am¿ HutK≥ _mh

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚
Imh¬`-S≥
(Po-h-N-cn-{Xw)

sI. hn. amΩ≥

{]km-[-I¿

tIm´-bv°¬ ]ªo-tjgvkv
amßm-\w, tIm´-bw -˛ 18

hne: 50 cq]

MAR AUGEN BAVA
The Guard of Catholicate
(Biography)
By K. V. Mammen, Kottackal, Kottayam - 18
Ph: 0481 - 578936
Third Impression : Dec. 8, 2000
Copy Right
: Author
DTP & Printing : Sophia Books, Kottayam Ph: 303237
Cover Design
: Beam Communications, Kottayam

Rs. 50.

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

Biwk
D≈-S°w
Biwi
]. ImtXm-en°m _mhm
apJ-hpc
aq∂mw ]Xn-∏n\v A`n-\-µ-\w
Ah-Xm-cn-I
A\p-kva-c-Ww
ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥
1. IpSpw-_hpw _mey-Im-ehpw
2. hnZym-`ymkw
3. HutK≥ dºm≥
4. kphn-tij hnZym-`ymk {]h¿Ø\\nc-X≥
5. sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm
6. ]ndhw a¿±\w
7. \mem-asØ ImtXm-en°m
8. ImtXm-en°m ˛ am¿∏m∏m kw`m-jWw
9. FtXym-]y≥ kp∂-l-tZmkv
10. am¿tØm-Ωm-bpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏v
11. Hcp hymg-h-´-°mew
12. ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw hne-ßp-X-Sn-Ifpw
13. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ⁄m\-Øn\v CXp-aXn
14. A\-[n-IrX sa{Xm-∑m¿°v \ntcm-[-\m⁄
15. `mKyhm\mbn IS-∂p-t]mbn
16. sXm´p-\n-∂-h¿ tI´Xpw I≠Xpw
17. F√m-h¿°pw \√ amXrI
18. ].- Hu-tK≥ _mhmbpw tImS-\m´v kotbm≥
B{i-ahpw ]≈nbpw
19. Fs‚ ÿm\hpw Poh\pw t]mbmepw
k`m kzmX{¥yw If-™p-Ip-fn-°n√

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20. kwkm-cn-°p∂ Nn{X-߃

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\ΩpsS ap≥Km-an-bm-bn-cp∂ ]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ ImtXm-en°m
_mhm-bpsS ]cn-jvI-cn® Poh-N-cn-{X-amb ""ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬
`S≥'' F∂ kap-NnX \mat[-b-Øn-ep≈ ]pkvXIw, At±-l-Øns‚
Nca cPX Pq_n-en-tbm-S-\p-_-‘n®p {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn¬ AXnbmb kt¥m-j-ap-≠v. Zo¿L-Imew adp-`m-KØp \n∂-tijw DØa
t_m[y-tØmsS ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns\ kzoI-cn-°m≥ ss[cyw Im´nb Xncpta\n ImtXm-en-t°-‰n-s‚bpw ae-¶c k`-bpsSbpw kzmX-{¥y-Øn-\pth≠n AN-©-e-\mbn \ne-sIm≠p. ]´n-Wnbpw I„-∏mSpw FXn¿∏pw
a¿±-\hpw {]tem-`-\-ßfpw H∂pw C°m-cy-Øn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS ZrV\n-›-bsØ eh-teiw kv]¿in-®n√.

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{]m¿∞-\bpw t\mºpw D]-hm-khpw apJ-ap-{Z-bmb Xncp-ta\n C°m-

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tImS-\mSv _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ ]ªnIv kvIqfns‚ DZvLm-S\w ].
am¿tØmΩm amXyqkv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm \n¿∆-ln-°p-∂p.

5

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

e-bf
- h
- n¬ kpdn-bm\n {KŸ-߃ X¿÷a sNbvXpw a‰pw \ΩpsS Bcm[-\m k
- mln-XysØ ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-Ib
- m-bn-cp-∂p. Hcp \nanjw- t]mepw
]mgm°msX kabw ]c-am-h[n {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Ønb ]nXmhv \aps°√mw \√ amXrI Xs∂-bmWv. am¿tXmΩm-bpsS A∏-ktv Xm-en-IXzw,
knwlm-k\w, al-Ømb ]mc-ºcyw F∂o Imcy-ß-fn¬ H´pw hn´phogvNbv°v At±lw Xøm-dm-bn-√. ae-¶c k`bpambp≈ _‘-Øn\v
At¥ym-Iy-bn¬ Zo¿L-Imew Xma-kn®v At\z-jW ]T\w \S-Øn-bn´pw
bmsXmcp dn°m¿Upw ImWm≥ km[n-°mØ ].- _m-hm, am¿tØmΩm
«olm Hcp siΩm-»≥ t]m-ep-as
- √∂p ]d™psIm≠v bmt°m_v XrXob≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Zp„ e£y-tØmsS 1970 ˛- ¬ 203- ˛mw \º¿ Iev]\
Ab-®-t∏mƒ AXp XnI™ thZ-hn-]-co-X-am-sW∂pw Xs‚ Poh≥
t]mbmepw am¿tØm-Ωm-bpsS ÿm\Øn\pw knwlm-k\
- Ø
- n\pw FXncmb \o°-ßsf i‡n-bp‡w FXn¿°p-sa∂pw ImWn®v ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhmbv°v i‡-amb adp-]Sn \¬In.

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ae-¶-c-bn¬ ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\ ]p\xÿm]-\-Øn\p {ian®-h-cn¬ {]ap-J\pw ]fin-X\pw {InkvXob hn\-b-Øns‚ \nd-Ip-S-hpamb ].- Hu-tK≥ _mhm-bpsS Cu Poh-N-cn{Xw k`mw-K-߃°v IqSpX¬ {]tbm-P\
- I
- c
- hpw {]tNm-Z\
- I
- c
- hpw Bbn-cn-°p-sa-∂p≈Xn\p c≠p]-£-an√. {KŸ-I¿Øm-hmb sI. hn. amΩs‚ Cu ]cn-{i-asØ \mw
A`n-\µ
- n-°p-Ibpw Bio¿h-Zn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-Ib
- m-Wv.

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atbmkv am¿tØmΩm amXyqkv
_t enalZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm
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w

ssZhw A\p-{K-ln-°s
- ´.
tIm´bw
23 ˛ 11 ˛ 2000

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ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

apJ-hpc
]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm-bpsS Nca cPX
Pq_n-en-tbm-S-\p-_-‘n®v ""]. -Hu-tK≥ _mhm: ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚
Imh¬ `S≥'' F∂ ]cn-jvI-cn® Poh-N-cn{Xw aq∂mw ]Xn-∏mbn Cd°m≥ km[n-®-Xn¬ koam-Xo-X-amb kt¥m-j-ap-≠v. Hcp hnhm-Z-]p-cp-j\m-bn-cp∂ _mhm-bpsS bYm¿∞ Nn{Xw, Poh-Nc
- n-{Xw, injy-{]-ap-J\
- mb
tIm\m´v G{_lmw aev]ms‚ AXyp-÷z-e-amb Ah-Xm-cn-I, ss{]h-‰v
sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a\ amt\-P¿ ^m. Sn. Pn. kJdn-bm-bpsS A\p-`-h-k-º-∂-Xbn¬ \n∂p P\n® "A`n-\-µ\w,' sXm´-SpØp-\n-∂-h¿ tI´Xpw I≠Xpw apX-em-b-h -tN¿Øm-WnXp {]kn-≤-s∏Sp-Øp-∂X
- .v Im¬\q-‰m≠p apºv {]kn-≤s
- ∏-Sp-Ønb ""am¿ HutK≥ ImtXmen°m _mhm'' F∂ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ \n∂p ImX-emb Imcy-߃
am{Xta Dƒs°m-≈n-®n-´p-≈p. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS IpSpw_ Ncn-{X-sØ-∏‰n
AXns‚ FUn-‰d
- mb s{]m^. Sn. Fw. ss]en Fgp-Xnb teJ-\hpw IpSpw_-tbmKw {]kn-U‚mb dh. ^m. kn. sI. G{_lmw Fgp-Xnb ""tImS\mSv B{i-ahpw ]≈nbpw'' F∂ teJ-\hpw sXm´p \n∂-hc
- psS km£yßfpw tUm. tXmakv am¿ AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{Xm-t∏meo-Øm-bpsS
""hgn-hn´ CS-s]-Se
- p-Iƒ {]iv\w kr„n-°p∂p'' F∂ {it≤-ba
- mb teJ\hpw ""ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-Ss\'' hf-sc-b-[nIw hn⁄m\{]Zamb Hcp ]pkvXI
- a
- m-°n-bn-´ps≠∂mWv Rm≥ hniz-kn-°p-∂Xv. k¿t∆m]cn ]cn-ip≤ _t -en-tbmkv am¿tØmΩm amXyqkv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXmen°m _mhm-bpsS Biwk Cu ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ Xne-I-®m¿ØmsW∂p \µn]q¿∆w ]d-bp-∂X
- n\v Gsd kt¥m-ja
- p-≠v. HutK≥ _mhmbpsS kvac-Wsb ssNX\y[\y-am-°n-s°m≠v k`-bpsS \∑-b°
v p-th≠n
Cu \√ B≤ym-flnI kZysbmcp-°m≥ km[n-®-Xn¬ F\n°v Im\mhnse hncp∂phmgn-sb-t∏mse hf-sc-b-[nIw Nmcn-Xm¿∞y-ap-≠v. kZybpsS N´-h´- ß
- f
- n¬ t\csØ h√ Ipdhpw h∂n-´p-s≠-¶n¬ kwkvImc
kº-∂c
- mb k`mw-Kß
- ƒ, sa®-s∏´ ho™v Bkz-Zn-®h
- s
- c-t∏mse IcpXp-sa-∂p≈ {]Xo-£-bp-ap-≠v. ]pkvXI {]kn-≤o-I-c-WsØ t{]m’mln-∏n® tImS\m´v XpcpØn tN´m-Ip-fØ
- pw-Ic dh. ^m. kn. sI. G{_lm-an\pw Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_mw-K-߃°pw "A`n-\-µ\w' Fgp-Xnb
dh.- ^m. Sn. Pn. kJ-dnbmbv°pw a‰pw \µn- tc-Js
- ∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠v ""ImtXmen-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬ `Ss‚'' a[y-ÿX
- b
- n¬ Rm\pw A`bw tXSp-Ib
- mWv.

