The aim of Community Development was to bring about economic and social changes in rural areas specially of poor by increasing all round production, and improvements in agriculture, dairy, animal husbandry and related industries, health, education, transport, communications etc. The people participation by way of labor and finance (contribution) was also incorporated to make the project as peoples project. This booklet gives information about the Community Development, its impact, failure and success for the benefit of the small and marginal farmers. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM:  Leading rural population from chronic under employment to full employment.  Leading rural population from chronic agricultural under-production to full production by use of scientific knowledge.  The largest possible extension of the principles of cooperation by making rural families credit-worthy.  Increased community efforts for the benefit of the community as a whole, such as village roads, tanks, wells, schools, community centers, children's parks etc. FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES:

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Increase in production and employment in agriculture Strengthening of cooperatives Encouragement of cottage, medium and small industries Provision of roads and road transport services Provision of free education at elementary stage Provision of sanitation and public health measures Provision of housing Provision of community entertainment

AREA OF OPERATION: Each project of Community Development program consisted of about, 300 villages covering over 400-500 square miles and having a population of around 2 lakhs. The project area was divided into these development blocks, each comprising 100 villages and population around 60 to 70 thousands. These blocks were further divided into groups of 5 to 10 villages, each group in the charge of multi-purpose village level worker. According to this pattern, there were four stages. 1. Pre-extension stage: Annual budget provision was Rs. 18,800. The staff consisted of Block development officer, one Agricultural extension officer and five village level workers, whose main duties were to survey the area, prepare groundwork for the intensive stage.

2. Stage I blocks: In pre-extension stage, the block was stepped up into stage I block, with a budget provision of Rs. 12 laths for five years for intensive development. During this period, the block was provided with a Block development officer, eight extension officers, ten village level workers, two gram sevikas, three stockmen (veternary), one physician and 3-4 mid-wives, one compounder, a sanitary inspector and other necessary staff.
3. Stage II blocks: During this period, the staff remained same, but the budget was reduced to Rs.5 lakhs for 5 years. 4. Post Stage II blocks: This is a permanent stage. It meant to follow up the action In this stage budget provision is Rs. 1 lakh per year.

MERITS: 1. An organization has come to exist through which it has become possible for the Government to reach the rural population. 2. An administration set-up has been established which is particularly trained for and assigned to the work of economic development and welfare activities in the rural areas. 3. Training facilities have been organized to train administrations at various levels to man this program. 4. By putting together, hundreds of villages in each block, it has become possible to break to some extent the traditional isolation of the villages. 5. Institutions have been established to allow peoples participation in this operations of this program. 6. The program has created opportunities for official and elected representatives to understand each other and work for the benefit of the rural population. 7. A number of agricultural promotion improvements and other programs for economic development and social welfare of the rural population have been enacted under the aegis of the community Development program.

DEMERITS:  Welfare of the weaker section ignored  Uneven distribution of benefits  Peoples’ contribution declined.  Peoples attitude towards program  Improper planning  Lack of political will  Priorities not clearly defined  Unqualified personnel.  Lack of functional responsibility

AIMS: Integrated Rural Development program (IRDP) was introduced towards the end of Fifth Plan with programs for employment and income generation. It was launched in 1978-79 in 2300 selected blocks and extended during the sixth plan to all the 5011 blocks in the country with effect from October 2, 1980. The Scheme is merged with another Scheme named Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) since 01.04.1999.
OBJECTIVES OF IRDP: The main objectives are the following:  1. To help the families below the poverty line to come up and cross it.  2. To create substantial additional opportunities of employment in the rural sector.  3. To reduce poverty.  4. To make the family economically viable and self-sufficient.  5. To assist the rural population to economic benefits from the developmental assets of each area. IMPLEMENTATION & STRATEGIES: Under the IRDP, a Community Block has been accepted as the unit for planning and implementation. The Block Plan is intended to include the schemes that are eligible for assistance under this scheme. Major steps –  Selection of Villages: IRDP employs a cluster approach to select villages. It ensures that the program specific supporting infrastructure including credit institutions are available in the villages.  Selection of beneficiaries: Selection of IRDP beneficiaries is to be made by Village Level Workers (VLW) by selecting the poorest of the poor first.  [50 per cent for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, 40 per cent for women and 3 per cent for the physically handicapped]

 Preparation of Village and Block Plans: Village plans are to be prepared based on detailed household plans. The Block Plan should aggregate the village wise requirements of inputs, services, credit etc.  5. Preparation of District Plan: District Level IRD plans is prepared every year by District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) and sent to the Block Development Officers (BDO) for implementation.  6. Provision of Loans and Subsidies: The subsidy is 25% for small farmers, 33.33% for marginal farmers and 50% for tribal beneficiaries.  The ceiling for subsidy is Rs.6000/- for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes families and the physically handicapped; for others, it is Rs.4000/-in non-DPAP/non-DDP areas and Rs.5000/- in DPAP and DDP areas.  Educated unemployed rural youth (studied upto 8th Standard (Pass or fail) will also get 50% subsidy subject to a ceiling of Rs.7500. MERITS:  1. Direct assistance to the poor.  2. Assistance is available for every viable and bankable economic activities e.g. agriculture, animal husbandry, minor irrigation, sericulture, horticulture, fisheries, etc. which are likely to raise the income of the poor families.  3. Increased land productivity by training and orientation programs.  4. Also supported by social development programs viz. health, education and nutrition.

DEMERITS:  1. It concerns with only economically viable and technically feasible activities.  2. Cannot cater all segments of rural households.  3. It works on subsidy basis and only the families who have access to land can gain the full benefits of those items.  4. Credit facilities vary banks to banks.  5. Poor implementation.

AIMS: The Integrated Rural Energy Program, IREP was launched during the Seventh Plan with the aim of developing the planning and institutional capabilities at the State, District and Block levels to formulate and implement area based on micro level plans to tap in an integrated manner for all types of energy sources. Under this program, people’s participation in the planning and implementation of Block level energy plans and projects is being achieved through the involvement of people’s participation, government and nongovernment agencies and the panchayats.
OBJECTIVES OF IREP: The objectives of this program is,  To provide for minimum domestic energy needs for cooking, heating and lighting purposes to rural people in IREP Blocks.  To provide the most cost effective mix of various energy sources and options for meeting the requirements of sustainable agriculture and rural development with due environmental considerations.  To ensure peoples participation in the planning and implementation of IREP plans and projects through the involvement of panchayats, voluntary organizations and other institutions at the micro level.

IMPLEMENTATION & MONITORING: For the implementation & monitoring of IREP program includes the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources at the apex level, which implements and monitors the program & a state level cell (Nodal Agency).  District level cell & block level cells supported by appropriate / suitable staff.  The state IREP Cell / Agency is responsible for monitoring and implementation of IREP projects in the state.  These state cells / IREP nodal agencies are under direct control of officiating ministry / departments – Panchayati Raj and Rural Development, Science and Technology etc., in their respective states.

