215 994 A

2008−03

Processes
TIG (GTAW) Welding

Guidelines For Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1. Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2. Selecting A GTAW Powersource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3. Typical GTAW Welding System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 − GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1. Typical GTAW Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 − SELECTING AND PREPARING A TUNGSTEN FOR DC OR AC WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1. Selecting Tungsten Electrode (Wear Clean gloves To Prevent Contamination Of Tungsten) . . . . . . . . 4-2. Preparing Tungsten Electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 5 − GTAW WAVEFORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 6 − ARC SHAPING CAPABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1. Arc Starting With Different Polarities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2. Balance Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3. AC Frequency Adjustment Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4. Amperage Adjust Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5. Frequency Adjustment Control - 60Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6. Frequency Adjustment Control - 200Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 7 − TIG SHIELDING GASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1. Shielding Gases For TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 8 − GUIDELINES FOR GTAW WELDING (TIG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1. Lift-ArcE And HF TIG Start Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2. Torch Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3. Suggested Inverter Power Source Starting Parameters For Various Aluminum Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4. TIG Welding Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 9 − GTAW TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19

or lying. wire reel. D To handle hot parts. D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process. SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter-type welding power sources after removal of input power. . state. or poorly spliced cables. 1-1. D Turn Off inverter. D Keep all panels and covers securely in place. undersized. D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work. free of oil and grease. D Properly install and ground this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national. or if there is a danger of falling. attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections. especially children. D If AC output is required. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. D Turn off all equipment when not in use. D Use only well-maintained equipment. damaged. In most situations. D Allow cooling period before working on gun or torch. use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder. do not work alone! D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment. 1-2. D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be present. Only qualified persons should install. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the hazards. For these conditions. and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. maintain. the wire. D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp locations or while wearing wet clothing. ground. on metal structures such as floors. if movement is confined. D Do not touch live electrical parts. disconnect input power. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding.READ BEFORE USING som _2007−04 7 Protect yourself and others from injury — read and follow these precautions. NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury. D Do not touch hot parts bare handed. away. D Do not drape cables over your body. use proper tools and/or wear heavy. 215 994 Page 1 . kneeling. 2) a DC manual (stick) welder. or another electrode from a different machine. D Do not use AC output in damp areas. insulated welding gloves and clothing to prevent burns. D Wear dry. D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly grounded receptacle outlet. and local codes. MOVING PARTS. or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. and HOT PARTS hazards. if not avoided. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. if not avoided. and discharge input capacitors according to instructions in Maintenance Section before touching any parts. or scaffolds. D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any single weld output terminal. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. operate. D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required. and follow the related instructions to avoid the hazard. when in cramped positions such as sitting. Read and follow all Safety Standards. could result in death or serious injury. keep everybody. Symbol Usage DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which. use of a DC. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. HOT PARTS can cause severe burns. ground it directly with a separate cable. watch out. When you see the symbol. And. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. The safety information given below is only a summary of the more complete safety information found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. Arc Welding Hazards The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual to call attention to and identify possible hazards. D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level. Maintain unit according to manual. Indicates a hazardous situation which. During operation. D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent contact with any metal object. and repair this unit. D Keep cords dry. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. gratings. D When making input connections. Lockout/tagout input power according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910. D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece or worktable as near the weld as practical. hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. D Frequently inspect input power cord for damage or bare wiring − replace cord immediately if damaged − bare wiring can kill. This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC SHOCK. constant voltage wire welder is recommended. Indicates special instructions. and protected from hot metal and sparks. drive roll housing. will result in death or serious injury. D Do not use worn. use remote output control if present on unit.147 (see Safety Standards). or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage.SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS .

and arcs. gouging. associated equipment. regulators. MAGNETIC FIELDS can affect Implanted Medical Devices. or partition can cause fire on the hidden side. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your helmet. or induction heating operations. ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin. D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted Medical Devices should keep away. 215 994 Page 2 CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. drums. unless the coating is removed from the weld area. D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from traveling long. Noise from some processes or equipment can damage hearing. D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10. spot welding. D Use only correct shielding gas cylinders. D Watch for fire. If damaged. D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter lenses to protect your face and eyes when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49. and degreasers. a cylinder can explode. warn others not to watch the arc. unless they are properly prepared according to AWS F4. from your person before doing any welding. D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. maintain them and associated parts in good condition. correct procedures. D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. and fittings designed for the specific application. D Wear protective clothing made from durable. physical damage. D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. or liquid vapors (such as gasoline). D Use the right equipment. D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated. cleaning. D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash. D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause sparks. or cadmium plated steel. flame-resistant material (leather. cleaners. FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes. they can throw off slag. D Do not weld in locations near degreasing. D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding. Check and be sure the area is safe before doing any welding. and flames. D Be aware that welding on a ceiling. open flames. and while wearing an air-supplied respirator. heavy shirt. D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form highly toxic and irritating gases. wear an approved air-supplied respirator. Sparks can fly off from the welding arc. and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock.1 (see Safety Standards).252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby. and fire hazards. D Always ventilate confined spaces or use approved air-supplied respirator. the area is well ventilated. D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is high. D Do not weld on coated metals. D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result. plasma arc cutting. D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. lead. BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill. D Remove any combustibles. drums. ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. coatings. Sparks fly off from the weld. chipping. . D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields even under your welding helmet. gas. glare and sparks. D Read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for metals. cuffless trousers. hoses. Do not oversize or bypass them. and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. tightly cover them with approved covers. and grinding cause sparks and flying metal. explosion. consumables. D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat. Be sure the breathing air is safe. D Keep your head out of the fumes. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process. As welds cool. D Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather gloves. D If inside. or fire. D If ventilation is poor. D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder. glowing embers. Welding on closed containers. such as a butane lighter or matches. or wool) and foot protection. wire brushing. and sufficient number of persons to lift and move cylinders. floor. The flying sparks. overheating. and a cap. or spraying operations. such as galvanized. can cause them to blow up. D Welding. D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. Welding produces fumes and gases. If this is not possible. WELDING can cause fire or explosion. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin. sparks. D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders. be sure to treat them carefully.1 listed in Safety Standards). D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. sparks. D Do not weld where the atmosphere may contain flammable dust. D Shut off shielding gas supply when not in use. such as tanks. D After completion of work. D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder. or pipes. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. Shielding gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure.1 and Z87. hot workpiece. high shoes. slag.FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous. heavy cotton. bulkhead. Welding fumes and gases can displace air and lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910. inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks. Do not breathe the fumes. mechanical shocks. or pipes. D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping.7 m) of the welding arc. D Do not weld on closed containers such as tanks. NOISE can damage hearing.

be sure forks are long enough to extend beyond opposite side of unit. covers. gas cylinders. other people. or shielding the work area. D Use equipment of adequate capacity to lift and support unit. or any other accessories. D Keep away from moving parts. panels. READ INSTRUCTIONS. and down low.F. OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING D Allow cooling period. D Use lifting eye to lift unit only. MOVING PARTS can cause injury. keep spark gaps at correct setting. panels. D High-frequency (H. 215 994 Page 3 . and protected to handle this unit. D Do not install unit near flammables.1-3. D Do not press gun trigger until instructed to do so. D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before starting to weld again.F. D D D D STATIC (ESD) can damage PC boards. Be sure this welding machine is installed and grounded according to this manual. keep weld cables as short as possible. close together. D If using lift forks to move unit. D Use only genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer. And Maintenance FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard. and communications equipment. D Put on grounded wrist strap BEFORE handling boards or parts. If interference still occurs. and guards closed and securely in place. over. Additional Symbols For Installation. D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face. ARC WELDING can cause interference. or near combustible surfaces. D Reinstall doors. D Do not point gun toward any part of the body. and body protection. covers. The user is responsible for having a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem resulting from the installation. rated. D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is properly sized.) can interfere with radio navigation. or any metal when threading welding wire. panels. H. To reduce possible interference. or guards for maintenance as necessary. computers. safety services. using shielded cables. or guards when maintenance is finished and before reconnecting input power. hand. D Sparks can cause fires — keep flammables away. Have the installation regularly checked and maintained. and use grounding and shielding to minimize the possibility of interference. D Keep all doors. D Keep away from pinch points such as drive rolls. RADIATION can cause interference. D Do not install or place unit on. D Do not block or filter airflow to unit. Keep high-frequency source doors and panels tightly shut. MOVING PARTS can cause injury. the user must take extra measures such as moving the welding machine. D Keep away from moving parts such as fans. using line filters. stop using the equipment at once. D Be sure all equipment in the welding area is electromagnetically compatible. Operation. If notified by the FCC about interference. FLYING SPARKS can cause injury. Locate welding operation 100 meters from any sensitive electronic equipment. D Have only qualified persons familiar with electronic equipment perform this installation. D Have only qualified persons remove doors. D D D D WELDING WIRE can cause injury. NOT running gear. D Electromagnetic energy can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment such as computers and computer-driven equipment such as robots. FALLING UNIT can cause injury. D Read Owner’s Manual before using or servicing unit. D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with proper guards in a safe location wearing proper face. follow rated duty cycle. D Use proper static-proof bags and boxes to store. or ship PC boards. such as on the floor. move. covers.