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v ¬

D]-hm-kw.psS Ncn-{Xhpw cm{„ob Np‰p-]m-Snepw a‰pw Xosc £oWn®pt]mb Nn{Xhpw k`m-≤y-£∑ . x do / v t {]m¿∞\.\w IqSp-X¬ A\z¿∞-ambn-tXm∂n. _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv c≠m-a≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm-bpsS sk{I-´-dn-bmbn Npa- . Xpº-a¨ `{Zm-k-\m-[n-]≥. ao r a rt d o h ox v .¶ ck`m t\Xm. FgpØv. ]T\w F∂n-hb .a .f psS \odn.∏´h\m-sW∂ {]Nm-cWw sI´pIY-bm-sW∂pw h´-t»-cn¬ Koh-dp-Kokv am¿ Znh-∂m-tkym-kn\v dºm-®≥ FgpXn. hmb-\.n-Ia .I W. BtcmSpw ]cn-`htam {]Xn-Imc Nn¥tbm IqSmsX Xncp-ta\n tIm´-bØv h∂v sshZnI skan-\mcn {]n≥kn-∏¬. ae-¶ck`-bpsS ]ptcm-KXn°pw kzmX-{¥y-Øn\pw th≠n t]¿jy-bn¬ \n∂p-t]mb ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w B k`-bp-ambn ae-¶ck`-bv°p≈ BZy-Ime _‘sØ ap≥\ndpØn ae-¶c .mbn F∂ thZ-hN . At¥ym-Iy-bn¬ c≠p ]m{Xn-b¿°o-k∑m¿ D≠m-bn. ae-¶-c-bn¬ ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w Bh-iy-am-sW-∂p≈ At±-lØ .∏mƒ X≈n-°f .7 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ aq∂mw ]Xn-∏n\v A`n-\µ .Ø .n¬ apgp-In-bn-cp∂ HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm.ns‚ injy-\mbpw sk{I´-dn-bmbpw {]h¿Øn-°m-\p≈ Akp-e` `mKyw F\n°p e`n®p. \nbp‡ ImtXmen°m.m w al k n a HutK≥ Xncp-ta\n tIm´-bØv skan-\mcn {]n≥kn-∏e .n∏v Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS Nca hm¿jnI cP-X-Pq-_nen Zn\-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ ]S-ßfpw hnh-c-ßfpw k¿t∆m-]cn Ia-\o-b-amb NXp¿h¿Æ apJ-Nn-{Xhpw tN¿Øv ""ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬ `S-≥'' F∂ DNn-X-\m-a-tØmSp IqSn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ F\n°v AXn-bmb kt¥m-j-ap≠v.h-Ww? k`-bpsS ka-{K.¶ n¬ ]cn.m-cpsS XΩn-eS.∏ pI™psIm≠n-cp∂ lrZ-b-ß-fn¬ Xpjmc h¿jw s]mgn®p F∂p.i-ja .mhpw icn.\ mb A_v t ZZv ain.f .l msb £Wn°pIbmWp th≠-sX∂pw At±-lw apS-°s .i p.´. C°m-eL .nepw skbv‚ v t]mfn-s\-t∏mse kt¥m-jn-∏m≥ ssZhw -C-S-\¬Inb I\-Im-h-k-c-߃. Xs‚ A[n-Im-chpw BZm-bhpw C√m-Xm°n ]p\-ÿm-]n°m≥ A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hnap-J-\m-bn-cp∂p.nepw thZ-\I .f .´. Hcp siΩm-i-\m-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xs∂ ˛ 1905 ¬ ˛ ioa-bn¬ FØp-Ibpw Zo¿L-Imew Ahn-sS-bp≈ hnhn[ B{i-aß . t t h / : p /w w .mb B NS-ßn¬ kk-t¥mjw kw_‘n®p.f . Xs‚ ]nXm-hns‚ Kpcp-`q-X\ .b .t / ]pcm-X\ . HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm-bpsS PohN-cn-{X-Øns‚ ]cn-jvIc .]p-tcm-K-Xn°p kam-[m\w A\n-hm-cy-am-sW∂v Bflm¿∞-ambn Nn¥n-°p-Ibpw {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bep-h-mbn¬ \S-Ønb AXn km-lk .w.mb At¥ym-Iy≥ kpdn-bm-\n-k`.Ww aqew \new]-Xn-®-t∏mƒ Hcp \nan-jhpw ImØp\n¬°msX 1942 ¬ I≠-\mSv `{Zmk\w apgp-h≥ tN¿∂v ImtXm-en-°msb aqhm-‰p-]pg h®v kzoI-cn-®Xp k`m Ncn-{X-Ønse Hchnkva-c-Wob kw`-h-amWv.n¬ ]p\-ÿm-]n®pIn´m≥ k`mt\Xm-°ƒ hmRvOn ®psIm≠n-cp∂ ImeL´hpw. bmX-\I . Hcp {]tXyI kml-N-cy-Øn¬ ae-¶ck`-bpsS B≤ym-flnI ]c-am-[n-Imcw \„-s∏´ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬.mb A¥na {iaw adp-]£ .mWv aØmbn siΩm-i≥ sshZn-I≥ BImsX k\ymkn F∂ \ne-bn¬ dºm≥ ÿm\w kzoI-cn-®-Xv. Xs∂ hnfn-®-h\n¬ apdp-sI-∏n-Sn®psIm≠v ]´n-Wnbpw a¿±-\hpw kln®p apt∂m-´p-t]mbn. [ym\w.ns‚ B{K-lØ .ns‚ \n -lI .b . PqWn-b¿ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmb A_vZp≈ Xp¿°n kp¬Øms‚ ]n¥pWtbmsS -ko-\n-b¿ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmb A_vtZZv ain-lmsb A[n-Im-c-Øn¬ \n∂p am‰n \n¿Øn-bn-cp∂p.c . GXp `‡\pw ASn-sX‰nt∏mIm-hp∂ hmKvZm-\-ßfpw {]tem-`-\-ßfpw {]I-º\w sIm≈n-®n´pw Xnc-pta\n AN-©-e-\mbn \nesIm≠p.° .]dbp-∂X .mbn h∂tijamWv At±-l-Øns‚ sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ Rm≥ ].n¬ Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw In´m-hp∂{X kpdn-bm\n {KŸßƒ hmbn®p ssZh-imkv{XØnepw kpdn-bm\n `mj-bnepw Ah-Kmlw t\Sp-Ibpw sNbvXt. ]n∂oSp kap-Zmb tIkn¬ ImtXm-en°m I£n tXm‰-t∏mƒ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\Ønse an° ]≈n-Ifpw sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb ssIhn-´p! o a ar h rt o .m-bn-cp∂ I≠-\mSv `{Zmk\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb 1912 ¬ H∂mw ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn \ncWw henb ]≈n-bn¬ h®p hmgn-®-t∏mƒ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ Xs‚ tae-[nIm-cn-bmb ]ueqkv am¿ AØm-\m-tkym-kns‚ hne°v Hcp ]qam-ebmbn IW-°m°n Ncn{X {][m-\a .™ I√v aqe-°√ . AXp ae¶c k`bv°p {]Xy-£-ambpw ]tcm-£-ambpw {]tbm-P\w sNøp-Ibpw D≠m-bn.n¬ At±-lØ .\w ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse F√m-h¿°pw Hcpt]mse kzoIm-cy-\mb ImtXmen-°mbpw AXp-ey-\mb kpdn-bm\n `mjm ]fin-X\pw Ejn-h-cy\pw Fs‚ A`n-hµy Kpcp-`q-X\ .Ø . Cu bmYm¿∞y߃ a\- n-em°n ae-¶ck`-bpsS c£bv°p ImtXm-en°m ÿm]\w D≠m.Ø n¬ G¿s∏.p-amb ].n-bmbn Ae-¶c . Cu FgpØv ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\ ]p\xÿm]\ t t h / : p /w w .s a.n-®t.m w al k n a 8 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ {ia.n® aq∂mw-]X .n\v CXn¬ IqSp-X¬ F¥p sXfn-hp t. ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w.´ ncp∂ ae. ImtXm-en°m F∂o ÿm\-߃ ]Sn-]S. Hc¿∞Øn¬ Fs‚ Pohn-X-Ønse kt¥m-j-ß-fpsS kpZn-\-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p A°m-eL .≤ .nbpw At±l-Øn\p icn°p a\- n-em-°m≥ km[n-®p.

