Chapter 1:The World Through Our Senses

Unit 1.1:Understanding the sensory organs and their functions
1. Humans have five sensory organs. 2.Sensory organs are organs that can sense changes in the surroundings.

3. Changes in the surroundings are known as stimuli 4. The structures that very sensitive to stimulus are called receptors.

It is tough and waterproof. The skin consists of two main layers: (a) Epidermis – thin outer layer of the skin which consists of dead cells. 2.Unit 1. The skin is the sensory organ of touch.2:Understanding the sense of touch 1. .

hair follicles 3. sweat glands.b) Dermis – contains many blood vessels. They enable us to feel and tell the texture. There are five types of receptors in the skin. size and shape of an object.Each of them is sensitive to specific stimulus. (a) Touch and pressure receptors are sensitive to touch and pressure respectively. .

(b) Pain receptors are sensitive to pain. . The touch and pain receptors are closer to the surface of the skin to detect touch and pain effectively. Heat and cold receptors are sensitive to temperature. (c) 4.

6. a. . Areas with high concentration of receptors are more sensitive to touch. The skin on different parts of the body has different degrees of sensitivity .5. The pressure receptors are deeper in the skin so that only large forces stimulate them.

7. The high sensitivity of the fingertips enables them to recognize the patterns of raised dots in the books.(b) Areas with thick epidermis are less sensitive to touch. Blind people use their fingertips to read books in Braille. .

Touch receptors Heat receptors Pain receptors Pressure receptors Cold receptors .

Receptor Touch receptor Pain receptor Stimulus detected Touch Pain Heat receptor Cold receptor Pressure receptor Temperature(hot) Temperature(cold) Pressure .

Different parts of the body have different sensitivity to touch Sensitivity in touch Depends on Concentration of receptors Parts with more receptors are more sensitive to touch Depth of receptors Parts with thick epidermis are less sensitive to touch .

More sensitive parts of the body fingertips tongue nose lips Less sensitive parts of the body soles of the feet legs elbow back of the body forearm hip .

Sensory organ Stimulus detected nose smell (chemicals in air) The nose has many smell receptors/sensory cells to detect smell .

For example: Smell the durians .


This position allows maximum exposure to the air that is flowing in through the nasal cavity. .1. 3. 2. The sensory cells or smell receptors are located at the roof of the nasal cavity . The nose is the sensory organ of smell.

How does the nose detect smell? Smell (chemicals in air) Dissolve in mucus lining The smell receptors are stimulated to produce impulses To the brain The brain interprets them as a smell .

3. The smells then stimulate the sensory cells to produce nerve impulses which are sent to the brain for interpretation. The nasal cavity is kept moist by a layer of mucus. . 2.1. Smells (chemicals in the air) must first dissolve in the mucus.

Sensory organ Stimulus detected The tongue can detect 4 basic tastes Sweet Salty tongue taste (chemicals in food) Sour Bitter .

Different areas of the tongue are sensitive to different tastes. Bitter Sour Salty Salty Sour Sweet .

There are many taste buds on the tongue. Each taste bud has many taste receptors. . Taste receptor Nerves to the brain There are 4 types of taste buds one for each taste Different areas of the tongue have different types of taste bud.

Taste (chemicals in food) Dissolve in saliva The taste receptors(in taste buds) are stimulated to produce impulses To the brain The brain interprets them as taste(s) .Food can only be tasted when it dissolves in the saliva.

Stimulated areas .Some food has only one taste.

Stimulated area .

An orange Stimulated areas .Some food has more than one taste.

Sense of smell improves the sense of taste.Sense of taste and sense of smell are both chemical senses. separate but closely linked. .

Chemicals in food Dissolve in saliva Stimulate taste receptors Nerve impulses Move into nasal passage Dissolve in mucus lining Stimulate smell receptors The brain interprets impulses Taste of food Nerve impulses .

Chemicals in food Dissolve in saliva Does not occur Move into nasal passage Dissolve in mucus lining Stimulate smell receptors Why does food taste less tasty when you have a cold? Stimulate taste receptors Nerve impulses The brain interprets impulses Taste of food Nerve impulses .

Sensory organ Stimulus detected ear sound .

Ossicles Oval window Semicircular canals Auditory nerve Pinna Ear canal Eardrum Cochlea Eustachian tube .

Parts of the ear Outer ear Pinna Ear cannal Middle ear Eardrum Ossicles Oval window Inner ear Semicircular canals Cochlea Auditory nerve Filled with air Eustachian tube Filled with air Filled with fluid .

How do we hear? .


choroid and retina. Each eyeball is made up of three layers-the sclera.6 understanding the structure of human eye 1. 2. The eyes are the sensory organs of sight.1. .

Structures of human eye Ciliary body Conjunctiva Iris Cornea Pupil Lens Sclera Choroid Retina Yellow spot Blind spot Aqueous humour Vitreous humour Eye muscle Optic nerve .

How do we see? .

they are refracted (bent) by the cornea. aqueous humour. . How do we see: (a)As the light rays from an object pass through the eyeball.3. (b)The upside down image that is formed on the retina stimulates the photoreceptors to produce nerve impulses which are sent to the brain through the optic nerve. lens and vitreous humour onto the retina.

