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The first painting I remember seeing from Subhash Kapoor’s collection was the Kangra Virat Swaroop (catalogue no. 44). This was in 1995, and although at that time I had no knowledge of Indian paintings or Indian culture, the impact this image had on me was both powerful and true. Despite my ignorance, I understood that this painting expressed successfully the concept of the Infinite—that whatever it was that was shown in this intimate format was an attempt to reveal the smallness of humanity in relation to the universe. The experience overcame me, and I was immediately and irrevocably seduced by Indian paintings. It has been a singular goal of mine, in these past fourteen years, to have an opportunity to present formally an exhibition of selected paintings from the Subhash Kapoor Collection. Therefore, it is our pleasure to introduce Darshan: Paintings from the Collection of Subhash Kapoor. The name for this exhibition is a Sanskrit term meaning “sight,” in relation principally to glimpsing the divine. My introduction to Indian paintings had seemed to me like a profound experience, and I have looked at these paintings with darshan, a sense of reverence and devotion, ever since. Subhash Kapoor has had the fortune and privilege of having been around paintings his entire life. He began handling paintings as a small child at the urging of his late father, Shri Parshotam Ram Kapoor. Many of the eminent personages in Indian art would visit with his father, and Subhash had the opportunity to listen to their conversations. These great minds included Shri Rai Krishna Das-ji, Padam Shri Ram Gopal Vijayvargia, Shri Chuni Lal Naulakha, Shri Jagdish Mittal, Shri Moti Chandra Khajanchi, Shri Karl Khandalavala, Dr. M.S. Randhawa, Dr. John Kenneth Galbraith, Dr. V.C. Ohri, Dr. Stella Kramrisch, Dr. B.N. Goswamy, and Dr. Anand Krishna. These formative experiences have played a vital role in Subhash Kapoor’s development as a connoisseur and collector of Indian paintings. The fifty-one paintings selected for this exhibition provide a useful survey of Indian miniatures. They begin in period sequence
with an example from the well-known Bhagavata Purana series, Baby Krishna Tied to a Mortar, dated ca. 1530 (catalogue no. 14), and extend to the late nineteenth century with The Portrait of the Vallabacharya High-Priest, Gosain-ji (catalogue no. 51). There are examples from most of the major schools in Rajasthan, the Punjab Hills and Plains, and the Mughal Empire with its outlying, regional courts. The collection also includes examples from regions lesser known for their painting traditions, such as Kutch, Orissa, and Mysore. Together, these fifty-one works represent a majority of the different styles of Indian paintings, and show how these manners of painting evolved over the course of approximately three hundred and fifty years. We would like to express our gratitude to those who have graciously provided help and guidance with this catalogue and exhibition. First and foremost, we would especially like to thank Dr. Harsha V. Dehejia for his translations of the poetry found on many of the paintings, for his lyrical essay on Krishna paintings, and for the many years of friendship and learning that we have shared. We would like to thank Jennifer Moore for her contributions to this catalogue, the writing of several of the Pahari entries, her editing of the text, her extraordinary patience, and her invaluable help in keeping this project together. We wish to thank Dr. John Seyller, Dr. Navina Haider, Dr. Madhav M. Deshpande, and Dr. Meghan Callahan, for their scholarship and helpful insights. Harish Patel did an extraordinary job designing this catalogue, and we thank him for his vision and intense passion for paintings. A thank you is due also to Subhash Kapoor for the catalogue photography, and the vigorous and fruitful discussions we had regarding the paintings. It is our hope that you enjoy this catalogue and exhibition, and we look forward to seeing you very soon.
Aaron M. Freedman
Under the Kadamba Tree
The time is the early nineteenth century, and the place is Nadaun, in the Pahari region. The whispering sound is that of the river Beas. Let us tread softly into this idyllic world of drooping creepers, sensual nayikas, luxuriant blossoms, and verdant meadows, of an ethereal Vrindavana bathed in Himalayan moonlight, and soft music of a distant flute—lest we disturb the romantic rendezvous of Sansar Chand and the dancing girls of the court. This is Kangra, home of the most lyrical paintings of shringara rasa. This school was the climax of almost two centuries of Pahari painting, and here Krishna kavya was transformed by the kalam of the Kangra artists, under the patronage of enlightened rulers like Sansar Chand, into chirtra, or visual poetry. In these paintings, the love of Krishna and the gopis assumed many colors and forms, and colors spoke and lines resonated with hues of passion, and heart-throbbing moments of belonging and longing came to life. Here, peacocks and parrots, blossoms, and creepers, all shared the same space on the canvas as gopis and sakhis, for, after all, the same sap that gave them life gave life to everything in the enchanted space of the most beautiful paintings of shringara rasa. While Rajput painting in Rajasthan saw the complete evolution from early manuscript illustration to the fully evolved and refined miniature painting, it appears that Pahari painting did not go through this transformation. Driven by pushtimarg Vaishnavism, Krishna art reached new heights in the leisured and luxuriant Pahari kingdoms. Another feature of the Pahari kalam was the greater homogeneity among the output of different kingdoms, since artists from one kingdom frequently traveled to another. Pahari art was not a court art in the Rajput sense, and, more important, patronage of Pahari art was more enlightened than Rajashtani art, since it not only gave the artists total freedom in their work, but also rewarded them handsomely and elevated their social status. There was a certain joyousness and sensuality in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Kangra court, as can be seen from the accounts of Western travelers like Moorcroft. It is not surprising that the Kangra artists would incorporate this ethos in their kalam, and use it to portray the madhurya of Krishna. It has been rightly said that Kangra painting is characterized by a lyricism, a patrician elegance tempered by a simplicity and warmth of feeling, a refined earnestness and a gracefulness of form. Kangra paintings are kavyamaya, suffused with the lyricism of poetry; layamaya, full of the delicacy and softness of dance; and gitamaya, resonant with the sound of music. Emotion in Kangra paintings is almost palpable; tender feelings of Krishna and the gopis are visible, and the music in the air is almost audible in these beautiful paintings, but only to those who have the sensitivity to go beneath the surface and partake of the nuances and suggestions of Krishna’s romantic moments with the gopis. The Kangra kalam is indeed a feminine art, intrinsically an art of sentiment rather than of passion. In their time, these paintings must have been celebrated in elite and cultured company, in sophisticated and elegant surroundings, with the accompaniment of song and dance, with flowing madira and smoldering hookahs—not silently watched in the sterile ambience of a museum. It has rightly been said that Kangra painting is the superb lyricism and melody of the sweet love of Krishna made visual. The landscape in the paintings, which is inspired by the bucolic and luxuriant Pahari terrain, is assimilated into the mood of the personages through a symbolism that is very transparent in its poetic suggestion. While the Kangra kalam exudes a refined sensuousness and lyrical grace—drawing its inspiration not only from its idyllic landscape, but also equally from the living presence of the Krishna of love in the courts—it is in the depiction of the graceful and elegantly sensuous shringara rasa nayika that it reaches its greatest heights of artistic
when Krishna kavya was transformed by the kalam of the artists and the patronage of enlightened rulers into chitra. His Sunder Shringara is considered an important document of the ritikal period. Vallabhacharya’s Madhurashtakam resonates the dhruva pada madhuradhipati akhilam madhuram. There is in her not only the charm of romantic sensuality. you have stolen in a moment my two buds of the Kadamba. under the Kadamba tree. The names of Keshavdas and Bihari stand out prominently as leaders of the prolific ritikal movement. The Kangra kalam is indeed a feminine art. While we know many of these poets by name. the pastoral Krishna was transformed into a courtly nayaka in the hands of ritikal poets. buzzing bees and cooing birds. (the lord of madhurya is altogether sweet). whether she was experiencing the pain of pathos of the pleasures of love. 2. and. 1. in the hands of the Pahari artist who depicted Krishna’s amorous presence in Vrindavana. the delighter of Nanda pulled away her odhni. 45) rank as the high-water mark of the magnificent Kangra kalam. and was patronized by the royalty and the nobility. and she is enraged. madhurya was esthetically evocative. a luminous elegance and unsurpassed beauty. many others are forgotten and remain nameless. It was a magnificent era. and lines resonated with the hues of passion. but also a refined romantic sensibility. blossoms and creepers. Illustration from a Sundar Shringer Series: Krishna Prostrating Himself at the Feet of Radha (catalogue no. shringara rasa was transformed into shringara bhakti. the Pahari kalam had lost much of its finesse and vitality. The ritikal movement flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. the sap that gave them life gave life to everything in Vrindavana. cows and birds. renders this couplet in the distinctive Kangra style. Having said this. where colors spoke. 47) The ethos of the ritikal produced a large number of poets who remain unknown. for. The Kangra artist. On the back of this painting. where the love of Krishna and the gopis assumed many colors and forms. but also the serenity of a woman in love who is also aware that her sensuality is the doorway to spirituality. do not hide them. and the glorious era of five hundred years of miniature painting was coming to an end. and that flute resonated within us till we found our own real selves. Dehejia . blossoming trees and winding creepers. their presence not rustic. Krishna tries to assuage her feelings by falling at her feet. 39) In a couple of hundred years after the Bhagavata Purana and the Gita Govinda. So is the Pahari version of Sunder Shringara (catalogue no.Notes on Three Paintings: finesse and mastery. Harsha V. Equally. The Kangra nayika of painting has not only an elegant and sensuous charm. and it was there. Radha Sits in Sadness While Krishna Dances in the Woods of Vrindavan (catalogue no. 39). and. O gopi. and the nayika relents and she lets go of her mana. for. in the genre of romantic figures that Indian artists have produced. Madhurya becomes an epistemic principle in Vallabhacharya’s pushtimarg Vaishnavism. but who wrote with flourish of the romantic and courtly Krishna. One can almost feel and hear the sweet notes of love in this painting. a love that was shared equally by gopas and gopis. shared the same space on the canvas as gopis and sakhis. the clear noonday sky and the star-studded sky of the night. The Modi Bhagavata and the Lambargaon Gita Govinda (catalogue no. through it. but sophisticated. intrinsically an art of sentiment rather than of passion. One such poet wrote: O woman with beautiful eyes. but urban. where heart-throbbing moments of belonging and longing came to life. or mellifluous love. Radha and Krishna Meeting in the Forest (catalogue no. 3. she represents the most beautiful and the most exalted. where peacocks and parrots. that we heard the flute of Krishna. probably in the court of Sansar Chand. it was transformed into the lyrical and sensuous depiction of the verdant and bucolic forest where Radha and the gopis were enveloped in the sweet love of Krishna. their amorous encounters not simple. Sunder kavi was an important part of the ritikal movement and was recognized and honored by Shah Jahan. where Krishna and Radha are not pastoral but courtly. or visual poetry. and thus he rejoiced on the banks of Kalindi. after all. By the middle of the nineteenth century. the doha inscription reads: Tears roll down the nayikas’s eyes on seeing the marks of the red dye on Krishna’s forehead. 45) The defining feature of Krishna’s presence in the enchanted Vrindavana was madhurya.
an extremely fine brush. The master emulated the use of the monochromatic grisaille technique. Paris. 1992). Basawan invented a new technique in Mughal painting known as nim qalam. dressed in a cloak. Abrams. and gold. holding a stringed instrument and chain. and mounted. however. Inc. in the collection of the Musée Guimet. . which emphasized modeling to convey depth and volume. A contemporary drawing by Basawan. his held at the shoulder by a clasp. as he combined so many different elements that it is often hard to determine the original sources. which is a symbol of learning and a main attribute of Minerva.” A later inscription on the bottom of the drawing reads “Ustad Basawan. and is surrounded by various articles. lies in front of the goddess. In this case. under the rule of Jahangir.1 Minerva Ascribed to Basawan. demonstrated an impressive independence in copying European subjects. p. calligraphy on verso by Muhammad Husayn Zarrin Qalam Mughal ca.’” The calligraphy on the verso is signed “Muhammad Husayn [Zarrin Qalam]. Basawan. Minerva holds an ektar. was exceptionally skilled in copying and appropriating European engravings and Christian iconography. A cat sits by the pedestal. shows a saint holding the stringed instrument rather than the usual palm frond. stands on a pedestal. Although Basawan was not rigorously faithful to the iconographic and thematic conventions of European imagery. with gold fauna on gold floral ground. See Amina Okada. well into the first quarter of the seventeenth century.” 1 Basawan is known to have replaced a usual Christian attribute with an ektar in at least one other instance. translates. one of the master artists at the Akbar court.1 An open book. Painting: Folio: 7 X 31⁄2 inches (17.8 x 23. and light washes. rather than the traditional spear. fig. This manner of painting remained popular from the end of Akbar’s reign in the late sixteenth century. Indian Miniatures of the Mughal Court (New York: Harry N. Basawan. a Persian stringed instrument. 90. margined. “Facing the [painting] of the woman holding a baby in her arms.8 cm) A European-styled Minerva. red. 1590 Nim qalam (grisaille) drawing mounted on album page with pale green and pink margins illuminated with gold flowers. including a book and ewer.8 x 8. She is confronted by a half-nude baby also dressed in a cloak.9 cm) 141⁄2 x 93⁄8 inches (36. Verso with four lines of nasta’liq. he adhered closely to the stylistic issues. ruled. With the use of black ink. and blue margins with blue rule on blue-tinted paper.. A note in the lower margin. and birds and trees appear in the background. intended presumably for the binder. or ‘Master Basawan. 89.