nIw hn\o-X\ .mbn ImW-s∏-´n-cp∂ Xncp-ta-\n. ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbv°p Xs‚ `c-Wk .9 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Xe F¬°p-∂-Xv.n{Xw hni-Ie .mb Hcp tkh-\a . B knwlm-k\ . AXns‚ `c-W-]-cn-[nbn¬Xs∂ Dƒs∏-´n-cp∂ ae-¶-c-bn-tebv°v 1912-˛¬ am‰n-ÿm-]n-°-s∏-´ti-jw. At±-lØns‚ {]m¿∞\ F∂pw \ap°p tIm´-bm-bn-cn-°pw.p-kc .c .se bdp-itew kp∂-lt.mWv sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂s . _mly-amb {]uVn-bnepw BUw-_c .y-Øn¬ ÿnc-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X . ]uckvXy Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm-\n-k-`-bpsS ÿm]-I\pw AXns‚ {]Ya alm-]p-tcm-ln-X-\p-am-bn-cp∂ am¿tØmam«o-lm-bpsS ]utcm-ln-Xyw. ]. x o / v t Cu ]mc-º-cy-a-\p-k-cn®v ]. k n a a r a t r o d o h . 19.. Sn.fbpw apdn®psIm≠v B PohnX\uI e£y-Øn-se-Øn.\ . HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm Xncpta\n. Cu∏≥ D]-cn-]T .fbpw i‡n-tb-dnb {]hm-lß .n\p t]mb-t∏m-ƒ Hgnhp h∂ B ÿm\-tØ °mWv Rm≥ \ntbm-Kn-°-s∏-´-Xv. Fs‚ Bflob hf¿®bv°pw Db¿®bv°pw {]m¿∞\m a√-∑mcm-bn-cp∂ Cu c≠p _mhm-am-cpsS IqsS-bp≈ hmkw hf-sc-b-[nIw klmbn-®p. _mhm-sb-∏‰n Ahiyw Adn-™n-cn-t°≠Xpw CXp-hsc shfn®w ImWm-Ø-Xp-amb ]e kwK-Xn-Ifpw Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ k∂n-th-in-∏n®n-cn-°p∂ {KŸI¿Øm-hmb sI.n®p ]n¬°m-eØp t]¿jym-cm-PysØ skeqIym.Un.m¿°p t{]c-Ia .n¬ BcqV-\mb \mem-asØ ImtXm-en-°mbm-Wt√m `mKy-kva-c-Wm¿l-\mb ].n¬ F.mbn `hn-®s . HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhmbv°p t\cn-tS≠n-h∂ {]iv\w.s .X-∂p-t]mepw Nne-t∏mƒ F\n°p tXm∂m-dp-≠v.nepw kwkmc-Øn-ep-sa√mw k¿∆{X apg-®p-\n-∂n-cp∂ AXn-cp-I-hn™ hn\-b-kz`mh-at√ C∂sØ Cu k`m-{]-Xn-k-‘n°p ap≥ssI FSp-°p-hm≥ Nne t\Xm-°∑ .n-\p≈ ]cn-io-e\ Ime-am-bncp-∂p.˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ A¥y-tØm-SS. Aßs\ aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bnse Xmakw tIm´-bsØ k`m tI{µ-Øn¬ FØp-∂X . t t h / : p /w w .nepw hf-sc-b[ .ß . amΩ≥ k`sb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw A`n-\-µ\o-ba . 231 ˛. AXXp ImeØp ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm F∂ \nebn-tem.n-\p≈ ssZh-\n-tbm-K-ap-≠m-bn-cp∂p F∂p tXm∂m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. Cu k`sb icn-bmb {InkvXo-b. kn.]m-cº . ]. Xß-fpsS ImeØp Nne {][m\ {]iv\-ßsf t\cn-´v. x o / v t a r a ^m.Zmkp apX¬ ss{IkvX-h-tem-I-am-I-am\w kΩ-Xn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øn-cp∂ Bflo-bhpw euIn-I-hp-amb ]c-am-[n-Imcw F∂n-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p.s . kJ-dnb amt\-P¿ ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a\ 10 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ah-Xm-cnI tbip{In-kvXp-hns‚ ]{¥≠v A∏kvtXme∑m-cn¬ Hcm-fmb am¿ tØmam.Ø . Xncn-™p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ ssZhw \S-Ønb hgn-Iƒ F{Xtbm A¤p-X-Icw F∂v Nn¥n-°p-I-bm-Wv. ae-¶ck`-bpsS ]q¿∆-Im-eN .o-ab . sX{Kokv.\w sNbvXp ]cn-tim[n-°p∂]£w. hn.w.m w al Hcp hn[-Øn¬ ]d-™m¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS s]cp-am-‰Ø . ssZh-\n-›-b-{]-Imcw Xs‚ \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ h∂p-tN¿∂ k`-bpsS {InkvXob ]mc-º-cy-a-\p-k-cn-®p≈ kzmX{¥yw tNmZyw-sN-øs∏-Sp∂ {]iv\sØ A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t°-≠n-h-∂-t∏mƒ G‰w {]_-e\pw \n›b-Zm¿Vy-ap-≈-h-\p-ambn ImW-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv.m w al k n a d o h . _mhm-bpsS sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ Uo°≥ ]n.¿°v \njv{]-bmkw a\- n-em-°m-\m-Ipw.pØv AhnsS ]n≥Xp-S¿®°m-cn-√msX Ah-ti-jn-°bpw sNbvX ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k-\w. HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS PohnXw F∂pw Hgp-°n-s\-Xnscbp≈ \o¥em-bn-cp-∂p. ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m F∂ \ne-bntem F√mw Cu k`bpsS t\Xr-ÿm-\Øp hcp-hm-\n-S-bm-bn-´p≈ ]nXm-°-∑m-cn¬ Hmtcm-cpØ¿°pw. ]. F√m {]Xn-_‘ . knwlm-k\ .X∂v H´pw {]iwk IqSmsX km£y-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ F\n°v km[n-°pw. HutK≥ _mhm ImtXm-ent°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`St\m As√-¶n¬ Imh¬ amem-Jtbm BsW-∂p≈ hkvXpX A\p-hm-NI . t r o tIm´bw 2˛11-˛2000 ht tp :/ /w w .«o-lm-bm¬ ÿm]n-°s . aqk¬ XpSßnb tI{µ-ß-fn-te°p am‰-s∏-Sp-I-bpw. _mly-Zr-„n-bnepw km[m-cW s]cp-am-‰Ø .c . Pn.∏´ ]uckvXy Hm¿ØtUmIvkv kpdnbm-\n-k-`-bpsS {]Ya tI{µ-am-bn-cp∂ FtU- m-bn¬\n∂p Ime-N-{IKXn-b\ .Ø .ß-fnepw \ns∂√mw .

t t h / : p /w w . hmb-\-bn¬ apgp-In-bn-cn-°p-∂Xp ImWmw.11 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ign-bp-∂{X Hgn-™p-am-dn.m-k≥'' F∂pw a‰pw Fgp-XpIbpw sNøpw.m-bncp∂ kµ¿`-Øn-epw.hsc am{Xta Xncp-ta\n Cw•ojv ]Tn-®n-cp-∂p≈p. aq∂p aWn-bm-Ip-tºmƒ Ccp-]Ø . Cu k`-bn¬ Xncp-ta-\nsb ASp-Ø-dn-bm-hp∂ ]e¿°pw XnI®pw A{]-Xo-£n-X-am-bn-cp-∂p.m-cq-V\ . ChnsS Nne-cp-sS-sb√mw t{]cWbpw AXns‚ ]n∂n-ep-≠mbn-cn-°mw.sf Ihn™ \ne-bn¬.mb Cu AXn-hn-\bw ImWn-®n-cp-∂p.w. F∂m¬ Cßs\ c≠mw {]mhiyw Npg‰n Fdn-bs .nepw ]T-\Ø . AX-b® ÿm\Øp Xncn-™p-sN∂p sIm≈pIbpw sNbvXp. Xß-fpsS A[n-Imc-tam-l-߃ Cu k`-bn¬ ASn-t®-ev]n-°p-hm≥ ImØn-cp-∂-h¿°v Hcp kµ¿`-ambn tXm∂n-bn-cn-°W . hnip≤ k`-bpsS icn-bmb \nb-a-a\p-k-cn-®v.a-Wnhsc-bpw.cy kzoI-cn®ncp∂ Xncp-ta-\n.n™ hn\o-X≥ th≠k-ab . {]tXy-In®v thZ-im-kv{X-]c . Ipd-™-]£w D®-h-sc-sb-¶n-epw. 1958 ˛.m-Ip-∂Xp hsc Ch-sb√mw hfsc IrXy-am-bn-Øs∂ A\p-jvTn-®n-cp-∂p.m-Wn-sX-√mw.b .n-\p-tijw A[n-I-Imew Ign-bp-∂-Xn\p ap≥]p-X-s∂. X\n°p kzm`m-hn-Ia . A®-Sn® se‰¿t]-∏¿ D]-tbm-Kn°msX kpdn-bm-\n-bn¬ kz¥w ssI∏-Sb .m w 12 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ hnet∏m-Im-Xn-cp-∂ -hmƒ. AXpw hfsc anX-ambn am{Xw Ign-°p∂ {]Ir-X-°-mc-\m-bn-cp-∂p. x do / v t hmb-\b .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .bm-Sp-IqSn A\p-jT v. B Ime-Øv.\m-ºnepw hen-b t.ß .a .w. Ct∏mƒ ^en-t®-°p-sa∂p kwibw tXm∂nbn-cn-°W .¬ ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°m.v {]tXy-In®v aq∂p t. Xncp-ta-\nbpsS ap≥Km-an-bm-bn-cp∂ ]. Xncp-ta-\n-bn¬ hnf-ßn-bn-cp∂ Cu AXn-hn-\b .knw-lm-k\ .∏-Sp-hm-\n-Sb .∏´ B hmƒ. am¿tØmam«o-lmbv°p ]utcm-ln-Xyw -t]m-ep-an-√m-bn-cp∂p F∂ X\n thZ-hn-]-cnX-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv AXp hoin Fdn-™-Xv. Hcp {InkvXym-\n-bpsS k¿∆-{]-[m\ Bbp-[-am-Ip∂ D]-hm-khpw {]m¿∞-\bpw C{X \njvTt. e`yam-Ip∂ CS-th-f-I-fn¬. 1962 ˛.am{Xw IpSn-°pw.˛¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ . AtXm-Sp-IqSn B {]iv\w ]n∂oSv D∂-bn-°-s∏-SmsX Ah-km-\n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.mhm ChnsS k∂n-ln-X\ . am¿tXmΩm « . XnI®pw efn-Xa .t\cw am{Xta At±lw Blmcw Ign-®n-cp-∂p≈p. Xncp-ta\n AXo-h-X-ev]-c\pw ÿntcm-’m-ln-bpam-bn-cp-∂p.mb F∂ hnti-jW .w.n-epw.m-bn. AXn-cp-Ih . k`-bnse s]mXp-hmb A©p t\mºp-Iƒ°p ]pdta ]e-t∏mgpw {]tXyI t\mºp-Ifpw A\p-jvTn-°pam-bn-cp-∂p. ].w. se‰¿ t]∏dns‚ Xe-s°´v Nph∂ ajn-bn¬ A®-Sn-°pI F∂o ]Xn-hp-Isf tNmZyw sNbvXp-sIm≠v Hcp Iev]\ Ab-bv°p-Ibp-≠mb hnhcw kp{]-kn-≤am-W-t√m.n¬ Fgp-Xpw. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _m-hm.b . ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _m-hmbv°v h√t∏mgpw IØp-I-sf-gp-tX-≠n-h-∂m¬. Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhmbv°v ].Øp ]md-t]mse Dd®p \n∂psIm≠v B hmƒ Xncnsb ]mbn-°p-I-Xs∂ sNbvXp. k‘ym-{]m¿∞-\-bv°p-tijw Aev]w s]mSnb-cn-°-™nbpw IpSn-°pw.Ø-bv°p Xnc-s™Sp-°-s∏´ kw`-hw. HutK≥ _mhm Xncp-ta-\n. al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .mbn \S-Øp-am-bn-cp∂p. t\mºn-√mØ Ime-ß-fnepw Xncp-ta\n hfsc eLphmb ]Zm¿∞-߃ am{Xw. AXn\v DS≥Xs∂ _mhm Xncp-ta\n X°-Xmb Hcp adp-]Sn Ab-bv°p-Ibpw. F√m bma-{]m¿∞-\I . Aßs\ c≠m-aXpw B hmƒ {]tbm-Kn-°s . Cw•o-jn¬ Fgp-Xp-hm\pw kwkm-cn-°p-hm\pw {]bm-k-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p.p-Xs∂ Xncp-ta\n hfsc \njvTb . Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm Hcn-°¬ AXn-s\-°p-dn®p t\c-tºm-°mbn ]d™ Hcp Imcyw Rm≥ Hm¿°p∂p.se k`m kam-[m-\Ø . {]mbm-[nIyw sN∂p imco-cn-Iambn hfsc Ah-i\ . D]-hm-k-a-\p-jvTn-°pw.mb hnj-bß-fpsS ]T-\-Øn¬. F∂m¬ At±-l-Øn\p hn\bw Ipsd IqSp-X-em-bn-t∏mbn Fs∂mcp tZmjta D≈p'' F∂m-bn-cp∂p AXv. Zo¿L-Imew Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS IqsS hfsc ASpØp s]cp-am-dn-bn-´p≈ Fs‚ kz¥ Zr„n-bn¬ ImWp-hm≥ Ign™n-´p-≈h ..t / F∂m¬ ].t^m-dw. CuZri Imcy-ß-fpsS D]-tbmKw Xs‚ ap≥Kman kzoI-cn-®n-cp∂ ]Xn-hn¬\n∂p Ipsd-sb√mw Ipd-hp-sN-øm≥ Xncp-ta-\nsb t{]cn-∏n-®p.\m-ºn-epw. hfsc Xnc-t°-dnb {]h¿Ø-\-߃°n-S-bn¬ t]mepw. ""Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-®≥ k¿∆Ym Cu ÿm\-Øn\p tbmKy\m-Wv.o-lm-bpsS knwlmk-\-Øn¬ Bcq-V-\mb F∂ hnti-jWw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I.fpw an°-hmdpw AXXp ka-bØ .m-bt. CsX√mw I≠t∏mƒ ap≥]v Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm-bpsS t\sc Hmßn-bn´pw t t h / : p /w w . tIhew \memw. ImtXm-en°msb ""]cn-ip≤'' ˛ His Holiness˛ F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°p-I. 1964.c . Dt±-in-®n-SØv Dt±-in® \ne-bn¬ G‰n√ F∂p am{X-a-√.ÿm-\t. F¶nepw F{X Bi-b-kw-]p-„-amb Cw•ojv {KŸ-ßfpw hmbn®p .mb Pohn-XN . Hcp. a‰p t\mºp-I-fnepw an°-hmdpw aq∂p.n-°p∂ as‰mcp hy‡nsb F\n°p ImWp-hm≥ km[n-®n-´n-√. ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m F∂ HutZymKn-I-\n-e-bn¬ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p∂ Nne s]mXp-I-ev]-\-I-fn¬ am{Xw D]tbm-Kn-°pI F∂ coXn Ah-ew-_n-®p.∏mƒ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS AXn-hn-\-bw.n-c≠ . Fgp-Øns‚ ASnbn¬ kz¥w t]cn-t\mSp tN¿Øv ""hn\o-XZ. 1965 -˛¬ Xncp-ta\n Uam-kvIkpw a‰pw kµ¿in-®t∏mgpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_m-hm-bpsS ASp-Øp≈ s]cp-am-‰-Øn¬. am¿tØmam -«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k-\-Øn¬ Bcq-V\ . hn.psS {]m¿∞\ cl-ky-ambn \S-Øn-b-tijw Nne-t∏mƒ Hcp ]m{Xw Poc-Ish-≈w. ]t£ CØ-hW ap≥ Btcm-]W . t\mºp-Im-eØ .

