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**Spur Gear Design and selection
**

Objectives

•

• • • • • •

Standard proportions

• American Standard Association (ASA) • American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) • Brown and Sharp • 14 ½ deg; 20 deg; 25 deg pressure angle • Full depth and stub tooth systems

P N RAO 2

Apply principles learned in Chapter 11 to actual design and selection of spur gear systems. Calculate forces on teeth of spur gears, including impact forces associated with velocity and clearances. Determine allowable force on gear teeth, including the factors necessary due to angle of involute of tooth shape and materials selected for gears. Design actual gear systems, including specifying materials, manufacturing accuracy, and other factors necessary for complete spur gear design. Understand and determine necessary surface hardness of gears to minimize or prevent surface wear. Understand how lubrication can cushion the impact on gearing systems and cool them. Select standard gears available from stocking manufacturers or distributors.

P N RAO 1

**Specifications for standard gear teeth
**

Item Full depth & pitches coarser than 20 20° 25° Full depth & pitches finer than 20 20° 14½° full depth 14½°

**Forces on spur gear teeth
**

• Ft = Transmitted force • Fn = Normal force or separating force • Fr = Resultant force • θ = pressure angle

Pressure angle Addendum (in.) Dedendum (in.)

1.0/P

1.0/P

1.0/P

1/P

1.250/P

1.250/P

1.2/P + 0.002

1.157/P

• Fn = Ft tan θ F Fr = t cos θ

3 P N RAO 4

P N RAO

**Forces on spur gear teeth
**

• Power, P; P =

Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth

Tn or T = 63,000 P 63,000 n

• 20-tooth, 8 pitch, 1-inch-wide, 20° pinion transmits 5 hp at 1725 rpm to a 60-tooth gear. • Determine driving force, separating force, and maximum force that would act on mounting shafts.

• Torque, T = Ft r and r = Dp /2 • Combining the above we can write

Ft =

2T Dp

P N RAO 5

P N RAO

6

1

8 pitch. 1-inch-wide.) − Find transmitted force: (12-3) Ft = 2T Dp Ft = − Find separating force: (2)183 in-lb = 146 lb 2. (2-6) P = Tn 63. Jacobson and Schmid P N RAO 11 P N RAO 12 2 .5 in 8 teeth/in diameter Fr = Fr = 155 lb P N RAO 7 P N RAO 8 Surface Speed • Surface speed (Vm) is often referred to as pitch-line speed • Vm = • Vm = Example Problem 12-2: Surface Speed • In previous problem.Metric units P N RAO 9 Vm = π 2.20 Forces acting on individual gear tooth.5 in (12-1) Fn = Ft tan θ T = (63. separating force.000 63.Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth • 20-tooth. Hamrock. • Determine driving force.5 in 1725 rpm Vm = 1129 ft/min P N RAO 10 Strength of Gear Teeth • Lewis form factor method Forces on Gear Tooth Figure 14. determine the surface speed: (12-7) Vm = π D n or π Dp n 12 π Dp n 1000 ft/min Vm = (12-5) π Dp n 12 ft 12 in m/min -.000P n Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth (cont’d. ©1998 McGraw-Hill. 20° pinion transmits 5 hp at 1725 rpm to a 60-tooth gear. and maximum force that would act on mounting shafts.000)5 = 183 in-lb T = 1725 Fn = 146 lb tan 20° Fn = 53 lb − Find pitch circle: (11-4) Dp = Np Pd − Find maximum force: (12-2) Fr = Ft cos θ 146 lb cos 20° Dp = 20 teeth = 2.

320 8 Fs = 44.) − Gear: Sn = .Lewis equation Fs = Sn Y b Pd • Fs = Allowable dynamic bending force (lb) • Sn = Allowable stress (lb/in2). the mating gear is made from AISI 1137 hot-rolled steel.5 Su = . assuming full-depth teeth: Y = .000 (1) .1) • Pd = Diametral pitch P N RAO 13 Table 12.5 (88 ksi) = 44 ksi (Table 12-1) Y = .5 ksi Example Problem 12-3: Strength of Gear Teeth (cont’d. • Ft = Transmitted force • Fd = Dynamic force • Commercial 600 + Vm – Forming – stamping P N RAO 17 Fd = 600 P N RAO Ft 18 3 . and long life is desired.320 Fs = 47.421 (12-9) Sn b Y Fs = Pd − Find Lewis form factor (Y) from Table 12-1. Use endurance limit and account for the fillet as the stress concentration factor • b = Face width (in. determine the force allowable (Fs) on these teeth if the pinion is made from an AISI 4140 annealed steel.1 Lewis form factors (Y) P N RAO 14 Example Problem 12-3: Strength of Gear Teeth • In Example Problem 12-1.421 8 Fs = 2316 lb − Use Fs = 1900 lb for design purposes.5 (95 ksi) = 47.) • Y = Lewis form factor (Table 12. Fs = 1900 lb P N RAO 15 P N RAO 16 Classes of Gears • Transmitted load depends on the accuracy of the gears • Gear Manufacture – Casting – Machining • Forming • Hobbing • Shaping and Planing Force Transmitted • Transmitted load depends on the accuracy of the gears • A dynamic load factor is added to take care of this.500 (1) . − Pinion: Sn = .

