GAS TURBINES

Introduction :
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between. Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine component. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where fuel is mixed with air and ignited. In the high pressure environment of the combustor, combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. There, the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades, spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some turbines, drives their mechanical output. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature of the exhaust gas. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, and even tanks.

History :

150: Hero's Engine (aeolipile) — Apparently, Hero's steam engine was taken to be no more than a toy, and thus its full potential not realized for centuries.

1500: The "Chimney Jack" was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci which was turning a roasting spit. Hot air from a fire rose through a series of fans which connect and turn the roasting spit.

1551: Taqi al-Din invented a steam turbine, which he used to power a selfrotating spit.[1]

1629: Jets of steam rotated a turbine that then rotated driven machinery allowed a stamping mill to be developed by Giovanni Branca.
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1678: Ferdinand Verbiest built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power.

1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas turbine. His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage.[citation needed]

Griffith.  1895: Three 4-ton 100 kW Parsons radial flow generators were installed in Cambridge Power Station.  1930: Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp (massive for those days). and used to power the first electric street lighting scheme in the city. easily the fastest vessel afloat at the time. The first successful use of his engine was in April 1937.  1936: Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn in Germany developed their own patented engine design at the same time that Sir Frank Whittle was developing his design in England. but the engine never ran under its own power. 1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today. started their gas turbine division.1872: A gas turbine engine was designed by Dr. the Turbinia.  1894: Sir Charles Parsons patented the idea of propelling a ship with a steam turbine. for Brown Boveri company. was able to build the first gas turbine that was able to produce more power than needed to run its own components. A.      1910: Holzwarth impulse turbine (pulse combustion) achieved 150 kilowatts.  1906: The Armengaud-Lemale turbine engine in France with water-cooled combustion chamber. His work was later used by Sir Frank Whittle. A.  . 1920: The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal (and applicable to turbines) theory of gas flow past airfoils by Dr. designed by Aurel Stodola. 1913: Nikola Tesla patents the Tesla turbine based on the Boundary layer effect.  1903: A Norwegian.  1934: Raúl Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas generator for gas turbines. Franz Stolze. and built a demonstration vessel. which was considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited. Ægidius Elling. 1914: Application for a gas turbine engine filed by Charles Curtis. General Electric.  1939: First gas turbine power generator. His work on gas propulsion relied on the work from all those who had previously worked in the same field and he has himself stated that his invention would be hard to achieve without the works of Ægidius Elling. This principle of propulsion is still of some use.

nickel. the associated pressure ratio is greater. combustion occurs at constant pressure. ceramic. As with all cyclic heat engines. non-isentropic expansion: although the turbine temperature drop necessary to drive the compressor is unaffected. combustor and exhaust: reduces the expansion available to provide useful work. or other materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel. the compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal. 2. in which air is compressed isentropically . and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropic ally back to the starting pressure. which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work. higher combustion temperature means greater efficiency. Some turbines also try to recover exhaust heat. non-isentropic compression: for a given overall pressure ratio.Theory of operation : Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle. Considerable engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. which otherwise is . In practice. pressure losses in the air intake. friction and turbulence cause: 1. 3.

prior to combustion. More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have multiple shafts (spools). Simple turbines might have one moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternative-rotor assembly (see image above). Recuperates are heat exchangers that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air. As a general rule. These bearings are being surpassed by foil bearings. and a vast system of complex piping. they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings. However. Traditionally. gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion piston engines.000 rpm and micro turbines around 100.000 rpm. Combined cycle designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. And combined heat and power (co-generation) uses waste heat for hot water production.wasted energy. Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design. movable stator blades. which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary power units. the required precision manufacturing for components and temperature resistant alloys necessary for high efficiency often make the construction of a simple turbine more complicated than piston engines. or oil-cooled ball bearings. this produces the maximum power possible independent of the size of the engine. Types of gas turbines : . combustors and heat exchangers. the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s) needs to be to maintain top speed. hundreds of turbine blades. Jet engines operate around 10. Turbine blade top speed determines the maximum pressure that can be gained . not counting the fuel system. Mechanically.