F∂m¬ Fs‚ IpSpw-_-hp-am-bp≈ At±-l-Øns‚ _‘w AXn\pw ]e kwh-’-c-߃ ap≥t] Bcw-`n-®-Xm-Wv.m¿ Ign-™m¬.i m. kpdn-bm-\n-`m-j-bpsS Nne {]mcw-` -]-T-\-߃ am{Xw ]Tn-°p-∂-Xnt\ km[n-®n-cp-∂p-≈p. Aßs\ hfsc sNdp∏w apX¬Xs∂ ]nXr-\n¿∆n-ti-j-amb kvt\lm-Z-c-hp-Iƒ F\n°v At±-l-tØmSv tXm∂n-bn-cp-∂p.n-\p-th≠n BZyw injy-s∏-´Xv Fs‚ hµy-]n-Xm-hn-\m-bn-cp-∂p.p-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw F\n°v At±-lØ .ns‚ e£yw.k .n¬ At±-l-Øns‚ PohnXIme-Øv.m¿°p injys∏´pw kpdn.n™ BZ-ch . A∂v Hcp sNdnb ]ø-\m-bn-cp∂ Fs∂ ]e-t∏mgpw hnfn®p Iq´-Øn¬ sIm≠p-\S. ]e kµ¿`-ß-fnepw Xncp-ta\n hcp-tºmƒ Nne IuXp-Ih .Ø nepw AKm.ns‚ ^eambn hnip-≤-\m-Sp-Iƒ kµ¿in-°-W-sa∂v B{Klw tXm∂p-I-bpw.psS bmYm¿∞yw bYm-tbmKyw Bcm-™-dn™p hnh-c-߃ ae-¶-c-bnse ]nXm-°-∑msc ht tp :/ /w w .t. CXn-s‚sb√mw ^e-ambn hnhn[ hnj-bß . ÿnXn-KX .m-Sp-If . Cu \m´nepw kndn-bm -\m-´n¬t]m-epw.n\p km[n-®n-cp-∂n-√. A∂v At±lw HutK≥ dºm-\m-Wv. / v t Bcw-`Ø . _mhm. kpdn-bm\n ]T\w Xev°mew \ndp-Øn-h-®n´v Cw•ojv ]T-\Øn-\mbn tIm´bw Fw. am¿ A_vZp≈m F∂o c≠p-t]¿ ]m{Xn-b¿°m -knwlm-k-\Øn\v Ah-Im-in-If .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . Aßs\ Xma-kn-°p∂ ka-bß .[ .m¬ At±lw \ncym- . ]fin-X∑ . x o / v t ]. \memw-t^m-dw hsc ]Tn-®-tijw At±-l-Øn\p kpdn-bm\n `mj-tbmSpw Cu k`m-hnizm-km-Nm-cß . sNdp-∏-Im-e-Øp-Xs∂ At±lw sshZnI hnZym-`ym-kØ .k v { X. aØmbn F∂ kz¥w t]cpt]-£n®v HutK≥ F∂ t]cp kzoI-cn-°pI-bp-am-Wp-≠m-b-Xv.Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-am-bp≈ _‘w Fs‚ ssii-h-Imew apX¬Xs∂ Bcw-`n-®-Xm-Wv.hn-Zym-`ymkw \S-Øp-∂X .p-Ibpw ]e \√ D]tZ-iß . ioa-bm{X Ign™p aS-ßn-sb-Øn-b-tijw At±lw Fs‚ ]nXm-hp-ambn hfsc ASpØp \nc-¥c kº¿°w ]pe¿Øn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p.s .p-sa√mw sNbvXn-cp-∂Xv Rm≥ Ct∏mgpw `‡n]q¿∆w Hm¿Ωn-°p-∂p. .n-°p-hm≥ Bcw-`n-®t. B ]cn-ip-≤-s\-°pdn®v hn]p-e-amb ]T\w \S-Øp-Ibpw Aßs\ B ]cn-ip-≤-t\mSp tXm∂nb AXn-bmb `‡n-bpsS ^e-ambn B ]nXm-hns\ kz¥w Imh¬]n-Xm-hmbn AwKoI-cn-®p-sIm-≠v. Zo¿L-Zn-h-k-߃ c≠p-t]-cp-tSbpw IqsS Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw. am¿ {KntKm-dn-tbm-kv _m¿ F{_mb BZn-bmb Nne ]q¿∆-]n-Xm-°∑ . A∂v AhnsS am¿ A_vZ¬ain-lm. Cu hntZ-i-hm-k-°m-eØv am¿ HutK≥ F∂ ]cn-ip-≤s‚ \ma-Øn¬ Xpd-_vZo≥ {]tZ-iØ . Aßs\ tIhew Ccp-]Xp hb- p-am{Xw {]mb-ap≈ aØmbn siΩmi≥ ]e-kvXo≥ \m-´n-tebv°p ]pd-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. A°m-esØ At±-l-Øns‚ Nne IØp-Iƒ kp{]-kn-≤-ß-fm-Wv.ip-{iq-j-I-fnepw kmam\yw \√ hypev]Øn kºmZn-®-ti-jw.f-°p-dn®v At±lw cNn-®n´p≈ {KŸßfpw hnh¿Ø\ {KŸ-ßfpw C∂v k`bv°v Hcp imiz-X-\n[n-bm-Wv.¿ thsd D≠m-bn-cpt∂m F∂p kwi-bamWv. kpdn-bm\n ]pkvX-I-߃ A®-Sn-°p-∂-Xn\p Xøm-dm-°p-∂-Xn¬ klmbn-°p-I. hfsc Npcp-ßnb Ime-L-´w-sIm≠p kpdn-bm\n-`m-j-bnepw ]≈n.n¬ klm-bn-°pI apXemb Bh-iy-߃°p-th≠n ]e-t∏mgpw At±lw ]mºm-°pS ]≈ntaS-bn¬ h∂p Xma-kn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. t t h / : p /w w . kpdn-bm-\n-`mj C{X hnZKv≤-ambn ssIImcyw sNøp∂ CXc hy‡n-I-sf-°p-dn®v B[p-\n-I-Im-eØv F\n-°-dn-bp-hm≥ Ign-™n-´n-√.n-Ib .13 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ {Kln°p-hm-\p≈ Akm-am\y Ign-hp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.fn¬ Rß-fpsS ho´n¬ h∂p `£Ww Ign-°p-Ibpw Rß-fpsS `h-\Ønse Hcw-K-sa-∂-t]mse IpSpw-_m-wK-ß-fp-ambn ASpØ kº¿°w ]pe¿Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. ]mºm-°pS sse{_-dn-bnse ]pcm-X\ {KŸßƒ hmbn-°p-I.p≈ ]pcmX\ Zb-dm-bn¬ Iptd-°mew Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ. ]n≥X-e-ap-d-I-fn¬ Fgp-t∂-‰n-´p≈ AXn-hn-Z-Kv≤-\mb Hcp kpdn-bm\n `mjm-]-fin-X-\m-bn-cp∂p Xncp-ta-\n. skan-\m-cn-bn¬ tN¿∂p.n-If . Cu c≠p ]m{Xnb¿°o-kp-am-cpambpw Xncp-ta\n ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-I-bpw.K-Ÿß .a√mw AhnsS e`y-amb ]pcm-X\ thZ-im-k{v X {.fpw a‰pw hmbn-®pw.∏m-tg°v \n¿`m-Ky-hi .f .ns‚ Iogn¬ Imcy-amb sshZn-I. ]e kpdn-bm\n ]pkvX-I-ßfpw ]I¿Øn-sb-gp-Xp-I. kpdn-bm-\n-`m-jb .fmSpw tXm∂n-bn-cp∂ AXn-cp-Ih .° .T .\ n.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h 14 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Adn-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.cm-PysØ ]e k`m-t\Xm°-∑m-cp-ambn \S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cp∂ IØn-S] . tIhew hnip≤-\mSp kµ¿i\w am{X-am-bn-cp-∂n√ At±-lØ .n¬ Ipd-®p-Imew am{Xta Xncp-ta\n Fs‚ ]nXm-hn\p injys∏-´n-cp-∂p-≈p-sh-¶n-epw. C{X XnI™ ]mfin-Xy-ap-≈h . Cu \m´nepw ioa-cmPy-ß-fnepw Xs‚ ImeØp e`y-am-bn-cp∂ kIe kpdn-bm\n thZ-imkv{X -{K-Ÿ-ßfpw At±lw hmbn®p ]Tn-®n-´p≠mbn-cp-∂p. ]e kwh’-c-°mew B \m´nse {][m-\-s∏´ ÿe-ß-fnepw ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw C°m-es .m-cmb ]e ]nXm-°∑ . x o Fs‚ ]nXmhv tImc amØ≥ aev]m≥ A°m-esØ Hcp anI® kpdnbm\n `mjm-]fi n-X\pw thZ-im-kv{X-⁄\ . HutK≥ dºm-\mbn 1908 -˛¬ \m´n¬ aS-ßn-sb-Øn. Cw•ojv hnZym-`ymkw sNbvXpsIm≠n-cp∂ Rm≥ AXv ]q¿Øn-bm°n ]nXm-hns‚ ASp-°¬ kpdnbm-\n ] .b m.a mb ]mfinXyw kºm-Zn-°pIbpw sNbvXp. Ahn-sSh-®p-Xs∂ Zb-dm-ÿm-\hpw kzoI-cn-®v.j .n¬ ioa.b nepw thZ. Un.fpw ]d-™p-Xc .` m. Fs‚ ]nXmhv A°m-eß .m-bn-´p-≠m-bn-cp∂ Ime-am-bn-cp-∂p.vXp-°ƒ sIm≠p-h∂v F\n°p kΩm-\n-°pIbpw sNøp-ambn-cp-∂p.