MERITS:  This program was for minimise the use of domestic energy sources and to provide them alternate source of energy like- Bio gas, kerosene, Solar Cooker, improved chulha.  The program includes public participation in development policies.  This program includes energy conservation , rural electrification & uses of renewable energy. DEMERITS  Lack of computerization of database and Operationalization is a hindrance to quick delivery of service; this leads to lack of transparency and accountability in the implementation in many areas.  The schemes are often complex and difficult to administer due to lack of accuracy in available database.  This program is unable to provide electricity for lighting all the rural area in all the villages in India.

AIMS: The “Bharat Nirman”, launched by Government of India during 2005-06, is an over-arching program to build infrastructure especially in rural India. “Bharat Nirman”, the flagship development program of Government of India, was a time-bound business plan implemented in partnership with State Governments and Panchayati Raj Institutions over a period of four years from 2005-06 to 2008-09. The first half of the program was in the Tenth Plan period and the second half coincides with the first two years of the Eleventh Plan period (2007–12). This program has six components namely: (i) irrigation, (ii) rural connectivity, (iii) rural housing, (iv) rural water supply, (v) rural electrification, and (vi) rural telecommunication connectivity. GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF BHARAT NIRMAN PROGRAM:  Every village to be electrified.  Every habitation over 1,000 population in general and above 500 in hilly and tribal areas in particular to be connected with all-weather roads.  Every habitation to have a safe source of drinking water. In addition, all habitations, which have slipped back from full coverage to partial coverage due to failure of source, and habitations, which have water quality problems, to be provided with sustainable source of safe water supply.  Every village to be connected by telephone.  10 million hectares of additional irrigation capacity to be created in the country.  60 lakh houses to be constructed for the rural poor all over the country.

Schemes made part of the ambitious program  Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana  Indira Awas Yojana  Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyut Yojana MERITS:  The Rural Housing Sector was the single sector which achieved 100% target.  61 lakhs dwelling units were build in four years against the target of 60 lakhs promised, which was commendable.  Funds were never the hindrances, in four years 1.14 lakh crores were spend out of allocated 1.74 lakh crores, that amounts to almost 2/3 of the spenditure. DEMERITS:  Almost 50,000 habitats had no road connections in 2005 and by the end of 2009 March less than 50% got the promised road connectivity. Dalits living in smaller habitats and Tribal living in forests have been largely ignored.  In Irrigation sector out of the promised 10 million hectares of land to be brought under surface irrigation only 5.6 million hectares was actually achieved.  In safe Drinking Water sector only 4.8 lakh villages were covered against the target of 6 lakhs villages, and the declared villages having safe drinking water  In Rural Electrification 7.8 crore households were to be provided with electricity connections out of which only 71,000 were actually connected. That accounts for 7% achievement of the target. Villages were connected to the electricity supply but the individual houses were left out.  In Rural Telephony 10% villages were calculated to be in requirement of telephone connectivity out of which 84% were covered in the four years but the calculation of the villages was based on 1991 census. Villages which were far off in remote areas and actually required telephone connectivity were left out, due to delay in acquisition of satellite links.

Operation Flood in India, a project of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was the world's biggest dairy development program. Launched in 1970, Operation Flood has helped dairy farmers direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands. The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union Ltd. was registered on December 1, 1946 as a response to the exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of the only existing dairy, the Polson (brand) dairy, in the small town of Anand (in Kaira District of Gujarat). Milk Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk, which often went sour in summer, to Polson. OBJECTIVES : The main objectives of Operation Flood were:  To make available wholesome milk at stable and reasonable prices to the bulk of city customers-including vulnerable groups like pre-school children and nursing and expectant mothers-with major effects on protein intake.  To enable dairy organizations involved in the project to identify and satisfy the needs of consumers preferences can be fulfilled economically and producers can earn a larger share of the amount paid by the consumers for their milk.  To improve productivity of dairy farming in rural areas with the long term objectives of achieving selfsufficiency in milk thereby bringing about major increases in agricultural output and incomes with special emphasis on the improvement of the income of small farmers and landless people.  To remove dairy cattle from the cities where they represent a growing problem of genetic waste, social cost and public health.  To establish a broad basis for the accelerated development of the national dairy  industry in the project period as well as the post-project period.  Augment rural incomes.

ACHIEVEMENTS  Storage and Long distance transport facilities  Feeder Balancing Dairies and Milk Chilling Plants  Resettlement of City-Kept Milch Animals in Rural areas.  Increasing milk production and Development of Improved Milch animals.  Organization of rural Milk Procurement systems  Manpower Development and Training. IMPLIMENTATION: Phase I: Phase I (1970–1980) was financed by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter VV oil donated by the European Union (then the European Economic Community) through the World Food program. NDDB planned the program and negotiated the details of EEC assistance. Phase II : Operation Flood Phase II (1981–1985) increased the milk sheds from 18 to 136; 290 urban markets expanded the outlets for milk. By the end of 1985, a self-sustaining system of 43,000 village cooperatives with 4,250,000 milk producers were covered. Phase III : Phase III (1985–1996) enabled dairy cooperatives to expand and strengthen the infrastructure required to procure and market increasing volumes of milk. Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed and artificial insemination services for cooperative members were extended, along with intensified member education. MERITS:  By reducing malpractices, it has helped dairy farmers direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands.  It has increased Milk Production in India.  All this was achieved not merely by mass production, but by production by the masses.  Gave increased emphasis to research and development in animal health and animal nutrition.  Focused on the training and development at an individualistic level which led to the success of the movement.

Demerits:  Some critics of the project argue that the emphasis on imported breeds of cattle has been instrumental in the decimation of Indian breeds. Foreign breeds give higher yields, but require more feed and are not suited to Indian conditions. Critics also argue that the focus on the dairy sector during this period came at the expense of development, research, and extension work in other areas of Indian agriculture.  Apart from this, a number of constraints hindered the success of the Operation Flood like: cumbersome procedures in some states where reluctance of bureaucrats delayed the approvals, also the cooperative movement did not have sufficient internal strength to fight against the vested interests of higher authorities and succumbed to their tactics.  Some milk sheds were inefficiently managed.  Lack of working capital to meet the operating expenses of the FBD plants.(feeder balancing dairy).  Reluctance of State Governments.

