Zig Bee

INTRODUCTION
ZigBee is a low-power wireless technology, rewriting the wireless sensor equation. It is a secure network technology that rides on top of the recently ratified IEEE 802.15.4 radio standard. It is designed to interact with the remote controlled devices, which are put under a single standardized control interface that can interconnect into a network. Once associated with a network, a ZigBee node can wake up and communicate with other ZigBee devices and return to sleep. Zigbee’s key technical features include three license free frequency bands-2.4GHz, 868MHz, 915MHz;multiple channels; up to 100mts range; CSMA-CA channel access; low power, long battery life; supporting up to 255devices per network. Zigbee is used in home security systems where wireless sensors are easily installed than sensors that need wiring. The same is true in industrial environments, where wiring typically accounts for 80% of the cost of sensor installations. And then there are applications for sensors where wiring isn't practical or even possible. ZigBee promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to home security systems to consumer electronics.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME ZIGBEE
The network name comes from the zigzagging path a bee (a data packet) takes to get from flower to flower (or node to node). The technique that honeybees use to communicate newfound food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. Using this silent, but powerful communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zigzag pattern, they are able to share information such as the location, distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members.

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4 GHz). Media access control (MAC) layer 3.50m typical (5-500m based on environment) Multiple topologies. 40 kbps (@ 915 MHz). physical (PHY) and media access (MAC). Network (NWK) and security layers 4. The first two layers.CHARACTERISTICS • • • • • • • • • • Low cost — Extends wireless to virtually any sensor Low power consumption — Ideal for battery operation Small size. mesh Data rates of 250 kbps (@2.4 standard. ZigBee's protocol stack is structured in layers. and 20 kbps (@868 MHz) ARCHITECHTURE ZigBee stack architecture follows the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. are defined by the IEEE 802.star. Physical (PHY) layer 2. peer-to-peer.15. The model has five layers namely 1. Application framework 5. Application profiles ApplicationFram ork ew Application Object 240 [On Endpoint 24 ] 0 AP SS ESA P ZP UI ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) Application Object 1 [On Endpoin 1] t APSDE-SAP [On Endpoint 0] APSD E-SAP AP S M ESA P NL M ESA P APSDE-SAP Security Service Provider Application Support (APS) Layer NLD E-SAP NL SE SA P Netw (NW Layer ork K) MCPS-SAP M LME-SAP MediumAccess Layer (MAC) Layer PD-SAP PLME-SAP Physical (PHY) Layer Figure: ZigBee Stack Model 2 . The layers above them are defined by the ZigBee Alliance. light weight — Easy to integrate Ease of implementation Reliable data transfer Appropriate levels of security Direct sequence spread spectrum — Fast acquisition time Range.

Raw data throughput rates of 250Kbps can be achieved at 2.PHYSICAL LAYER: ZigBee-compliant products operate in unlicensed bands worldwide. The power management operation doesn't require multiple modes of operation.4GHz band. 902 to 928MHz (Americas). and 868MHz (Europe). 40Kbps at 915MHz (10 channels). The MAC provides network association and disassociation.4 GHz Orthogonal MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL LAYER The media access control (MAC) layer was designed to allow multiple topologies without complexity.4GHz (global). Like Wi-Fi. has an optional superframe structure with beacons for time synchronization.0 M chip/s Modulation BPSK BPSK O-QPSK Bit Rate 20 kb/s 40 kb/s 250 kb/s Data Parameters Symbol Rate 20 k baud 40 k baud 62. with offset-quardrature phaseshift keying modulation. including 2.4GHz (16 channels). The MAC was designed to handle large numbers of devices without requiring them to be "parked".4 to 2. Zigbee uses direct-sequence spread spectrum in the 2.4835 GHz Channel Numbering 0 1 to 10 11 to 26 Modulation BPSK BPSK 16-ary 868 to 915 MHz 2.5 k baud PHY Frequency Band 868 to 870 MHz 902 to 928 MHz 2. The MAC allows a reduced functionality device (RFD) that needn't have flash nor large amounts of ROM or RAM. depending on power output and environmental characteristics. The 868 and 900MHz bands also use direct-sequence spread spectrum but with binary-phase-shift keying modulation Table: Frequency bands and data rates Spreading Parameters Chip Rate 300 k chip/s 600 k chip/s 2. and a guaranteed time-slot mechanism for high-priority communications 3 . Channel width is 2MHz with 5MHzchannel spacing. The transmission distance is expected to range from 10 to 75m. and 20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel).

and beacon.15.4: data. Finally. which listen for their address and go back to sleep if they don't receive it. Another important structure for 802.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are received without error. A centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients' command frames no matter how large the network. and Figure:: beacon The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to ensure that all packets are tracked. ACK.15. It provides frame. A MAC command frame provides the mechanism for remote control and configuration of client nodes. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions.4: Data. MAC command. MAC command. The device takes advantage of specified "quiet time" between frames to send a short packet immediately after the data-packet transmission. Figure:: The four basic frame types defined in 802. ACK. the beacon frame wakes up client devices. feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was received without error.Frame structure: Figure illustrates the four basic frame types defined in 802. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree networks to 4 .15.