Susan Stronge.” another game held in honor of Humayun’s viasit to Tabriz. which was more like polo played on foot. The kneeling figure is either the governor.5 cm) The Mughal Emperor Humayun is welcomed officially to the city of Tabriz. See Linda York Leach. Basawan belongs to the first generation of Mughal painters. London.6 x 19. Dublin. vol.2 The name of the artist. the British Library. or Mulla Qutbu’ddin Jalanju of Baghdad. now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.2 Humayun Visiting the City of Tabriz A Leaf from the “Third” Akbarnama Manuscript By Basawan Mughal ca. London. S. on his way back to India. 2004). is shown at the palace’s upper level.). and the distinctive turban of his own design. Provenance: From a private collection that has been in England since the 1940s. and was one of the best known and most prolific of Akbar’s artists. New York. folio 156 Painting: Folio: 123⁄4 x 71⁄2 inches (32. Calcutta. 42-55. in addition to those in the Victoria and Albert Museum. having worked on the Razmnama ca. mother of the Emperor Akbar. where he is being received by the Tabriz court. The Shah had banned the game previously because of riots. Verma lists no fewer than one hundred thirty-seven of his works. 1. and the Cleveland Museum of Art. is inscribed at the lower right. 1994). Beveridge (translator). . and the Chester Beatty Library.P. by Banwari (Kalan). pp. London. S. the Nasser D. 443-444. 83-94.1584. Basawan. and Andrew Topsfield (eds.1 Humayun. or Master. It may have been annotated on the missing lower-right-hand corner. 1 2 3 4 An Akbarnama page from the same manuscript. but the colorist is not mentioned after the name of the senior artist. In honor of the guest. See H. 1897. pp. Tabriz was famous especially for a version of hockey (chaugan-e piyadeh). Arts of Mughal India: Studies in Honour of Robert Skelton (Ahmedabad/London. 1595-1600 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Verma.3 This page is one of sixteen from an important royal manuscript that is thought to have belonged to Hamida Banu Begum. dressed in green and purple. the city is decorated. and special games are being held. “Pages from an Akbarnama” in Rosemary Crill. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art. pp. mounted on an eighteenth-century album page.P. The outline is by Basawan. The Akbarnama of Abu-l-Fazl.4 Other leaves from the series are in the Polsky Collection. but reinstated it temporarily for their guest’s pleasure. Mughal Painters and Their Work (New Delhi. who waited on Humayun in Tabriz and accompanied him to Mashhad. He was honored during his lifetime with the title of Ustad. depicts “wolf running. The scholars who have worked on it have identified it as a third royal Akbarnama manuscript.2 cm) 141⁄4 x 91⁄4 inches (36 x 23.
In his memoirs. one of these is also published in Toby Falk and Simon Digby. verso with six lines of black nasta’liq Painting: Folio: 63⁄8 x 33⁄4 inches (16. 201-202.5 cm) 14 x 93⁄4 inches (36. On the left.).2 x 9. Others are on foot or on horseback. This painting is probably an illustration of one of these expeditions. 1982). Welch. 1980). engaging in the hunt. mounted on album page with pink and gold floral motif on green ground.6 x 24. p. 1978). holding swords or rifles. Another lion is backed into a cave. 30.1 There are other versions of the exact same composition that are published.. Indian Painting (London: Colnaghi and Co. Welch and S. no. as the emperor had an intense passion for the pastime. lot 76. is poised to thrust his spear into a lion attacking one of his men. Published: 1 2 Sotheby’s London. and a member of the party narrowly escapes his demise. with washes of opaque watercolor on buff paper. 16.D. laid down between red and gold floral design. A. No other ruler in the Persian-speaking world was crowned in that year. 1590-1600 The Emperor Jahangir’s Lion Hunt Brush and ink. no. did two other versions of this scene. a group tends to a captured cheetah that has been blindfolded. 18 December 1968.C. The abjad dating in the last verse adds up to 1124 (1712 A. Toby Falk and Simon Digby. mounted high on an elephant. the year three Mughals were crowned. 66. pp. lot 126. The inclusion of “the enemy being caught” may be an indication that the ruler intended is Farrukh Siyar (1124-31/1713-19). 16 June 1987. Art of the Islamic Book: The Collection of Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan (Cornell: Cornell University Press.8 cm) Jahangir. Farrukh Chela. no.2 The inscription on the reverse contains a Persian quatrain in nasta’liq eulogizing a newly crowned king on his accession who is having the khutba read in his name. See Christie’s catalogue. rocky landscape. The artist. . as a comrade helps him scamper up a tree. The scene is set in a dramatic. Paintings from Mughal India (London: Colnaghi and Co..15.3 Mughal ca. Jahangir mentioned several hunting incidents.
1 1 See Linda York Leach.. yellows. blues. Although from an unidentified album. .4 Mughal ca. London. outer border ruled in black. margins in cream sprinkled in gold. a farmer and his wife tend to their flock of goats.7 x 13. The men in the foreground butcher a carcass that is part of the reward from the day’s hunt. Verso with calligraphy in twelve lines of nasta’liq in black ink on a pale ground with blue borders. dynamic qualities. Another princely figure. this refined painting bears similarity to contemporary pages from the Akbarnama in the collection of the Chester Beatty Library.8 cm) 141⁄2 x 105⁄8 inches (36. aesthetic impression. Vol. lavenders. The opulent scene appears to focus on a pleasing. rides his richly caparisoned horse with his falcon at the ready. mounted on eighteenth-century album page. rather than purely bold. in addition to the earlier traditions of mainly reds. Dublin. inner borders ruled in black. In the distance. and oranges. is poised to let his arrow fly at one of the three antelope that dart before him. Ltd. pp. Painting: Folio: 81⁄2 x 51⁄2 inches (21. a later eighteenth-century seal at lower left.1605 A Hunting Scene Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Mughal and Other Indian Paintings from the Chester Beatty Library. 1995). 1600 . and browns. 232–293. white. dressed in orange.9 x 27 cm) A young noble. The artist has chosen a palette that emphasizes greens. An attendant follows closely behind him on a brown horse. and the British Library. dressed in red and riding a pale-blue horse. I (London: Scorpion Cavendish. and red.
” Artibus Asiae. 35. “The Mughal Artist Farroukh Beg. 1976). The royal stands against a pale green ground. 122.7 cm) A young prince is dressed in pink and gold and with a spray of feathers adorning his turban. “Farrukh Beg in the Deccan. For a version in mirror image. Bijapur ca. see Sotheby’s London. The portraits done by the Mughal artist Farrukh Beg during his period of Deccani patronage most likely influenced this style. 393-411. et al. pp. holding a closed book in his raised right hand. no. 74-75. 319-341.. Indian Miniature Painting from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd.” or “Pinnacle of Royalty. See Robert Skelton. the feathers (or sometimes leaves) ornamenting the turban. Published: Paintings from Mughal India. 55. 1972). . see Stuart Cary Welch. when the painting was mounted in its current gold border.5 Deccan. Vol. II.4 x 28. I: The Mughal and Deccani Schools. Indian Drawings and Painted Sketches (New York: The Asia Society. 23 October 1992. Illustrated in Edwin Binney 3rd. mounted on album page with outer border of gold flowers Painting: Folio: 55⁄8 x 31⁄8 inches (14. p. (Portland: Portland Art Museum.2 x 8 cm) 165⁄8 x 113⁄8 inches (42.1 The distinguishing characteristics of the early-seventeenth-century Bijapuri style are evident in this painting: the pink and pale green palette. vol. vol. no. pp. pp. 1620 Portrait of a Prince Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. 1 2 3 A drawing in the Jagdish Mittal Collection is close in subject and composition. 1957.3 An inscription appears in the top right corner that reads “Qutb al-Mulk. with his left hand clutching his elegant gold shawl.” in Ars Orientalis.. probably in the nineteenth century.2 A particularly close example by Farrukh Beg is currently in the Edwin Binney 3rd Collection. 30. p. and. lot 504. no. embroidered sash. 1979.” and indicates that the subject was thought to be a prince of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. no. and the long. 144. This inscription was added. and John Seyller. 69. San Diego. Colnaghi’s.3 /4 (1995). the arms set one above the other.
Shah Jahan on a Globe in the Chester Beatty Collection (see Amina Okada. Compare with Soldiers Listening to Music in the Chester Beatty collection. Mughal and Other Indian Paintings from the Chester Beatty Library. Painting: Folio: 41⁄2 x 23⁄4 inches (11. strongly individualistic manner. pl. 208). the genre to which this painting belongs.2 Payag is celebrated more for his later. three mystics gather in a semi-circle around a campfire in a lush grove of trees. and arguably most outstanding. and had a unique. The third. Indian Miniatures of the Mughal Court (New York: Harry N. Payag also paid close attention to the drawing of plants and trees. All these characteristics are evident in this painting. I (London: Scorpion Cavendish.1 Although exceptionally competent in the conventional manner of Mughal court painting. 247. watches the old man with a smile. painters of the Shah Jahan court.1 cm) In this night scene. The expressionistic landscape is dark and misty. especially the dextrous use of chiaroscuro and realism. while another plucks at his instrument.. . margins ruled in gold. who was one of the foremost. seated on the left. The works of contemporary European masters were studied closely at the Mughal court. tends to the fire. 1995). 441. expressionistic group scenes featuring ascetics and courtiers. moody.1 x 7 cm) 61⁄4 x 41⁄2 inches (15. plastic command of facial types. a pot. 68.3 1 2 3 Linda York Leach. p. mounted on buff paper. Inc. no. The eldest.7 x 11. and special attention has been paid to the naturalistic rendering of the portraits illuminated by the orange glow of the fire. p. garbed only in a loincloth and seated on a skin. and a fan of peacock feathers lie on the ground. Ltd. The European elements that characterize this painting. are distinctive of the work of the Mughal artist Payag.6 Attributed to Payag Mughal ca. See Leach 1995. p 354. A couple of bowls. and Payag adapted these European techniques in an intense. 1992). Vol. 1640-1650 Mystics Around a Campfire Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Abrams. He was a master of the effects of light and reflection.
1992).. saucer. such as the cuffs and lower hem of the garment. and may have been the a inspiration for this painting by Muhammed Yusef.H. 269. and copied his style until they were able to develop their own distinctive characteristics as artists.D.9 cm) 121⁄2 x 9 inches (31. one of his master’s favorite subjects. under the tutelage of Rez¯ -e a Abbasi.7 Dervish Smoking Hookah Ascribed to Muhammed Yusef al-Husayani Iran. but without a hookah. figs. Certain details. the master artist of the royal atelier. . and the date A. 263. Inc. have been colored in lapis blue. basing. and the hookah mouthpiece. An artist by the name of Muhammed Yusef is known to have worked at the court of Shah ’Abbas II (r. is signed by Rez¯ . p. 43-44. 1642-1666). calligraphy on verso. his style on that of his master’s in his paintings of dervishes. Soudavar. Isfahan Dated 1643 (1053 AH) Black ink and wash with opaque blue watercolor. pl. 1053 (1643 A. mounted on album page with green grape clusters on pink ground. and small plate of snacks sit by his side. Art of the Persian Courts: Selections from the Art and History Trust Collection (New York: Rizzoli International Publications. inscribed Abdullah al Husayni Painting: Folio: 53⁄8 x 31⁄2 inches (13.9 cm) An old dervish sits smoking a hookah. Muhammed Yusef was one of Reza’s most talented disciples and is known to have modeled his style closely on that of Rez¯ .). a for example. A teacup. pg. 1 2 See Abolala Soudavar.1 A similar seated dervish. with the signature Abdullah al-Husayani. 108. The inscription to the left of the hookah provides the name Muhammed Yusef al-Husayani. Rez¯ ’s a students worked closely under their teacher. The painting is finely drawn in black ink with a restrained use of wash.75 x 22.2 On the verso of the album page are three calligraphic panels written in Ta’liq script.2 x 8. in a sparse landscape of scraggly rocks and tattered trees.
