# Lesson 13: Precise Piloting and Anchoring

3/3/2013

Lesson 13: Precise Piloting and Anchoring
• AGENDA:
– Ship’s Handling Characteristics – Advance, Transfer and Turn Bearings – Precision Anchoring

• Applicable reading: Hobbs pp. 234-241.

Ship’s Handling Characteristics
• Advance - the distance gained in the original direction until a ship steadies on its final course. • Transfer - the distance gained at a right angles to the direction of the original course until the ship steadies on on its final course. • Turning Circle - the path followed by a ship’s pivot point when executing a 360° turn. • Tactical Diameter - the transfer involved in the execution of a single turn of 180°. • Final Diameter - the diameter of the turning circle that a ship would scribe when turning 360°

Transfer Final Course End of Turn Start of Turn Advance & Transfer .

and Turning Circle E C Tactical D F A Wheel Over Original Course 000 Diameter B .Tactical Diameter. Final Diameter.

.Example: Speed: 15 kts Standard Rudder Angle Angle of Turn Advance Transfer 15o 180 18 30o 230 30 45o 270 60 60o 310 110 Calculate Advance and Transfer for a 50o turn.

let’s look at how to plot this. Advance = 270 + 5/15 * (310-270) = 283 yards Transfer = 60 + 5/15 * (110-60) = 77 yards Now.Example cont. .

Select a NavAid for a Turn Bearing (TB)/ . • STEP #4 . • STEP #5 .Calculate advance/transfer from tactical data folder.Plot “advance” by parallel to original course.Draw the turning point. • STEP #2 .Use of Advance/Transfer During Piloting • STEP #1 .Plot “transfer” line perpendicular to original course. • STEP #3 .

000 100 0 100 200 300 Scale in Yards .N 50 A TR TR .

Advance and Transfer Table Angle of Turn 15 30 45 60 75 Advance 180 230 270 310 330 Transfer 18 30 60 110 170 For a 50 degree turn: Advance = 283 yds Transfer = 77 yds .

N B A 77 TR TR .000 100 0 100 200 300 Scale in Yards .

000 77 TR 90 283 100 0 100 200 300 D C Scale in Yards .N B A TR .

• Select a Navaid closest to the beam .Turn Bearings Turn Bearings .In order to plot the position at which the ship must put the rudder over (to turn onto a planned track). you must select a suitable Navaid as a turn bearing.

N B A 283 TR .000 77 Select a suitable NAVAID as a turn bearing. 100 0 100 200 300 TR TB 270 90 D C Scale in Yards .

Danger Bearings Danger Bearings .The displaced distance will be the equivalent of the distance from the pelorus to either the bow or the stern. .Are drawn on the chart. whichever is greater. displaced from the shoal water by a distance that will keep the ship in safe water even when the pelorus is on the danger bearing. .

Tank Danger Bearings / Ranges Light FL 6s 58ft 9M 9 12 9 13 13 pa 5 12 5 9 5 9 5 9 9 12 12 13 13 12 9 12 9 15 15 19 13 NMT 070 17 20 12 15 96 19 20 17 17 19 20 17 19 20 NLT 200 yds 20 21 21 23 20 21 23 23 21 21 21 21 20 23 23 23 .

Danger Bearings NLT 090 Tank Light FL 6s 58ft 9M .

.Conclusion • Describe the means by which a ship’s position can be accurately and continuously assessed by visual observation. • Regular fixes and the use of DR is still required in order to confirm the visual assessment of the navigator. • The key to successful precise navigation is comprehensive preparation prior to the passage.

Post Anchoring . Plotting 3. Execution 4. Selection 2.Anchoring Stages • 4 stages of Anchoring: 1.

Draw the swing circle • Bottom: sand.Selection: Determining a Suitable Anchorage Suitable criteria: • Low winds • Low current • Sufficient and Suitable Navaids • Free of Hazards . not rocks • Sufficient Water Depth . mud.

Sources of Information • Chart • Publications. to include: – Coast Pilots – Sailing Directions – Fleet Guides (ports most frequented by USN ships) • Word-of-mouth • Pass down files .

Plotting Terms • Approach Track .Final leg that the ship must follow to arrive at the center of the anchorage. . 2000 yds) • Letting-go bearing.arcs plotted along the approach track to indicated the distance from the anchorage. • Head bearing .the final heading of the ship prior to anchoring • Range circle .centered at the center of the berth with a radius of equal to distance from the hawsepipe to the pelorus. (100 –1000. 1500. 1200.the bearing to a Navaid to that indicates when the anchor should be let go • Letting-go circle .

20 10 8 4 10 Mast 12 10 Kentmore marina 6 8 4 2 G1 G C 3 Piles Dredged 10 ft 1996 RN4 R2 4 2 Pepe Pt Fl 6s 54ft 7M 20 400 20 200 100 16 16 14 20 14 20 20 300 16 14 R12 10 Fl R 2. 1m Pepe Reef 14 R14 Fl R 5s 6 12 10 8 16 20 16 Anchorage Plot 16 .5s Hobbs Rks 6 14 Hobbs Lt Fl 2s 70ft 15M t 8 14 16 16 14 t Red 2 t t 4 4 14 16 16 12 t Uncov.

anchor is within 50 yds of center of anchorage • Ship is now backed to set the anchor .Execution • Approach slowly • when you reach the letting-go bearing=> “Let go the anchor !” • immediately shoot a fix. • If done correctly.

• If no obstructions exist w/in => OK • Draw the DRAG CIRCLE. Navigator shoots another fix and notes the direction the anchor is tending => Determine final anchor position • Draw the SWING CIRCLE.Post Anchoring • Anchor scope: 5 . .7 times the depth of the water • Now.

Post Anchoring Terms Swing Circle • purpose: to ensure the anchorage is hazard free • centered at the position of the anchor • Radius = (Length of ship) + (Length of anchor chain) .

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Post Anchoring Terms (cont) Drag Circle • purpose: to ensure the anchor is not dragging • centered at the position of the anchor • Radius = (Distance from Hawsepipe to Pelorus) + (Length of anchor chain) .

Drag / Swing Circle 130 yds 300 yards Drag Circle Swing Circle .

N TR Anchorage Plot HB 004 Tank 100 Stack 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 TR 004 1200 1500 .

Identify a prominent navaid to use as a head bearing and plot the approach track. Step 2 .Measure and plot the radius of the letting-go circle over the center of the anchorage .Plotting a Precision Anchorage Preparation (Pre-Sail): Step 1 . Step 3 .Predict the effects of wind and current along the approach track.

and plot the LGB on the chart. . Step 5 .Plotting a Precision Anchorage Preparation (Pre-Sail): Step 4 .Select a suitable navaid to use as a Letting-go bearing.Scribe and label the range arcs on the chart.

the anchor position is plotted (measured from the fix in the direction of the ship’s head at a distance equal to the distance between the hawespipe and the pelorus.Once the fix is plotted. Step 2 . take a fix noting the ship’s heading.Plotting a Precision Anchorage At Anchor (Post-Sail): Step 1 . .As the anchor is “Let go”.

.Plotting a Precision Anchorage At Anchor (Post-Sail): Step 3 .Plot the swing and drag circles around the anchor’s actual position.

Post-anchoring Considerations • Veer out sufficient anchor chain (scope) • Cover the chart with acetate over the swing and drag circles • Select the navaids to use to fix the ship’s position while at anchor • Set the “Anchor watch” .

4. 2a. 6. 11. 3. 12. 16 . 5. 15. 8.Homework • Do the following: Chapter 14: #1ab.