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Maryam Jahanzad


This experiment is an introduction to fundamental concepts and facts of rotational dynamics. A fairly realistic analysis of the motion of a flywheel can be made, assuming only that the net frictional torque on the rotating flywheel is constant. In performing this experiment, we develop understanding of rotational dynamics, evaluation of errors in measurements that may be difficult to obtain and comparing experimental value of moment of inertia with theoretical value of moment inertia.

For ages flywheels have used to achieve smooth operation of machines. The early models consisting of only a stone wheel attached to an axel. Nowadays flywheels are more complex constructions where energy is stored mechanically and transferred to and from the flywheel by an integrated motor/generator. The stone wheel has been replaced by a steel or composite rotor and magnetic bearings have been introduced. A flywheel stores energy in a rotating mass. Depending on the inertia and the speed of the rotating mass, a given amount of kinetic energy is stored as the form of rotational energy. One of the uses of the flywheel is inside a vacuum containment to eliminate friction-loss from the air and suspended by bearings for a stabile operation. Kinetic energy is transferred in and out of the flywheel with an electrical machine that can function either as a motor or generator depending on the load angle (phase angle). When acting as motor, electric energy supplied to the stator winding is converted to torque and applied to the rotor, causing it to spin faster and gain kinetic energy. In generator mode kinetic energy stored in the rotor applies a torque, which is converted to electric energy. Fig. 1 shows the basic layout of a flywheel energy storage system. Apart from the flywheel, Additional power electronics is required to control the power input and power output, speed, frequency and etc.

Figure1. simple flywheel used in lab

Figure2 Work output from fallen mass is given by the difference between lost in potential and kinetic energy during mass separation from flywheel. KE = ½ m ( N N r r)2 N Work produced on flywheel.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 In following part we describe theory of flywheel energy storage and method used to obtain the moment of inertia of the flywheel. W = mg2 rN . v= Kinetic energy.½ m ( r)2 . Potential energy = mgh = mg2 rN Where N = number of rotation Terminal velocity of mass.

if N. This means that all work was used to overcome the bearing friction which is assumed to be constant. OBJECTIVE   To compare the theoretical and experimental value of momentum of inertia for flywheel.½ m ( N r)2 = Cf 2 N + ½ I 2 N (2) Therefore. At the time of detachment of the load the angular velocity of the flywheel is N and when it comes to rest its angular velocity is zero. N1 and N are measured. Cf can be determined from equation (1) and substituted into equation (2) to obtain I. N/2 = N= So. Hence. . we will have mg2 rN . Thus. it will reach the maximum angular velocity N and the kinetic energy is given by KE = ½ m ( N r)2 . In this experiment we assumed that torsion of bearing friction is Cf . when it is allowed to rotate after load separates from flywheel. mg2 rN . if the force of friction is steady the motion of the flywheel is uniformly retarded and the average angular velocity is equal to N/2. At the time the load separates from the flywheel. its angular velocity decreases on account of friction and after some time t. By assuming the work used to overcome the friction is equal to the output work. After the load has detached.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 Flywheel starts from static condition. the flywheel finally comes to rest.½ m ( N r)2 = Cf 2 N (1) And energy equivalent after N rotation is given by. To investigate the variations in momentum of inertia of flywheel with different parts. It will reach a total of N1 rotations before stopping.

462 Nm 2.819 53 2 8.272x2 (5.272 Nm mg (2r) N 2.462_ 2 (52) 0.77 rad/s Cf (2N1) = = = = = mg (2r) N - Cf 1 m (N r)2 2 (0.00754 )(2x4) 2. The equation of the moment of inertia of flywheel is given by 1 I = 2 MR2 It is given that the density of steel is 7850kg/m3 and Volume of the flywheel.575 52 8.(0.02x4) . V =  l  R Mass of the flywheel.5x9.81)(2)(0.462 . N = = = 5.136kgm2 1 IN 2 2 = = = I = = Theoretical value of moment of inertia.711 52 Experimental value of moment of inertia.5)(0.77)2 0.Cf (2N) 2 2.77x0.5)(5. m = V .739 50 3 Average 8.02)2 2.(0.00754 Nm 1 m (N r)2 .Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS N=4 Mass of the load = 5 N Part 1 1 Time t (s) N1 8.

56 kg = 0.5)[7850  (0.5)[7850  (0.0903 + 0.090)2 = 0.089)2 .0440kgm2 For the component of the inner ring Moment of inertia.5)[7850  (0.(0.0202  0.0154 kgm2 Total moment of inertia.5)[7850  (0. I3 = (0.56)(0.0902  0.125)2  (0.125)2 For component of the outer ring 1 1 Moment of inertia for outer ring.2 m r2 Moment of inertia.020) ](0.030) = = 11. I1 (0. I = I1 + I2 + I3 I = 0.0154 = 0.125)2 .1252  0.0892  0.020) ](0.020)2 = 0.0903 kgm2 Moment of inertia for flywheel. m = 7850  (0. I2 = (0.020) ](0. I2 = 2 MR2 .5)(11.(0.0440 + 0.020) ](0.150 kgm2 .Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 So.