F∂m¬ kµ¿`m-\p-kc . tIhew _mly-Zr-„n-bn¬ am{Xw ho£n°p∂-h¿°v Cu Btcm-]-W-Øn¬ Ipsd-sb√mw Ig-ºp-≈-Xmbn tXm∂mhp-∂-Xp-am-Wv.k . F∂m¬ Bcw-`-Im-ew apX-ep≈ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS k`m-]c-amb {]h¿Ø-\ß . Ft∂mSp IpSpw_ Npa-X-e-Ifpw a‰pw Dt]-£n-®p-t]mepw Xncp-ta-\n-bp-sS-IqsS t]mbn Xma-kn®p ]Tn-®psIm-≈W .ns‚ ]n≥Km-an-bmbn Hcmsf Xnc-s™SpØv ÿm\m-tcm-lWw sNøn-®Xv GIm-`n-{]m-ba .hn. Hcp \q‰m≠p ap≥]v. _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv wn-°aqhm/ ZznXo-b≥ ImtXme m_ m-hmsb ]c-ky-ambn kzoI-cn® ka-bw-h-sc/ bp≈ Xncp-ta-: \n-bpsS k`m-kw-_-‘-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ]e-t∏mgpw ]q¿∆m-]c . Cu kap-∂X ]Z-hn°p Xm≥ A¿l-\√ F∂p ]d™v kzbw. Xs‚ A¥y-tcm-Km-hÿ b .mbn cwK-Øp-h-∂Xv.Ω . Xnc-s™-Sp-∏n-\p≈ kp∂-lt.X .v. AhnSw apX¬ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm-bm-bn-cpw ∂p-sIm≠v 1942 -˛¬ ‰p-]p-g.h®v ].n-\m¬.k-a-b-sa¶nepw F\n-°p-th≠n sNe-hn-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂p.m-bn-cp∂p F∂pw. AX-\p-k-cn®v am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmbn hmgn-°-s∏-´p.p-ap≠m-bn-cp∂ Xncp-ta-\n. A∂v ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m C√mØ Ime-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p.∏mƒ ssIam-Jm-ambn \nb-an-X\m-bXp am¿ Iqdn-temkv Koh-dp-Kokv Fs∂mcp sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbmbncp∂p. Un.mb Imcy-ßf . ao r a rt d o h ox v . Cu hkvXp-X-bpsS bmYm¿∞yw bYmtbmKyw {Kln-°-W-sa-¶n¬. Xs‚ sFlnI-Po-hnXw GXm≠v Ah-km-\n-°p-hm≥ t]mIp-∂p F∂pw F\n-°m-hiy-amb sshZnI hnZym-`ymkw \evIp-hm≥ Xs∂-s°m≠p km≤y-am-hpI-bn-s√∂pw tXm∂n-Øp-S-ßn-b-t∏mƒ. A∂sØ taev]´-°m-cn¬ At±lw F√m \ne-bnepw s]mXp-P\ .n-Im-kß . Aß-s\-bmWp Rm≥ Xncpta-\n-bpsS injy-\m-bn-Øo¿∂Xv.mb Hcp \ne-]mSv kzoI-cn-®n-cp∂p F∂pw.f .∏mƒ.ap-X¬Xs∂ Ahn-Sp∂p ae-¶c kpdn-bm-\n-k-`- 16 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ bpsS bYm¿∞ {InkvXob ]mc-ºc . 1876.v.f . kvt\l-\n¿`-c-amb `‡ym-Z-c-hp-I-tfmsS CØ-cpW-Øn¬ A\p-kva-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. B \ne-]m-Sns‚ hnPb-Øn-\p-th≠n Hmtcm kµ¿`-Ønepw Xs‚ {][m\ e£y-Øn¬ \n∂p hyXn-Ne .m-bn-´m-bn-cp-∂n-√. At∏mƒ ÿm\m¿∞n-If .a . hfsc i‡n-]q¿∆w.n¬. GXm≠v Hcp \q‰m-≠pImew ap≥]p apX¬ Cu k`-bn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ Nne kw`-hh .y-߃ bYm-tbmKyw {Kln®p XZ-\pk-cW .∏-´Xv am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlmbmbn-cp-∂p.˛ A∂v At±lw I≠-\m-Sv C-S-h-I-bpsS am¿ Xntam-Ø-ntbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm-bm-Wv.m-bX .nte°v H∂p Xncn-™p-t\m-t°-≠Xv Bh-iy-amWv. F∂m¬ At±-lw. am¿ {KntKmdntbmkv A_vZp-≈m. x do / v t .v.a . At¥ym-Jym.∏-´X .Øm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-sW-¶nepw Xnc-s™-Sp-°s . A∂sØ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-km-bn-cp∂ ].]n-∑m-dn.a .n-°m-sX.a∂p \n¿t±-in-°pIbpw sNbvXp.t / k n Xncp-ta\n hnip-≤-\m-Sp-I-fnse lk©ma chpw ]T-\-hp-sa√mw Ign™v HutK≥ dºm-\mbn \m´n¬ aS-ß an-sbØn A[n-I-Imew Ign-bp-∂-Xn\p apºv ae-¶-c-k-`-bn¬ h´-t»-m cn¬ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo. Ømsb ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm apS-°n-b-Xns\ XpS¿∂p≈ `n∂-X-bmw cw-`n-®p.m-bt. AXn-s\-√m-an-S-bn¬ Znh-khpw Ipd-®p. ]nXm-hns‚ \ncym-Wm-\-¥cw Aev]Imew Ign™p Rm≥ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS k¥X kl-Nm-cn-bmbn ]e sIm√-߃ IqsS Xma-kn®p ]Tn-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv.\n¿_-‘n-®n´pw At±lw hg-ßm-Xn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ ho≠pwa-s‰m-cm-fpsS t]cv \n¿t±-in-t°≠n h∂p. am¿ A_vZp≈mbv°p c≠mw ÿm\hpw am¿ _l\m-an\p aq∂mw ÿm\-hpta e`n-®p-≈p. Fs‚ sshZn-I -hn-Zym-`ymk Npa-Xe Xncpta-\nsb Gev]n-°pI-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv.15 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ X-\m-Ip-hm-\m-Wn-Sb .psS D≈n-tebv°v Aev]w Npgn-™n-dßn ]cn-tim[n-°p-∂-]£w Bcw-`w.ijw aS-ßp-Ib .w-_‘ .nIw bm{X-Ifpw a‰p _≤-∏m-Sp-If . am¿ ]t{Xmkv ]m{Xn-b¿°okv \ncym-X\ .t. Aßs\ `{Zmk\ `c-Wk . Xs‚ \ncym-W-Øn\v GXm\pw Znhkw apºv At±lw Xs‚ injy-{]-ap-J\ . t t h / : p /w w .s . k`m-kw-_‘ . apf-¥p-cpØn kp∂-l-tZmkv hgn-bmbpw a‰pw Cu k`-bn¬ Nne `c-W-{I-ao-I-c-W-߃°p {]mcw-`-an-Sp-I-bpw.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .m-bn. am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv _l\mw F∂o aq∂p t]cmbn-cp-∂p. am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv A_vZ¬ ain-lm. Ch-cn¬ Ipsd-°mew ap≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ sk{I-´-dn-bmbn-cn-°pIbpw At±-l-Øns‚ IqsS ae-¶c kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw a‰pw sNbvX am¿ A_vZp≈m kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-Sp-sa∂p ]ecpw {]Xo-£n-®n-cp-s∂-¶n-epw.Ww Nne \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ kzoIcn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p F∂pw t_m≤y-am-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.mb hf-sc-b[ .Zmkp IqSn-b-t∏mƒ BZyta At±-l-Øn-s‚ -t]-cmWp ]m{Xn-b¿°m. Npcp-ßnb `qcn-]£ .¬ \ncym-X\ . ]e-t∏mgpw bm{Xm-at≤y h≠n-bnepw h≈-Øn-ep-sa√mw h®m-bn-cn°pw ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂X .ÿm-\tØbv°v GIm-`n-{]m-ba . ]t{Xmkv XrXo-b≥ _mhm ae-¶-c-k` kµ-¿in-°p-I-bpw.f .m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXt.m-bn-cp-∂X .knw-lm-k-\-hp-am-bp≈ Cu k`-bpsS _‘w IqSp-X¬ _e-hØ .˛ -hn-fn-®p-h-cp-Øn.bn \n¿t±-in-°s .˛¬. XpS¿∂v At±-lØ . Aßs\ C∂v kpdn-bm-\n -`mjm kw_-‘-amtbm thZ-im-kv{X-]-c-amtbm k`mNcn-{X-]-c-amtbm F√mw ]cn-an-X-amb tXmXn-se-¶nepw F\n-°p≈ ]cn⁄m-\-Øn\p Rm≥ ]cn-]q¿Æ-ambpw Xncp-ta-\n-tbmSp IS-s∏-´-h-\msW-∂p≈ hkvXp-X.m.p-≠m-bn.mb Cu Xncp-ta-\n-sb.n¬ tpcp-≤ß t Hcp Dd® \ne] mS n√ mØ Hcp hnhmZ ]pcpj \ mb nc p∂p Xncpt a\ ns b∂pw h ]ecpw Btcm-]n-°m-dp-≠v. AXm-bXv F. B ]m{Xn-b¿°okv 1894 ˛. Xnc-s™-Sp∏p \S-∂t.\ .