Jerome. praying. As a result not only of the activities of Jesuit missionaries and visits of diplomats. in which he mentions that. dressed in a monk’s robe. It is here that he studied scripture and completed his translation of the Bible into Latin. kneels on the floor of a cavelike interior.13 x 25. 1630-1635 The Temptation of St. he had a long sojourn in Bethlehem. After St. Jerome is based. A voluptuous woman leaning into his view and putting her hand on her chest distracts his attention.8 Mughal ca. Jerome Opaque watercolor on paper with thin yellow border.4 cm) St. on an unidentified European engraving. In this part of the saint’s life. in all likelihood. varnished Painting: 133⁄8 x 10 inches (34. fasting. he is usually shown in solitude. with his books and a crucifix or a skull. emphasizing his meditation on sacred truth. Jerome spent four years in the desert outside of Antioch. The woman depicted is actually an apparition of his own earthly desires that tempt him and distract him from his divinely inspired tasks. he had had visions of Roman virgins. a regular supply of European engravings made their way to India during the Shah Jahan Period. . as he tries to remain focused on the small book propped before him on a ledge and the crucifix hanging on the wall that shows a beturbaned Christ wearing a loincloth. This image of St. His hands are clasped together in prayer. This image may have been taken from the saint’s letters. but also of an increasing trade between the Mughals and the West. and learning Hebrew. during his time in the desert. Manuscripts and a bowl lie on the floor.
see Stuart Cary Welch. 1973). with the other. see Mark Zebrowski. Roch’s skirt to reveal the dark spot of the bubo on his thigh. and the similarly treated marbled papers found in contemporary Deccani albums point.2 Although it had been thought that these works originated from Turkey or Persia.9 Deccan. instead. A small dog accompanies the pilgrim. 2008. red. and gold rulings. 1 2 3 Identified by Dr. The other side of the album page is an early nineteenth-century Deccani painting of a blue yogi seated in meditation on a leopardskin outside a hut in the forest. St. clutches a staff to which is tied a small bag of belongings.6 x 7.2 cm) 93⁄4 x 61⁄2 inches (24. The putto lifts St. the handling of the swirling skies. . Roch (ca.1 Bijapur was a center for the production of marbled drawings in the mid-seventeenth century. The uncolored group is positioned against a marbled ground. 1998. For a discussion of marbled drawings from the Deccan. 30 April.5 cm) A European-styled pilgrim holds one hand to his breast.7 x 16. 1983). The subject of this marbled drawing was certainly copied from one of the many European engravings brought to India by visiting Jesuits. The saint was afflicted by the bubonic plague. 1295 – 1327). nineteenth-century album page with a blue border and white. This detail is indicated by the figure’s hand’s being placed over his heart. Meghan Callahan. a pilgrim-saint from Montpellier. (London: Sotheby Publications. A Flower from Every Meadow (New York: The Asia Society.3 Published: Christie’s South Kensington. and. the costumes. Bijapur Mid-17th century Saint Roch Marbled paper drawing with ink and translucent watercolor on paper. A winged putto clings to the figure’s right leg and holds up the pilgrim’s skirt. mounted on album page with plain cream border Painting: Folio: 41⁄8 x 213⁄16 inches (10. independent scholar. but managed to survive and cure others of the disease. pp. France. the high shading of the figures. Deccani Painting. 135-138. This example is one of the few known in which the background is marbled rather than the figures. was born with an auspicious red cross on his breast. to a Bijapuri provenance. The small painting is mounted on a cream-colored. from an email correspondence. For other examples of this rare technique. October 4. lot 345.
7 x 29. Painting: Folio: 151⁄4 x 113⁄4 inches (38.5 x 53. 1 See. 2002). in the collection of the British Library. Mihr Chand. blue. The treatment of the European-style background with gray cumulus clouds against a pale. 1987. mounted on album page with outer buff border with gold-leaf splashes. red. The elephant is richly caparisoned with jeweled trappings and a gold and green saddlecloth decorated with flowers.P. p. Published: Sotheby's London. calligraphically signed on the reverse by Muhammad Musa al-Husayni. fig.3 cm) A mahout holding a golden goad is seated on a royal elephant that walks across a field under a pale sky. 48. blue-green sky and trees seen at a distance is a trademark of Bahadur Singh. Barbara Schmitz. exemplifies this style. 1750-80. ed. London. J. 12. a chief artist at the court of Shuja-ud-Daulah of Lucknow (r. Bahadur Singh’s Portrait of a Mufti in a Landscape. 1754-1775). Losty. 1765-1770 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. inner blue border with gold floral pattern. (Mumbai: Marg Publication.8 cm) 163⁄4 x 21 inches (42. December 14.10 Royal Elephant and Mahout Attributed to Bahadur Singh Uttar Pradesh. and together their artistic legacies dominated Oudh painting for nearly the remainder of the eighteenth century. “Towards a New Naturalism: Portraiture in Murshidabad and Avadh.1 Bahadur Singh worked in close collaboration with another master artist. gold rulings. Oudh ca. who influenced his style greatly. lot 30.” in After the Great Mughals: Painting in Delhi and the Regional Courts in the 18th and 19th Centuries. .
fig.11 Uttar Pradesh. 11. such as the landscape style. and the figures that populated them. 1981).2 cm). (Mumbai: Marg Publications. Unlike the strict orthodoxy governing art under the patronage of Aurangzeb.. . and Mir Kalan Khan. see Mildred Archer. 436. were open to these new influences and different artistic traditions before the visit of the British artist Tilly Kettle to Faizabad in 1772-73. p. Mihr Chand. and the relationship between these two elements. by Mir Kalan Khan. has been given a pre-Kettle dating of ca. were also now presented from an eye-level perspective. in fact. Oudh ca. ed. 2002). pp. which added to their sense of naturalism.2 cm) An episode is illustrated from the medieval Persian love poem of Khusraw and Shirin.P. 1 2 3 See J. from the Johnson Album 9. no. his love. 1770–1825 (London: Sotheby’s Publications. Khusraw passes a beautiful young lady bathing at a pool. in particular.1 It is thought artists operating in Oudh. Landscape. in London. “Towards a New Naturalism: Portraiture in Murshidabad and Oudh. such as Dip Chand. Khusraw and Shirin are eventually married. These landscapes. Mid-eighteenth-century Mughal painting enjoyed a renewed concern with naturalism. in the collection of the British Library.7 x 17. was used to create a believeable space for naturalistically rendered figures. Barbara Schmitz. The Death of Farhad on Mount Bisutan. For a discussion of Kettle’s work and influence in Faizabad. 1770 Khusraw Espies an Unrecognized Shirin Bathing Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. After much travail and adventures.3 The treatment of landscape and figure.2 x 15. 240.2 A similar painting. 93⁄4 x 63⁄4 inches (24. illustrating a different episode from the story of Khusraw and Shirin. 1750-80. p. but does not realize that the maiden is. and incorporated them into their paintings. are nearly identical in the example in the British Library and the painting under discussion. 1770.” in After the Great Mughals: Painting in Delhi and the Regional Courts in the 18th and 19th Centuries. 1979). In an attempt to meet his beloved Shirin. Losty. because the two had only seen portraits of each other and had not yet met in person. 34–55. These artists appropriated certain European elements. artists in the mid-eighteenth century were exposed to various types of European art that circulated freely in India. Toby Falk and Mildred Archer. mounted on album page with orange-red borders with splashes of gold leaf and white and gold rulings Painting: Folio: 83⁄4 x 6 inches (22. Indian Miniatures in the India Office Library (London: Sotheby Parke Bernet. 138. India and British Portraiture.
6 x 37. 1750-80.. ed. . p. The massive scale of the architecture dwarfs the figures. with courtiers on both sides. 1772-1780 Darbar of Shah’ Alam II Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper.” in After the Great Mughals: Painting in Delhi and the Regional Courts in the 18th and 19th Centuries. British control over the region strengthened during this period.P. see J. referencing Shah’ Alam’s disfigurement at the hands of his wazir during a temporary evacuation from Delhi in 1788. 44. Berlin. Shah’ Alam.1 1 For another earlier painting of Shah’ Alam in the collection of the Museum für Islamische Kunst.5 cm) Shah’ Alam II (r.12 Uttar Pradesh. fig. Losty “Towards a New Naturalism: Portraiture in Murshidabad and Avadh. This painting shows the emperor. inscribed on verso in brown ink “A Durbar or The Emperor’s Court of Audience” “A Durbar or The Emperor’s Court of Audience” Painting: 111⁄4 x 143⁄4 inches (28. it is the architecture and the surrounding Mughal legacy that is the real subject of the painting. 44. Although it is he who is the compositional focus. Shah’ Alam had left Allahabad with a small force under the command of his general Mirza Najaf Khan. 1761-1805) sits in regal splendor on a domed throne in an immense. (Mumbai: Marg Publications. 2002). for the express purpose of taking back the Delhi throne and restoring the bygone glories of the Mughal Empire. was essentially given the throne and remained a mostly ornamental figurehead. This painting may be interpreted as an attempt by Shah’ Alam to illustrate his reclaimed place in Mughal history. in December of 1772. however. Most portraits of the emperor show him as a blind old man. In May of 1771. Barbara Schmitz. probably soon after he returned to Delhi. The younger appearance of the emperor in this painting helps indicate its earlier date. Delhi ca. and a Maratha was appointed to run the Delhi administration. colonnaded hall.
The rest of the convoy is shown in the hills escorting a second palanquin covered with a red curtain.3 cm) An elderly Aurangzeb is escorted in a golden palanquin that is carried aloft by bearers dressed in bright red. It appears the party is readying for a hunt. such as Gilbert Eliot (1751-1814). fig. 1996). and blue and gold outermost rules. and the other. The emperor is accompanied by an entourage of courtiers and two large bullock carts. 25. pp.13 Aurangzeb Escorted in a Palanquin to an Imperial Hunt Attributed to Sewak Ram Bihar. borders with white and gold rules. Inc. Sewak Ram was apparently fluent in two distinct styles of painting. mounted on nineteenth-century album page with white outer border with gold leaves. and inner border of deep-blue chevrons filled with foliate designs on yellow ground. the first earl of Minto. 1 The attribution to Sewak Ram is based on another. as a group of courtiers line up with falcons in hand and Aurangzeb’s imperial horse being brought to the side of the palanquin. . that was more traditionally Indian. where the British presence held the promise of affluence in the later eighteenth century. 54-55. nearly identical painting with an inscription giving the name of the artist. The phalanx of soldiers and caparisoned elephants carrying banners seem to be making their way toward the ramparts of the distant city at the upper right. Sewak Ram (ca. one closer to European watercolors. Patna ca. and William Pitt (1773-1857). 1770-1830) came originally from Murshidabad and was one of the first artists to settle in Patna around 1790.9 cm) 151⁄2 x 103⁄4 inches (39.5 x 19.1 The artist was prolific. Painting: Folio: 12 x 77⁄8 inches (30. A Celebration of Twenty Years on Madison Avenue: 3000 Years of Sacred and Secular Art (New York: Art of the Past. The studio received patronage from British governors-general. See Subhash Kapoor and Aaron Freedman. and the importance of his studio rose rapidly during this period. 1810 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper.37 x 27. innermost border of blue with intertwining gold foliate design. the earl of Amherst. like this example.
No matter which cord Yashoda tries to fasten Krishna to the mortar with. intense palette. In the next part of the narrative. Everyone. including Yashoda. but Krishna begins to crawl away. satisfied that she has secured the child. Krishna having released them from a curse in a former birth. This set is thought to be the earliest known to have survived. Paintings from this group are dispersed among public and private collections throughout the world. . Krishna allows himself to be tied. dragging the mortar with him. The gods then shower the earth in flowers to bear witness to the lila of Krishna. upon seeing his mother so greatly vexed. 1530 Baby Krishna Tied to a Mortar Opaque watercolor and ink on paper.14 Delhi-Agra Region ca. until it is wedged deliberately between two arjuna trees. she decides to tie the mischievous child to the mortar. he contrives that it should be too short.5 cm) After Yashoda has hastened back to the house to find Krishna sitting on a mortar eating the butter from a smashed pot of curds. As seen in this painting. and imaginative compositions. Krishna pulls on the mortar until he levels the trees.1 x 23. Finally. and was an important iconographic and stylistic prototype for later Indian painting. The series is especially characterized by its vigorous movement. This painting belongs to a well-known and widely published Bhagavata Purana series. the two bow to Krishna and fly up to heaven. verso with lengthy inscription Painting: 71⁄8 x 91⁄4 inches (18. Two dazzling gandharvanas emerge from the fallen trees. runs outside to see what has caused the great noise. Yashoda goes back into the house.
pl. pp. Her left hand gestures toward her friend in conversation.D. The white wall behind the women is decorated with alternating red and blue decorative bottles set into ornately carved niches. of course.1 The Gita Govinda (Song of the Herdsman). This theory is based on the discovery of a colophon from a similar Rasamanjari manuscript found in Mewar. dated 1650 A. but it is also thought to have come from the Aurangabad court in the Deccan. Indian Art from the George Bickford Collection.4 cm) Dressed in a brilliant floral gold sari. “An Illustrated Manuscript from Aurangabad. The Mughal and Deccani Schools. The crowned divine lover stands outside in sandals. on a boldly patterned carpet. (Portland: Portland Art Museum. 11-13. and blue rulings. from the Bickford Collection. 15 (1972). the dashing blue god. written in the late twelfth century. dispersed Gita Govinda manuscript. Two female attendants gossip together to the right of Radha and her friend. 19-28. Radha sits comfortably against a pink and green bolster with her sakhi.” Lalit Kal¯ . Deccan ca. has her hands upraised as she listens respectfully to Radha. I. a . plain outer border Painting: Folio: 6 x 53⁄4 inches (15. Krishna. 156. thin yellow inner border. Exhibited: 1 2 Leaves from this manuscript are in various public and private collections.15 Illustration from a Gita Govinda Series: Radha Confides in Her Sakhi Possibly from Aurangabad. at the Cleveland and other museums. He is depicted against an intense orange field.6 cm) 63⁄8 x 71⁄4 inches (16. Surya Doshi. pls. This painting comes from a well-known.2 x 18. For a list of additional pages.2 x 14. and holds a lotus flower and scepter. 1650 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. or female confidante. see Indian Miniature Painting from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd. Vol. dressed in his characteristic yellow garments. no. which serves as an effective and contrasting framing device. p. The topic of the ladies’ conversation is. 1975-77. in turn. expounds on the irresistible intensity of Krishna’s divine love. 1973). red. 130.2 Provenance: This painting is from the Benkhaim Collection and prior to that. black. The sakhi. Stanislaw Czuma. The style of this particular Gita Govinda series remains difficult to attribute with absolute certainty. It bears close similarity to a mid-seventeenth-century painting from Mewar.
