SPRINKLER SPRAY MODELLING

Hamed Aghajani

Supervisors: Prof. Jennifer Wen and Dr. Siaka Dembele

CFES, Kingston University, London

3rd FM Global Open Source CFD Fire Modeling Workshop, Norwood MA May 9-10

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Outline
• Objectives

• Modelling Approach
• Preliminary studies and results • Conclusion

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Objectives
Studying Available Modeling Approaches for Sprinklers and Understand their Limitations

Develop a Model to Study Droplets Transport and Interaction with Fire

Sheppard, D. T. Spray characteristics of fire sprinklers. PhD Dissertation, Evanston, IL: North-western University, 2002.

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Modelling Approaches
• Deterministic Atomization Model
Initial Sprinkler Condition Film Formation

Sheet Breakup

Ligament Breakup

Droplet size, location, Velocity

Marshall, A. W., and M. Di Marzo. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 82 (2004): 97–104.

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Modelling Approaches 𝑟
0 7𝜈𝐿 𝑕𝑑 = + 𝐶1 × 2𝑟𝑑 𝑈0
Film Formation
0.2 0.8 𝑟𝑑 9 9 0.25 𝑟 4 𝑑 𝜈𝐿

𝑕𝑑 = 𝐶2 × 𝑄 𝜕𝑓 𝜌𝐿 𝑕 𝜕𝑡
Sheet Breakup
2

+ 𝑙 4 𝑟𝑑 𝝆𝑼𝟐 𝒕 𝟐𝒉𝝆𝑳 𝝇

+ 𝜇𝑕𝑛 𝑕𝑏𝑢 =

2 𝜕𝑓

− 2𝜌𝜍𝑈 2 − 2𝜍𝑛2 = 0 𝜕𝑡 Sheet Tracking 𝒇

= 𝑕𝑑

𝑟𝑑 𝑟𝑏𝑢 𝑟𝑏𝑢

= 𝑟𝑑 + 𝑈𝑠𝑕𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑡𝑏𝑢
Presently derived equation 𝑼𝒔𝒉𝒆𝒆𝒕

𝒕𝟑 + 𝒓𝒅 𝒕𝟐 − 𝒉𝒅 𝒓𝒅 𝒃𝒖 𝒃𝒖 𝒇

𝟐𝝆𝑳 𝝇 𝝆𝑼𝟐 𝒔𝒉𝒆𝒆𝒕 𝟐

= 𝟎

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Modelling Approaches 𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑔
=
Ligament Formation
2 𝜋𝑟𝑙𝑖𝑔

2𝜋 𝑟𝑏𝑢 + 𝑟𝑙𝑖𝑔 𝜆 𝑟𝑏𝑢 + 2
2

Presently derived conservation equation 𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑔

= 𝜋𝑕𝑏𝑢

2 − 𝑟𝑏𝑢 𝝅

𝟑 𝝅 𝒅𝒍𝒊𝒈 + 𝒓𝒃𝒖 𝒅𝟐 − 𝒍𝒊𝒈 𝟒𝑻 𝟐𝒉𝒃𝒖 𝝀

𝒓𝒃𝒖 + 𝟐 𝟐

− 𝒓𝟐 = 𝟎 𝒃𝒖 𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡

𝑙𝑖𝑔 𝑑𝑙𝑖𝑔
Drop Formation

1 3𝜇 = + 2 2 𝜌𝐿 𝜍𝑑𝑙𝑖𝑔

−0.5 𝟑 𝒅𝑫𝒓𝒐𝒑

= 𝟑𝝅

𝒏𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒊𝒈 𝒅𝟐

𝒍𝒊𝒈

4 3 2 𝜋𝑟𝐷𝑟𝑜𝑝 = 𝜋𝑟𝑙𝑖𝑔 𝜆𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑔 3

Deterministic approach predicts a single droplet characteristic

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Modelling Approaches
• Stochastic Modeling
Existing model is mainly for simple deflectors Droplet Size Critical Breakup Amplitude (𝒇[𝒎])