n´p tdma≥ ItØm-en-°m k .mb euIn-Im-[n-Im-cß . Bflo-ba .W .c .m-°p-Ibpw AX-\p-kc . x o .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .k . k`m-`-cW kw_-‘-amb euIn-Im-[n-Im-c-߃ {]tbm-Kn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ Cu ^¿am≥ IqSmsX km≤y-a-√m-bn-cp-∂p.17 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ XpS¿∂v kp¬Øms‚ A[n-Im-c-]-{X-amb ^¿am\pw At±-l-Øn\p \evI-s∏-´p.mbn ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn-\SpØ ]e Imcy-ßfpw At±lw \n¿∆ln-°pIbpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. / v t CXn\p]cn A\p-ka v c . DS-s\-Xs∂ At±lw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmbn hmgn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.s .k .ƒ IqSn \S-Øp-hm≥ A[nIm-c-ap≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-sk∂ \ne-bnepw Ign™ph∂p. A°m-eØv At±-l-Øns‚ B {]tZ-i-ß-fnse hn]p-e-amb k©m-chpw At\z-jW-ßfpw ]T-\-hpw.n\m¬.ƒIqSn {]tbmK-n°Ø-°\ . Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-emWp t t h / : p /w w .´.w-_‘ . F∂m¬ ae¶-ck .∏-´p. am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm _mhmsb icn-bmb ÿm\ km[p-Xz-ap≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmbn A°mew apX¬Xs∂ BZ-cn-®n-cp∂p.mb kº¿°hpw a‰pw hgn-bm-bn. 1905˛¬ am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ^¿am≥ Xp¿°n Khs◊‚ v ]n≥h-en-®p. HutK≥ _mhm siΩm»-\mbn ioa-cm-Py-߃ kµ¿in-®Xp ta¬]d™ c≠p ]m{Xn-b¿°ok-∑mcpw AhnsS Pohn-®n-cp∂ Ime-L-´-Øn-embncp∂p. Xp¿°n. ]q¿Æ-amb Kh-s◊‚w-Ko-Im-ctØm-Sp-Iq-Sn. k`m-`c . Cu k` h .n-eb . At±-lsØ At∏mgpw Bflo-b-\n-e-bn¬ ]m{Xnb¿°o-kmbn B {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ F√m-hcpw ]cn-K-Wn®v BZ-cn-®n-cp-∂p..p-kc . am¿ A_v Z p≈ Khs◊‚wKoIm-ct. A[nI Ime-Xm-a-kw -Iq-SmsX At±lw ae¶c kµ¿in-°pI-bpw. Cu c≠p ]m{Xn-b¿°o-k-∑m-cpambn t\cn´p ]pe¿Øp-hm-\n-Sb . Cu hkvXp-X-Iƒ B ImeØv ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS \mhmbn {]kn≤-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≠n-cp∂ ""ae-¶c CS-h-I-]-{XnI'' F∂ amkn-IbpsS B ImesØ e°-ß-fn¬ \n∂p {Kln-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. At±lw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ tdmam-k-`-bn¬ tN¿∂n-√m F∂pw. ho≠pw kp∂-lt.` B ImeØv icn-bmb At¥ymJym ]m{Xnb¿°o-kmbn AwKo-I-cn-®Xv am¿ A_vZp-≈m-sb-bm-bn-cp-∂p.sb [cn-∏n-®X .a .ß .mbpw k`m-]m-cº . Ime-Xm-a-k-sat\y At±lw h´-t»-cn¬ Xncpta-\nsb apS-°n. x o / v t Aßs\ ]m{Xn-b¿°m -knw-lm-k-\-Øn-\-h-Im-in-I-fmbn Htc kabØp c≠p -t]-cp-≠m-bn.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .at\y am¿ A_vZp≈m sa{Xmt∏m-eoØm tdmam. Cu kw`-hsØ XpS¿∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°m Xnc-s™-Sp-∏n¬ ]cm-Pn-X-\mb am¿ A_vZp≈m sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm.Zm-kv IqSn am¿ A_vZp-≈msb Xnc-s™- ht tp :/ 18 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ SpØp hmgn-°p-I-bp-am-Wp-≠m-b-sX-∂pw.e pw.v AXn-s‚-sb√mw bmYm¿∞y-߃ Fß-s\-bp-am-Is .y-a\ . Xm≥ tdma≥ ItØm-en-°m -k-`mw-K-am-sW∂p `mhn-®-tX-bp≈p F∂psamcp `mjyhp-ap-≠.` . CuZri hkvXp-X-I-sf√mw a\- nem-°nb Xncp-ta-\n.n¬ tN¿∂p. am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ae-¶c .n-bn¬ ]c-ky-ambn hn. AXn-\p-th≠n kp∂-l-tZm-kvIq-Sn. F∂m¬ am¿ A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv AXn\p {]Xn-Iq-en-bp-am-sW-∂m-bn-cp∂p Xncp-ta-\n°p a\- n-em-°p-hm≥ km[n-®-Xv. GXm-bmepw ae-¶c .Øm-Sp-IqSn euIn-Im-[n-Im-cß .v AYhm ae-¶c . XpS¿∂v Cu k`-bn¬ `n∂-X-bp-am-bn.b ¿°o.n®pw ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbpsS `c-W-]-cn-[n-bn-epƒs∏-Sp∂ ae-¶-c-k-`. k`m-\n-ba . At±-lØn¬ \n∂m-Wt√m h´-t»-cn¬ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Xncp-ta-\nbpw sIm®p-]-d-ºn¬ am¿ Iqdn-temkv Xncp-ta-\nbpw ÿm\-ta-‰Xpw a‰pw. ae-¶-c-bn-tebv°p Nne IØp-Iƒ X’w_-‘a . GtXm Imc-W-ß-fm¬ Xp¿°n Kh-s◊‚ns‚ A{]o-Xn°p ]m{X-am-b-Xn-\m¬ Kh-s◊‚ns‚ ]oU-\-Øn¬\n∂pw c£-s∏-Sphm≥th≠n A∂sØ {^©v tIm¨k-ens\ A`-bw -{]m-]n-®v.k .n¬ Hcmƒ Bh-iy-am-bX . /w w . X∑qew icn-bmb ÿm\-km[p-Xz-ap≈ GI ]m{Xn-b¿°okv A_vZp≈ am{X-am-sW∂pw a‰p-am-bncp∂p.b .s k∂ \ne.n-®n-cn-°p∂ {]Imcw ].≈ .k-`-bn¬\n∂p Xncn-®p-h∂v Hcp kndn-b≥ Hm¿ØtUm-Ivkv ] .mbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°s .mbn Ab-®n-cp∂ Imcyw ]e¿°pw Adn-bm-hp∂ hkvXp-Xb .b . Xp¿°n Kh-s◊‚n¬\n-∂p≈ ^¿am\pw \evI-s∏-´p.sN-bvXp. am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ^¿am≥ d±m-°n-b-Xp-aqew At±-l-Øns‚ Khs◊‚w-Ko-Imcw \„s∏-´-Xn-\m¬.` [cn-®X .. At±lw Nne Imc-W-ßfm¬ Xp¿°n Kh-s◊‚ns‚ A{]o-Xn°p ]m{X-am-bn-Øo¿∂-Xn-\m¬ tIhew ^¿am≥ ]n≥h-en-°pI am{Xta D≠m-bn-´p≈p F∂pw a\- nem-°p-hm-\n-S-bm-bn. ho≠pw ]m{Xn-b¿°m Xnc-s™-Sp-∏v -\-S-Øp-hm≥ \n›-bn-®p.n-tebv°p ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w am‰n ÿm]n-°p∂ hnj-bØ .b n. B kp∂-l-tZm-kn¬ am¿ A_vZp≈m sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm GIm-`n{]m-ba .pw.`. Cu kw`-h-Øn-\v. am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm euIn-Im-[n-Im-c-߃ \„. Cu hnj-bhpw Xncp-ta\n c≠p ]m{Xn-b¿°ok-∑m-cp-ambn N¿®.n¬ A\p-Iq-en-bpw.ƒs°-Xn-cmb Zp¿`-cWw apXemb Imc-W-ß-fm¬ \nb-am-\p-k-cWw kp∂-l-tZm-kv IqSn apS°n ÿm\{`-„\ .cm-PyØv A°m-eØp k`m-`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ°v. am¿ A_vZ¬ avinlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ kp∂-l-tZmkp IqSn ÿm\-{`wiw sNbvXp F∂ Btcm-]Ww ASn-ÿm-\-c-ln-X-am-sW-∂pw.n®v Xp¿°n Kh-s◊‚ v ^¿am≥ ]n≥hen-°p-Ib . bYm¿∞ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmbn Cu k` At±-lsØ kzoI-cn®p _lpam-\n-°pIbpw sNbvXp. A[nI Ime-Xm-ak . Ip¿_m\ A¿∏n®p.v am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°okns\ aZy-]m-\w.s ∏´ ]m{Xn. Imt\m-\n-Ia .mWv. A°m-eØp t]¿jym cmPyØp \ne-hnen-√msX Ah-ti-jn-®n-cp∂ ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w ae-¶-c-bn-te°p am‰n ÿm]n-®m¬ sIm≈m-sa∂v B{K-ln-®p-sIm-≠ncp∂ Ime-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p.