Each Pandava also has a bow tucked under his right arm and wears a tall crown. receiving two warriors who arrive on horseback and elephant. the Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art. the Freer Gallery of Art. This fragmentary Mahabharata manuscript from 1670 is part of a small corpus of early paintings of this type from South India. 43. 299-300.3 cm) The five Pandava brothers are seated together in a line. (formerly) the George P. Folios are dispersed between the National Museum. no. Although the temple and palace wall paintings in South India from the seventeenth century and earlier still exist. Painted alternately in yellow and brown with green and red pants. . New Delhi. the Victoria and Albert Museum. The scene is presented on a solid red ground and is drawn in a rhythmical. no. black and red ink. 1985. pp. 26-27. Hyderabad. Bickford Collection. pp. Hyderabad. p. 375. Mittal. The Arts of India: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. p. The warriors arrive with big smiles and weapons raised in the air. They are influenced by the earlier Vijayanagara style and are very important to the study of South Indian paintings. illustrated manuscripts prior to the late eighteenth century are extremely rare. no. Cleveland. 100.2 cm) 81⁄4 x 19 inches (21 x 48. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection (New York: Hudson Hills Press. no. 124. 21. 1987). London. brown borders Painting: Folio: 61⁄2 x 7 inches (21 x 17. and a few private collections. and Joseph Dye III. the Salar Jung Museum. 1994. muscular line. pl. pp. 1969. 54-56. Poster. 248.16 Five Seated Pandava Brothers Acclaimed by Warriors on a Horse and an Elephant South India. the brothers all touch their breasts with their right hands. Washington. Mysore dated 1670 (samvat 1592) Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. New York. Welch.1 1 Other paintings from the same series can be found in Daniel Ehnbom. 5. Czuma. the Brooklyn Museum of Art.
fig.32 x 11. 1987)..11 cm) 143⁄8 x 101⁄4 inches (36. playing a vina. no. There is. a peacock peers over the palace wall. 327 330. 124. yellow panel with inscription in Devanagari. and wide red borders with lengthy inscription in Devanagari Painting: Folio: 8 x 43⁄8 inches (20.32. 33.17 Rajasthan. Joachim Bautze asserted that. based on the how the names of certain ragamalas changed after 1700. 1994). The palette is intense and lush. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der rajputischen Wandmalerei (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Drei “Bundi” – Ragamalas. a version of the Vilaval Ragini from this particular ragamala series that is very close in style and composition to the example under discussion. 1685-1700 Vilaval Ragini Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. for example. so that the subject can arrange a jeweled ornament in her hair. 166. p.3 1 2 3 Joachim Bautze. for which a large number of paintings are in the Kanoria Collection. and pink contrast strongly against large areas of white. with Hudson Hills Press. See Milo Cleveland Beach.4 x 26 cm) In this painting.1 this series must predate 1700. She is dressed elegantly in a sari.2 This series seems also to be contemporary to the Bundi ragamala set. A musician sits under the throne on a green carpet. as red. pl. . ed. Another page from the same ragamala series is published in Amy Poster. Realms of Heroism: Indian Paintings of the Brooklyn Museum. yellow. The lady’s attendant holds up a mirror. Rajput Painting at Bundi and Kota (Ascona: Artibus Asiae. Vilaval Ragini is represented as a young woman at her toilet. thick black rule. Bundi ca. A fountain filled with fish flows gently in the foreground. and have been dispersed in various other private and public collections. At the upper right. (New York: Brooklyn Museum in assoc. pp. which is seen as the prototype for the resultant Bundi style. The composition of the ragamala paintings from this series is developed from the well-known Chunar ragamala series done in 1591. and adorned with a profusion of jewelry. 1974).
in battle. Calcutta. which has a colophon with the date Samvat 1750 (1693 A. along with the style of the figuration. p. 1600. 1988). the Suresh Neotia Collection. New Delhi. See Pratapaditya Pal. The Classical Tradition in Rajput Painting from the Paul F. 4 (b).P. as Krishna rips the beak open.1 However. and other public and private collections. Mewar or Provincial Mughal ca. the collection of Edwin Binney 3rd. nagari inscription Painting: Folio: 61⁄2 x 91⁄2 inches (16. 1693 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Blood pours from the side of Bakasura’s mouth onto the white plumage. and two other men stand by. (New Dehli. (New York: Hudson Hills Press.2 especially if the paintings are from the late seventeenth century. In addition. published in A. nos. Painted Delight: Indian Paintings from Philadelphia Collections (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. Goenka Collection. (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library). Krishna. 1978. red tongue that flails about in distress. Krishna pries the beak open with both hands.25 cm) Krishna engages the crane demon. exposing a long. 17 & 18. ultimately killing the demon. no. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection. Bombay. the Paul Walter Collection.D. Other leaves of this Bhagavata Purana series are in the J. there is another painting from this series. The boldness and intensity of the paintings from this series. Bakasura. Walter Collection. Numbered folio 30.81 x 28. Verso with erased Bikaner Collection stamp. Other pages are published in S.). col. New York. in the collection of Art of the Past. the traditional Bikaner classification may also need further study. Balarama.13 cm) 93⁄8 x 111⁄8 inches (23. Indian Miniature Paintings: J. and the demon fills the black side. . as his brother. Kramrisch. may point instead to a Mewar. 1 2 A number of paintings from this series are in the Goenka collection. or a Provincial Mughal workshop. This dating changes radically how these paintings are seen. pl. I.51 x 24. The background has been divided into two fields: Krishna and his entourage occupy the red half. 92. dated ca. San Diego Museum. Daniel Ehnbom. New York. the Goenka Academy of Art & Music.18 Krishna Subduing the Crane-Demon Bakasura Rajasthan. plain borders with inner white and black rulings and outer rulings of white and black with thin yellow border. 1985). This painting from a Bhagavata Purana series has often been considered an early example of the Bikaner school. 1986). Goenka Collection.P. Mumbai.
was influenced particularly by the Mughal style. chatting excitedly. 1690-1700 The Gopis Gather on the Banks of the Yamuna in Anticipation of Krishna Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Three of the young ladies go to the well-appointed pavilion at the left to convey the news of Krishna’s imminent arrival to Radha. and joyfully raises a flower bud to her smiling face. as well as the cattle. Bikaner painting. as they. V. The Art and Architecture of Bikaner State (Oxford: Bruno Cassirer. numbered 15 in Devanagari on top border Painting: Folio: 83⁄4 x 121⁄2 inches (22. black and white rules with pinkish-orange outer border.8 cm) 93⁄4 x 13 inches (24. this painting bears similarity to another early Bikaner painting in this collection. . and other animals.2 x 30. and the interest in accurate depictions of flora and fauna.1 It compares also to another contemporary Bikaner painting depicting the Kakhuba Ragini.19 Rajasthan.7 x 33 cm) The gopis gather on the banks of the Yamuna. peacocks. A meticulously rendered landscape forms the background underneath a pale blue sky. especially in regard to the treatment of foliage. the believable articulation of space and depth. This is seen most clearly in the careful attention to detail. See Hermann Goetz. gold inner border. especially from the late seventeenth.to the early eighteenth century. who leans against a purple and green bolster.2 1 2 See figure 20. await the coming of Krishna. Krishna Decapitates Shishupala. pl. Bikaner ca. From a now-dispersed Bhagavata Purana series. 1950).
are in several private and public collections. Painted Visions – The Goenka Collection of Indian Paintings. before anything further unfolded.. B. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection. who. (New York: Hudson Hills Press. Other paintings from this series. The Classical Tradition in Rajput Painting from the Collection of Paul Walter. Thrones. Panorama de la miniatura de la India: Miniaturas de la colecion de Edwin Binney 3rd. and the eccentric disposition of subject matter and brilliant. who advanced menacingly toward them. (Monterey. (New Delhi: Lalit Kala Akademi. and p.20 Rajasthan. 29. pp 82-83. 149. 1978). derived from Mughal influence. 1973). no. 120-123. . Exhibition catalogue. no 68 pp 148. This series. p. except for Shishupala. incorporates many of the features for which Bikaner painting is famous. Bikaner ca. This is demonstrated by the meticulous attention to detail and finely modeled figures. Goswamy. no 24. the Paul Walter Collection. (New York: Asia Society.1 1 See Daniel Ehnbom. 1985). no 25. 120. pp. Krishna unleashed his sudarsana weapon in the form of a discus. 75. the king of Chedi. 1999). now dispersed. but. color contrasts. 1965). and the ex-Binney Collection at the San Diego Museum of Art. Gods. Edwin Binney 3rd. Stuart Cary Welch & Milo Beach. 1700 Krishna Decapitates Shishupala Opaque watercolor heightened with silver and gold on paper. all the great kings were gathered at the Rajasuya (soma sacrifice at the end of consecration) of Yudhishtira. Pratapaditya Pal. nos. 96-97.P Goenka Collection. (New York: Asia Society. including the J. instead. All those present praised Krishna. The attendants rose to retaliate against the king. and Peacocks. dated variously from the third quarter of the seventeenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth century. plain border with black ruling Painting: 91⁄2 x 121⁄2 inches (24 x 32 cm) After the great Mahabharata war.N. decapitating Shishupala. pp 151-154. but subtle. hurled the filthiest of insults at the god. ill.
The peacock fan. The heroine.6 x 22.2 cm) The musical mode Devagandhari. now hangs from the branch of a lushly flowering tree that is teeming with birds.21 Malwa ca. . 1720 Ragini Devagandhari Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. in a yoga position. The now-male ascetic still retains much femininity and grace from his previous life as a woman. shown involved in assorted activities and colorfully populating the rest of the painting. is shown leaning on a swing on the right side of the painting. red borders with thin black rules. is conceived as a solitary heroine whom the pain of separation from her lover has transformed into an emaciated ascetic. Inscription in Devanagari in yellow panel at top and also on verso Painting: Folio: 14 x 9 inches (35. The heroine in her altered state is shown garbed in a black loincloth and seated on a tiger skin. and waiting for the object of her affection. meditating. which the waiting woman had been holding.9 x 29.9 cm) 161⁄2 x 111⁄2 inches (41. a peacock fan in her hand. The heroine-turned-ascetic now spends her days in the company of other ascetics. performed after sunrise.
Bihari Das. In the painting under discussion. Maharaja Sujun (Sangram) Singh. Palazzo Reale.. The name of Sangram Singh’s favorite elephant. 3. Takhat Singh. Thirteen nobles on horseback ride behind the maharana. Ltd. R. 1985. Turin). Attendants run behind him with fans. since he had learned English and may have written his name on select paintings.5 cm) 193⁄8 x 36 inches (49 x 91. The carefully written inscription on the reverse of the painting is in English.22 Rajathan. in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. under a golden parasol. is also listed. p. 74. Life at Court in Rajasthan.1 or sports arena. pp. located just outside Udaipur. Pratap Singh.2 An inscription on the back (of the National Gallery painting) identifies the more-important of these guests: Bakhat Singh. follows on a brown horse. That painting shows the nobles seated with Sangram Singh inside the Chaughan. Udaipur ca.. flywhisks. Raja Deen Dayal took a photograph of the arena in the late nineteenth century. 1720 Three Elephants on the Way to the Chaughan Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Florence. the large elephant in the middle dressed in elaborate trappings must be Singhbadal. It is likely Maharana Sangram Singh signed the painting himself. in English. Townsfolk and children gather in the narrow streets to watch the spectacle. 38.3 Provenance: Published: The British Rail Pension Fund. Kishan Singh.M. Toby Falk. and Tulsi Das. fig. Melbourne. 85 1 2 3 The Chaughan remained in use into the twentieth century. and Maharana Sangram Singh. no. The City Palace Museum Udaipur: Paintings of Mewar Court Life (Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing Pvt. 1980). 72-73. See Andrew Topsfield. These thirteen nobles appear again in another painting from the same series. Sam Singh. See Topsfield. Indian Miniatures from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century (CESMO exhibition. fig. Raja Gaj (King of the Elephants) Singhbadal. Sotheby’s: Indian Miniatures —The Property of the British Rail Pension Fund (London. 26th April 1994). 1990). and the imperial morchal. Paintings from Rajasthan in the National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. Cimino. inscription in Devanagari on verso. Handlers and sardars are present on all sides of the animals. Kishan Das.5 x 87. .5 cm) Three elephants are making their way through town on way to the Chaughan. Joravar Singh. numbered 2/83 Painting: Folio: 171⁄2 x 343⁄8 inches (44. red border with black rule.