The Minimum Needs program (MNP) was launched in the Fifth insure a basic minimum standard of life for all sections of people in rural India and the urban poor. The idea was to establish a network of 5 to attain an acceptable level of consumption in respect of selected items within a stipulated time frame. It was found that whenever there was crunch, the planners were quick to enforce cuts in the allocation for social sectors. This apart, there have been wide regional imbalances in revision of social services necessitating governmental intervention to bridge the yawning gap in the provision of vital social services. IMPLEMENTATION: During Sixth Plan , Minimum Need program continued with greater vigour and substantially large outlays were allocated during the SixthPlan. A sum of Rs. 5,807 crores was provided in the Sixth Plan for this program, of which Rs. 4,924 crores was allocated to the State sector and Rs. 883 crores to the Central Sector. As against the above outlay, an estimated expenditure of Rs. 6547.05 crores has been incurred during the period 1980-85. Of this, Rs. 5265.33 crores has been in the State sector and Rs. 1281.72 crores in the Central sector. OBJECTIVES:  100 per enrolment in the age-group 6-14 years by 1990. It would be supplemented with non-formal education.  100 per cent coverage of audits in the age-group 15-35 years by 1990 through non-formal education.  Establishment of one sub-centre for a population of 5000 in the plains and 3000 in tribal and hilly areas by 2000 AD. 2. One PHC for 30,000 population in plains and 20,000 in tribal and hilly areas by 2000 AD. 3. Establishment of one Community Health Centre for a population of one lakh or one CD Block by 2000 AD.  Linking up all remaining villages with a population of 1500 and above and 50 per cent of the total number of villages with population of 1000 to 1500 by 1990.  At least 65 percent of the villages in each State and UT to be electrified by 1990.

DEMERITS OF MNP PROGRAM The main demerit of the program was the wide scope of the aim. It was so big that it could not be fulfilled yet, rather the Population explosion and Corruption and a long interval of bureaucracy in between National rural development programs and rural people do not let the process swiftly.

MERITS OF MNP PROGRAM Minimum Needs program(MNP) formed the basis of rural development. It is the core of other rural programs like Central Rural Sanitation program, Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Indira Awas Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Employment and Rural Guarantee Act. Country has drastically changed because of new seeds sown in the rural areas. Country has felt a change since 5 years, number of rural areas turning into urban areas, people are sending their children to schools. Mid-day meal, Cycle distribution between female students, Prize-money to girls for securing good marks in schools, Free Education, Housing loans, optimum number of schools, Anganwari for educating women, health camps, PHC and CHC in rural areas, etc. are some milestone achieved from MNP program.

AIMS: NABARD on a pilot basis had launched an integrated area-based credit intensification program in collaboration with Government, Banks and other development agencies with focus on district known as District Rural Industries Project (DRIP) during 1993-94 with a view to evolving a role model for rural industrialization. OBJECTIVES: Creation of significant number of sustainable employment opportunities in rural areas through enhanced credit flow to RNFS with complementary financial and non-financial promotional support. STRATEGIES TO IMPLEMENT:  Focused Attention  Systematic Planning  Participatory Process  Coordinated efforts  Credit plus Approach

MAIN FEATURES:  A participatory program of State Govt., Banks, NGOs and Developmental agencies for credit intensification towards development of RNFS.  Facilitates convergence of the experience, energy and resources of all project partners to harness the potential for rural development.  Realistic assessment of potential for growth of RNFS and gearing up the entire district machinery committed to rural development.

 A participatory program of State Govt., Banks, NGOs and Developmental agencies for credit intensification towards development of RNFS.  Facilitates convergence of the experience, energy and resources of all project partners to harness the potential for rural development.  Realistic assessment of potential for growth of RNFS and gearing up the entire district machinery committed to rural development.  Facilitates adequate, timely, qualitative and need- based credit support through banking channel for setting up of new units as well as for expansion/ modernization of existing units.  Envisages promotional, infrastructural and linkage support from various project partners.  DRIP is not a target-oriented program.  Does not envisage provision of any new subsidies other than the normal facilities (including existing subsidies) available for setting up of RNFS units in the district.  A flexible program open to adoption of new ideas and innovations Important Components/ Strategies  Conduct of Detailed Potential Survey of the District.  Strategy meets at District & State level.  Sensitization of the Functionaries of Project Partners - Govt./ Banks/ NGOs/ VAs/ DAs.  Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP) Workshop at the District Level.  Training of the officials of Primary Lending Institutions (PLIs).  Preparation of DRIP Action Plan.  Dovetailing of DRIP Action Plan with Service Area Plans (SAPs) of banks.  Adoption of Cluster Approach.

AWARENESS CREATION/ SKILL UPGRADATION AMONGST ENTREPRENEURS:  Technology Upgradation / Transfer.  Focus on implementation of Credit-linked Promotional programs through NGOs/VAs/ DAs.  Encouraging Credit Delivery Innovations.  Monitoring the progress closely through Project Coordination & Guidance Committees (PCGCs) at the district and state level.
ROLE OF PROJECT PARTNERS: Government and other Developmental Agencies  Developing a suitable Time-bound Action Plan commensurate with DRIP Action Plan. • Identifying Nodal Officers in the concerned Departments/ Agencies for assuming responsibility for Coordinating the implementation of DRIP.  Associating with Other Partner Agencies for bringing synergy in identification of entrepreneurs, sponsoring of cases on merit to the banks, preparing project profiles, providing technical guidance, the required infrastructure and linkages, positioning of extension staff, conducting training for Skill Up gradation, etc.  Developing a built-in monitoring system to ensure achievement of project objectives BANKS:  Integrating DRIP Action Plan into Service Area Plans.  Identifying Potential Entrepreneurs/ Enterprises.  Adopting Cluster Approach in lending.  Ensuring Qualitative Lending with close Supervision.  Associating with the Block/ Cluster/ Village level Awareness Meetings.  Sponsoring Potential Entrepreneurs to participate in Rural Entrepreneurship Development programs (REDPs).  Deputing field level functionaries to various Training programs, Meets/Workshops.  Providing necessary credit to the entrepreneurs covered under various promotional schemes.  Improving the access of credit to Women.  Promoting and linking of SHGs.

 Maintaining proper database.  Monitoring the Progress of DRIP action plan at Block/ District/ State level fora.  Opening of Specialized Branches for financing Small Scale Industries and Other rural industries. NGOs/ VAs  Associating NGO/VAs as Co-partners in achieving the goals set out under DRIP.  Taking up implementation of Credit-related Promotional programs viz., Training cum- Production Centers (TPCs), Conduct of Rural Entrepreneurship Development programs (REDPs), Setting up of Mother Units, Common Service Centers, Artisan Guilds, Assistance to Rural Women in Non- Farm Development (ARWIND), Marketing/ Technology Development interventions, Rural Development Communications, Linking of Self Help Groups, etc.  Providing Escort Services to the potential entrepreneurs trained under REDPs.  Playing Catalytic role in boosting RNFS and propagating DRIP message. PRESENT POSITION : With the successful implementation, the program have been phased out in 64 districts (covered under Phase I, II, III, IV & V) during the period 2007-08 & 2008-09. DRIP in remaining 36 districts will be phased out by the year 2010-11. On a pilot basis the project was launched during 199394 in 5 select districts in the country viz. Ganjam, (subsequently bifurcated into Ganjam and Gajapati districts in Orissa), Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh), Sabarkantha (Gujarat) and Sawai Madhopur (Rajasthan). Encouraged by the success achieved in the pilot districts and keeping in view the overwhelming support received from all the Project Partners in development of RNFS in the DRIP districts, NABARD had since extended the project in phases, thus covering 106 districts.