¿§-°m-a cpsS CS-bn-ep≈ kphn-tij {]h¿Ø-\-amWv At±lw BZy-ambn k Bcw-`n-®-Xv.n¬ ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w ÿm]n®p ImW-Ws .∏-Sp-Ib . At±lw am¿ Znh-∂m-tkymkv sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS apS°p Xo¿Øp. t]¿jym -cm-PyØp ]n≥Xp-S¿®-°m-cn-√msX Ahti-jn-®n-cp∂ ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w ae-¶c . XpS¿∂v 1911 ˛¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv. kzm¿∞-Xbpw A[n-Im-c{. hfsc Bfp-Isf ntN¿Øp.t 20 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am¿ tPmk^v Zoh-∂m-tkym-kns‚ Imew apX¬Xs∂ ChnsS B{Kln-®n-cp-∂-{]-Im-cw.o-b\ . Xncp-ta\n \m´n¬ aS-ßn-sbØn A[n-I-Imew Ign-bp-∂-Xn\p apºp ae-¶-c-k-`. am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ae-¶-c-bn¬ BK-X-\m-b-Xv.]-h¿Ø-I\pw ÿm]-I\pw Bb ]t{Xmkv h lØ am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbpw IpSpw-_hpw Bcw-`ImeØv sa{Xm≥ I£n-bn¬ Dd®p \n∂-h-cm-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw hS-°≥ CS-h-I-I-fnse kphn-tij {]h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ kp-Ka-amb \S-Øn-∏n-\pth≠n At±lw _mhm I£n-bn¬ \n∂v Iio-im-]´w kzoI-cn® kw`hw CtX-\n-e-bn¬ Xs∂ D≈ H∂m-W-t√m.v. Xs‚ ]e-kvXo≥ \mSv kµ¿i-\-Im-eØv am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn-s\-°p-dn®v e`n-®n-cp∂ bYm¿∞ hnh-cß .n\p c≠p ]m{Xnb¿°o-k-∑mtcm sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑mtcm hmgn-°-s∏-Sp-hm-\n-S-bm-bm¬.m-Wp-≠m-bXv. t t h / : p /w w .m-epw. A¶-amen `{Zm-k\ {]tZ-iß .n¬ ]e-hn[ {InkvXob {]h¿Ø-\ß .ƒ At±lw Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p.19 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Xncp-ta\n ]e-kvXo≥\mSv kµ¿i\w Ign™v HutK≥ dºm-\m-bn.Ø .n-®p-sIm-≠-v Hu-tK≥ dºm≥ \nc-WØp t]mbn B ÿm\mtcm-lW ip{iq-j-bn¬ kw_-‘n-®p.£ .n-\m-epw.ijw ae-¶-c-bn¬\n∂p aS-ßn-t∏m-bn.ƒ an°-hmdpw sa{Xm≥ I£n-bnepw Dd®p \n∂p. \nc-W-Øp -h®v apdn-a-‰-Øn¬ am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn hmgn-®p. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -I-£n-°m¿ At±lsØ kzoI-cn-®n-√. F∂m¬ ""hnizm-k-Øn¬ `n∂-Xbn''√mXn-cn-s°. x do / v t o a r hS-Ic tI{µ-am°n A[x-Ir-X h .f . F∂m¬ At∏m-tgbv°p ae¶-ck . …o_mcp-∂-XpsIm≠pIqt t Zmk kaq.m°nbpw ae-¶c .` ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp I .n-sb∂pw sa{Xm≥ I£n-sb∂pw c≠mbn ]nf¿∂p-I-gn-™n-cp-∂p.mbn. I≠-\m-Sv.pw.p-am-cw-`n-®p. A[nIw Xma-kn-bmsX am¿ A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Chn-sS-sb-Øn.{]m-]n-°m-sa-s∂m-cm-ibw DZ-bwsNbvXX .ß . 1908˛¬ \m´n¬ aS-ßn-sb-Øn-b-Xv.`-ahpw aqew Hcp knwlm-k\ . CuZri {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS hnP/ bn¬ Xs∂ Dd®p {]h¿Øn-t°-≠Xv Hcm-h-iy-ambn b-Øn\v B I£n: p Sn-bmWv At±lw B \ne-]m-Sv kzoI-cn-®-Xv. At±lw Aßs\ sNbvXXv .t\-csØ kzoIcn® \ne-]m-Sn¬ Dd®p\n∂p-sIm-≠v.ns‚ t{]c-Wb . BZy-sØ-bmƒ `cWw \S-Øp-Ibpw c≠m-a≥ {]hr-Øn-c-ln-X-\m-bn-cn°bpw sNø-Ww (lqZm-b 7:1) F∂ Imt\m≥ \n¿t±-isØ Ahew_n®psIm≠v. sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb apS-°n-bt.a∂v X\n°p-≠m-bn-cp∂ AXn-bmb B{K-lØ . / Xs‚ apS°v XnI®pw AIm-c-W-sa∂p am¿ Zoh∂mtkymkv sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Ømbpw Cu k`-bnse Hcp \√ ]¶v Bfp-Ifpw hniz-kn-®n-cp-∂Xn-\m¬.ns‚ {]mcw-`{. ]ndt©cn apX-emb sslkvIq-fpI-fpsS ÿm]-\-Ønepww B ImeØv At±lw D’m-ln-®n-cp-∂p. tImekz¥w ]cn-{i-a-^-e-amWv.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .ØmSp tXm∂n-bn-cp∂ `‡nbpw Bkv]Z. A¶-am-en.Zm-kn\m¬ apS°n _ln-jI v c . sa{Xm≥ I£n-°m¿ Imt\m-\nI ]m{Xnb¿°okv F∂ \ne-bn¬ At±-lsØ kzoI-cn-®p. kz]n-Xm-hns‚ Kpc-psh∂ \nebn¬ X\n°v IqSp-X¬ BZ-cW . XpS¿∂v am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv Zoh-∂mtkymkv ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn. Cu kml-N-cy-Øn-emWv 1912 ˛¬ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-bp-sSbpw A\p-bm-bn-I-fp-sSbpw ]cn-{i-a-^-e-am-bn.∏m-gmWv am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ A`-bw. Hcp hS-°-\mb HutK≥ dºm\pw ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv -I-£n-bmbn Xs∂ \ne-sIm-t≈≠ kml-N-cy-am-Wp-≠m-bncp-∂-Xv. Cu I£nXn-cn-hn¬. sX°≥ `{Zm-k\ . 1909 ¬ tPmk^v am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Imew-sN-bvXp. h rt o .b .a . sIm®n F∂o hS-°≥ `{Zm-k-\-߃ GXm≠v ]q¿Æ-ambpw.mhw. X∑qew Bflob\-evhcw \„-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX Bfm-sW∂v Cu k`. F∂m¬ XpS¿∂-t±lw kz¥w \m´n¬ h∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n-bmbn Xs∂ {]h¿Øn-°p-Ib . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbpw am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkpw XΩn¬ ]e Imcy-ß-fm¬ \oc-k-Øn-em-bn.b .n-tebv°p am‰n ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xn¬ kl-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.ns‚ .m-bn-cp-∂X . k`w bnse A∂sØ I£n `n∂-X-bn¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n-bmbn Dd®p w \ne-sIm-≠n-cp∂/Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬. CXn-\p≈ t]mwh-gn-sb-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-®t. Chn-SpsØ I£n `n∂-Xbpw a‰pw Ah-KW . AXn-\p≈ ]cn-{i-ah . tIm´bw `{Zm-k-\-Ønse AKWy-a-√mØ Hcp hn`m-Khpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -I-£n-bn¬ Dd®p \nesIm≠p. {]Xn-k-‘nsb A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bn. {]tXy-In®p ÿm\-ta¬°p∂ Bƒ. At∏m-tg°v I≠-\mSv. hS-°≥ {]tZisØ ]m{Xnb¿°okv I£nbpsS a≤y-Øn¬ XpS¿∂p Pohn-t°-≠nbn-cp∂ At±l-Øns‚ Cu {]hrØn Xo¿®-bmbpw Aev]w Hcp IS∂ ssIbm-bncp∂p. At±lw kp∂-lt. At±lw amtΩm-Zokm \¬In k`-ba n¬ XpS¿∂v hS-°≥ {]tZl i-ß-fn¬ hfsc hnc-f-am-bn-cp∂ahnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃ Bcw-`n-°p∂-Xn-\p≈ ]cn-{i-aa .fpw At±-lt.n-°s . C∂sØ hS-Ic sslkvIqƒ At±-lØ .