9 cm) 161⁄2 x 101⁄4 inches (41. where the Ganges and Jamna meet.1 The use of a simultaneous narrative. Kidhi. Pachae Sajia. Lakshamana Beg. This painting. was introduced by Sahib Din. and Sita appear first on the left side of the painting. Rama and Sita sleep. Lakshamana prepares Rama and Sita’s bed. 1628-1652).23 Rajasthan. umber ground peppered with sparkling white blossoms and shrubs. yellow margin with black rules and red outer border. Vol Havae Shruta. (This Ramayana. the three will make their way to the hermitage of Bharadvaja at Prayaga. is indebted to the Ramayana series painted by Sahib Din and others during the reign of Jagat Singh (r. Losty. the palette. page 79. from the Ayodhakanda. 2008).P. ed. and the Ganges flows in the foreground. in which the characters can appear several times within one frame to indicate the temporal or spatial progression of a story. looking for a suitable place to bed down for the night. yellow panel with nagari text Painting: Folio: Inscription: 15 x 9 inches (38. the second book of the Ramayana.) Rama. . The scene is set against a rich.1 x 22.. 1 See J. This device enables the artist to include nearly every part of the tale. 1730–1740 Lakshamana Watches over the Sleeping Rama and Sita Lakshamana Watches over the Sleep Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. In the back. while Lakshamana watches over them. Sajia Khro.2 x 26 cm) Ayo. to ask the sage’s advice. Ramayana Ro Patra. Once the location is found. Pachae Rama Lakshamana Pache Bolya. The Ramayana: Love and Valour in India’s Great Epic (British Library: London. Mewar ca. When they awake after spending their first night in the forest. Lakshamana. 79. and figural style are also developed from this important work. composition. A white sky appears above. then watches over the couple as they sleep. In addition. Rama and Lakshamana talk of the time to sleep.
and portraits set in these architectural niches are referred to by the same name. The jharokha portrait was a Mughal invention. A Place Apart: Paintings in Kutch: 1720-1820 (New Delhi.1 Raja Bakhat Singh of Nagaur visited the court of Rao Lakhpatji of Kutch. such as this one of Rao Desaliji of Kutch. are rare but not unknown in Rajput portraiture. . It originated from the Mughal emperors’ custom of showing themselves to their subjects from the same window of their palace every morning before they began their legislative responsibilities. The paintings would originally have been set into recesses or glass frames hanging on the palace walls.6 x 38. before he assumed the Jodhpur throne in 1751. frontispiece and pl. fig. Inc.1 cm) Large-scale jharokha portraits. 25.Goswamy & A. B. 69. 1991). pp. Dallapiccola.24 Gujarat.. See Rosemary Crill.2 These two portraits bear close similarity to contemporary jharoka portraits of Bhakat Singh done at the Jodhpur court. fig. as well as this one of Desaliji. Andrew Topsfield and Milo Cleveland Beach. 1740-1750 Jharokha Portrait of Rao Desalji Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper Painting: 27 x 15 inches (68. 70-71.3 1 2 3 Rosemary Crill has identified these similarities and attributions in her book on Marwar Painting. Crill. II. Bakhat Singh brought with him a group of artists who are thought to be responsible for a group of paintings that include a large jharokha portrait of Lakhpatji. She also rightly attributes the Nagaur/Jodhpur style to several durbar and processional scenes painted for Rao Lakhpatji.N. Indian Paintings and Drawings from the Collection of Howard Hodgkin (New York: Thames and Hudson. 92. p. Although the subject of this painting is of the Kutch ruler Rao Desaliji. sometime between 1740 and 1751. Kutch ca. Marwar Painting: A History of the Jodhpur Style (Mumbai :India Book House. This type of window was known as a jharokha. Ltd. 1999). 1983). Desliji’s son. it is thought that an artist from Nagaur or Jodhpur may have executed the painting.
25 Rajasthan.4 x 21. Kotah ca. The giant engages the monkey and bear armies of Rama. 1775 Episodes from the Siege of Lanka Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. and Brahma allows Kumbhakarna to awake for one day. whom Brahma had cursed to eternal sleep. at the feet of Lakshamana.8 cm) Two separate scenes from the final chapter of the Ramayana. the Lanka Kanda.3 x 24. The narrative begins with the scene on the right. and the felled Ravana appears upside down. Lakshamana and Vibhisana shoot down his chariot and kill his horses. . a brother of Ravana. he storms out of Lanka on his golden chariot pulled by eight white horses. Ravana appeals the sentence. Needing the giant’s assistance in fighting Rama. black ruling and red borders Painting: Folio: 123⁄4 x 83⁄8 inches (32. are conflated in this painting. After Kumbhakarna’s eventual defeat at the hands of Rama and his armies. This behemoth is Kumbhakarna. the monkey and bear armies attacking a giant demon.3 cm) 131⁄2 x 93⁄4 inches (34. Ravana appears on the battlefield. Clad in golden armor. Hanuman and Sugriva. who are led by the monkey generals.
/ Radha. ed. fig. forming the ground below. with three horizontal bands. 2007). 1775 Krishna Appears before Radha underneath a Flowering Canopy Opaque watercolor on paper. 35. who sits on a low platform.3 cm) Inscription: Your moist lips glow/ Like crimson autumn blossoms.3 x 12. you are intense./ The skin of your cheek/ Is a honey-colored flower. Another painting from this dispersed Gita Govinda series is in the collection of the Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art. as he proclaims his love for Radha. blue border with white ruling. Krishna’s words are apparently well received. p. Another band frames the scene at the top. under the inscription panel. A thin tree separates the two figures. Sublime Delight Through Works of Art (Hyderabad: Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art. since Radha has a coy smile and plays with her sari.6 x 14. Hyderabad. ./ Your nose is like a sesame flower/ Your teeth are like white jasmine/ The fiery arms of love can conquer the world/ By worshipping your face../ Your eyes glow like gleaming dark lotuses. colored yellow. His right hand is raised in declaration. The couple is set against an intense red background. each with an intertwining floral motif.1 1 Jagdish Mittal. inscription at top in Devanagari Painting: Folio: 8 x 5 inches (20. Krishna stands before Radha underneath a flowering vine. blue.26 Orissa ca. and red.7 cm) 81⁄2 x 55⁄8 inches (21. 131.
nos.8 x 15. fig. 73. 38-39. 58. smiling eyes and her friend’s intense gaze indicate the ladies’ appreciation for the jewelry. 87. and Milo Cleveland Beach. 71. it is thought this painting of ladies visiting a jeweler may have been executed by the same workshop responsible for the famous Boston Ragamala paintings. 1 Pratapaditya Pal. because thirteen leaves from the set are in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts. Boston (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. 68. 62.1 Both the Boston series and this painting share a heavily shaded opalescent palette. Because of the close similarity between the paintings. and an example of the Rajput appropriation of Mughal painting. Bundi ca. 70. 1780 Ladies Visiting a Jeweler Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. red. The margins of both the Ragamala paintings and this work are of plain paper with block-print decoration. the gray-bearded man helps one of his beautiful patrons try some of his gold bangles on her slim wrist. The brushwork is also unusually smooth. Across from the busy mother sits the simply dressed maidservant. 100.27 Rajasthan. plain border with flecks of gray and gold. as she heats more bangles over a small fire. inner rulings of light blue. 11. Ragamala Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts. 34. Rajput Painting at Bundi and Kota (Asconsa: Artibus Asiae. her hands on her right knee. gazing abstractedly into the distance.9 cm) 127⁄8 x 97⁄8 inches (32. 1967). Other leaves from the series are in various other public and private collections. Garbed only in a simple white dhoti and turban. Boston. pp. which is typical of Bundi painting from the second half of the eighteenth century.4 x 24. The wife or daughter of the old man sits beside him. baby at her breast. The lady’s soft. 1974). 13. 51.8 cm) Two young ladies dressed in all their colorful finery have come to the house of an old village jeweler with their maidservant. 47. 60. and green. outer rulings of red Painting: Folio: 93⁄4 x 61⁄4 inches (24. The style and palette of this intimate genre scene is strikingly similar to a well-known dispersed Ragamala series known commonly as the Boston Ragamala. .
Pratap Singh was born in 1763. pl. provides information that is helpful in looking at the painting under discussion.2 cm) 171⁄4 x 14 inches (43.28 Maharaja Pratap Singh at a Holi Celebration by Amar Chand Rajasthan. with red and green boats floating. and preliminary sketch of the painting Painting : Folio: 143⁄4 x 111⁄2 inches (37. 38-39. seated in the exalted presence of the maharaja. meaning this painting was executed in 1791.82 x 35. is Lake Gundalao. it indicates that this painting shows Pratap Singh at the age of twenty-eight. with members of his court and a host of beautiful young girls. the spring festival of colors. Kishangarh 1791 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. King of Kings. Kishangarh Painting (New Delhi: Lalit Kala Akademi. 1788–1798) sits enthroned on the palace veranda. illustrating the court of Sardar Singh (r. Verso with inscription (detailed below). As in this Pratap Singh painting. Amar Chand. Another painting by Amar Chand. ¯ . The tinted water and powder being thrown about stains the white architecture pink. alternating gold and green borders. pp. The artist is shown as a middle-aged man. 1764–1766) enjoying a moonlight music party. who is regarded as the greatest artist of the Kishangarh court. The name of most interest to this discussion is that of the previously mentioned Nihal Chand. 1959). Amar Chand was one of the most important and highly regarded artists working at the Kishangarh court in the second half of the eighteenth century. but near the end of his career when he did this painting of Pratap Singh. He worked in the royal atelier at the same time as Nihal Chand. with innermost and outmost in gold. X. 1 Eric Dickerson & Karl Khandalavala. Pratap Singh at the age of 28. by the artist Amar Chand) A nimbused Maharaja Pratap Singh (r. At the horizon. The inscription also provides the name of the artist. indicating that Amar Chand was quite young when he painted the Sansar Chand picture. The inscription on the reverse provides for a precise dating.5 x 29. the Sardar Singh painting also provides the names of those depicted in the portraits.6 cm) Inscription on verso: Tasvir Fagh ki Maharaja Dhi Raj Maharaja Shri Pratap Singhji Bahadur ki Umar Baras 28 Rajasthan ki Sanagher Aamal Musavvir Amar Chand (Painting of Faghun (Holi). under an evening sky. They are celebrating Holi. approximately twenty-five years later.
The scene is painted against a green ground.1778–1828). Interestingly. orange. The broad physiognomy with its strong profile. and deep blue Painting: 441⁄2 x 341⁄2 inches (113 x 87. swords. who hold staves. the older brother of Jawan Singh. There are also some portraits remaining of Amar Singh. There are quite a few paintings that remain in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria that have inscriptions identifying Chokha as the artist.3 There is.7 cm) Inscription on verso: Maharaja Dhiraj Maharana Shri Jawan Singhji Ghoravan Dhule Asavan (Jawan Singhji on Horse Dressed as Bridegroom). 216.139. and he would surely have asked the master of his atelier. 212.1). p. In the 1760s. 213. Paintings from Rajasthan in the National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. are characteristic of the artist Chokha.1 Although Chokha probably began his professional career apprenticed to his father at the Deogarh court. It therefore seems that. since Chokha was very comfortable with large-format commissions. Jawan Singh was Bhim Singh’s only surviving son. 1825 that shows Jawan Singh shooting a hare. Chokha.206. with Maharana Bhim Singh as the subject. the artist also painted for the Maharana’s son and successor. Gold heightens the horse’s trappings and the figures’ dress. Jawan Singh. Blue and white clouds touched with pink. therefore. 1769-1811. p. and the maharaja’s requisite hookah. Paintings by. figs. fig. leaving Jawan Singh as the heir to the throne. and the beautiful fluidity of line. Bhim Singh. Topsfield. Chokha’s father. borders of red. a painting in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria that is attributed to Chokha and dated ca. . there are also surviving wall paintings in Chokha’s style5 at the Udaipur palace. as a Bridegroom Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on cloth. or are attributed to him. Deogarh ca.29 Attributed to Chokha Rajasthan. Chokha was active until ca. a tributary of the Mewar kingdom. It is possible that Jawan Singh gave this painting to his father as a gift at a later time. it appears that he spent most of his mature career painting for the Mewar court. a morchal. Topsfield. Kimat (Price) 30 rupees. worked for Maharana Ari Singh at Udaipur. 216 (fig. 1980). and. 1830. 207 (fig. 1825 Maharana Jawan Singh on Horseback. and gold roll softly across the top of the painting. or attributed to. 210. to record the event. 1 2 3 4 5 Andrew Topsfield. painted Jawan Singh both before and after he assumed the throne in 1828. which may have been the commission paid to Chokha. An inscription on the back of the painting identifies the subject and the occasion. seen especially in the treatment of Jawan Singh.139.4 This large portrait of Jawan Singh on the way to his wedding is contemporaneous with the painting at the National Gallery of Victoria.2). Baghta found patronage with the Rawats of Deogarh. but written by another hand. especially Maharana Bhim Singh (r.2 Although Bhim Singh was Chokha’s greatest patron. the price of 30 rupees is also noted. the renowned artist Baghta. 232. he would have been a logical choice for such an important painting. yellow. According to Andrew Topsfield. and a different record-keeper noted the possession. Maharana Shri Bhim Singhji Jawan Singh of Udaipur (r. seen in the supple rendering of the horse. for example. What distinguishes this painting from the number of surviving portraits of Jawan Singh is the importance of the scene and the quality and size of the painting. 1828–1838) rides to his wedding on a pale-pink stallion with his attending retinue. This master artist came from one of the most important Rajasthani artist families of the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Topsfield. The name of Jawan Singh’s father. but he died in 1818. From ca. This wedding was certainly of significance to Jawan Singh. is also listed. typical of paintings from this period. Chokha are also in various other public and private collections.