15. This feature extends the network range and improves data reliability. Mesh Star PAN coordinator Cluster Tree Full Function Device Reduced Function Device The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star. The routing algorithm uses a request-response protocol to eliminate sub-optimal routing. one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. It may also be used to build large. you can configure simple networks of more than 65. geographically dispersed networks with smaller networks linked to form a 'cluster-tree' network.000 (216) nodes. ZigBee leverages the security model of the IEEE 802. but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee routers. All other devices.keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time. Using local addressing. the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing key network parameters. cluster tree. all of which are shown in Figure In a star topology.4 MAC sub-layer which specifies four security services: access control—the device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network 5 . thereby reducing address overhead Security layer Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. known as end devices. directly communicate with the coordinator. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than we'll probably need). In a mesh topology. NETWORK LAYER ZigBee's self-forming and self-healing mesh-network architecture lets data and control messages pass from one node to another by multiple paths. and mesh.

• Data encryption. It (left). which uses symmetric key 128-bit advanced encryption standard • Frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without cryptographic keys • Sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed—the network controller compares the freshness value with the last known value from the device and rejects it if the freshness value has not been updated to a new value COMPARISION BETWEEN THE WIRELESS STANDARDS APPLICATIONS Potential applications of zigbee include the building automation. medical and residential control & monitoring A new twist on. "I've fallen and I can't get up” The figure basically shows a home-monitoring system for senior citizens. and movement tags (right). Zigbee-based sensors keep an eye on elderly residents living alone and warn medics about changes in habits that are potentially serious. industrial. which can let the system generate an alert based either on detected movement or the lack of any movement. 6 . a pendant (center) worn includes a light switch with a tiny digital camera around the neck.

An alert from the pendant or from one of the tags activates the camera. In contrast. which sends an e-mail. The station then signals this activity to a receiver. Wireless bait stations are devised which act as Zigbee nodes. Existing methods force exterminators to physically check each station for activity. Each bait station has a special sensor that triggers when termites eat at the wood it contains. This wireless approach beats the technique now used on several levels. Termites could cause severe damage long before evidence of them could turn up during a periodic inspection. The device can send a warning either to a monitoring company or family member if something is up.Zigbee doesn't have the bandwidth to handle video. the bait stations go into the ground at numerous spots surrounding a house. the Zigbee bait stations monitor pest activity 24/7. if a bedroom or refrigerator door hasn't opened by noon. So light switch / camera combos deliver still images to a controller. And exterminators need not make long trips just to examine bait stations 7 . It can be programmed to generate an alert. It also contains a panic button. for example. The bugs this system catches aren't in software One of the more offbeat applications for Zigbee sensors is in catching termites. In operation. The pendant includes accelerometers that detect the forces of a person falling.

(However. In this case it can send the homeowner's cell phone a text message detailing what's wrong. One worthy piece of the system is a water shut-off valve. In addition to proximity switches for doors and windows. windows. When the Key leaves the range of the base station. ac loads. 8 . and lights. it carries with it the last status of items such as doors. and even remind homeowners about periodic maintenance items such as low batteries in smoke detectors or the need for seasonal gutter cleaning. A variety of sensors have been devised for the system. Homeowners wondering whether they left the garage door open could conceivably tell by looking at the LCD in their Home Key.Two key components of the system are a base station and a Home Key.) The base station is smart enough to notice if one of the sensors changes state when the Home Key is out of range. the system stops short of asking a sympathetic neighbor to come over and rectify the problem. as read by sensors on the Zigbee network. The Key is envisioned to go into your pocket or onto a key chain. there are devices designed to detect leaking pipes.

interoperable wireless technology that addresses the unique needs of low data rate wireless control and sensor based networks. there was a need for a standard based. Zigbee promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to home security systems to consumer electronics. ZigBeef tags use mass-produced.15. REFERENCES 1.November 2004 2. ZigBeef allows identification of each animal on the range. offering a proven solution at an inexpensive price. or working chute. or grazing open pasture. ZigBeef radio-based cattle ear tags offer superior readingrange over passive wand-based tag technology. gathered into pens.Zigbeef is a solution for tracking cattle. CONCLUSION There are many wireless monitoring and control applications for industrial and home markets which require longer battery life. non-proprietary wireless sensor technologies. Zigbee sensors give beef producers the ability to electronically identify cattle whether their herds are crowded into chutes. lower data rates and less complexity than available from existing wireless standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. So. Computer networks-by Tanenbaum 9 . In this regard. The next zigbee challenge will be devising the proposed extension to the 802. Producers are no longer limited to infrequent opportunities to scan IDs. zigbee was poised to become the global control/sensor network standard. Zigbee is a new standard that still needs to pass through the circles or rigorous technology critics and establish its own place in the industry.4 standard.’4a’ which could be based on ultra-wideband (UWB). [refer the greeting preview for the figure]. at virtually any time. Electronics for you. pen.

3. www. www.zigbeealliance.com Visit: www.html Email: chinna_chetan05@yahoo. www.zigbeef.nuri.geocities. www.org 5.zigbee.com 6.com 4.com 10 .com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.

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