2% carbon with an Sy = 30 ksi and Su = 55 ksi. Nsf Fs ≥ Fd N sf 1200 + Vm Ft 1200 Fd = 0.5 50 + Vm Ft 50 19 • Hobbed or shaved Fd = P N RAO P N RAO 20 Table 12. − Therefore: Sn = .5 ksi − Find Dp : (11-4) Dp = Np Pd Fs ≥ Fd N sf 1900 lb ≥ 421 2 950 lb > 421 lb • This design meets the criteria.5 78 + Vm Ft 78 0.5 Su Sn = .5 (55 ksi) = 27.5 < Nsf < 1. the gears are commercial grade. based on force allowable from Example Problem 12-3.Classes of Gears • Carefully cut Fd = • Precision Design Methods • Strength of gear tooth should be greater than the dynamic force. – Dynamic load: 600 + Vm (12-10) Fd = Ft 600 600 + 1129 Fd = (146 lb) 600 Fd = 421 lb – Comparing to force allowable: Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods • Spur gears from the catalog page shown in Figure 12-3 are made from a . would this be an acceptable design if a factor of safety of 2 were desired? • Use surface speed and force transmitted from Example Problems 12-2 and 12-3. • From Appendix 4. • What factor of safety do they appear to use in this catalog? • Try a 24-tooth at 1800 rpm gear for example purposes. Fs ≥ Fd • You should also include the factor of safety. an AISI 1020 hot-rolled steel would have .5 Medium shock. determine dynamic load and.75 Moderately heavy shock 1. 23 Dp = 24 = 2 in 12 P N RAO P N RAO 24 4 .75 < Nsf < 2 Heavy shock 8 12.5 <b< Pd Pd P N RAO 21 P N RAO 22 Example Problem 12-4: Design Methods • If.25 < Nsf < 1. in Example Problem 12-1. frequent starts 1.25 Uniform load without shock 1.2% carbon steel with no special heat treatment.2 Service Factors Face width of Gears • Relation between the width of gears and the diametral pitch 1 < Nsf < 1.

Nsf = 2 – Solve for face width b. − Miscellaneous properties: (11-4) Nsf = Nsf = • Appears to be reasonable value.344 29 P N RAO (Table 12-1) Ft = 70 lb P N RAO 30 5 .8 hp 63. θ.calculated hp . Dp.catalog 5.302 12 Fs = 519 lb Tn 202 (1800) P = = = 5.Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d) − Find Vm : (12-5) Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d) − Set Fs = Fd and solve for Ft : ⎛ 600 + Vm ⎞ Fd = Fs = ⎜ ⎟ Ft ⎝ 600 ⎠ ⎛ 600 + 942 ⎞ 519 lb = ⎜ ⎟ Ft 600 ⎝ ⎠ Ft = 202 lb (12-3) Vm = π Dp n 12 ft 12 in Vm = π 2 in (1800 rpm) Vm = 942 ft/min − Find Fs : ⎛ Dp ⎞ T = F ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (12-9) Fs = Sn b Y Pd (from Table 12-1) ⎛ 2 in ⎞ T = 202 lb ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ T = 202 in-lb (2-6) Y = . Nsf. specify a possible design for this problem. Nt. b. θ = 14½°.) − Surface speed: (12-5) Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.000 hp Ft = Vm Ft = 33.) – Dynamic force Vm = π Dp n 12 ⎛ 600 + Vm ⎞ Fd = ⎜ ⎟ Ft ⎝ 600 ⎠ ⎛ 600 + 943 ⎞ Fd = ⎜ ⎟ 70 ⎝ 600 ⎠ Fd = 180 lb (12-10) – Since width b is the unkown: 4 in 900 rpm Vm = π 12 in/ft Vm = 943 ft/min − Finding force on teeth: (12-6) Fs ≥ Fd N sf and Fs = Sn b Y Pd (12-8) 33.4 Su (.8 hp 33. Nt = 48. • The following variables are unknown: Pd.4 4.4 is used because cast iron): –Sn = 12 ksi –Y = .500 (¾) . try the following: – Pd = 12.000 or (12-6) P N RAO 25 Ft Vm 202 (942) P = = P N RAO = 5.000 (2) 943 Sn b Y = Fd N sf Pd –Class 30 CI. Sn = .000 33.14 Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods • Pair of commercial-grade spur gears is to transmit 2 hp at a speed of 900 rpm of the pinion and 300 rpm for gear. Su = 30 ksi. • As it is impossible to solve for all simultaneously. Np 48 = = 4 in Dp = Pd 12 Ng = Np Vr = 48(3) = 144 teeth P N RAO 27 P N RAO 28 Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.000 26 Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d) − Compared to catalog: hp .000 63.8 = 1.302 Fs = 27. • If class 30 cast iron is to be used. • Manufacturer may also have reduced its rating for wear purposes as these are not hardened gears.