Another nearly identical version.2 1 2 Robert Skelton. 1987). .168-9. Daniel J Ehnbom.30 Maharaja Jai Singh III of Jaipur.e. (New York: Hudson Hills Press. 66. Jaipur Dated 1830 (Samvat 1888) Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper.155. The rulers’ respective retainers of nobles and courtiers. no. gold and red borders. appeared in the 1982 exhibition The Indian Heritage: Court Life & Arts under Mughal Rule (and illustrated in the catalogue of the same name)1 at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 1982). Verso with lines of Devanagari identifying the rulers.5 cm) The two nimbate rulers sit against bolsters on a floral carpet with a gold ground and with a tented enclosure hung with lush panels of red velvet painted with gold floral patterns. as well as is the “Lord Saheb. (Both states had submitted to British rule in 1818.” i. is in the Ehrenfeld Collection. are on either side of the tent.. Two horses and an elephant. Bentinck. The inscription on the back of the painting states that the meeting between Jai Singh and Jawan Singh took place at Ajmer in 1830 (samvat 1888). 78. p.2 x 54. and without the horses and elephant. A painting of the same size. virtually identical in every detail but for the tent’s being painted with floral sprays rather than left plain. The lists on the verso are of the accompanying sardars or noblemen.5 cm) 20 x 233⁄4 inches (50. ajmer ke maharaja dhiraj maharaja sri sawai jai singhji maharana jawan singhji Painting: Folio: 171⁄4 x 211⁄2 inches (43. stand behind them on either side. The purpose of the meeting was for the ruling princes of Rajasthan to confer with the Governor General Lord William Cavendish Bentinck. The Indian Heritage: Court Life & Arts under Mughal Rule (London: Victoria and Albert Museum. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection. 5a.5 x 60. arranged symmetrically on a white ground. Receiving Maharana Jawan Singh of Mewar in His Camp Rajasthan. pp. gifts each has brought for the other. but with the tent decorated in a floral pattern. no. pl.) The rulers of Jaipur and Udaipur are mentioned.
3 x 56. fig. 1835-1840 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. A smaller boat floats alongside and carries another group of dancers dressed in vivid hues. an indication of some physical maturity. Australia 1997. 172. there is little remaining from the period. since Mokham Singh’s reign was so short. after his controversial father. In addition. one can see Kishangarh sprawling along the shore.31 Mokham Singh Watching a Dance on a Boat Kishangarh. was forced to abdicate. This is an exceptionally large-format painting.1 x 59. The members of the court not invited onboard the boat are seated by the water’s edge at the left. 270-271. Kalyan Singh. Mokham Singh ruled for only three years. and below the hills in the distance. 1997. but he is shown wearing a beard. Australia: Art Gallery of New South Wales. and this painting was certainly executed toward the end of his life. pp. The event takes place on Lake Gundalao. Published: Pratapaditya Pal. Mokham Singh assumed the Kishangarh throne in 1838. and works of this size are quite rare. The fine brushstroke and impressive attention to detail are testament to the continued high level of painting at the Kishangarh court into the mid-nineteenth century. as they all watch a dance performance.1 cm) A nimbused Mokham Singh sits with his court aboard a large vessel. Sydney. since he died in 1841 at the age of twenty-four. Dancing to the Flute: Music and Dance in Art: Art Gallery of New South Wales.5 cm) 28 x 231⁄2 inches (71. where he is elevated on a platform. reddish borders Painting: Folio: 261⁄2 x 221⁄4 inches (67. Rajasthan ca. Exhibited: .
leaning against a large green bolster. the prince is shown tying his turban while an attendant stands in front of him. June. also from this Ragamala series. no. Inscribed in takri at the top of the red border: bangal rag bhairaveda putra. are delicately hennaed. the son (putra) of Bhairava Raga. June 1959 1 2 3 Klaus Ebeling.5 cm) 8 x 81⁄16 inches (20. W. cat. 1973). I.32 Punjab Hills. vol. 1959 Provenance: R. p. Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.5 x 17. Ragamala Painting (Basel: Ravi Kumar.1 but yet other paintings show Bangal grooming his mustache. Ehnbom. is depicted within a pavilion. the prince has obviously completed his grooming and is admiring the handsome results in his mirror.5 cm) Bangal.3 Reginald Varney was a curator at the Indian Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum and this painting was specially chosen by William Archer together with Robert Skelton as a gift for Varney. the son of Bhairava). II. 89. is in the Ehrenfeld Collection. pls. 14 (i-ii). seated on a blue carpet with scrolling floral designs and bordered by a green floral meander. pp. and the pavilion’s elegant pillars support an elaborate tiered roof with eaves projecting into the red border. 1690-1695 Bangal Raga Opaque watercolor heightened with gold and silver on paper with a red border and black and white rules. The tips of her fingers. The figures are depicted against an intense yellow background. 28. . Basohli 14(i and ii). Another page with a very similar carpet. Varney. Daniel J. J. p. p. stands behind him. Varney as a token of their esteem by his colleagues of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Basholi ca. holding a flywhisk in her left hand and white handkerchief in her left. G. It is likely that this painting comes from what William Archer calls the Second Basohli Ragamala. He is shown as a prince. holding a mirror and admiring his own visage. when he retired from his position at the museum to work at the Commonwealth Institute. A female attendant. 186-187. J. In another Pahari depiction of Bangal Raga. She wears a pink skirt decorated with floral sprigs. 43. (Bangal Raga.2 Two pages from this series were formerly in the Bachofen Collection. 1973). Archer. 288. vol. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection (New York: Hudson Hills Press. Label on the reverse for mount: Presented to R. like the tip of the flywhisk.3 x 20. holding his mirror. with a gold katar tucked into his striped sash. Painting: Folio: 67⁄8 x 67⁄8 inches (17. 1985). In this painting.
76-79. While all the styles show a certain lack of depth. one holding a flywhisk and a parasol overhead. except for one attendant. . The strong lines of the architecture contrast with the soft folds of the garments and swirling design of the rug. supported by a pink-striped bolster.33 Illustration from the Shangri Ramayana: King Dasratha in Assembly Punjab Hills. 1700-1710 Opaque watercolor on paper with an unpainted border. This painting displays the distinguished characteristics of Style II. Attendants stand behind him. There are four distinct styles from this well-known Shangri Ramayana set established by the scholar William Archer. 1990).N. 1 For further discussion on the four distinct style of the Shangri Ramayana. Style II stands out with a strong use of pattern and contrasting color. number “7” Painting: Folio: 111⁄8 x 73⁄4 inches (19. beaked noses and red shading under their eyes. King Dasaratha is announcing the coronation of his son. All of the men. Rama.8 x 22. pp.Assembly Middle (in bold). He is dressed in a distinguished red hue with a katar tucked into his sash.7 x 28. The figures are marked by distinct.1 and there is a sharpness of the detail to the painting. Kulu or Bahu ca. see B.3 cm) 121⁄8 x 83⁄4 inches (30.2 cm) King Dasratha sits crossed-legged. Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitburg. are adorned with a tilak of red or yellow. inscription in Takri: Top left-Dasratha Top left. With the approval of the Brahmins and ministers. to an assembly of nobles.
pp. The distinct hard lines and ridged figures of this painting classify it as belonging to Style III of the Shangri Ramayana. flat background. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitburg. but evidence of Kulu origin has always been somewhat circumstantial. Hanuman stands to the far left. suggesting a possible Jammu-Bahu origin. Kulu or Bahu ca. Note how the figures stand out from the plain. 1990). Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer. Of the four distinct styles. there is no consensus regarding the attribution. in the end.1 1 For further discussion on the origin of this series.2 x 32 cm) The monkey army of Rama has overcome the demon forces of Ravana. of the Shangri branch of the royal line of Kulu. gesturing his army to push forward. Known as the Shangri Ramayana. the monkey army is bludgeoning and otherwise wreaking havoc on their enemies. Contemporary portraits of Bahu nobility also bear striking similarities in style to the earlier works of the Shangri Ramayana. see B. at Lanka. . these paintings have long been attributed to a Kulu origin. Armed with boulders and uprooted trees. while those demons who can make haste to seek refuge within the palace walls. but.N.34 Illustration from the Shangri Ramayana: The Demons Retreat from the Monkey Army Punjab Hills. The largest portion of them had been in the possession of a direct descendant of Raja Raghbir Singh. Style III has the least amount of documentation. All the known paintings of this style depict the monkey army. with a red border Painting: Folio: 75⁄8 x 115⁄8 inches (19.5 cm) 83⁄4 x 125⁄8 inches (22. 76-77.1700–1710 Opaque watercolor on paper.3 x 29.
he holds the hair of King Kritaveeryarjuna. G. at the bottom of the painting. Parashurama’s father lies dying in the arms of a female attendant. with his right. He holds an abundance of weapons. whose milk flows abundantly. In a vivid composition of primary colors.6 cm) Parashurama’s father. and a knife.35 Parashurama Defeating Kritaveeryarjuna Punjab Hills. The vibrant use of primary colors also links the style of the painting to the region. but has also singlehandedly defeated the entire army. while. . murders Jamadagni. and demands that his army take the cow. King Kritaveeryarjuna becomes deeply envious and decides he must have the divine animal for his own. another Bilaspur characteristic born of Mughal influence. while. 230. but Jamadagni refuses. Jamadagni. an axe.1 Provenance: Mandi Royal Collection 1 W. spiraled locks down the side of his face. There is a weightlessness to Bilaspur paintings. Four of his arms have already been severed and are strewn about his feet. who is depicted as a fourteen-armed demon. 1973). as the forms seem to exist independent of the background. p. He wields an axe. but Kritaveeryarjuna has underestimated Parashurama’s strength: Parashurama has not only slain the king. Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills: A Survey and History of Pahari Miniature Paintings (London: Sotheby Parke Bernet Publications Ltd.6 x 21. has been given a divine cow. arrows. He demands that Jamadagni give it to him.1700–1720 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper with white and black ruling and red borders Painting: Folio: 43⁄4 x 71⁄4 inches (12. Parashurama is depicted with delicate. Archer. The divine cow has golden wings and flies overhead.1 x 18.4 cm) 61⁄8 x 81⁄2 inches (15. which he holds overhead with his left hand. including a bow. King Kritaveeryarjuna becomes enraged. Upon hearing of the gift of the cow. Parashurama is depicted as deep blue and draped in red from the waist down. Bilaspur ca.
Varaha Emerging from the Ocean
Attributed to Manaku Punjab Hills, Guler or Basholi ca. 1735–1740 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper, thin white and black rules with red borders. Verso with five lines of Devanagari script from the Bhagavata Purana. The first line and a half is black, while the second half of the second line and third line alternate black and red letters, and the fourth and fifth lines are in red script. Inventory stamp from the Mandi State Library.
Painting: Folio: 61⁄2 x 101⁄2 inches (16.25 x 26.25 cm) 81⁄4 x 121⁄2 inches (21 x 31.7 cm)
Against an intense, orange field, Varaha, the boar avatar of Vishnu, emerges from the cosmic silver ocean splashing water. The avatar is shown after he has rescued the sacred Vedas and the earth goddess, Prithvi, from the powerful demon Hiranyaksha. Although sometimes shown in an anthropomorphic form with only a boar’s head, the deity in this painting is depicted in his complete boar manifestation. Brahma, the sage, Narada, and another sage, who stand by the thin, green banks of the ocean, meet Varaha, expressions of wonder on their faces.
The painting is attributed to the master Manaku. The son of Pandit Seu and the older brother of Nainsukh, Manaku, was born ca.1700, and died ca.1760. Manaku is thought by some to have spent his entire career in the state of Guler, but others believe he may have spent time in Basholi. The Bhagavata Purana series, which this painting exemplifies, is known for its bold use of color and arresting compositions. The delicate treatment of the landscape, as well as the refined brushwork and unwavering lines, are characteristic of Manaku’s style. This series formed a stylistic and iconographic prototype, which was to have a profound influence on later Indian painting.1 As is seen clearly in this particular painting, the series is known for its energetic movement, vitality, and stunning color. This Bhagavata Purana is similar in style and format to the well-known 1730 Gita Govinda series painted by Manaku,2 and was perhaps painted as a companion series. The greater part of this Bhagavata Purana is divided between the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Chandigarh Museum; the Lahore Museum; the Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Udaipur; and the provincial Museum, Lucknow.3
Royal Collection of the Mandi Court (stamped on verso) Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck Collection
For a full discussion of Manaku and his pivotal role for Guler paintings, see B.N. Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer, Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitberg, 1992), pp. 240-249. Goswamy and Fischer, 1992, nos. 100-104, pp. 252-257. For related pages from this series see Goswamy and Fisher, 1992, nos. 107 & 108, pp. 260 & 261; Sotheby's, London, April 29, 1992, lot 23; Archer, 1973, Vol. 1, no. 23, p. 51; Khandalavala and Chandra, 1965, Jehangir Catalogue, pl. N; Goswamy, Marg, 1968, XXI, color no. 4, pls. 23-24; Randhawa, Basohli Painting, pl. 4; Beach, Boston Museum Bulletin, 1965, pp. 168-177; Aijazuddin, p. 12-13, no. 7; Goswamy, 1986, nos. 83, 112, 136, 157 and 190; Goswamy and Fischer, 1992, pp. 244-5 and nos. 105-108; Daytona Beach, Treasury of Indian Miniature Paintings, figs. 26-37; Christie's, New York, March 22, 2000, lot 162; Dehejia, Devi, no. 83; Goswamy and Bhatia, Goenka Collection, nos. 185 and 186; Christie's, New York, June 16, 1987, lot 31; Sotheby's, New York, May 19, 1982, lot 106; Sotheby's, New York, March 22, 1989, 162.