.(c) The brain interprets the impulses and allows us to see the object the right way up.

cornea Aqueouse humour pupil lens Vitreous humour brain Optic nerve retina .

or more often.7:Understanding light and sight Reflection of light 1. all of the light will be reflected back in exactly the same pattern that it came in with. 3. Objects can be seen by the light they emit. Reflection of light occurs when light bounces off the surface of an object.Unit 1. . If the object has a very smooth surface. 2. by the light they reflect. such as a mirror.

You can see your own image on a stainless steel plate. Then it is reflected off the mirror and comes back to you in the same arrangement. This is why you see a clear image.4. Light is first reflected off you. stainless steel spoon or compact disc. 5. .

the angle of light ray is equal to the angel of reflection ray. reflected ray and the normal line are all on the same line. .6. a. According the LAW OF REFLECTION. The light ray. b. *show how to state the reflection law.

The reflected light rays are also parallel and in order. . the reflected light ray will not be parallel. *show the reflected light ray on the rough surface.7. The Law of reflection is obeyed only if the parallel light rays fall onto a uniform surface. If the parallel light rays fall on a rough surface. *show the reflected light ray on the smooth surface. 8.

The denser the medium. The change in speed can result in a change in the direction of motion of the light. 2. . the slower the light in it. Light travels fastest in vacuum. 3. its speed can change .Refraction of light 1. When light moves from one medium to another.

5. The following shows the three situation of the movement of light rays through two different media. . The bending of a light ray when it enters a medium of different density is known as refraction of light .4.


*show the figure . When light travels from a denser medium (glass) to less dense medium (air). the light ray would bend away from the normal.b.

The light ray moves from the glass to the water media. . b.c. *show the figure 6. The light ray is directed to the surface of a medium and passes into a different medium. the light ray moves from the water to the glass. Example: *students state the refraction light. a. The light ray moves from straight along the normal through the medium.

These items are placed in front of you. plane mirror. compact dissc Can I see my own image on the items? .Date Day: : Title Aim: : A. spoon. Reflection of light Material/ apparatus: Procedure : 1.

2. Each of the items are tested that we used in step 1. Can it reflect light? 3. All my observations are recorded in my Experiment Report. Observation: Items
Plane mirror spoon Compact disc Can I see my own image?

B. Refraction of light between two media of different densities

1. The light ray is directed into the semicircular glass block as shown in figure 1.21(a).


The ray of light is moved along the straight edge and the ray coming out is saw of the glass block.
Step 1 and step 2 are repeated by directing the ray of light into a rectangular transport plastic container that has been filled with water containing fluorescein as shown in figure 1.21(b) All my observation are recorded in my Experiment Report


Observation: * Draw figure 1.21 (a) and figure 1.12(b) with the light ray Question :


Defects of vision and ways to correct them 1.sightedness. presbyopia. Short-sightedness or myopia 1. Defect of vision in which far objects appear blurred but near objects are seen clearly. . astigmatism and colour blindness. The common defects of vision include short-sightedness. long.


Because the eyeball is too long or the refraction of light through the eye ’s lens is too large, the image is focused in front of the retina rather than on it.

3. Short-sightedness can be corrected using concave lenses, contact lenses or laser corneal surgery.
*text book pg.22 draw (figure 1.24)

Far object

Near object

Light from far distant and near distant object can focus exactly on the retina.

Light from a distant object is focused in front of the retina .Far object.

Short-sightedness can be corrected by a concave lens Negative Lens for Correction Corrected The lens diverges the light before it enters the eye so that the image is formed exactly on the retina. Uncorrected .Short –sightedness is caused by either the eyeball is being too long or the lens is being too thick.

Image is focused behind the retina rather than on it. pg 23 draw figure 1. *text book.25 . Defect of vision in which far objects can be seen easily but there difficulty in near vision.Long-sightedness or hyperopia 1. 3. 2. It can be due to a short eyeball or thin lens.

Near object Light is focus behind the retina. .

Long–sightedness is caused by either the eyeball is being too short or the lens is a being too thin. Uncorrected . Positive Lens for Correction Long-sightedness can be corrected by a convex lens Corrected The lens converges the light before it enters the eye so that the image is formed exactly on the retina.

. 2. Corrective eyeglasses with convex lenses is used to converge light before it enters the eye so that the image is formed exactly on the retina.Presbyopia 1. is attributed to physiological changes in the lens brought about by age. A similarly faulty vision.

some focus on the retina while others focus in front of or behind it. Instead. 4. 2. 3. . or it may result from disease or injury. is a type of faulty vision caused by a nonuniform curvature on the surface of the cornea. As a result. The condition may be congenital. light rays do not all come to a single focal point on the retina. less frequently the lens.Astigmatism 1. it can occur in addition to short-sightedness or longsightedness.

is the inability to distinguish colours.that is they have a limited ability to distinguish shades of red and green. . 3.Colour blindness 1. 2. Most of those with defective colour vision are only partially colour-blind to red and green. Colour blindness is usually an inherited characteristic.