Initial Location

Stochastic Model 𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝜇, 𝜍 𝜍 = 𝜇. 𝐼

Sheet Breakup 𝟏 (𝟐 𝝀𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒕 𝒔𝒉𝒆𝒆𝒕 [𝒏])

Wavelength

Ligament Breakup Wavelength (𝝀𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒊𝒈 [𝒑])

Normal distribution have been utilized for all 3 parameters. 0.1 < I < 0.3
Do not account for actual sprinkler configurations (Pendant, Upright) [There is no model for fluctuation intensity]
Wu, Di, Delphine Guillemin, and Andre W Marshall. "A modeling basis for predicting the initial sprinkler spray." Fire Safety Journal 42 (2007): 283-294.

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Preliminary Studies and Results
Alternative Sheet Tracking Model

Mass 𝜕

𝜌 𝑢 𝛿 = 0 𝜕𝜉 𝑓 𝑓 𝜕𝑢𝑓 sin 𝜃 − 𝜌𝑓 𝑢𝑓 𝑤𝑓 = 𝑆𝜉 + 𝜌𝑓 𝑔 cos 𝜃 𝜕𝜉 𝑟 𝜕𝑢𝑓 𝜕𝑝𝑓 cos 𝜃 − 𝜌𝑓 𝑤𝑓 𝑤𝑓 =− − 𝜌𝑓 𝑔 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜉 𝑟 𝜕𝜂 𝒖𝒇 𝜹 𝜽 𝒓 𝒛

Momentum 𝜌𝑓

𝑢𝑓 𝜌𝑓

𝑢𝑓 𝑢𝑓

Geometry 𝑑𝑟

= sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜉 𝑑𝑧 = cos 𝜃 𝑑𝜉

Ibrahim, E A., and McKinney, T R., Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 220 (2006): 203-214.

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Preliminary Studies and Results 𝑟
𝜃 𝛿 𝜉
=0 𝜉=0 𝜉=0

= 𝑅0 = = 𝜃0 = 𝛿0 𝐷

0 2 𝑢𝑓 𝜉

=0

= uf0 = 𝑚𝑓

𝜋𝜌𝑓 𝐷0 𝛿0

Implementation thoroughly satisfies the original paper

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Preliminary Studies and Results

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Preliminary Studies and Results
K=5 K=4

K=3

K=2

Wu, Di, Delphine Guillemin, and Andre W Marshall. "A modeling basis for predicting the initial sprinkler spray." Fire Safety Journal 42 (2007): 283-294.

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Preliminary Studies and Results

m  1000, n  50, p  50 I f  I lig  I drop  rand (0.1,0.3) Ddef  25mm,
K  3.2 gal min 1 psi 1 / 2

Ren, Ning. “Analysis of the Initial Spray from Canonical Fire Suppression Nozzles”, Master Thesis, Maryland: University of Maryland, College Park, 2007.

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Preliminary Studies and Results

Dundas, P., FMRC serial no. 18792 RC73-T-40

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Preliminary Studies and Results
Normalized radial displacement Vs. Normalized Vertical displacement

P = 10 psi P = 20 psi P = 30 psi

P = 50 psi P= 70 psi

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Preliminary Studies and Results
Normalized Velocity Vs. Normalized Vertical displacement

P = 10 psi
P = 20 psi P = 30 psi P = 50 psi P= 70 psi

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Preliminary Studies and Results
Liquid sheet deflection Vs. Normalized Vertical displacement

P = 10 psi P = 20 psi P = 30 psi

P = 50 psi P= 70 psi

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Conclusion and Future Work
 Formerly introduced atomization models implemented as a frame tool for further investigations and improvements  Verification of the model against published research has been conducted  Normally distributed stochastic parameters droplet size predicts droplet sizes in range of 0.4 − 1.7 𝑚𝑚, which are in range of published experimental work. FURTHUR STUDIES  Effect of surrounding air on spray parameters  Explore the effects of some physical sprinkler parameters as boss and tine/space.  Studying the interaction of different spray pattern with fire

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Thank you. Comments and Questions?

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