will cause electromagnetic fields.1-4. 5. American Welding Society Standard AWS F4. For Gasoline Engines: Engine exhaust contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer.1. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). from American National Standards Institute. Ontario. website: www. terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds.ansi. or other reproductive harm. New York. P. Until the final conclusions of the research are reached. NY 10036–8002 (phone: 212-642-4900. Standards Sales. website: www.O. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. then following the above procedures is recommended. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. Box 371954.global. OSHA. in some cases.org and www. Superintendent of Documents. To reduce magnetic fields in the workplace.O. Do not coil or drape cables around your body. and Allied Processes. CGA Pamphlet P-1.1.cganet. has not demonstrated that exposure to powerfrequency electric and magnetic fields is a human-health hazard. Safe Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection. from Compressed Gas Association. website: www. Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders. or induction heating operations. from Canadian Standards Association. PA 15250-7954 (phone: 1-866-512-1800) (there are 10 Regional Offices—phone for Region 5. or using a cable cover.gov). Subpart J.global.5 et seq. 4.” However.) Battery posts. ANSI Standard Z87. gouging. you may wish to minimize your exposure to electromagnetic fields when welding or cutting. Cutting. CSA Standard W117. There has been and still is some concern about such fields.nfpa. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them.osha. Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of Containers and Piping. Cutting. as it flows through welding cables. 2. website: www. Chantilly. is 312-353-2220. from U. and Part 1926. Principal Safety Standards Safety in Welding. use the following procedures: 1. Subpart Q. after examining more than 500 studies spanning 17 years of research. Box 9101. a special blue ribbon committee of the National Research Council concluded that: “The body of evidence. 4221 Walney Road. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator. However. National Electrical Code. MA 02269-9101 (phone: 617-770-3000. NFPA Standard 70.O. 215 994 Page 4 . P. VA 20151 (phone: 703-788-2700. cancer. studies are still going forth and evidence continues to be examined. website: www.nfpa.com). 1-6. chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry. birth defects. from National Fire Protection Association. For Diesel Engines: Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer. MA 02269-9101 (phone: 617-770-3000.org).S.2. About Implanted Medical Devices: Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before performing or going near arc welding. 5060 Mississauga. EMF Information Considerations About Welding And The Effects Of Low Frequency Electric And Magnetic Fields Welding current. Code for Safety in Welding and Cutting. in the committee’s judgment. California Proposition 65 Warnings Welding or cutting equipment produces fumes or gases which contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause birth defects and. and Other Hot Work. Keep welding power source and cables as far away from operator as practical.org).com). website:www. 25 West 43rd Street. Part 1910. plasma arc cutting.ihs. (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. birth defects. Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding.ihs. spot welding. website: www. Pittsburgh. Wash hands after handling. from National Fire Protection Association. Title 29. Canada L4W 5NS (phone: 800-463-6727 or in Toronto 416-747-4044. 5th Floor. P.org.csa-international. NFPA Standard 51B. 1-5. Box 9101. 3. Chicago. sparky. If cleared by your doctor. and other reproductive harm. Government Printing Office.org). ANSI Standard Z49.1. Quincy.com). Quincy. Connect work clamp to workpiece as close to the weld as possible. website: www.