Krishna Vanquishes the Demon Dhenuka
Attributed to Mahesh Punjab Hills, Chamba ca.1740–1750 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper, thin white and black rules and red borders. Verso with brush drawing and two-line inscription in Urdu
Painting: Folio: 91⁄2 x 51⁄2 inches (24 x 14 cm) 11 x 7 inches (27.9 x 17.8 cm)
This painting is an illustration of an incident recounted in Bhagavata Purana Book X, verses 21-35, which tells the story of the defeat of the demon Dhenuka. One day, as Krishna and Balarama are walking through a forest, they come upon a grove of trees full of delicious fruit. As Krishna begins to shake one of the trees, the keeper of the grove, the demon Dhenuka, appears in the form of a donkey. The donkey kicks at the boys, but Krishna grabs the animal and throws him into the tree. More of Dhenuka's followers then appear, also as donkeys, and again Krishna sends them into the trees, until the demon and his followers are destroyed. The grove becomes the favorite resort of Krishna and the cowherders, and their cattle enjoy grazing there. In the painting, Krishna has just hurled the donkey demon into the top branches of a palm tree, while his brother, Balarama, looks on and cowherders play near their cattle. On the reverse is a brush-drawing study of the goddess Durga attended by Shiva’s bull and her own vehicle, the lion. This scene illustrates the musical mode Bhairavi Ragini, from a series based on the Pahari ragamala iconography of the poet Kshemakarna.
There are two other paintings from this series published in the Jane Green Collection, where they have been attributed to the famous Chamba artist Mahesh, or at least, to the workshop of the artist.1 All these paintings share simple, quiet, yet powerful compositions, as well as the ragamala studies on the reverses. This series bears much similarity to a series illustrating the twenty-four manifestations of Vishnu in the Museum Reitberg, Zurich, that have also been attributed to Mahesh, who flourished between 1730 and 1775.2
Pratapaditya Pal, ed. Pleasure Gardens of the Mind: Indian Paintings from the Jane Greenough Green Collection (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art), pp. 30-34. See B.N. Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer, Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitberg, 1992), p. 169, figs. 54-55; p. 178, no. 68 for reference). Other leaves from this set are published in W.G. Archer, Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills (London, 1973, vol.II, p.136, pls.13-14.
Punjab Hills, Guler ca.1780
The Shaktis Assemble before the Asura Hordes
Opaque and translucent watercolor on paper
Painting: 61⁄2 x 10 inches (16.5 x 25.4 cm)
To combat the countless demon hordes of the buffalo demon Mahisha, the gods lend their shaktis, or essential female energies, to aid the great goddess Chandiki. As told in the epic Devi Mahatmaya:
At that very moment, O king, in order to destroy the enemies of the gods,/And for the sake of the well-being of the supreme gods, very valorous and powerful/ Saktis, having sprung forth from the bodies of Brahma, Siva, Skanda,/Visnu, and Indra, and having the form of each, approached Candika./ Whatever form, ornament, and mount a particular god possessed,/ With that very form did his sakti go forth to fight the Asuras
This Guler painting depicts this moment of the narrative powerfully. Chandika, on a hilltop and mounted on her lion, is surrounded by the shaktis as they ready to engage the enemy at the base of the hill. With mouths agape and eyes open wide, the demons stare in fear at the divine assembly. The red, orange, and pink rays of light that shower down on the demons reflect the power and brilliance of the goddesses who stand with brandished weapons. Paintings illustrating the Devi Mahatmaya were especially popular in the Punjab Hills. This particular page is part of a dispersed series that bears close similarity to another dispersed series for which a number of paintings remain in the collection of the Lahore Museum.2
Thomas B. Coburn, Encountering the Goddess (Albany: The State University of New York Press, 1991), pp. 63-64. F.S. Aijazzudin, Pahari Paintings & Sikh Portraits in the Lahore Museum (London: Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd., 1977), especially fig. 41 (xviii), p. 47.
The poem describes the various moods of love as well as the classifications of the nayika bheda.9 cm) 73⁄4 x 111⁄4 inches (19. Then the Nayak tries to please the offended Nayika by falling at her feet. Almost–mirror images of foliage flank the room in which the lovers sit. Though the composition is simple. angled palace walls direct the eye to the subjects.2 1 2 Joseph M. Kangra or Guler ca.” Krishna kneels at the feet of an angered Radha in hopes of being forgiven. Their love is so intense that it is compared to the all-consuming desire of the soul for God. Individual leaves and flower petals make up the foliage. She even reaches out her hand to cradle his head gently. The enraged Nayika turns Manini. The Arts of India: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (Virginia: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Association with Philip Wilson Publishers. 1780 Gita Govinda series. so it is this couple the artisan has used to illustrate the Sundar Shringar. it is obvious that Radha’s heart has already forgiven him.1 The Sundar Shringer series illustrates the text by the poet Sundar Kavi.6 cm) Inscription: “On seeing the evidence of another woman’s presence on her husband’s body the Nayika becomes a Guru Mana. 2001). there is no lack of detail. or heroines. The most commonly depicted example of the ideal romance is that of Radha and Krishna.1780 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper with a dark-blue border Painting: Folio: 53⁄4 x 93⁄8 inches (14.7 x 28.6 x 23.39 Illustration from a Sundar Shringer Series: Krishna Prostrating Himself at the Feet of Radha Punjab Hills. Dye. and eventually this assuages her Gurur Mana. who was a contemporary of the seventeenth-century Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (r. p. and tiny dragonflies flutter overhead. . which is said to represent the highest quality of Kangra painting. p. Dye III. The Nayika’s heart is filled with joy. 350. The couple is central in the symmetrical composition. 1628–1658). 350. Tears roll down from the Nayika’s eyes on seeing the marks of the red lac-dye on her husband’s forehead. But with the warmth of her eyes and subtle smile on her lips. The sharp. Many similarities can be drawn between this series and the famous ca.
This painting bears close similarity to a contemporary Rukmini-Mangala series in the collection of the Bhuri Singh Museum. Painting: Folio: 121⁄2 x 91⁄2 inches (31. 107-108.. cover image and fig. (Mumbai: Marg Publications. 1764-1793). Guler Style at Chamba ca. which has been ascribed to Nikka. Four priests make offerings and utter prayers in the center. 1775-1780 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. The third step covers the underworld. pp. a son of Nainsukh. Also B. Craven. With this power. “Nikka and Ranjha at the Court of Raj Singh of Chamba. Vishwa Chander Ohri and Roy C. carrying a parasol. and grows to an immeasurable size. Craven. 1992). stand by.. and has it washed by the demon king Bali and a female attendant. Vamana tricks Bali into giving him as much of his empire as he can measure in three steps. as seen in this painting. Chamba. eds.1 Nikka is known particularly for his fine draftsmanship and modeling and his propensity for asymmetrical compositions.N. observing the scene under a green and orange tent. Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer. he covers the entire earth. the dwarf manifestation of Vishnu. figs. Black and gold rules with pink borders. Jr. Bali laughs at the dwarf and grants his wish. Bali has taken control over the three levels of the universe. Jr. The artist is believed to have worked at the Chamba court under the patronage of Raja Raj Singh (r. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitberg. and Vamana secures the universe from the control of the demon king. Through the practice of austerities. with pale-blue skin. Painters of the Pahari Schools (Mumbai: Marg Publications. see Vishwa Chander Ohri. With the first step. and gods. . 1998). humans. With the second step.1 x 30.5 cm) Vamana. appears as a white-haired Brahmin priest. Brahma grants King Bali a boon. after the final step.” in Painters of the Pahari Schools. For a discussion of Nikka..2 1 2 Vishwa Chander Ohri and Roy C. 98-114.40 Vamana Having his Feet Washed in a Kamandula Attributed to Nikka Punjab Hills. pp. Vamana has his feet washed in a kamandula. with the focal point placed outside the center of the painting.2 x 24.1 cm) 15 x 12 inches (38. including Shiva. eds. and other demons. he measures the heavens. Vamana then assumes the Trivikrama form. The dwarf places his left foot into a bath. 147. 1998). Line drawing of front scene on verso in red ochre. and strong use of white and deep red. 11-13.
enveloped in gold from head to toe. Krishna being the largest. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitburg. the painting has a delicate quality. framing the central figures. Much like the works of Sajnu. 356 and 370-372. in this example. Like works from the masters of this time. with. The size of the figures is determined by their relative importance. and terraces dominate the space. rather than those in the foreground. A bright inner border contrasts with a pale-yellow background and alternating rectangles of green and pink. appear the largest. 1800-1810 The Wedding of Krishna and Rukmini Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper with a thin border of yellow.1 1 For further discussion on contemporary Kangra paintings. 1990). balconies. pink. and green. There is still the skewed sense of perspective that has remained a key element in Indian paintings. except for her tiny. Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer. the most well known being Purku. The attention to detail and fine brushwork characterize the high point of Kangra-style painting in the early nineteenth century. All the proper preparations have been made. . Pink and green recur in various repeated patterns covering the palace walls and floor. Krishna’s face is draped with a delicate. and each one of the dozens of figures is painted with distinct features and uniquely designed garments. sheer veil. streams of incense swirl around the couple. Wedding guests. see B.41 Punjab Hills. this painting employs strong diagonals in the composition. hennaed hands. and a dark-blue outer border Painting: Folio: 111⁄2 x 161⁄2 inches (29 x 42 cm) 141⁄2 x 195⁄8 inches (37 x 50 cm) Krishna and his bride stand central to the composition. musicians. Walls. and a shrine to Ganesha hangs in the background. and attendants surround Krishna and Rukmini within and near the palace walls.N. The outer border is the deep blackish-blue hue of the late-night sky. pp. Kangra ca. The same focus is given to the architecture. and some peer from windows overhead. where the central figures. while Rukmini’s figure is covered completely.
mounted on his white elephant. Members of Indra’s court watch excitedly from safety. and whites.9 x 40. For example. Ready for battle. also plays a major role in anchoring the composition. bounds with his retinue toward the usurpers. Architecture. Satyabhama. Indra.7 x 38. if they commit such a transgression. behind the white palace walls.6 cm) A resplendent Krishna and Balarama stand with their Garuda mount. Krishna ignores the messenger’s warning and welcomes the contest with Indra. ready to pluck the desired parijata tree from the palatial heaven of Indra.1800–1815 Krishna and Balarama Stealing the Parijata Tree from Indra’s Heaven Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India (Zurich: Artibus Asiae and Museum Reitberg. they will incur the wrath of Indra. Urged by the desire of his wife. 368-386.1 cm) 22 x 16 inches (55. even though it is not the primary focus of the painting. billowing spirals in pinks.N. Purkhu was known especially for his illustration of epic narratives done on a large-format scale.42 Attributed to Purkhu Punjab Hills. oranges. Airavata. if not understated. 1992). Goswamy and Eberhard Fischer. the clouds are rendered as bold. to have the celestial tree in her own garden in Dwaraka. see B. thin white and black rules and red borders Painting: Folio: 203⁄4 x 15 inches (52. who stands before them.1 Other paintings attributed to this artist remain in various public and private collections. . The composition is subtle. The keeper of Indra’s garden. This painting comes from a well-known Harivamsha series that is attributed to the Kangra master Purkhu. 1 For a full account of Purkhu of Kangra. Kangra ca. The Kangra master had an immediately recognizable style. informs the heroes that. pp. grays.
this work is masterfully executed. meeting with the local king and his advisors. From the high point of Kangra painting. Together. The compositional layout of this painting is typical. closest to the viewer. Krishna is shown first with his brother. . in the upper-left-hand corner. A tiny Devanagari inscription over the head of each figure identifies him.1 cm) In this continuous narrative. Though Krishna appears both in the center of the painting and in the upper-left corner. Krishna is then seen inside the palace walls. but his efforts prove to be futile.4 cm) 143⁄4 x 201⁄2 inches (37. in the form of men and women gathering water from the river. and the two groups eventually go to war. the fifth book of the Marabharatha. he is depicted in both places in nearly identical sizes.9 x 50.1810 Illustration from the Mahabharatha: Krishna Mediating Between Two Kings Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper Painting: Folio: 141⁄8 x 197⁄8 inches (35. in that there is no proper sense of perspective. with the smallest figures at the bottom of the page. Balarama. God of Air. Kangra ca. or Book of Efforts.43 Punjab Hills. This scene is from the Udyoga Parva. Smaller figures appear within the palace rooms. outside their tents. along with Balarama. they meet with Vayu Devata.5 x 52. Krishna tries to make peace between the Kurus and the Pandavas. The entire palace has been heightened with gold and filled with decorative details.