Maryam Jahanzad Part 2 1 Time t (s) N1 7.5)(0.0903 + 0.(0.5x9.461 2 (66) 0.76)2 0.461 .00593 Nm 1 mg (2r) N .Cf (2N) 2. Total moment of inertia.81)(2)(0.106 kg.5)(6.76 rad/s Cf (2N2) = = = mg (2r) N - 1 m (N r)2 2 (0.461 Nm Cf = = 2.020x4) . I = I1 + I2 I = 0.312 Nm 2.2 m (N r)2 .00593)(2x4) 2.759x0.604 67 7.312 x 2 (6.446 66 2 7.437 66 N= = 6.m2 .(0.02)2 2.261 66 3 KEM110702 Average 7.0154 = 0.101 kgm2 1 2 2 IN = = = I = = Theoretical value of moment of inertia.

00502)(2x4) 2.539x0.(0.Cf (2N) 2 2.0903 kg.Maryam Jahanzad Part 3 1 Time t (s) N1 6.0821 kgm2 Cf (2N3) = = = mg (2r) N - Cf = = 1/2IN 2 = = = I = = Theoretical value of moment of inertia.652 80 2 6.460 Nm 2.667 78 N= = 7.81)(2)(0.333 Nm mg (2r) N _2. I = I1 I = 0.020x4) .54 rad/s 1 m (N r)2 2 (0.460 .5)(7.5)(0.00502 Nm 1 m (N r)2 .460__ 2 (78) 0.m2 .020)2 2. Total moment of inertia.333x 2_ (7.54)2 0.(0.527 77 6.5x9.821 77 3 KEM110702 Average 6.

Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 Part 4 1 Time t (s) N1 8.(0.Cf (2N) 2.5)(6.0440 = 0.148 kgm2 Cf (2N4) = = = = = mg (2r) N - Cf 1 2 2 IN = = = I = = Theoretical value of moment of inertia.202 62 8.5)(0.5x9.0903 + 0.214 64 2 8.020x4) .59)2 0.303 x 2 (5. I = I1+ I3 I = 0.462 .81)(2)(0. Total moment of inertia.275 62 N= = 5.59 rad/s 1 m (N r)2 2 (0.462 Nm 2.00632 Nm 1 mg (2r) N .408 60 3 Average 8.020)2 2.00632)(2x4) 2.303 Nm 2.(0.2 m (N r)2 .462 _ 2 (62) 0.m2 .134 kg.074 x0.

33 4. 2003. And friction cause by air resistance that resists the motion of the falling mass is not included in the calculation. 2.150 kg. However in the actual case.0821 kg. experimental I=0. experimental values of moment of inertia of flywheel are considered accurate and reliable.m2 theoretical I=0.0821kg. that all the work done to overcome the bearing friction of flywheel is completely converted to the output work. experimental I=0. Fundamentals of physics. walker. Wiley. moment of inertia of the flywheel is approximately consistent with small deviations in short range for both experimental and theoretical results.08 10. Halliday. it cannot be neglected.148kg. Resnick. 6th edition.08% and 10. Part 1. experimental I=0. angular velocity of the flywheel is assumed to be constant throughout the movement.136 0. 4. We made a non-ideal assumption in this experiment.m2 Part 3. 9.136 kg. 9. experimental I= 0.72 9.m2 theoretical I=0.m2 theoretical I=0. 4.33%.101kg.72%.0903 kg.134 Percentage of discrepancy (%) 9. we realize that there is a small difference between them which may be caused by some errors such as.0821 0.45 1 2 3 4 From the calculations.m2 Part 2. 0. .m2. it is not true as the flywheel is starting from rest and rotates with an angular acceleration. So it’s better to use two people to count the number of rotation in order to obtain more accurate and reliable values. CONCLUSION In conclusion.m2 and 0.m2 Sine the percentage of discrepancy of each part from 1 to 4. Furthermore. D. all are less than 15%.101 kg.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 DISCUSION Part Experimental value of moment of inertia (kg/m3) 0.m theoretical I=0.45% respectively.134 kg. and J. we obtained the experimental value of moment of inertia for each part of experiment as follow. by comparing the experimental value with theoretical value for each part of experiment.m2.106 kg.150 0. Difficulty in counting the number of rotation after load detached. According to the equation .148 Theoretical value of moment of inertia (kg/m3) 0. 3.136 kg.m2 respectively which show that moment of inertia value is consistent and accurate since there is small deviation between the values calculated. R. Time t taken for the load till getting detached is not enough accurate because of the reaction time of human or human error.148 kg. This is because based on thermodynamics studies energy is lost in the form of heat throughout the experiment. Although air resistance only causes minor discrepancy.0903 0. 1.106 0.101 0.m2 2 Part 4. o. o. REFERENCES 1.

Ferd Beer and Russ Johnston (2005)Vector Mechanics For Engineers: Statics.wikipedia. New Jersey.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 2. NO : US 2001/0054856 A1. Gabrys CW. High performance composite . 4. McGraw-Hill 3. US patent pub. 27 Dec 2001. En.