National Biogas and Manure Management program (NBMMP) 1981-82
The program was initiated in 1981-82 for the promotion of family size biogas plants with the aim of providing clean and cheap source of energy along with other benefits such as enriched organic manure, improved sanitation and hygiene and reduction in drudgery for women. Three types of biogas designs, namely, the floating drum type or KVIC design, fixed dome type and bag type portable digester are being propagated under this program. The program is implemented through the State Governments and administrations, corporate/registered bodies, KVIC, NGOs, Technical Back-up Units (TBUs-set-up at nine locations to provide technical and training support in a decentralized mode) and commercial and cooperative banks.

The objectives of the program are to provide fuel for cooking purposes and organic manure to rural, households through family type biogas plants; to mitigate drudgery of rural women, reduce pressure on forests and accentuate social benefits; and to improve sanitation in villages by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants. Appropriate model of biogas plant should be selected on the basis of technical requirements such as location, distance between kitchen and cattle shed, availability of dung and water, preference of the beneficiaries etc.
MERITS • This program promotes use of biogas, organic manure and improves sanitation, while reducing methane emissions.

AIM: By focusing on un-electrified remote census villages and remote hamlets of electrified census villages, the program aims at bringing the benefits of electricity to people living in the most backward and deprived regions of the country.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the Remote Village Electrification program (RVE) is to electrify all the remote census villages and remote hamlets of electrified census villages through nonconventional energy sources such as solar energy, small hydro power, biomass, wind energy, hybrid systems, etc.

STRATEGIES TO IMPLEMENTS: All un-electrified remote census villages or remote hamlets of electrified census villages, which will not be electrified by conventional means by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2012), as certified by the concerned Power Department / State Electricity Board, are eligible for coverage under the program.

OUTLAY: It was initiated by Government of India from October 2000 for a period of ten years, in two phases each of five years duration, with an allocation of Rs 402 crore for the 1st phase and Rs775.87 crore for 2nd Phase. AIM: It envisages genetic up gradation and development of indigenous breeds on priority basis.

OBJECTIVES:  Arrange delivery of vastly improved artificial insemination service at the farmers doorstep.  Progressively bring under organized breeding through artificial insemination or natural service by high quality bulls, all breedable females among cattle and buffalo within a period of 10 years;  Undertake breed improvement program for indigenous cattle and buffalo breeds so as to improve their genetic qualities as well as their availability.

STRATEGIES TO IMPLEMENT:  Streamlining storage and supply of Liquid Nitrogen by sourcing supply from industrial gas manufacturers and setting up bulk transport and storage systems for the same;
 Introduction of quality bulls with high genetic merit; promotion of private mobile A.I. service for doorstep delivery of A.I.; conversion of existing stationery government centers into mobiles centers; quality control and certification of bulls and services at sperm stations, semen banks and training institutions; study of breeding systems in areas out of reach of A.I.

 Refresher training to existing AI workers, basic training to rural unemployed youth, training to professionals and organization of farmers orientation programs;
 Institutional restructuring by way of entrusting the job of managing production and supply of genetic inputs as well as Liquid Nitrogen to a specialized autonomous and professional State Implementing Agency.

The National Social Assistance program (NSAP) is a welfare program being administered by the Ministry of Rural Development. This program is being implemented in rural areas as well as urban areas. NSAP represents a significant step towards the fulfilment of the Directive Principles of State Policy enshrined in the Constitution of India which enjoin upon the State to undertake within its means a number of welfare measures. In particular, Article 41 of the Constitution of India directs the State to provide public assistance to its citizens in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want within the limit of its economic capacity and development. The program was initiated in this accordance on 15th August, 1995. The welfare measures are intended to secure for the citizens adequate means of livelihood, raise the standard of living, improve public health, provide free and compulsory education for children etc.

 To ensure that social protection to the beneficiaries everywhere in the country is uniformly available without interruption.  To provide social assistance benefits to poor households in the case of old age, death of the breadwinner and maternity

Presently NSAP now comprises of the following five schemes:1. Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): Under the scheme, BPL persons aged 60 years or above are entitled to a monthly pension of Rs. 200/- up to 79 years of age and Rs.500/- thereafter. 2. Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS): BPL widows aged 40-59 years are entitled to a monthly pension of Rs. 200/-. 3. Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS): BPL persons aged 18-59 years with severe and multiple disabilities are entitled to a monthly pension of Rs. 200/-. 4. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): Under the scheme a BPL household is entitled to lump sum amount of money on the death of primary breadwinner aged between 18 and 64 years. The amount of assistance is Rs. 10.000/-. 5. Annapurna: Under the scheme, 10 kg of food grains per month are provided free of cost to those senior citizens who, though eligible, have remained uncovered under NOAPS.

The scheme is completely sponsored by the Central Government, unlike other welfare schemes where the Union government shares costs with the State governments.

Under the Union Budget for the financial year of 2011-12, an allocation of Rs. 6,158 crores was made to implement this scheme under the union budget 2012-2013 raising the allocation under the National Social Assistance Program (NSAP) by 37 per cent from 6,158 crore in 2011-12 to 8,447 crore in 2012-13.(Source : Wikipedia)

IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING 1. Annual verification and Social Audit has been introduced under NSAP. All the States are to complete the Annual verification by 30th June and the Social Audit by 30th September, each year.
2. A checklist for the schemes under NSAP is provided to the National Level Monitors (NLMs) during their field visits. Each NLM is advised to visit the district, block and village level offices and meet the government functionaries, public representatives and the beneficiaries to get feedback on the implementation of the schemes under NSAP. 3. Monthly meeting of the Divisional Head with the Nodal Officers of each State/UT is held in Delhi. Also a quarterly Performance Review Committee meeting is also held.
MERITS:  The Program is a good attempt on the part of the Government to concentrate resources on those most in need.  The schemes implemented in the program are progressive as they are an indirect method of redistribution of resources vertically from the rich to poor.  The program attempts to provide social security and thus is a good initiative aimed at welfare of the people.  The schemes are quite flexible in their implementation. Though funded entirely by the Central Government, it gives authority and flexibility to the States to implement the schemes at their discretion.

DEMERITS:  Though the program has positive impacts and has been implemented well, various media coverages suggest that the various schemes are non-uniform in their implementation across the country.  Lack of computerization of database and Operationalization is a hindrance to quick delivery of service; this leads to lack of transparency and accountability in the implementation in many areas.  The schemes are often complex and difficult to administer due to lack of accuracy in available database.

Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA) s a strategy for rural development in INDIA . This concept was given by former president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and framed by Prof.Emerson. PURA proposes that urban infrastructure and services be provided in rural hubs to create economic opportunities outside of cities OUTLAY : The budgetary provision of PURA Scheme is as follows:2010 – 12 (BE): 124.00 crore 2010 – 12 (RE): 74.00 crore 2011 – 12 (BE): 100.00 crore OBJECTIVES :  To stem rural-urban migration  To bridge rural-urban divide  To provide balanced socio economic developments  To expand consumer base  Employment generation in three sectors- Agriculture, Service and Manufacturing  Increasing the purchasing power of the rural people and increase per capita income.  Improving the literacy and health care delivery system.  Capacity building with skill development and business development.  Sustainable development through peoples’/community participation in the rural economy with public private partnership.  Priority funding with simultaneous flow of schemes in an integrated way so that there is visible change in the development of rural clusters.

1. The rollout of the implementation action plan over the concession period shall be outlined in the Detailed Project Report. 2. The appointed Private Developer shall put in place an implementation action plan for the different sub-projects of PURA over a construction period of maximum three years and an operations and maintenance (O&M) period of ten years from the commercial operation date or the date of completion of construction. 3. In order to ensure proper monitoring and supervision of performance by the Private Developer, an Independent Engineer will be provided to the PURA cluster of Gram Panchayat(s) to supervise and monitor performance during the project life cycle.

Rural India gets the amenities for which most of them migrate to the urban areas. Adequate job opportunities are created which helps in controlling the Rural-Urban Migration.

Rural India needs all those service which are present in urban India. However, this is not economically feasible. Rural India is sparsely populated. And so, distribution costs of services are obviously high. At the same time income of rural people is fairly low. And so, they can afford only a small part of service charges.

AIM: An additional Central Assistance Scheme (now RKVY) that incentivizes states to increase public investment in Agriculture and allied sectors.. Key end goal – achieve at least 4.1% growth in agriculture by the end of XI Plan
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM:  To incentivize the states that increase their investment in Agriculture and allied sectors  To provide flexibility and autonomy to the States in planning and executing programs for agriculture  To ensure the preparation of Agriculture Plans for the districts and states  To achieve the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops  To maximize returns to the farmers  To address the agriculture and allied sectors in an integrated manner STRATEGIES TO BE IMPLEMENTED:  Integrated Development of Food crops, including coarse cereals, minor millets and pulses  Agriculture Mechanization  Soil Health and Productivity  Development of Rainfed Farming Systems  IPM  Market Infrastructure  Horticulture  AH, Dairying & Fisheries  Concept to Completion Projects that have definite time-lines  Support to Institutions that promote Agriculture and Horticulture, etc.  Organic and Bio-fertilizers  Innovative Schemes

 It is a State Plan scheme

 The eligibility of a state for the RKVY is contingent upon the state maintaining or increasing the State Plan
expenditure for AgrIcultural. & Allied Sectors  The base line expenditure is determined based on the average expenditure incurred by the State Government during the three years prior to the previous year.  The list of allied sectors is as indicated by the Planning Commission  The preparation of the district and State Agriculture Plans is mandatory  Encourages convergence with other programs such as NREGS, SGSY, BRGF, etc.

 Pattern of funding is 100% Central Government Grant.
 If the state lowers its investment in the subsequent years, and goes out of the RKVY basket, then the balance

resources for completing the projects already commenced would have to be committed by them.
 It will be an incentive scheme – allocations are not automatic   It will integrate agriculture and allied sectors comprehensively It will give high levels of flexibility to the states – including approvals at the level of the state governments

 Projects with definite time-lines are highly encouraged.

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) was launched during 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of Rural Landless Employment Guarantee program (RLEGP) and continued as a sub-scheme of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) since its launching from April, 1989. It has been delinked from the JRY and has been made an independent scheme with effect from January 1, 1996. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM: The objective of IAY is primarily to provide grant for construction of houses to members of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also to non-SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line. STRATEGIES TO BE IMPLEMENTED: Identification of beneficiaries by DRDA  Priority in Selection of Beneficiaries  Freed bonded labourers  SC/ST households who are victims of atrocities  SC/ST households, headed by widows and unmarried women.  SC/ST households affected by flood, fire, earthquake, cyclone and similar natural calamities.  Other SC/ST households.  Non- SC/ST households.  Physically handicapped.  Families/widows of personnel of defense services / para-military forces, killed in action.  Displaced persons on account of developmental projects.  Budget allocation for the construction of houses

OUTLAY: IAY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme funded on cost-sharing basis between the Government of India and the States in the ratio of 80:20. In the case of Union Territories, the entire resources under this scheme are provided by the Government of India. As per the Budget 2011, the total funds allocated for IAY have been set at 10,000 crore (US$1.82 billion) for construction of houses for BPL families with special focus on the Left Wing Extremist (LWE) districts. MERITS:  Beneficiaries directly involved in the construction to ensure quality of construction  Ban on contractors or departmental construction  Appropriate construction technology and usage of local materials to minimize the cost of construction  Houses to be designed in accordance with the desire of the beneficiaries keeping in view the climatic conditions  Provision of fuel efficient chullahs, drinking water supply and sanitation & sanitary latrines to make the houses functional  Environmental improvement and social forestry so as to get fuel and fodder

 Money allocated for the construction of houses is not sufficient enough.  The criteria for selection of beneficiaries should not be on the basis of caste but all the homeless should be benefited from this scheme.

It is proposed to add a new Part relating to Panchayats in the Constitution to provide for among other things,  Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages;  constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels;  direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the village and intermediate level, if any, and to the offices of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such levels;  reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at each level;  reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women;  fixing tenure of 5 years for Panchayats and holding elections within a period of 6 months in the event of supersession of any Panchayat;  disqualifications for membership of Panchayats;  devolution by the State Legislature of powers and responsibilities upon the Panchayats with respect to the preparation of plans for economic developments and social justice and for the implementation of development schemes;  sound finance of the Panchayats by securing authorisation from State Legislatures for grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State, as also assignment to, or appropriation by, the Panchayats of the revenues of designated taxes, duties, tolls and fees.  setting up of a Finance Commission within one year of the proposed amendment and thereafter every 5 years to review the financial position of Panchayats;  k. auditing of accounts of the Panchayats;  l. powers of State Legislatures to make provisions with respect to elections to Panchayats under the superintendence, direction and control of the chief electoral officer of the State;  m. application of the provisions of the said Part to Union territories.