Be sure that proper ventilation is supplied. aluminum. brass. that may produce hazardous fumes. Items to consider: D Type of metal to be welded . nickel and so on.Compared to other arc-welding processes like stick or flux cored welding. The heat-affected zone. Inert gases such as Argon and Helium do not chemically react or combine with other gases.No requirement for flux with this process. Selecting A GTAW Powersource Your choice of TIG powersource is driven by the type of material and thickness you will weld. Steel. In some instances Hydrogen gas may be added to ehance travel speeds. few fumes are produced. the molten metal and the tungsten electrode are all shielded from atmospheric contamination by a blanket of inert gas fed through the GTAW torch. Process Description Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Advantages of GTAW welding: D Concentrated Arc .) D Thickness of materials to be welded D Package solution that suits the welding application D Accessory components that add performance to the system 215 994 Page 5 .No transfer of metal across the arc. also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a process that produces an electric arc maintained between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the part to be welded.SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) 2-1. If filler metal is required to make the weld. copper. it may be added manually in the same manner as it is added in the oxyacetylene welding process.Permits pin point control of heat input to the workpiece resulting in a narrow heat-affected zone D No Slag .000° F (19. Keep your head and helmet out of the fumes rising off the workpiece. bronze and even gold. the base metals being welded may contain coatings or elements such as lead. No molten globules of spatter to contend with and no sparks produced if material being welded is free of contaminants D Little Smoke or Fumes . The torch contributes heat only to the workpiece. GTAW is used to weld stainless steel. copper. therefore no slag to obscure the welder’s vision of the molten weld pool D No Sparks or Spatter . The shielding gas serves to blanket the weld and exclude the active properties in the surrounding air. nickel alloys such as Monel® and Inconel®. Stainless etc. This will determine whether you require a machine for all weldable metals except Aluminum (DC) or one that is for all weldable metals (AC/DC). magnesium.426° C). wear an approved air-supplied respirator 2-2. titanium. However. They pose no odor and are transparent. permitting the the welder maximum visibility of the arc. The GTAW process can produce temperatures of up to 35.(Aluminum. especially in a confined space. D Welds more metals and metal alloys than any other process D Good for welding thin material Disadvantages of GTAW welding: D Slower travel speeds than other processes D Lower filler metal deposition rates D Hand-eye coordination is a required skill D Brighter UV rays than other processes D Equipment costs can be higher than other processes D Concentrations of shielding gas may build up and displace oxygen when welding in confined areas − ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. GTAW can also weld dissimilar metals to one another such as copper to brass and stainless to mild steel. Inert gas (usually Argon) is inactive or deficient in active chemical properties. zinc. If ventilation is poor.

2-3. 804 846-A 2 1 2 3 Welding Power Source − Constant Current (CC) Foot Control Workpiece 4 5 6 Work Clamp Torch Coolant Out Hose 7 8 9 Coolant In Hose Cooling System Shielding Gas 215 994 Page 6 . Typical GTAW Welding System 9 8 1 7 6 5 4 3 Ref.

Arc length is the distance from the tungsten to the workpiece. Thorium dust contains low-level radioactive material. Read MSDS for safety information. Wear proper face. hand. 3 4 5 6 Torch Filler Rod (If Applicable) Gas Cup Tungsten Electrode tungsten 10−25° Select and prepare according to Section 4. diameter. (For example. 2 10−15° 4 5 6 Work Clamp Place as close to the weld as possible. Typical GTAW Welding Set-Up ! Grinding the tungsten electrode produces dust and flying sparks which can cause injury and start fires. Guidelines: 5 6 The inside diameter of the gas cup should be at least three times the tungsten diameter to provide adequate shielding gas coverage. ST-161 892 215 994 Page 7 . Keep flammables away. Consider using cerium or lanthanum based tungsten instead of thoriated. 1/16 in 3/16 in Bottom View Of Gas Cup Ref. Workpiece 3 2 4 90° 1 1 Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. gas cup should be a minimum of 3/16 in. Tungsten extension is the distance the tungsten extends out gas cup of torch. if tungsten is 1/16 in. Properly dispose of grinder dust in an environmentally safe way. The tungsten extension should be no greater than the inside diameter of the gas cup. diameter. Use local exhaust (forced ventilation) at the grinder or wear an approved respirator. and body protection.SECTION 3 − GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) PROCEDURE 3-1.

