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A scatter plot is a two variable graph that in which one variable (independent variable) is plotted on the x-axis and the second variable (dependent variable) is plotted on the yaxis

Horsepower vs Fuel Consumption
16 14

Fuel (L/100km)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 Horsepower (hp) 200 250 300

DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Fuel (L/100km)
6.7 10.1 7.5
Fuel (L/100km)
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 Horsepower (hp) 200 250 300

Horsepower vs Fuel Consumption

HP 105 170 124

17
250 210 155 52 176 180

3.2
14.1 13.3 9.6 4.4 10.3 11

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION

Variables will have a linear correlation if changes in one variable tend to be proportional to changes in the other A scatter plot can graphically show if two variables have a linear correlation Positive Correlation – increase in the independent variable tends to show an increase in the dependent variable Negative Correlation – increase in the independent variable tends to show a decrease in the dependent variable

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION
CLASSIFYING LINEAR CORRELATION

PERFECT

STRONG

MODERATE

WEAK

NEGATIVE LINEAR CORRELATION

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION
CLASSIFYING LINEAR CORRELATION

PERFECT

STRONG

MODERATE

WEAK

POSITIVE LINEAR CORRELATION

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION
CLASSIFYING LINEAR CORRELATION

NONE

NO LINEAR CORRELATION

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – Pearson’s r
The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation (or Pearson’s r) is a quantitative measure of the strength of linear correlation The Pearson r always has a value between -1 and 1. The following diagram illustrates how the correlation coefficient corresponds to the strength of linear correlation
Perfect Perfect 1 Negative Linear Correlation Positive Linear Correlation

Strong -1 -0.66

Moderate -0.33

Weak 0

Weak 0.33

Moderate 0.67

Strong

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION

THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – Pearson’s r

Sx is the standard deviation of X, Sy is the standard deviation of Y and Sxy is:

1 S xy   ( x  x )( y  y ) n 1

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINEAR CORRELATION THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – Pearson’s r
PEARSON’S r FORMULA

r

[n x 2  ( x) 2 ][ n y 2  ( y ) 2 ]

n xy  ( x)(  y )

Example – Using the dataset below, create a scatter plot and use the formula to calculate the linear correlation coefficient for the following dataset:

Study Time (h) Mark (%)

2 65

4 78

4 70

7 84

5 79