1. . the gas turbines are used to power a turbo pump to permit the use of lightweight. Aero derivatives and jet engines: Air breathing jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases. Jet engines that produce thrust primarily from the direct impulse of exhaust gases are often called turbojets. The GELM2500 and LM6000 are two common models of this type of machine. low pressure tanks. whereas those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called turbofans or (rarely) fan-jets. or from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines. and handle load changes more quickly than industrial machines. Gas turbines are also used in many liquid propellant rockets. which saves considerable dry mass. Diagram of a high-pressure turbine blade Aero derivatives are also used in electrical power generation due to their ability to startup. They are also used in the marine industry to reduce weight. shut down.

The construction process for gas turbines can take as little as several weeks to a few months. depending on the electricity demand . amateurs have even rebuilt engines beyond professional repair and then used them to compete for the Land Speed Record. Several small companies now manufacture small turbines and parts for the amateur. 3. A combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine sections. Like many technology based hobbies. The simplest form of self-constructed gas turbine employs an automotive turbocharger as the core component. rather than a Crackling-like home-build. which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a few dozen hours per year. and blading is of heavier construction. Since single cycle (gas turbine only) power plants are less efficient than combined cycle plants.They can be particularly efficient —up to 60%—when waste heat from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration.In its most extreme form. The Crackling design constructs the entire engine from raw materials. compared to years for base load power plants . supplying power during peak demand. where their thrust and light weight are sufficient to power large model aircraft. epoxy and wrapped carbon fiber strands. they are usually used as peaking power plants. then operated for display as part of the hobby of engine collecting . Industrial gas turbines for power generation Industrial gas turbines differ from aero derivative in that the frames. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure. They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating. More sophisticated turbojets are also built. or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. these are commercial turbines acquired through military surplus or scrap yard sales. Amateur gas turbines Increasing numbers of gas turbines are being used or even constructed by amateurs . Industrial gas turbines range in size from truckmounted mobile plants to enormous. including the fabrication of a centrifugal compressor wheel from plywood. bearings. Most turbojet-powered model aircraft are now using these commercial and semi-commercial micro turbines.Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes. both to protect the engine from the elements and the operators from the noise.In its most straightforward form. complex systems .2. they tend to give rise to manufacturing businesses over time.

though this is partly because piston engines have been mass-produced in huge quantities for decades. buses. Gas turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. This arrangement is used to increase speed and power output flexibility. Turbo shaft engines Turbo shaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants) and are used to power almost all modern helicopters. . Jan Mowill initiated the development at Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk in Norway. A key advantage of jets and turboprops for airplane propulsion . helicopters. A large single cycle gas turbine typically produces 100 to 300 megawatts of power and have 35–40% thermal efficiency. tanks.Gas turbines are often used on ships.Turbines have historically been more expensive to produce than piston engines. Various successors have made good progress in the refinement of this mechanism. In series hybrid vehicles. they are not as responsive and efficient as small piston engines over the wide range of RPM’s and powers needed in vehicle applications. on cars. while the second shaft bears the low speed turbine (or "Power Turbine" or "N2"). and to a lesser extent. 4.their superior performance at high altitude compared to piston engines. the responsiveness problem is eliminated when using a gas turbine to turn the generator as it is run at the optimum speed. Radial gas turbines In 1963. particularly naturally aspirated ones .is irrelevant in automobile applications. locomotives .and the generating capacity of the region. turbines are mass-produced in the closely related form of the turbocharger. while small gas turbine engines are rarities. Owing to a configuration that keeps heat away from certain bearings the durability of the machine is improved while the radial turbine is well matched in speed requirement . In areas with a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity or low fuel costs. Their power-to-weight advantage is far more important. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine (often referred to as "Gas Generator" or "N1"). The emergence of the continuously variable transmission may also alleviate the responsiveness problem. 5. however. and motorcycles. as the driving electric motors are mechanically detached from the electricity generating engine. a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day. However.

specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances. compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in the 1990s. research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. On the emissions side. microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power. compared to reciprocating engines. the challenge in technology is increasing turbine inlet temperature while reducing peak flame temperature to achieve lower NOX emissions to cope with the latest regulations. Advantages of gas turbine engines        Very high power-to-weight ratio. with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine.Passenger Road Vehicles (Cars. more efficient combustion and better cooling of engine parts. Bikes. Disadvantages of gas turbine engines     Cost Less efficient than reciprocating engines at idle Longer startup than reciprocating engines Less responsive to changes in power demand compared to reciprocating engines Gas Turbine Power Plants . and Buses) Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to evolve. Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating. Computer design. has allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures. Low operating pressures. Additionally. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and eliminated the need for an oil system. Moves in one direction only. High operation speeds.On another front.