(1 mm) 1/16 in. (2.010 in.4 mm) Up to 25 15-40 25-85 50-160 135-235 250-400 400-500 500-750 750-1000 Pure Tungsten (Green Band) .SECTION 4 − SELECTING AND PREPARING A TUNGSTEN FOR DC OR AC WELDING gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 Whenever possible and practical.4 mm) 1/8 in. (2. Selecting Tungsten Electrode (Wear Clean gloves To Prevent Contamination Of Tungsten ) Amperage Range .Gas Type♦ . (4. (1 mm) 1/16 in. Or 2% Thorium (Red Band) Alloy Tungstens .8 mm) 1/4 in.4 mm) 1/8 in. Figures listed are a guide and are a composite of recommendations from American Welding Society (AWS) and electrode manufacturers. 4-1. (3.2 mm) 5/32 in.040 in.040 in. 1.6 mm) 3/32 in.6 mm) 3/32 in.5% Lanthanum (Gray Band). (3. (1 mm) . (1. (4. (6. 215 994 Page 8 . (1.2 mm) Pure Tungsten Not Recommended For DCEN − Argon 10-60 50-100 100-160 150-210 Up to 20 15-35 20-80 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 400-500 600-800 ♦Typical argon shielding gas flow rates are 11 to 35 cfh (cubic feet per hour). (1 mm) .Polarity Electrode Diameter (DCEN) − Argon Direct Current Electrode Negative (For Use With Mild Or Stainless Steel) AC − Argon Balance Control @ 65% Electrode Negative (For Use With Aluminum) 2% Ceria (Orange Band). use DC weld output instead of AC weld output.020 in.0 mm) 3/16 in.

Read MSDS for safety information. Do not use wheel for other jobs or tungsten can become contaminated causing lower weld quality. not radial. 215 994 Page 9 . Properly dispose of grinder dust in an environmentally safe way. Use local exhaust (forced ventilation) at the grinder or wear an approved respirator. hard abrasive wheel before welding. Ball end of tungsten by applying AC amperage recommended for a given electrode diameter (see Section 4-1). 4 Straight Ground Grind lengthwise. Wear proper face. hand. Preparing Tungsten Electrode Grinding the tungsten electrode produces dust and flying sparks which can cause injury and start fires. Preparing Tungsten For DC Electrode Negative (DCEN) Welding or AC Welding With Inverter Machines 1 Radial Grinding Causes Wandering Arc 2-1/2 Times Electrode Diameter 2 3 1 Grinding Wheel Grind end of tungsten on fine grit. 2 3 4 Wrong Tungsten Preparation Ideal Tungsten Preparation − Stable Arc Tungsten Electrode Flat A 2% ceriated tungsten is recommended. Preparing Tungsten For AC Welding With Phase Control Machines 1 1 − 1-1/2 Times Electrode Diameter 1 2 2 Tungsten Electrode Balled End A pure tungsten is recommended. lanthana. Consider using tungsten containing ceria. Keep flammables away. Grinding dust from thoriated electrodes contains low-level radioactive material. Diameter of this flat determines amperage capacity. or yttria instead of thoria.4-2. Let ball on end of the tungsten take its own shape. and body protection.

0 0.0 20.SECTION 5 − GTAW WAVEFORMS 1 1 2 AC Sine Wave Weld Sample 40. The percentage of time spent 1 Zero Crossover Area + Current 0 − Ref. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 10 .0 0 10. 805 186-A 1 Zero Crossover in the Zero Crossover Area affects the quality of the welding arc.0 −30.0 Time + Current Amperage Time 1/60 Second 2 30. .0 −20.0 −40.0 −10.0 − Ref.

0 Amperage Time + Current 2 10. Faster transition time between 40.0 20.0 30.1 Squarewave Imposed Over Sine Wave crossover with squarewave output.0 0. .0 −10. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 11 .0 0 − Ref. Less time is spent in zero 1 + Current 0 − Ref.0 −40.0 −20.0 −30. 805 186-A 1 2 1 Conventional Squarewave AC Weld Sample electrode positive and electrode negative. .

Deeper penetration. 805 185-A 6-3. 1 2 Ref. 2 High AC Frequency Focused arc with deeper penetration. Independent Amperage Control 1 2 More EP Amperage More EN Amperage Wide. deep penetration. faster travel speeds. wide arc with shallower penetration. 1 2 Ref.SECTION 6 − ARC SHAPING CAPABILITIES 6-1. 805 185-A 6-4. AC frequency control and independent amperage control. shallow penetration. Narrow. 805 185-A 215 994 Page 12 . Arc shaping capabilities are enhanced by improved balance control. AC Frequency Adjustment Control 1 Low AC Frequency Soft. 6-2. Balance Control 1 2 More EP Time More EN Time Shallower penetration. 1 2 Ref. faster travel speeds. Arc Starting With Different Polarities Electrode Positive Starting Preheats tungsten Repeatable starting Cleans work on starts Can damage tungsten tip Good for AC TIG Electrode Negative Starting Preferred for Precision DC Repeatable starting NO cleaning on starts NO damage to tungsten Acceptable for AC .