In this spot. The optic nerve carries messages from your eyes to your brain. . 2. This bundle of nerve fibres passes through one spot on the retina.Limitation of sight 1. the retina has no photoreceptors to detect light. 3. This spot is known as the blind spot .

What are the differences between animals with stereoscopic vision and monocular vision? .



. Visual field of right eye Overlapping Overlapping visual fields visual field Visual field of left eye For animal with stereoscopic vision. the visual fields of both eyes overlap This helps the animals to judge distances accurately.Most animals with stereoscopic vision have both eyes at the front of the head.

Visual field of right eye Visual field of left eye Overlapping visual field For animals with monocular vision have little or no overlapping visual fields. This helps the animals to detect their enemies from a wide range of directions.Animals with monocular vision have both eyes at the side of the head.. .

Visual field of right eye Overlapping visual fields Visual field of left eye .

. Animals with stereoscopic visions are mostly predators or hunters.Animals with monocular visions are preys.

SOUND AND HEARING Production of sound 1.You can feel the vibrations in your throat by touching the throat while you talk.Sounds are produced by the vibrating bodies. 3.The vibrations of the vocal cords in your voice box give rise to sound. . 2.

The stretched string of a musical instrument produces sound when it vibrates. The musical sounds from piano.4. 6. guitar and violin are produced by the vibrations of the strings. When a tuning fork is struck. . its prongs vibrate and a sound can be heard. 5.

liquids and gases.Need of a medium for sound to travel 1. Sound needs a medium for transmission. 4. Sounds from distant sources reach our ears through the air. Sound can travel through solids. It cannot propagate through a vacuum. 3. 2. .

. Sound can be reflected by large. reflected sounds can take so long to die away that it is sometimes difficult to hear anything clearly. walls and cliffs. 2. it is called an echo. If the reflected sound is heard after an interval of silence. Echoes can be a nuisance. 4. In empty rooms. hard surfaces such as buildings.Reflection and absorption of sound 1. 3. cinemas and concert halls.

curtains and soft chairs help to solve this problem.5. Carpets. 6. Modern concert halls are designed so that sounds are neither muffled nor echoing around. .

Tearing Damage Damage Damage Damage of to to to to the the the the the eardrum ossicles auditory nerve cochlea hearing centre of the brain . d. The most common hearing defect is deafness.Defects of hearing and ways to correct them 1. for instance: a. Deafness is a hearing defect that is caused by damage to some part of the ear. e. 2. b. c.

example: damage to the nerve. cochlea or hearing centre of the brain . Some cases of hearing defects cannot be reminded. In some cases.3. the hearing defect can be corrected through surgery or by using a hearing aid 4 Damaged ossicles can be replaced and torn eardrums can be patched. 5.

A normal person hearing range is around 20 to 20 000 Hz (hertz). . 3. 2. 4.1.We also cannot hear very soft sound like our heartbeats.There is also a limit as to how far our ear is able to hear sound from a distance.Different people have different ranges of hearing.

A stethoscope The stethoscope amplifies the heartbeat or the pulse . Instrument that can amplify weak sounds a.5.

b. A microphone the microphone sends the weak sounds to the loud speaker to be amplified .

Hearing aid Hearing aid are used by people with hearing defects .c.

The direction of the sound is difficult to determine if only one ear is used for hearing.Stereophonic hearing 1. Stereophonic hearing enables us to determine the direction of the sound accurately 3. Stereophonic hearing is hearing using both ears 2. .

Hearing aids .

Experiment 1. the parts of plants that are sensitive to stimuli Problem: Can plants detect water? Hypothesis : The roots of all seedling grow towards water A. stimuli detected by plants b. .1 Date : Day : Tittle : Stimuli and responses in plants Aim : to investigate and identify a.

basin. 2. sawdust. absence of light. growth staged of seedling (age) Materials : Green been seedlings. Responding variable : Direction of root growth c. Manipulated variable : Position of seedling b. Fixed variable : Gravity. Apparatus: small clay pot. card box Procedure: 1. .Variable : a. The pot is kept aside for 3 hours. plasticine. water. The pot is placed in the centre of a basin of dry sawdust. The hole in the small clay pot is sealed with plasticine and water is filled it.

Note the direction of growth of the shoots and roots to the water source. The basin is covered by a cardboard box to shield off the light 5. The covered basin is kept for two days. After 2 days.34 4. Observation: . 6. the seedlings are took out carefully. some seedlings are placed in the moist sawdust as shown in figure 1. After 3 hours.3.

Discussion and question: Conclusion : .

35 are prepared b. Materials Apparatus : green been seedlings. c.The three sets of apparatus shown in figure 1. .The positions are kept as shown in A. B and C. Problem Hypothesis : Can plants detect the pull of gravity? : Roots of the seedlings grow downwards whereas their shoot grow upwards. the shoots and roots of the seedlings are observed. plasticine : Rubber bands.35 (pg 33) Procedure: a. moist cotton wool. After one day.B. petri dishes *draw figure 1.

the shoots and roots of the seedlings are observed d. Observation: Discussion and questions: Conclusion: .After one day. The appearance is sketched in experiment report.c.

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