The gas turbine power plant has to work continuously for long period of time without . air is used as the working fluid . Parts and Working The three main sections of a Gas Turbine are the Compressor. as a starting plant for driving auxiliaries in power plants etc. The hot and high pressure air from the combustion chamber is then passed to the gas turbine where it expands and does the mechanical work . Heat is added to the compressed air either by burning fuel in the chamber or by the use of air heaters . thus raising its temperature . gas turbine and the alternator are mounted on the same shaft so that a part of mechanical power of the turbine can be utilized for the operation of the compressor . In a gas turbine power plant . Gas turbine power plants are being used as standby plants for hydro-electric stations . Combustor and Turbine.A generating station which employs gas turbine as the prime mover for the generation of electrical energy is known as a gas turbine power plant. The gas turbine drives the alternator which converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. It may be mentioned here that compressor . The air is compressed by the compressor is lead to the combustion chamber where heat is added to air .

a small diesel or gas engine is used.output and performance decline. During starting the speed has to reach at least 60 % for the turbine to work on its on inertia. The exhaust gas that leaves the turbine is around 550 °C. The Air Filter in the Air Intake system prevents this. During continuous operation the impurities and dust in the air deposits on the compressor blades. In Combined Cycle power plants the exhaust system has a ‘diverter damper’ to change the flow of gases to the Heat Recovery Boilers instead of the outlet stack. In situations where there is no other start up power available. The flow of the large amount of air into the compressor creates high noise levels. This reduces the efficiency and output of the plant . Fuel System . The simple method is to have a starter motor with a torque converter to bring the heavy mass of the turbine to the required speed. This is similar to the starter motor of your car. A Silencer in the intake duct reduces the noise to acceptable levels. This includes an outlet stack high enough for the safe discharge of the gases. Starting System Starting system provides the initial momentum for the Gas Turbine to reach the operating speed. Silencer in the outlet stack reduces the noise to acceptable levels. Air Intake System Air Intake System provides clean air into the compressor.3600 RPM for the 60 Hz grid). Exhaust System Exhaust system discharges the hot gases to a level which is safe for the people and the environment. A blade cleaning system comprising of a high pressure pump provides on line cleaning facility for the compressor blades. The gas turbine in a power plant runs at 3000 RPM (for the 50 Hz grid . The latest trend is to use the generator itself as the starter motor with suitable electrics. like a ship or an off-shore platform or a remote location. Apart from the main sections there are other important Auxiliaries systems which are required for operating a Gas Turbine Power Plant on a long term basis. For large turbines this means a big capacity motor.

For liquid fuels high pressure pumps pump fuel to the pressure required for fine atomization of the fuel for burning . Gas Turbines normally burn Natural gas but can also fire diesel or distillate fuels. It is simple in design as compared to steam power station since no boilers and their auxiliaries are required 2. External heaters heat the gas for better combustion. Many Gas Turbines have dual firing capabilities. A control valve regulates the amount of fuel burned . This is expected since gas turbine power plant doesn’t require boiler .The Fuel system prepares a clean fuel for burning in the combustor. A filter prevents entry of any particles that may clog the burners. feed water arrangements etc 3. A burner system and ignition system with the necessary safety interlocks are the most important items. Natural gas directly from the wells is scrubbed and cleaned prior to admission into the turbine. The initial and operating costs are much lower than that of equivalent steam power station . Advantages 1. it is much smaller in size as compared to steam power station of same capacity .These are the main Auxiliary systems in a Gas Turbine Power Plant. Many other systems and subsystems also form part of the complex system required for the operation of the Gas Turbine Power Plant.

The temperature of combustion chamber is quite high (3000 deg .F)so that its life is comparatively reduced. 5. 6. these losses occur because boiler is kept in operation even when the steam turbine is supplying no load Disadvantages 1. It is because before starting the turbine .4. It requires comparatively less water as no condenser is used The maintenance charges are quite small Gas turbines are much simpler in construction and operation than steam turbines It can be started quickly from cold conditions There are no standby losses . in a steam power station . . the compressor has to be operated for which power is required from some external source . There is a problem for starting the unit . However . the net output is low 3. However once the unit starts the external power is not needed as the turbine itself supplies necessary power to the compressor. 7. 8. The overall efficiency of such plants is low(about 20%) because of the exhaust gases from the turbine contain sufficient heat 4. 2. Since a greater part of the power developed by the turbine is used in driving the compressor .