Lower AC frequencies create a wider arc cone. 0 − 1/200th of a second 2 Ref. Frequency Adjustment Control . + Current . 0 − 1/60th of a second 2 Ref. 805 186-A 215 994 Page 13 .6-5.200 Hz 1 2 AC Waveform Weld Sample 1 At 200 Hz the bead is much tighter and penetrated the thicker metal. + Current . Higher AC frequencies create a narrower arc cone. 805 186-A 6-6. Frequency Adjustment Control .60 Hz 1 2 AC Waveform Weld Sample 1 At 60 Hz the bead doesn’t quite penetrate the thick aluminum.

Shielding Gases For TIG Welding 1 Shielding Gas Cylinder Types of Shielding Gases: 1 D Argon D Helium D Argon/Helium Mixtures Ref. 804 419-A CHARACTERISTICS Travel Speed Penetration Cleaning Arc Starting Arc Stability Arc Cone Arc Voltage Flow Rate Cost ARGON Reduced travel speeds Reduced penetration Good cleaning action Easier arc starting Good arc stability Focused arc cone Lower arc voltages Lower flow rates 10-30 CFH Lower cost and greater availability HELIUM Faster travel speeds Increased penetration Less cleaning action Difficult arc starting Less low amperage stability Flared arc cone Higher arc voltages Higher flow rates (2 times) Higher cost than Argon ARGON/HELIUM MIXES Improved travel speeds over 100% Argon Improved penetration over 100% Argon Cleaning properties closer to Argon Improved arc starting over 100% Helium Improved arc stability over 100% Helium Arc cone shape more focused than w/Helium Arc voltages between 100% Argon and Helium Higher flow rates than Argon Costs higher than Argon 215 994 Page 14 .SECTION 7 − TIG SHIELDING GASES gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 7-1.

Type of power source and output polarity may affect when high frequency turns off after arc is started. HF Start High frequency turns on to help start arc when output is enabled. or hand control. sticking. Arc is formed when electrode is lifted. or getting contaminated. and slowly lift electrode. 215 994 Page 15 . Application: HF start is used for the DCEN GTAW process when a non-contact arc starting method is required. only a low sensing voltage is present between electrode and workpiece. This allows electrode to touch workpiece without overheating. Application: Lift-Arc is used for the DCEN or AC GTAW process when HF Start method is not permitted. The solid-state output contactor does not energize until after electrode is touching workpiece. Hold electrode to workpiece for 1-2 seconds.SECTION 8 − GUIDELINES FOR GTAW WELDING (TIG) gtaw_Inverter_2007-05 8-1. foot control. Lift-Arc™ And HF TIG Start Procedures Lift-Arc Start 1 2 TIG Electrode Workpiece Lift Arc Start Method 1 2 Touch tungsten electrode to workpiece at weld start point and enable output and shielding gas with torch trigger. High frequency turns off when arc is started. Normal open-circuit voltage is not present before tungsten electrode touches workpiece. “Touch” 1−2 Seconds Do NOT Strike Like A Match! . and turns on whenever arc is broken to help restart arc. or to replace the scratch method.

Repeat process. 215 994 Page 16 . Tungsten With Filler Rod Welding direction 75° 15° Form pool Tilt torch Add filler metal Remove rod Move torch to front of pool. ST-162 002-B Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely. Repeat process. Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual.8-2. Torch Movement During Welding Tungsten Without Filler Rod Welding direction 75° Form pool Tilt torch Move torch to front of pool.

although tilting it ahead (in the direction of travel) will be helpful. Hold the electrode nearly perpendicular to the work. 5356 5356 5356 5356 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 2% Ceriated 3/32 in. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. TIG Welding Techniques Butt Joint After learning to start and hold an arc. 1/8 in. practice running beads of weld metal on flat plates using a full electrode. 1/8 in. hold a short arc. 70° 20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 T-Joint 20° Torch Position For Making a T-Joint Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work. 1/8 in. 3/32 in. travel at a uniform speed. To produce the best results. hold a short arc. 1/8 in. To produce the best results. . Argon Argon Argon Argon 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 15-20 CFH 90-120 100-125 90-110 80-90 65-75% 70-75% 70-75% 65-70% 60-120 Hz 100-200 Hz 100-150 Hz 100 Hz 8-4. 1/8 in. 3/32 in. 3/32 in. Suggested Inverter Power Source Starting Parameters For Various Aluminum Joints Weld Joints Butt Joint T-Joint Lap Joint Corner Joint Amperage Balance Frequency Base Base Filler Filler Tungsten Tungsten Shielding Gas Flow Material Material Rod Alloy Type Diameter Gas Alloy Thickness Diameter 6061 6061 6061 6061 1/8 in. 70° 10° 20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 215 994 Page 17 . 1/8 in. Torch Position For Making a Butt Joint 90° .8-3. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. 1/8 in. travel at a uniform speed.