OUTLAY: The Panchayats receive funds from three sources:  1. Local body grants, as recommended by the Central Finance Commission  2. Funds for implementation of centrally sponsored schemes  3. Funds released by the state governments on the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions IMPLEMENTATION: The Act aims to provide a 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all States having a population of over 2 million, to hold Panchayat elections regularly every 5 years, to provide seats reservations for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women; to appoint a State Finance Commission to make recommendations as regards to the financial powers of the Panchayats and to constitute a District Planning Committee to prepare a development plan draft for the district. The 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj consists: 1. Village-level Panchayats 2. Block-level Panchayats 3. District-level Panchayats. Powers and responsibilities are delegated to Panchayats at the appropriate level: 1. Preparation of the economic development plan and social justice plan. 2. Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice in relation to 29 subjects given in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. 3. To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

MERITS :  If the act is implemented in its purest spirit, it can bring about rapid changes in the economic as well as social character of the villages in this system.  It allows equal participation for all section of the society and delegates responsibility along with the suitable powers to carry its duties. DEMERITS:
 Since the awareness level of general rural population about 73rd amendment is usually dull and dismal, there is ineffective participation of women in Panchayat functions.

 The SCs, STs and women in general playing no significant role in decision making process in Panchayat meetings.  There is no significant change in leadership pattern since the implementation of 73rd constitutional amendment act except SCs STs and women become sarpanch but their participation in actual functioning is non-existent with maybe a few exceptions.
 The constitutional body, Gram Sabha is virtually non-existent in most of the cases thus defeating the basic purpose

INTRODUCTION: The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana or PMGSY is a nationwide plan in India to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages. It is under the authority of the Ministry of Rural Development and was begun on 25 December 2000. In order to implement this, an Online Management & Monitoring System or OMMS GIS system was developed to identify targets and monitor progress. It is developed by e-governance department of C-DAC pune and is one of the biggest databases in India. GOALS:  The goal was to provide roads to all villages  with a population of 1000 persons and above by 2003,  with a population of 500 persons and above by 2007,  in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 500 persons and above by 2003, and  in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 250 persons and above by 2007.

OBJECTIVES:  The primary objective of the PMGSY is to provide Connectivity, by way of an All-weather Road (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures, which is operable throughout the year), to the eligible unconnected Habitations in the rural areas, in such a way that all Unconnected Habitations with a population of 1000 persons and above are covered in three years (2000-2003) and all Unconnected Habitations with a population of 500 persons and above by the end of 2007.  In respect of the Hill States (North-East, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal) and the Desert Areas (as identified in the Desert Development program) as well as the Tribal (Schedule V) areas, the objective would be to connect Habitations with a population of 250 persons and above.  The PMGSY will permit the Upgradation (to prescribed standards) of the existing roads in those Districts where all the eligible Habitations of the designated population size have been provided all-weather road connectivity.

 Restructuring and strengthening NHAI for expeditious implementation of the  expanded NHDP.  Set reasonable target for the National Highway component of the total network over the next 20 years and work out a phased program of expanding of NH to achieve the objective.  Employing higher maintenance standards to reduce the frequency of reconstruction of capacity and to preserve road assets already created. The strategy to focus on optimum utilization of the existing capacities rather than creating new capacities.  Ensuring balanced development of the entire network i.e. NHs, SHs, MDRs, ODRs and village roads.  Adopting an effective policy mechanism for accelerated land acquisition, utility shifting, and environmental protection to ensure time bound implementation of road projects.  Taking up on BOT basis all contracts for high density corridors under NHDP III.  Developing NH in inaccessible areas and areas of strategic importance through GBS.  Improving capacities of implementing agencies- NHAI, BRO and State PWDs.  Strengthening the institutional mechanism through setting up of the National Road  Safety and Traffic Management Board as an apex body in order to ensure safety along with free flow of traffic.

1. Provision of better connectivity of farm to market community The construction of the PMGSY roads has greatly benefited the farmers. Prior to the construction of the PMGSY roads, farmers found it difficult to sell agricultural goods in the bigger markets that are located at a distance from their villages.

2. PMGSY road connectivity has led to a better transport system during all seasons. This impact has been greatly felt in the states of West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Assam etc.
3. Value addition to the local produce in cottage industries and entrepreneurial units of the village hence a boon to the rural populace. The PMGSY roads had a positive impact on the agricultural 4. Infrastructure as habitations are now using motorized equipments such as tractors, threshing machines for cultivation leading to a more efficient, time saving and profitable process of cultivation

5. The PMGSY roads have made it easier to transport chemical fertilizers, seeds and pesticides. Increased use of these items was observed in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal.
6. Besides, road connectivity has led to expansion of local industries, which in turn has generated employment opportunities.

DEMERITS :  Despite the one full decade of PMGSY, the percentage of unconnected habitations decreased only slightly from 37.2% to 29.9%.  While the total number of unconnected habitations fell by about 8 percentage points, those with population less than 500, at nearly 40%, hardly moved. This is understandable given the fact that scarce resources means that political priorities would always favor connecting the larger habitations But this also means that the remotest and most backward habitations, especially those in the tribal areas, are likely to remain the least priority areas and amongst the last to be connected.  Apart from the fact that the smaller habitations are more likely to be the farthest and therefore the most costliest to connect.  The quality of a major portion of these roads are doubtful. This means that a considerable share of the roads constructed in the first half of the decade are now not motor able. In other words, the additions conceal the fact that a number of them are becoming un-motor able with each passing year.  The concept of connectivity is dynamic, since with time roads develop pot-holes and require wholesale relaying. It is certain that the connecting roads for a significant share of the 70% or so connected habitations are likely to have fallen into such a state of dis-repair as to be reclassified as unconnected!  Further, in the absence of any maintenance contract, there is no workable mechanism available to ensure continuous operability of these roads .

OUTLAY – AMOUNT For the rural water supply, component of Bharat Nirman, it was envisaged that Rs. 25,300 crores would be required as Central share during 4 years. Accordingly in 2005-06, Rs. 4,098 crores and in 2006-07 Rs. 4,560 crores were utilized. In the 11th Plan period, in 2007-08, Rs.6 442.76 crores, in 2008-09 ,Rs. 7,298.79 crores , in 2009-10 , Rs. 7,989.72 crores and in 2010-11, Rs 8986.74 crores have been utilized. For 2011-12 , Rs 8500 crore is the Revised Estimate (RE) for rural drinking water out of which Rs 6272.22 crore have been utilized upto 31.12.2011. OBJECTIVES  To ensure permanent drinking water security in rural India.  To ensure drinking water security through measures to improve/augment existing drinking water sources and conjunctive use of groundwater, surface-water and rain water harvesting based on village water budgeting and security plan prepared by the community/local government.  Delivery of services by the system for its entire design period of quality of water in conformity with the prescribed standards at both the supply and consumption points.  Issue of potability, reliability, sustainability, convenience, equity and consumers preference to be the guiding principles while planning for a community based water supply system  To enable communities to monitor and maintain surveillance on their drinking water sources;  To ensure that all schools and anganwadis have access to safe drinking water;  To provide enabling environment for Panchayat Raj Institutions and local communities to manage their own drinking water sources and systems;  To provide access to information through online reporting mechanism with information placed in public domain to bring in transparency, accountability and informed decision making;

