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s r

θ=

(angular displacement)

The natural units of θ is radians. 360o 1 rad = = 57.3o 2π Angular Velocity Usually we pick the z-axis as the direction about which the rigid body rotates. ω= ¯ ∆θ ∆t (average angular velocity)

ω = lim

dθ ∆θ = ∆t→0 ∆t dt

(deﬁnition of angular velocity)

The angular velocity can also be written as a vector. Its magnitude is deﬁned by the above equation while its direction is deﬁned by the right-hand rule. Angular Acceleration The average angular acceleration is deﬁned by: α = ¯ ∆ω ∆t (average angular acceleration)

α = lim

∆t→0

∆ω dω = ∆t dt and

**(deﬁnition of angular acceleration) dω d dθ d2 θ α= = = 2 dt dt dt dt
**

1

dθ ω= dt

2 . 14 A circular saw blade 0.00 s and the average angular acceleration αav−z for the time interval t = 0 to t = 3.200 m in diameter starts from rest. where γ = 5. How do these two quantities compare? If they are diﬀerent. 4 A fan blade rotates with angular velocity given by ωz (t) = γ − βt2 . In 5.00 rad/s and β = 0.800 rad/s3 . b) Calculate the instantaneous angular acceleration αz at t = 3. why are they diﬀerent? 2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration θ = angular displacement ω = ﬁnal angular velocity ωo = initial angular velocity α = constant angular acceleration t = time Here. Find the angular acceleration and the angle through which the blade has turned. we reintroduce the famous four equations for constant angular acceleration: ω = ωo + αt 1 θ = (ω + ωo ) t = ω t ¯ 2 1 θ = ω0 t + αt2 2 2 2 ω = ωo + 2αθ (1) (2) (3) (4) Ex.00 s it accelerates with constant angular acceleration to an angular velocity of 140 rad/s.Ex.00 s. a) Calculate the angular acceleration as a function of time.

we can use these relationships to determine the rotational dynamical quantities such as rotational kinetic energy (Krot ). Starting with the relationship s = rθ. which we’ve seen before. we introduce the relationship between linear and angular kinematical variables (for rigid bodies). Is the claim realistic? 4 Energy in Rotational Motion The kinetic energy of a point mass inside of a rigid body rotating about a ﬁxed axis with angular velocity ω is: 1 1 2 2 mi vi = mi ri ω 2 2 2 3 . Calculate the required radius of the centrifuge.3 Relating Linear and Angular Kinematics In this section. if we look at the time rate of change of both sides of this equation.127 m of bench space but can produce a radial acceleration of 3000g at 5000 rev/min. we can calculate the time rate of change of both sides of this equation: dθ ds = r dt dt or v = rω (relation between linear and angular speed) Likewise. 25 An advertisement claims that a centrifuge takes up only 0. arad v2 = = rω 2 r Ex. namely arad . Once we do this. we ﬁnd the following relation: dv dω = r dt dt or atan = r α There is a second acceleration.

(c) that passes through the centers of the upper left and lower right spheres and through point O.200 kg.30 from our textbook shows 4 point-masses forming a rigid body held together by 4 massless rods. Ex.where vi is the tangential velocity of the point mass. E9. each of which you can regard as a point of mass 0. perpendicular to its plane (an axis through point O in the ﬁgure).400 m on a side and connected by extremely light rods (Fig. E9. 30 Four small spheres. are arranged in a square 0. The total kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating about a ﬁxed axis is: 1 1 2 2 K = m1 v1 + m2 v2 + · · · = 2 2 N i=1 1 1 2 mi ri ω 2 = ω 2 2 2 N 2 mi ri = i=1 1 2 ω I 2 where we deﬁne the moment of inertia (I): N I = i=1 2 mi ri (deﬁnition of the moment of inertia) K = 1 I ω2 2 (rotational kinetic energy of a rigid body) Let’s look at the moments of inertia for various objects (Tablel 9. 4 .30).2). Figure 1: Fig. Find the moment of inertia of the system about an axis (a) through the center of the square. (b) bisecting two opposite sides of the sqaure (an axis along the line AB in the ﬁgure).

The parallel axis theorem states. 48 Suppose the solid cylinder in the apparatus described in Example 9. hollow cylinder with the same mass M and radius R. (b) Use energy concepts to explain why the answer to part (a) is diﬀerent from the speed found in Example 9.Ex. If the axis is translated a distance d. Calculating the moment of inertia for an object rotating around a new ﬁxed axis (parallel to the original axis) would normally require doing another integral Inew = r2 dm. The cylinder is attached to the axle by spokes of a negligible moment of inertia. (a) Find the speed of the hanging mass m just as it strikes the ﬂoor. Ugrav = M g ycm (potential energy for an extended body) (5) 5 Parallel-Axis Theorem If you know the moment of inertia of an object about an axis passing through its center-of-mass (Icm ). that if you know the moment of inertia about the center-of-mass (Icm ). Ugrav = m1 gy1 + m2 gy2 + m3 gy3 · · · = g (m1 y1 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 + · · · ) However. 4. calculating the moment of inertia requires doing an integral I = r2 dm. then the new moment of inertia can be written as: Inew = Icm + M d2 (parallel-axis theorem) (6) In many cases.8 (Section 9.8. we know from our center-of-mass equations: m1 y1 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 + · · · = (m1 + m2 + m3 + · · · ) ycm = M ycm Thus.1 Gravitational Potential Energy for an Extended Body We can calculate the gravitational potential energy for an extended body by summing up the potential energies for all the masses (mi ) inside the body.4) is replaced by a thin-walled. then the new moment of inertia 5 . then it’s possible to easily calculate its new center-of-mass about another axis (that is parallel to the original axis).

6 . Use the parallel-axis theorem to calculate the moment of inertia of the sheet for an axis that is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet and that passes through one corner of the sheet.for an axis parallel to the original axis can be easily determined without doing any integration. rectangular sheet of metal has mass M and sides of length a and b. Calculate the moment of inertia of this sphere about an axis passing through its center. 55 A thin. Let’s look at an example using the Icm ’s shown in Table 9. Figure 2: Moments of Inertia of Various Bodies Ex. 74 A sphere consists of a solid wooden ball of uniform density 800 kg/m3 and radius 0.30 m and is covered with a thin coating of lead foil with area density 20 kg/m2 .2. Prob.

located about 6500 light-years from the earth.Prob.d. (d) Assume that the neutron star is uniform and calculate its density. about 105 times the rate at which the sun radiates energy. calculate its radius in kilometers.4 times that of the sun. The Crab Nebula is a cloud of glowing gas about 10 light-years across. (b) Theories of supernovae predict that the neutron star in the Crab Nebula has a mass about 1. The Crab Nebula obtains its energy from the rotational kinetic energy of a rapidly spinning neutron star at its center. and this period is increasing by 4. Modeling the neutron star as a solid uniform sphere.0331 s. It is the remnant of a star that underwent a supernova explosion. 7 . Justify the statement that a neutron star is essentially a large atomic nucleus.22 × 10−13 s for each second of time that elapses. ﬁnd the moment of inertia of the neutron star. Compare to the density of ordinary rock (3000 kg/m3 ) and to the density of an atomic nucleus (about 1017 kg/m3 ). (a) If the rate at which energy is lost by the neutron star is equal to the rate at which energy is released by the nebula. (c) What is the linear speed of a point on the equator of the neutron star? Compare to the speed of light. seen on earth in 1054 a. Energy is released by the Crab Nebula at a rate of about 5×1031 W. This object rotates once every 0. 98 Neutron Stars and Supernova Remnants.

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