlled flexibility in production of various tubular medical devices has been achieved. There is a wide range of pressure garments due to the varying size of the patients and the different methods of fitting the garments by the therapists. high and extra – high compression bandages. Non – woven orthopaedic cushion bandages are made from polyester or polypropylene and blends of natural and synthetic fibres. Pressure garments are made by using a variety of elastic fabrics and can be simple tubes to fit individual limbs or full garments if the burn area is large. Viz. These garments are useful for the care of burnt skin area for cuing of scars. moderate.

Hence. The adhesive used for plaster fabric is acrylic that doesn‟t stick to the skin. The modern plaster fabric is made from spun bonded nonwovens of cotton. The removal is not only painful.  Plaster: Plasters are made up of three layers – 1) Plaster fabrics. The face side of all fabrics was rougher than the reverse side. The typical yarn density per inch is 12 – 19 for warp and 8 –15 for the weft. It is used to treat burns and scalds. Lint is a plain weave cotton fabric that is frequently used in treatment of mild burns.  Gauze: Gauze and paraffin coated gauzes are the most commonly used dressing. The burns and skin grafts have their dressings changed frequently and the difficulty with this gauze is that its fibres stick to the wound. but it does not rapidly absorb the wound liquids. This leads to delay in healing process and also leaves scars behind. The highly absorbent wound pad helps in rapid absorption of secretion from the wound. The problems associated with the traditional woven cotton gauze are as below: A possibility of loose fibres getting caught in the wound A large adherence surface Irritation or mechanical injuring of the wound when the dressing is changed. Also this being a petroleum based coating can liquefy at body temperature and introduced foreign matter into the wound. A simple plaster cast consists of gauze impregnated with plaster of Paris. . Most gauze is made up from cotton in the form of a loose plain weave. it is covered with a non – woven fabric. viscose.  Others dressings: The other surgical dressings include wadding and lint.seams should be strong enough to resist strong transverse forces. powernet. Prolonged time of wound healing Paraffin – coated gauze is usually multi – layered. The cushioning wound pad is made from knitted viscose fabric impregnated with an antiseptic. Also the seam should have high extensibility and recovery to allow for body movement. Hence an optimum construction is to be arrived at for comfort and recovery of the patient. is a little easier to remove. Gauze is mostly used as a direct dressing for wounds or may be used in internal pads and general swabbing applications. 44sNe warp and 54sNe carded weft yarn is generally used. Wad – ding is an absorbent material to prevent adhesion to wound or fibre loss. the following have been established: „Fabrics with low coefficient of friction are more comfortable than those with high coefficient of friction and are less likely to cause maceration. However. polyester or glass fibre. 2) adhesive and 3) – wound pad. In the various suitable fabric structures and garment constructions. the deviation in the coefficient of friction was found to be quite high for almost all fabrics. but also destroys the regenerating tissues. sleeknit fabrics are found to be more suitable as compared to weft or warp knit fabrics.

Technical Textiles Int. Advances in nonwovens have resulted in a new breed of medical textiles. because of their easily modifiable properties and excellent performance have become indispensable in this field. In reality. Products used for medical or surgery applications may at first sight seem either very simple or complex items. Advanced composite materials containing combination of fibers and fabrics have been developed for applications where biocompatibility and strength are required. Fisher.Conclusion Medical textile market is totally saturated with nonwoven products today. July/ August 2003.  Nonwovens as medical textiles by Priyadarshini Malshe published in f2f in Oct 2008  Handbook of Industrial Textiles by Sabit Adanur. IFB Jan 2004.  Wound Treatment. ATJ Nov 2001.  Nonwovens & Technical Textiles section published in ITJ Sept 2008  The use of innovative textile structures for medical applications. Medical textiles Jan 2003  Meeting demand for cost efficient production of hollow fiber membranes for medical use. Textile Asia sept 2001. References  Antimicrobial and medical use textiles. Nonwovens..  Textile in hospital hygiene. . It is predicted that the nonwoven materials will continue to have greater impact in this sector owing to the large member of characteristics and performance criteria required from these materials.  G. however in-depth research is required to engineer a textile for even a simplest cleaning wipe in order to meet stringent professional specifications. 19.

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