travel at a uniform speed. Weld Test 3 3 2 To 3 in. . travel at a uniform speed. the arc may have been too long or the electrode was moved incorrectly which allowed molten slag to be trapped in the weld. If the weld contains bits of slag. If the weld is porous (many holes). (51-76 mm) 1/4 in.8-4. A good weld bends over but does not break. Torch Position For Making a Lap Joint . (6.4 mm) 2 1 2 To 3 in. hold a short arc. If the original beveled surface is visible the material was not fully melted which is often caused by insufficient heat or too fast a travel speed. If the weld breaks. This may happen on a V-groove joint made in several layers and calls for additional cleaning between layers. To produce the best results. To 70° produce the best results. Strike the weld joint in the direction shown. 20° ST-162 003 / S-0792 8-5. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. 70° 20° 30° ST-162 003 / S-0792 Corner Joint 90° Torch Position For Making a Corner Joint Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work. hold a short arc. examine it to determine 215 994 Page 18 . and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts. the arc length was probably too long. (51-76 mm) 2 1 S-0057-B 1 2 3 Vise Weld Joint Hammer the cause. TIG Welding Techniques (Continued) Lap Joint 40° Hold the torch 70 degrees to the work.

thoriated (DC).General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. diameter at a maximum of 235 amps. or lanthanated tungsten. or moisture from filler metal. Tungsten oxidation during cooling. Check flow rate (15 to 20 CFH) and gas type. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. cuts. Remedy Remedy Use less current or larger tungsten. Metals stored in cold temperatures will condensate when exposed to warm temperatures. Use of gas containing oxygen or CO2. Problem: Burning Through Tungsten Fast Probable Causes Inadequate gas flow. If machine has Balance Control. Increase tungsten size -Tungsten diameter may be too small for the amount of current being used. Adjust flow rate as necessary. Problem: High Frequency Present . 215 994 Page 19 . Problem: Shielding Gas Probable Causes Inadequate or too much gas flow or wrong gas type. Problem: Porosity and Poor Weld Bead Color Probable Causes Condensation on base metal. Remedy Line should be purged with Argon for a few minutes. Troubleshooting ! Turn off welding power source and disconnect power before troubleshooting. No shielding gas. Use argon gas 100%. Touching tungsten to weld puddle. Remove all condensation from base metal before welding. Keep shielding gas flowing 10-15 seconds after arc stoppage (one second for each 10 amps of weld current). Check for gas flow at end of torch. and torch are not restricted or the tank is not out of gas.No Arc Power Probable Causes Incomplete weld circuit. may be restricted or coolant may be low. or pin holes. Loose fittings in torch or hoses. Use ceriated (AC). Problem: Tungsten Contamination Probable Causes Tungsten melting into weld puddle. Operation on electrode positive (DCEP). Inadequate or too much gas flow. Check filler metal type. check coolant flow. Excessive heating in torch body. Defective gas hose or loose connection. Tungsten melting back into cup (AC). If using a water-cooled torch. If using pure tungsten. Keep tungsten from contacting weld puddle. Remedy Check work connection. Raise the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/16 to 1/8 in. Remove all grease. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Contaminated or improper filler metal. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. oil. change to ceriated or lanthanated. Improper size tungsten for current used. Switch to electrode negative (DCEN). gas valve. Air-cooled torches get very warm. adjust setting towards maximum penetration (70-90). Check all cable connections. Replace gas hose and check connections for leaks. Check for empty cylinder or closed shut−off valve. Tighten fittings on torch and all hoses. Change tungsten .SECTION 9 − GTAW TROUBLESHOOTING 9-1. Remedy Check to be sure hose.