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES: To meet the emerging challenges in the rural drinking water sector relating to availability, sustainability and quality, the components under the program will be as follows:  COVERAGE for providing safe and adequate drinking water supply to unserved , partially served and slipped back habitations  SUSTAINABILITY to encourage States to achieve drinking water security at the local level  Provide potable drinking water to water QUALITY affected habitations  DESERT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (DDP) areas to tackle the extreme conditions of low rainfall and poor water availability,  Mitigate drinking water problems in rural areas in the wake of NATURAL CALAMITIES.  OPERATION & MAINTENANCE (O&M) for expenditure on running, repair and replacement costs of drinking water supply projects  SUPPORT activities. MERITS:  Increased Availability of Water/Reduced Breakdowns  Improved Environmental Sanitation & Reduction in Water Borne Diseases  Improvement in Women’s Conditions  Utilization of Time Saved  Installation of Rain Water Harvesting Structures

DEMERITS:  Despite the impressive coverage of provision of safe drinking water facilities in the rural areas, there is considerable gap between the designed service level for which the infrastructure has been created and the service available at the household level.  The program has so far mainly been managed by the Government (except Swajaldhara projects), without active participation of the stakeholders. This has posed a hindrance to the development of more efficient and lower cost options for service delivery and also denied an opportunity to users to exercise their options as consumers to demand better service delivery.  In the years to come, the rural water supply program will face serious challenges by way of meeting the expanding needs of a fast growing population, increasing demand for higher service levels accompanied by rapid depletion of fresh water availability due to climate change.

THE VISION:  The National Rural Health Mission (2005-12) seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country with special focus on 18 states, which have weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure.  The Mission is an articulation of the commitment of the Government to raise public spending on Health from 0.9% of GDP to 2-3% of GDP.  It aims to undertake architectural correction of the health system to enable it to effectively handle increased allocations as promised under the National Common Minimum program and promote policies that strengthen public health management and service delivery in the country.  It seeks to revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH into the public health system.  It aims at effective integration of health concerns with determinants of health like sanitation & hygiene, nutrition, and safe drinking water through a District Plan for Health.  It seeks to improve access of rural people, especially poor women and 
children, to equitable, affordable, accountable and effective primary healthcare. OBJECTIVES:  Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)  Universal access to public health services such as Women’s health, child health, water, sanitation & hygiene, immunization, and Nutrition.  Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases  Access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare  Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance.  Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH

OUTLAY:  The Mission is conceived as an umbrella program subsuming the existing programs of health and family welfare, including the RCH- II, National Disease Control programs for Malaria, TB, Kala Azar, Filaria, Blindness & Iodine Deficiency and Integrated Disease Surveillance program.  The Budget Head For NRHM shall be created in B.E. 2006-07 at National and State levels. Initially, the vertical health and family welfare programs shall retain their Sub-Budget Head under the NRHM.  The Outlay of the NRHM for 2005-06 is in the range of Rs.6700 crores.  The Mission envisages an additionally of 30% over existing Annual Budgetary Outlays, every year, to fulfill the mandate of the National Common Minimum program to raise the Outlays for Public Health 
from 0.9% of GDP to 2-3% of GDP  The States are expected to raise their contributions to Public Health Budget by minimum 10% p.a. to support the Mission activities.  Funds shall be released to States through SCOVA, largely in the form of Financial Envelopes, with weightage to 18 high focus States. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES:  Train and enhance capacity of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to own, control and manage public health services.  Promote access to improved healthcare at household level through the female health activist (ASHA).  Health Plan for each village through Village Health Committee of the Panchayat.  Strengthening sub-center through an untied fund to enable local planning and action and more Multi Purpose Workers (MPWs).

 Strengthening existing PHCs and CHCs, and provision of 30-50 bedded CHC per lakh population for improved curative care to a normative standard (Indian Public Health Standards defining personnel, equipment and management standards).  Preparation and Implementation of an inter-sectoral District Health Plan prepared by the District Health Mission, including drinking water, sanitation & hygiene and nutrition.

MERITS:  Infant Mortality Rate reduced to 30/1000 live births  Maternal Mortality Ratio reduced to 100/100,000  Total Fertility Rate reduced to 2.1  Malaria mortality reduction rate –50% upto 2010, additional 10% by 
2012  Kala Azar mortality reduction rate: 100% by 2010 and sustaining 
elimination until 2012  Filaria/Microfilaria reduction rate: 70% by 2010, 80% by 2012 and 
elimination by 2015  Dengue mortality reduction rate: 50% by 2010 and sustaining at that 
level until 2012  Japanese Encephalitis mortality reduction rate: 50% by 2010 and 
sustaining at that level until 2012  Cataract Operation: increasing to 46 lakhs per year until 2012.  Leprosy prevalence rate: reduce from 1.8/10,000 in 2005 to less than 
1/10,000 thereafter  Tuberculosis DOTS services: Maintain 85% cure rate through entire 
Mission period.  Upgrading Community Health Centers to Indian Public Health 
Standards  Increase utilization of First Referral Units from less than 20% to 75%  Engaging 250,000 female Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) 
in 10 States.

REMARKS AND CONCLUSION:  Health MIS to be developed upto CHC level, and web-enabled for citizen scrutiny.  Sub-centres to report on performance to Panchayats, Hospitals to Rogi Kalyan Samitis and District Health Mission to Zila Parishad  The District Health Mission to monitor compliance to Citizen’s Charter at CHC level  Annual District Reports on People’s Health (to be prepared by Govt/NGO collaboration)  State and National Reports on People’s Health to be tabled in Assemblies, Parliament  External evaluation/social audit through professional bodies/NGOs  Mid Course reviews and appropriate correction

Drought Prone Areas program (DPAP) is the "earliest area development program" launched by the Central Government in 1973-74 to tackle the special problems faced by those fragile areas which are constantly affected by severe drought conditions. These areas are characterized by large human and cattle populations which are continuously putting heavy pressure on the already fragile natural resources base for food, fodder and fuel. The major problems are continuous depletion of vegetative cover, increase in soil erosion, and fall in ground water levels due to continuous exploitation without any effort to recharge the underground aquifers.

PROGRAM OUTLAY:  The prevailing cost for a prescribed watershed project of 500 hectares is Rs. 30.00 lakh i.e. Rs. 6,000 per hectare.  Central and State Government share is in the ratio of 75: 25 share the cost. 80% (85% under Hariyali) of the cost is devoted towards watershed development activities and rest 20% (15% under Hariyali) for community organization, training and administrative jobs.  Prior to 1.4.2001, the cost of treatment ranged between Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 5,000 per hectare. Effective from 1.4.2001, a uniform rate of treatment @ Rs.6000 per hectare has been prescribed. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM:  To minimize the adverse effects of drought on the production of crops and livestock and productivity of land, water and human resources.  To promote the economic development and employment generation for the village community is directly or indirectly dependent on the water shed;  To do the optimum utilization of the Watershed's natural resources like land, water, vegetation etc, development of human and other economic resources of the village in order to promote savings.