Arjuna’s thoughts and feelings are of such a profound nature that it is difficult for him to articulate them. Shiva is also shown with Ganga. He is that which existed before Time itself. Kangra ca.73 x 21. Indra. Arjuna asks if he could be granted the favor of witnessing Krishna’s divine self. That the significance of such a passage could be so effectively portrayed is a testament to the brilliance of this artist. but also the ability to transform a vision into an image that makes this painting a masterpiece. and he exclaims that it is difficult to look at. Agni.44 Punjab Hills. demons. Krishna encompasses worlds and universes. after Lord Krishna has explained to Arjuna how he is the-everything and the-nothing. and womankind are all emanate from him. beasts of the earth. dizzying. The account of Arjuna’s experience is mesmerizing. the vision of the god would burn brighter than a thousand suns. the vision is still beyond him. a force without beginning. It is not only the imagination. and supernatural beings are part of him and extensions of him. Even though Arjuna was given a supernatural eye with which to view this form. as he appears as the Virat Swaroop to Arjuna. which will allow him to gaze without harm upon Krishna. Arjuna remarks that he sees Brahma. Even the sky is transformed into a glimmering gold field. his Nandi. All the deities. and awe-inspiring. All at once a vision of the supreme. since. His thousand arms display the multitude of attributes that signify his transcendence. middle. of the All—the All-Formed. As seen in this image. 1810–1820 Virat Swaroop Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper Painting : 115⁄16 x 85⁄8 inches (28. which radiates the power of the Infinite One as it too emanates from within him. or end—the Infinite is manifest all around him. and Parvati. . In the painting. without it. and that the Immeasurable One is even greater. mankind. In his account of the experience. this spectacular painting depicts the infinite and all-encompassing cosmic manifestation of Lord Krishna. In the previous chapter.9 cm) Taken from chapter eleven of the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna agrees to the request and bestows upon Arjuna a supernatural eye. the Creator. sitting on his lotus-seat within the form. demons.
1973). She has come to realize she has developed a deep love for Krishna. while her companion tries in vain to lift her mood with a song. Kangra ca. Hari roams here to dance with young women. 1820 Radha Sits in Sadness While Krishna Dances in the Forest of Vrindavan Opaque watercolor and gold on paper with floral border.” meaning spring. The various moods of the scene are depicted in the strong contrast to the light colors of the figures and the open greenery of the forest.” Painting: Folio: 93⁄4 x 131⁄2 inches (25 x 34 cm) 111⁄4 x 141⁄2 inches (28. inscription on the verso: From the third song of the first canto. as a group of gopis gather around to admire him.45 Punjab Hills. 307-308. as his long garland sways back and forth. Radha sits. which is confirmed by the inscription “Basant. the artist has depicted the signs of spring. to the dark-green hues of the trees and foliage that create cavernous shadows within.” the refrain reads: “When spring’s mood is rich. friends – A cruel time for deserted lovers. . except for Radha (who is identified by a small inscription in nagari). “Joyful Krishna.. He swings his arms about playfully. under a tree. Kangra 1 W.G. stroll joyfully about the forest. Other gopis. pp. Archer. Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills: A Survey and History of Pahari Miniature Paintings (London: Sotheby Parke Bernet Publications Ltd. Provenance: Collection of Raja Dhruv Dev Chand of Lambagraon. With flowers blooming all around and young birds perched in the treetops. As the sun sets. inconsolable.5 x 37 cm) Krishna dances about the woods of the Vrindiban forest. streaks of orange appear on the horizon. above the head of Radha’s companion.
Fatah Chand. as it was associated with the collection of the Lambagraon Palace. These paintings were executed for either Raja Sansar Chand. Within this series. or his brother. the sharply cut features and slender forms of the subject help to place the date of this painting around 1820. .This painting is part of a series known as the Lambagroan Gita Govinda.
46 Krishna Surrounded by Groups of Gopas and Gopis in the Waters of the Yamuna Punjab Hills.2 cm) In this continuous narrative of Krishna frolicking in the waters of the Yamuna. This vivid depiction of a playful scene is also exquisitely detailed. as he playfully throws his arms in the air and smiles. Tiny inscriptions in Devanagari identify the cast of important characters. Subhadra. In the lower-right-hand corner. Provenance: Property from a private German Collection Acquired from the Royal Library of Mandi in 1969 . but is also in fine condition. Krishna closes his eyes and covers his face as the group splashes him relentlessly. To the upper right. and Rukmani. and Sahadeva. Arjuna. The supple young ladies include Rati.1 x 47. Bhima. They have removed their upper garments. with delicate shadowing of each face. including Satyaki and Pradyumna. depiction of individual strands of hair.7 x 43. Nakula. Narada. This set of paintings is not only unusually large. and the amusing effect of splashing water. which lie in little piles on the riverbank. as well as the five Pandava brothers—Yudhishtira. Each image from the Harivamsa overflows with beautifully painted figures.1 cm) 15 x 185⁄8 inches (38. Krishna plays fondly with his close childhood friend and devotee. he appears to the far left surrounded by a group of male companions. Kangra or Guler ca. 1820 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper in red borders with black and white ruling Painting: Folio: 135⁄8 x 17 inches (34. Revati. Krishna seems to prefer the company of the young ladies in the water.
Nearby. surrounded by a protective brick wall. and birds perch overhead. The village of Vrindavan. Painting: Folio: 93⁄8 x 143⁄4 inches (24 x 36. . and gopis gather to fill their jugs with water. Kangra ca. The entrance has been elaborated heavily with a naqqar-khana overhead. The foliage that conceals them is highlighted with tiny blossoms. There is a strong sense of realism in both the figures and the flora. hidden from the commotion of events around them. with a Sanskrit verse inscribed on the cover page in nagari script. Radha touches Krishna’s arm gently as he cups her breast in one hand. The work of a true master. and Krishna wearing pitambur (goldenrod garments). this painting is filled with flowing forms and textures. Both are dressed in fiery hues. but there is still the forced sense of perspective so common to Indian painting. with your eyes that are distinctive in the world. or swim in the swirling waters of the Yamuna River. herders have brought their cows to drink.5 cm) Inscription on verso: “‘O Gopi.” Radha and Krishna sit face to face atop a blanket of petals.47 Punjab Hills. 1810–1820 Radha and Krishna meeting in the Forest Opaque watercolor and gold on paper with floral border. with Radha draped in bright orange. He chides her playfully by shaking his fingers at her.’ Saying this. and pulling away the covering of Radha's breasts on the bank of Yamuna. rises up in the background. the son of Nanda was very happy. which holds a band of lively musicians. The painting is marked on the back with a “19” in Sanskrit.25 cm) 113⁄4 x 163⁄4 inches (29. every moment do not cover these two (breasts of yours) buds of Kadamba that belong to me.75 x 42.
100.1850–1860 The Court of Ranjit Singh Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper Painting: Folio: 101⁄2 x 16 inches (26. more specifically in the gently shaded pink lotus shapes on the pillars.48 Punjab Hills. the young Hira Singh.110.7 x 40. San Diego Museum of Art. 261. supported by golden poles. with its light scrolling foliage on a dark background. with white exterior walls and a green and red interior. Domains of Wonder: Selected Masterworks on Indian Painting (San Diego. Against a deep-blue evening sky and behind the figures stands the palace. see B. his son. seated in golden chairs. p. and B. They are easily recognizable because of the use of the established iconography for each man. . A strong Kangra influence can be seen in the treatment of the structure. stretches out from the palace roof. Goswamy.1 1 For similar examples of Ranjit Singh and his court. fig. one foot tucked underneath him. surrounded by a wider pale-pink border. Piety and Splender: Sikh Heritage in Art (New Delhi. and his Chief Minister. p. the other propped up on a small footrest. are Ranjit Singh’s constant companion.1 cm) Maharaja Ranjit Singh sits central to a composition consisting of twelve men. with Urdu inscriptions. From left to right. 2000). 111. A red and green canopy.N. Dhian Singh. This influence is apparent also in the treatment of the border. 2005). National Msueum of New Delhi. An attendant stands directly behind him. Ranjit Singh is dressed in red and green and sits in a familiar posture. Lahore ca. fig.N Goswamy and Caron Smith.6 cm) 13 x 173⁄4 inches (33 x 45. Sher Singh.
India Revealed. To the left. resident of Nandgaon Barsana. along with sets illustrating native occupations. New York. S. an attendant follower wearing a turban with a floral spray shades the holy man with a tasselled umbrella.” His was a visual spectacle that was a popular subject with Company School artists. a hookah. 97. dogs. The gouache is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. yet his role as a religious presence in Delhi was legitimate. an area relatively untouched by European culture at the time of their production.C. The exotic guise. 1976. and notable local curiosities were painted for sale to the British. This elaborately adorned central holy man was known popularly as “Mr. The Art and Adventures of James and William Fraser 1801-35. 110. Painting: 161⁄2 x 121⁄8 inches (41.. and tasselled accoutrements. T. and Falk. It is likely that this watercolor was rendered at the hand of Ghulam Ali Khan during Fraser’s Himalayan expedition. a Brahmin of the Chaube caste from Gokal. holding the sunshade) and Gopal. Delhi ca. known as Silu. and in an illustration in the Dehlie Book. P. pl. a youthful devotee carrying a stringed musical instrument accompanies him. including a tall hat covered abundantly with rows of flowers.3 x 30. Provenance: William (1784-1835) and James Baillie Fraser (1783-1856) H. with his followers Ram Dani (of the Bhopa caste. The holy man and his attendant also appear in another watercolor published by Stuart Cary Welch. in that they originate in the environs of Delhi. and pictures of this sort. in London. Inscribed with identifications in Persian above and alongside the figures: Surdhaj. New York Private American Collection . 27.49 Uttar Pradesh. and monkeys. Such quaintness as depicted in these paintings appealed as much to foreigners in the early nineteenth century as it does now. Welch. inhabitant of Mathura). another painter of Ghulam Ali Kahn’s circle. in a gouache attributed to Faiz Ali Khan. p. Kraus. Flowery Man. Flowery Man and his attendant form part of an even-larger assembly of seven fantastically attired ascetics accompanied by an attendant. pl. Brindaban. Flowery Man and Attendants Watercolor on paper. borders on the fantastic. M..1820 Mr. Mr. architectural renderings. Indian Drawings and Painted Sketches: 16th through 19th centuries. compiled by Sir Thomas Metcalfe. 1989. Literature: Archer.9 cm) The Fraser paintings are unique. The Asia Society. To the right. the Delhi resident.
2007). p. Jagdish Mittal. Lahore ca.6 x 29. hang on either side of the entrance to the storeroom. The merchant’s young assistant holds the ledger and sits respectfully behind his master.8 x 19. a couple from the street approaches the stoic buyer.8 cm) The purpose of this painting is to illustrate a trade.N.7 cm) 16 x 113⁄4 inches (40. It falls under the Company Style manner. hoping also to make a sale. A madari (street magician). Although Company School paintings are well known from the Patna and Tanjore areas. Hyderabad. see B. 1845–1850 Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. fig. Goswamy. Sublime Delight Through Works of Art (Hyderabad: Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art. pp. A red and white awning frames the shop. 2000).178-187. In the foreground. 1 2 For other Company paintings from the Punjab.50 A Brass Merchant’s Shop Punjab Plains. and its walls are a gleaming white. ewers. performs in the street for the Sikh noble. figs. they were also done in the Punjab.. pale-blue ruling and plain borders Painting: Folio: 113⁄4 x 73⁄4 inches (29. 38. in this case. The shop is stacked with bowls. . 217-225.1 Another version of this scene is in the collection of the Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art.with a wealthy sikh. and utensils. in the middle of a transaction. Piety and Splendor: Sikh Heritage in Art (New Delhi: National Museum. ed. 137. He is in the process of weighing the merchandise for the patient customer. that of a shopkeeper. with the painting’s having a clear interest in documenting a scene of Indian life. while a dog watches the antics. with his two monkeys. possibly illustrations from the Gita Govinda. Romantic paintings of Radha and Krishna.2 A brass merchant is depicted.
Gosain-ji By Ragunath Rajasthan. which translates literally to “master of cattle. inscription on verso with name of artist. Nathdawara Late 19th century Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper. Gusain-ji wrote much commentary to the Gita. Vitthalnath-ji was often refered to as Gusain-ji. sitting cross-legged.5 cm) Gosain-ji. and he wears a gold bracelet on his left wrist. He wears numerous strings of pearls around his neck. His orange robe is trimmed with gold. His right hand is in a blue rosary pouch with gold detailing. Ragunath. A tilak on his forehead marks him as a religious man. Vallabh was the founder of the Pushti sect in India.” He lived in the sixteenth century. was one of the three principal artists from Nathdawara during this period. This portrait depicts Vitthalnath-ji. Ragunath Painting: 25 x 185⁄8 inches (63. dominates the composition. during his life. . son of Vallabh. and pearls dangle from his ears as well. and.5 x 47.51 Vallabacharya High-Priest. The artist.
Moore Harish Patel Design: Photography: Subhash Kapoor Publisher: Art of the Past.876.7070 F: 212. without the prior written permission of the copyright holders. Inc. Freedman Jennifer M. 1242 Madison Avenue New York. or by any means.artofpast. Inc. New York .860. Printed in Hong Kong Art of the Past. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Inc.Text: Aaron M.5373 email@example.com www. NY 10128 T: 212.com © 2009 by Art of the Past.
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