Remove 1/2 in. Use correct arc length. use pointed tungsten. diameter and 8 cup. Remedy Lower the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/16 to 1/8 in. Add filler metal. Clean and sharpen tungsten. Set at 10 to 15 seconds. and dirt. Point will eventually round off after welding. Problem: Arc Wanders While DC Welding Probable Causes Improper arc length/tungsten in poor condition. of tungsten and repoint tungsten. With Squarewave and inverter machines. 215 994 Page 20 . Arc too long. Inadequate post flow. Lower torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece no more than 1/16 to 1/8 in. Grind marks should run lengthwise with tungsten. oil. grease. grease. Tungsten is contaminated. Adjust the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/8 to 1/4 in.Problem: Porosity and Poor Weld Bead Color (Continued) Probable Causes Base metal is contaminated. Problem: Unstable Arc While AC Welding Probable Causes Excessive rectification in arc. General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Improperly prepared tungsten. Tungsten contamination. thick aluminum. Check tungsten type or size. Incorrect shielding gas or mixture. Keep tungsten from contacting weld puddle. Argon/Helium is used. Frequency set too low. 100 to 180 Hertz is acceptable. oil. Remove 1/2 in. Remove paint. and dirt. Match tungsten size and cup size to joint being welded. Remedy Remove paint. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. Base metal is contaminated. Increase balance control toward more penetration. including mill scale from base metal. Increase post flow time. when welding on 3/8 to 1/2 in. not circular. grease. Remedy Check polarity switch on welder. Improper shielding gas. Check tungsten type or size. Remove paint. Incorrect arc length. Improperly prepared tungsten Remedy Increase travel speed. Remedy Increase flow rate. Improper gas flow. Shorten arc length. Problem: Yellow Powder or Smoke on Cup-Tungsten Discolor Probable Causes Shielding gas flow rate too low. Tungsten is contaminated. On welders with adjustable AC frequency. Remove 1/2 in. Base metal is contaminated. and dirt.In some cases. Use proper grinding method and wheel. including mill scale from base metal. Improper tungsten size or cup size. including mill scale from base metal. Light gray frosted appearance on end of tungsten. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. Problem: Unstable Arc While DC Welding Probable Causes Weld circuit polarity is incorrect. Change shielding gas . Use argon gas. oil. Raise the torch so that the tungsten is off of the work piece 1/8 to 1/4 in. increase frequency to give proper arc stability and direction. Select DCEN (Direct Current Electrode Negative).

diameter and ceriated or thoriated. Base metal is contaminated. Remove paint. General purpose tungsten size is 3/32 in. the narrower and deeper the penetration. Improper tungsten size and type. and dirt. grease. Excessive rectification in arc. Tungsten is contaminated. Normal Balance Control setting is 70 . Increase travel speed. Select proper size and type. Frequency set too low. use pointed tungsten. Remove 1/2 in. Incorrect balance control setting. Gas flow should typically be set at 15 to 20 CFH. including mill scale from base metal.Problem: Arc Wanders While AC Welding Probable Causes Improper tungsten preparation. Point will eventually round off after welding.90. Increase balance toward more penetration. of contaminated tungsten and repoint tungsten. Notes MATERIAL THICKNESS GAUGE 215 994 Page 21 229895 . Increase AC frequency on machines so equipped to stabilize and direct the arc. Improper shielding gas flow. Increase balance setting toward more penetration. Add filler metal. Remedy With Squarewave and inverter machines. The higher the frequency. oil.

Co.millerwelds.) For Service Contact a DISTRIBUTOR or SERVICE AGENCY near you. PRINTED IN USA © 2008 Miller Electric Mfg. 2008−01 .MillerWelds.Owner’s Record Please complete and retain with your personal records. Videos. WI 54914 USA International Headquarters−USA USA Phone: 920-735-4505 Auto-Attended USA & Canada FAX: 920-735-4134 International FAX: 920-735-4125 European Headquarters − United Kingdom Phone: 44 (0) 1204-593493 FAX: 44 (0) 1204-598066 www.com or call 1-800-4-A-Miller Miller Electric Mfg. Always provide Model Name and Serial/Style Number. Model Name Purchase Date Distributor Address City State Zip Serial/Style Number (Date which equipment was delivered to original customer.com Contact the Delivering Carrier to: File a claim for loss or damage during shipment. contact your distributor and/or equipment manufacturer’s Transportation Department. Contact your Distributor for: Welding Supplies and Consumables Options and Accessories Personal Safety Equipment Service and Repair Replacement Parts Training (Schools. For assistance in filing or settling claims. An Illinois Tool Works Company 1635 West Spencer Street Appleton. Co. Books) Technical Manuals (Servicing Information and Parts) Circuit Diagrams Welding Process Handbooks To locate a Distributor or Service Agency visit www.

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