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES:  Area development programs to be implemented exclusively on watershed basis.  program activities to be confined to the identified watershed of about 500 hectares and to be executed on a project basis spanning a period of four to five years.  Watershed project to be, as far as possible, co-terminus with village boundary.  Direct participation of the people in planning and development of watershed areas and maintenance of assets in the post project period.  Panchayati Raj Institutions have the right to monitor and review the program at district, block and village levels.  Voluntary agencies to be given effective role in the implementation of the program particularly in motivating people, community organisation and training.
MERITS OF THE PROGRAM:  It minimizes the adverse effects of drought and ultimately leads to the drought proofing of the affected areas.  It promotes overall economic development.  It improves the socio-economic condition of the poor and disadvantaged sections.  It gives opportunity of creating, widening and equitable distribution of the resource base and increased employment opportunities. DEMERITS OF THE PROGRAM:  The actual implementation of the programs in areas varies in organizational setup for all states, leading to conflict varying from state to state.  The program has not been able to create interests and common agreement among beneficiaries.  There is a prescribed (fixed) amount of cost for development of any type of project under this category.

The thrust of Rural Technology is to promote innovative rural technologies in the village especially catering to disadvantaged sections of the society. Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology(CAPART) supports projects under the Advancement of Rural Technologies (ARTS) scheme 1988. Such technologies are catering to disadvantaged as are newly designed and lab tested to be viable, but is neither being promoted /funded by any other agency. BUDGET OUTLAY – (TILL MARCH 2010):  1,444: projects sanctioned under advancement of rural technology scheme.  Rs 55.6 crore: money spent to support technologies like use of organic pesticides, soil management, food processing, water harvesting, solar energy and sanitation.

OBJECTIVES:  To act as National Nodal Point for coordination of all efforts at development and dissemination of innovative technologies relevant for rural areas.  To act as a catalyst for development of technology appropriate for rural areas by identifying and funding sharply focused and need-based projects.  To strengthen existing institutions of research and development and set up new institutions for conducting need-based study, survey, adaptive research and development, field trials, demonstration, dissemination and popularization and evaluation of appropriate technologies amongst the end users in rural areas.  To act as a clearing house of information and build up a data bank of technologies for rural areas.  To facilitate marketing of proven technologies by disseminating necessary information to manufacturers and users of machinery, tools, equipment and spare parts.  To act as a conduit for transfer of appropriate rural technologies to voluntary agencies, Government departments, public sector undertakings and members of public.

• •

To create a network of Voluntary Organizations on a regional basis which could understand and then carry forward the thrust of rural technology to the rural areas. To assist Voluntary Organisations to set up Demonstration and training centres for upgrading the skills of village youths, artisans, women and other target groups for their effective participation in development programs. To conduct or sponsor awareness camps, training programs, meetings, seminars, workshops, conferences, consultations, to promote interaction between Government agencies, technical institutions and voluntary agencies working in the field of rural development and technology. To document, prepare, print and publish papers, periodicals, bulletins, monographs, books, video films and CD etc. for dissemination of appropriate technologies.

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: • Project Submission by NGOs, individuals and organisations seeking the status of Technology Resource Centres at 9 nodal points in the country (Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Dharwad, Guwahati, Hyderabad , Jaipur, Lucknow and Patna) • Project Review and approval by Techno-Commercial Committee • Necessary financial and institutional help by the government for promoting the said technology in stages. MERITS: • Bottom up approach • Support for many NGOs • Rural capacity building, encouraging innovation and development of indigenous technology. • Has brought in carbon crediting to its supported technology

DEMERITS: • Loopholes and corruption: In 1995 when an alleged fraud to the tune of Rs 15 crore, involving funds, came to light. The agency blacklisted 564 non-profits, but it continued to function under a cloud amid allegations that it was colluding with corrupt non-profits.(Source: Down to Earth, February 2012) • Lack of Transparency: 634 NGOs have been blacklisted since 2001. But legal action to recover funds were initiated in only 62 cases in the past 10 years and only Rs 25.22 lakh were recovered. • Poor Marketing: ARTS does not adopt aggressive marketing for it products hence is unable to compete with other commercial units for the same services. • Diluting powers: It was started with the objective of empowering rural NGOs and disseminating appropriate rural technology. However, over time it has become just a funding body. • Updates: Many contemporary models like India Innovation Foundation and Honeybee Foundation present a more dynamic, interactive and workable model.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM :•Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas. •Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas. •Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education. •Cover schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. •Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation. •Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources and food. •Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES: The strategy is to make the program 'community led' and 'people centered'. A "demand driven approach" is to be adopted with increased emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. Subsidy for individual household latrine units has been replaced by incentive to the poorest of the poor households. Rural School Sanitation is a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Technology improvisations to meet the customer preferences and location specific intensive IEC Campaign involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. are also important components of the Strategy. The strategy addresses all sections of rural population to bring about the relevant behavioral changes for improved sanitation and hygiene practices and meet their sanitary hardware requirements in an affordable and accessible manner by offering a wide range of technological choices.

Sr. no. Component Amount earmarked as percent of the TSC project outlay Less than 5% (subject to a ceiling of Rs. 20 lakh per district) More than 15% GOI Contribution percent State Beneficiary Household/ Community 0 0


Start-up Activities (Preliminary Surveys, Publicity etc.)




IEC, Including Motivational Awareness and Educative Campaigns, Advocacy etc. Alternate Delivery Mechanism (PCs/RSMs)
(i) Individual Latrines for BPL/ disabled house holds (ii) Community Sanitary Complexes Individual house hold latrines for APL School Sanitation Including Anganwadis (Hardware and Support Services) Administrative charges, including training, staff, support services, Monitoring & Evaluation etc.





More than 5% (Subject to a maximum of Rs. 35 Lakh per district) Less than 60%







5. 6.

Nil More than 10%

0 60

0 30

100 10


Less than 5% (subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 lakh per district)




MERITS:  The program aims to provide duly completed household sanitary latrine to all the rural families.  School Sanitation, forms an integral part of every CRSP Project.  Each anganwadi is provided with a baby friendly toilet.  To add vigour to the implementation of the program, Government of India had separately launched an award scheme called the “Nirmal Gram Puraskar” for fully sanitized and open defecation free Gram Panchayats, Blocks and Districts. DEMERITS: •Lack of maintenance of the sanitation facilities at individual household level. •Lack of monitoring by officers from the State level and the district levels for the effective implementation of the program.

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