P N RAO Buckingham Method of Gear Design • It offers greater flexibility • Expected error is based on different-pitch teeth • More conservative design Fig.66 < 1 < 1.344 = 180 2 (12) b = 1. • Many other designs are also possible.3 Values of C for e = 0.Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.140 1.04 • This is an acceptable design. 12.660 Buckingham Method of Gear Design 0.001 inch Material Gray iron and Gray iron Gray iron and steel Steel and steel 14 ½ deg 20 deg 800 1.4 Expected error in tooth profiles P N RAO 33 P N RAO 34 Table 12.600 830 1.5 8 < 1 < 12 12 .0 inches − Check ratio of width to pitch: (12-14) 12.000 b .5 8 < b < Pd Pd 12.) − Substituting: (12-9) • To increase the dynamic beam strength of the gear – Increase tooth size by decreasing the diametral pitch – Increase face width upto the pitch diameter of the pinion – Select material of greater endurance limit – Machine tooth profiles more precisely – Mount gears more precisely – Use proper lubricant and reduce contamination 31 P N RAO 32 Sn b Y = Fd Nsf Pd 12.5 Fd = Ft + P N RAO 35 P N RAO 36 6 .100 1.05 Vm + (b C + Ft )0.05 Vm (b C + Ft ) 0.

000) 3450 π 1.5 Recommended maximum error in gear teeth Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear Design and Expected Error • A pair of steel gears is made from annealed AISI 3140. 16 pitch. with 24 teeth 1 inch wide.337 16 Fs = 1000 Ft = 2(55 in-lb) 1.) • Expected error from Figure 12-4: e = .) − Find torque: (2-6) Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear Design and Expected Error (cont’d.337 47.05 (1355) (1 • 830 + 73) 1/ 2 (12-15) .5 in 3450 rpm 12 ft/in T = Vm = 1355 ft/min − Find force allowable (Fs): (12-9) T = 55 in-lb − Find force transmitted: (12-3) Fs = Sn b Y Pd (from Table 12-1) Ft = 2T Dp Fs = Y = .0005 (1000) 1660 C = 830 • Solve for dynamic load using Buckingham’s equation: Fd = Ft + Fd = 73 + . is this a suitable design? (Appendix 4) Su = 95 ksi Sn = .4.) b = face width (in. • The pinion is a precision. 20° involute.5 ksi (11-4) Dp = Np 24 = = 1.05 (1355) + (1 • 830 + 73) Fd = 699 lb Fs ≥ Fd N sf 1000 ≥ 699 1.Fig.5(95 ksi) = 47. • The gear has 42 teeth.0005 Wear strength (Buckingham) ⎛ 2 Dg ⎞ ⎟ FW = D P b K g ⎜ ⎜D + D ⎟ g ⎠ ⎝ p Fw = tooth wear strength (lb) Dp = diametral pitch of pinion (in. • To transmit 3 hp at a speed of 3450 rpm for a safety factor of 1.) Kg = load stress factor (Appendix 13) • The value of C from Table 12-3 for steel and steel and 20° involute angle gears is 1660: C = . 12.4 714 > 699 • This meets the criteria.000) n 3 (63.000 Vm = Vm = π Dp n 12 T = P (63. • Each gear has a surface hardness of BHN = 350.5 Su = .) − Find surface speed: (12-5) P = Tn 63.500 (1) . P N RAO 41 P N RAO 42 7 .) Dg = diametral pitch of gear (in.05Vm (bC + Ft ) .5 in Ft = 73 lb P N RAO 39 P N RAO 40 Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear Design and Expected Error (cont’d.5 in 16 Pd P N RAO 38 P N RAO 37 Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear Design and Expected Error (cont’d.05 Vm + (bC + Ft )1/ 2 .

Fw = Dp b Q Kg − Find Q : (12-17) K g = 470 Fw = 1.27) ( 470) Fw = 895 Fw ≥ Fd N sf 895 > 699 1 .27 (from Appendix 13) Kg = 270 • This would now be acceptable if the gear teeth were hardened to a BHN of 450.2 746 > 699 Q = 2 Ng Ng + Np 2 (42) 42 + 24 (from Appendix 13) Q = Q = 1. For wear use Nss = 1. P N RAO 43 P N RAO 44 8 .5 (1) (1.) – Substituting into equation 12-16: Fw = 1.Example Problem 12-8: Wear of Gears • In prior example problem. Try if surfaces each had a BHN = 450.2 − Wear formula: (12-16) Example Problem 12-8: Wear of Gears (cont’d. verify the surface is suitable for wear considerations.27 (270) Fw = 514 • This would not be suitable.5 (1) 1.

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