p-≈X . x o / v t 1912 se k`m `n∂-Xsb XpS¿∂v Cu \ne-bnse√mw At±lw {]h¿Øn-®n-cp-s∂-¶nepw k`m Ncn-{X-]c .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h 22 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am¿ At{]w ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm Adn-bn®p.n®v FXn¿ I£n-bp-am-bn.fpw a‰pw ImcWw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kI -v £n t\Xm- .I .N .n.n-\p≈ k÷o-Ic .ØmSp IqSn ChnsS ÿm]n-Xa .m¬ sIm≈msa-∂p≈ kz¥ A`n-em-j-Øn-s‚bpw ^e-am-bn. XpS¿∂v {]kvXpX `{Zm-k\ `cWw. F∂m¬ k`-bnse kam-[m-\-Øn-\p-th≠n F¥p XymKhpw kln-°p-hm≥ Rm≥ k∂-≤\m-Wv.p-kc .mWv.a .nse I£n `n∂X Fß-s\bpw Ah-km-\n-∏n®v kam-[m\w ÿm]n-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p.mb ImtXm-en°m ÿm]\w XnI®pw A\yq-\-am-sW-∂p-ap≈ Dƒt_m[w F∂pw Xncp-ta-\nsb `c-n®n-cp-∂p.f .21 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Bcw-`-Im-eØv …o_m-Zmkkaq-l -{]-h¿Ø-\-Ønepw kl-I-c-Whpw {]tNm-Z-\hpw \¬In-bn-cp∂ HutK≥ dºms‚ Xs∂ D]-tZ-im-\p-kcWhpam-bn-cp-∂p. x o / v t CXn-\n-S-bn¬ Xncp-ta\n sa{Xm≥ÿm\ta‰ Imew-ap-X-ep≈ CuZri-amb ]e {]h¿Ø-\ß . .m-eØv kw`-hß . AXn¬ Fs¥-¶nepw sX‰p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns‚ ]m]w B ssIh-bv°p-∂-h-cpsS Xe-bn¬ Ccn-°pw.nIw IØn-S] . am¿ AØm-\m-tkymkv Xncp-ta-\n-bn¬ \n∂p ssIhbv]p kzoIcn-°p-hm≥ Xøm-dmbn Bephm Xr°p-∂Øv skan-\m-cn-bn¬ k∂n-lnX-\m-b-Xp-am-Wv.p-t]m-se.m-bn-√..f .≠v Btem-N\ . t t h / : p /w w . Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm Xs‚ hm°p ]men-®psIm-≠v. Cu hkvXp-XI . I≠-\mSv `{Zmk\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bmbn `c-W-ta‰ tijw Xncp-ta\n k¿∆ {]m[m\yw \¬In ]cn-{i-an-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂ Hcp Imcyw. XpS¿∂v Bcw`w apX-ep≈ Xs‚ at\m-t_m-≤yhpw B{K-lh . A∂v B hnip≤ ]nXmhv Iev]n®p \evInb ad-p]Sn C∂pw Fs‚ sNhn-If .´.n-s‚-bpw.c .p-a\ . AYhm am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hmbp-am-bn.m-Wv. Cu kΩ-XsØ XpS¿∂mWv Xncp-ta\n ap≥ssI-sb-SpØv \SØnb Ah-km-\-tØXpw G‰w {][m-\-s∏-´-Xp-amb Bephm h´-ta-iktΩ-f\ .ns‚ kl-Ic .mb Hcp ssZh\n-›-b-am-bn-cn-°mw. Hcp]t£ AXv A¤p-XI .W . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv `mKsØ Hcp sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm F∂. \n߃s°ms° \n¿_-‘-am-sW-¶n¬.n√'' F∂m-bn-cp∂p AXv. A∂sØ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-km-bn-cp∂ am¿ At{]w {]Y-a≥ _mhm-bp-ambn Xncp-ta\n hf-sc-b[ .ß .a . Rm≥ BcpsS apºn¬ thW-sa-¶nepw Xe Ip\n-®p-sIm-Sp-°mw. CXv bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Xs‚ kz¥w A`n-{]m-b-Øn\v tN¿∂-X-√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw a‰v am¿§sam∂pw Cs√∂p≈ \nebn¬ CsX-¶nepw Fß-s\bpw km[n®p k`bn¬ kam-[m\w ÿm]n-°-W-sa-∂p≈ ZrV-\n-›-b-tØm-Sp-IqSn Xncpta\n apt∂m-´p-\oßn.ƒ \S-Øn-bX .p-≠m-bn-°≠ .ƒ Iptd-s»-bmbn BfpIsf [cn-∏n®v Ah-cpsS I£n sshcmKyw eLp-s∏-Sp-Øns°m≠p-h-cp∂-Xn\pw Xncp-ta\n Ign-hp-t]mse ]cn-{i-an-®n-cp-∂p. Aßs\ t_m≤y-ap-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ tIhew {]uVn-°pth≠n am{Xw Cu thjw [cn-°p-∂-h-\√ Rm≥. CXpw A∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n-bn¬ Dd®p\n∂n-cp∂ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\-Øns‚ kpK-a-amb `cW-\n¿∆-l-W-Øn\v Hcm-h-iy-am-bn-cp∂p. F\n°v AXn¬ ]¶p-≠m-bn-cn-°b . ""sa{Xm®m! Fs‚ ÿm\-Øn\p Fs¥-¶nepw \yq\-Xb .n¬ apg-ßp-Ib .l . ImtXm-en°m _mhm Gsd-°psd AXn\p kΩ-Xn-®p.mSp-Ifpw CXv kw_-‘n®p \S-Øn-bn-cp∂p..n¬ ]e-Xn-s\-°p-dn®pw A°meß-fn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS k¥-Xk .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .m-bpap≈ Xs‚ XnI™ hn⁄m-\-Øn-s‚bpw {]tXy-In®v. Ah-km\w Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS \n¿_-‘Ø .b .m-cn-bmbncp∂ F\n°v t\cn-´d . ae-¶c .\n-eb . Fß-s\bpw kam-[m-\a . X∑qew At±-lØ .psS bmYm¿∞y-ßsf°pdn®v X\n°v t\cn´p e`n-®n-cp∂ Adn-hn-s‚bpsa√mw ASn-ÿm-\Ø .W . k∂-≤-X-bp-≈-h¿ Fs‚ Xebn¬ ssIh-b° v p-Itbm F¥p-th-Ws .`.a-¶nepw sNbvXp-sIm-≈s .mbpw thZ-im-k{v X-]c . A∂sØ ImtXm-en-°m-bm-bn-cp∂ am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-bs\ ]e {]mhiyw t\cn-´p I . F∂m¬ Nne kmt¶-XnI XS- -ß-fp-sS t]cn¬ B kw`hw \S-°m-\n-Sb .n¬ hnP-b-I-c-ambn \n¿∆-ln-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. AXn-\p-th≠n Xncp-ta\n \S-Øn-bn-´p≈ \nc-h[n ITn\ ]cn-{i-aß .n-hp-≈X . F¥m-bmepw AtXm-Sp-IqSn Xncp-ta\n kam-[m-\]cn-{i-a-ß-fn¬ XnI®pw \ncm-i-\mbn AXn¬ \n∂p ]n∑m-dn.v AXns‚ A¥y-Øn¬ ]. tbml-∂m≥ kv\m]Is‚ apºn¬ tbip-{InkvXp sNbvXX .a .Ø .n¬ am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm icn-bmb Bflob \¬h-c-ap≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Xs∂-bm-sW-∂pw. Cßs\ Imew apt∂m´p \oßsh 1927 ¬ HutK≥ dºm≥ I≠\mSv `{Zm-k\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ÿm\-tØ°v \ma-\n¿t±iw sNø-s∏Sp-Ibpw AX-\p-k-cn®v bdp-i-te-an¬ h®v am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv F∂ t]cn¬ am¿ Gen-bmkv {XnXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mh-mbn¬ \n∂pw sa{Xm≥ ÿm\w G¬°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.k .mbn F\n°v Atijw t_m≤y-an-√. CXn-s‚-sb-√mw ^e-ambn Chn-SpsØ ImtXm-en°m ÿm]-\sØ Xm≥ AwKo-I-cn-°m-sa∂pw F∂m¬ AXv ChnsS \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v {][m\ Im¿Ωn-IXzw hln® am¿ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°okv apS-°p-aqew Bflob \¬hcw \„s∏´ Bfm-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ct∏m-gsØ ImtXm-en°m c≠m-aXv ssIhbv∏p kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv Bh-iy-am-sW-∂p-ap≈ Xs‚ A¥y Xocp-am\w ht tp :/ /w w .\-SØ . IqSp-X¬ Xpd∂pw ASpØpw s]cp-am-dn-Øp-S-ßn. ]e-kvXo≥ \m´nse ]cy-S\ .t.

AtXm-Sp-IqSn A∂p-hsc ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n-Iƒ. AhnSw apX¬ 1958 se k`m-k-am-[m-\w-h-sc-bp≈ \o≠ ]Xn-\mdp kwh-’-c°mew Xncp-ta\n A\p-`-hn® {]bm-k-߃°pw bmX-\-Iƒ°pw IW°n-√.n\p ÿm\km-[p-Xz-ap-≠m-hp-I-bn-√ Fs∂√mw ]d™p ]p—n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-h¿. At¥ym-Jy≥ aqhvsa‚ v Fs∂mcp {]ÿm-\h .m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . Ah-km\w c≠p t]tc-bpw-IqSn B `{Zm-k-\-Øns‚ kl-sa-{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑m-cmbn \nban-°b .ß .m-bn-´s .k . tZl-]o-U-\w-hsc kln-t°≠n h∂ hkvXp-X-Iƒ kphn-Zn-X-amW-t√m. F¥m-bmepw AtXm-Sp-IqSn Ipd-®p-Im-etØ-bvs°-¶nepw k`-bn¬ ]cn-]q¿Æ kam-[m-\hpw im¥-Xbpw Ifnbm-Sn.˛se kp{]ow-tIm-SXn hn[n-sb.qew ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbn¬ \n∂p hna¿i-\-]-c-amb Nne Iev]-\-Iƒ h∂p-Xp-S-ßn.bm-Sp-IqSn Xncp-ta\n ASn-]X . Xncp-ta-\nsb apS-°n.b .n-™n-cp-∂p. k`m-ka .p≈ Hcp sa{Xms‚ ssIsb-¶nepw Xe-bn-sem-∂p-hb .n\p hncp-≤a . kp{]owtIm-SXn hn[n-bn¬ Ah-km-\n® kap-Zm-b-t°kv A∂v Pn√m-t°m-S-Xnbn¬ \S-°p∂ Ime-am-bn-cp∂p.bv°p h∂p. AXn¬ {]Xn-`mKw km£n-∏-´n-I-bn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS t]cpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. ISpØ A{]oXn Xncp-ta\n kºm-Zn-®p-Ig. CXn-s‚-sb√mw ^e-ambn am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb kkvs]≥Up sNbvXp-sIm-≠pw. am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb ]q¿Æ-ambn B `{Zm-k-\ - t t h / : p /w w .Xs∂ A{]m-tbm-Kn-I-ambn A\p-`-h-s∏-´p. AX-\p-k-cn®v aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\ .m-bn¬h®p \SØnb ]c-kv]c kzoI-c-W-sa∂ NSßv k`-bnse I£n-a-’-c-Øn¬ AS-hp-am-‰p-∂X . ]. am¿ HutK≥ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm-bm-bn-cn-°-Ww.w-_‘ .\ .sa-{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑mcmcpw CXns\ A\p-Iqen-®n√ F∂Xp {]tXyIw {it≤b-am-Wv. Cßs\ ae-¶c . x do / v t .i-jw. Hcp \nan-jw-sIm≠v bmsXmcp \yq\-X-bpan-√mØ tamdm≥ am¿ _t en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°m-bm-sW∂pw k»n-cI . X\n°p kXy-sa∂p t_m≤y-ap≈ hkvXp-XIƒ B \ne-bn¬ Xpd∂p ]d-™p. hnkvXm-c-at≤y C∂ I£n Pbn-°tbm tXmev°tbm sNø-Wsa∂ e£yw IqSm-sX.£ .n¬h®v IΩo-j≥ apJm-¥cw Xncp-ta-\n-sb Zo¿L-ambn hnkvXcn®p.ºw kΩ-Xn-t°-≠n-h∂ .b .mb kIe Imcyßfpw c≠p-t]cpw tbmPn®p ssIIm-cyw. icn-bmb \evhc .t / 24 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ]n∂n¬ hmin-tbmsS \ne-sIm-≠n-cp∂ km[m-c-W -P-\-ß-sf√mw A¤pX-kvX-_v[-cm-bn-t∏m-bn.\p tIm´bw ]gb skan-\mcn Nm∏-ense aZv_l .mb Hcp \ne-]mSv kzoI-cn-®p-Ig. c≠p Xncp-ta-\namcpw XΩn¬ `n∂-Xb .a . F¶nepw ap≥ ]m{Xnb¿°okv I£n-bnse a‰p. ]tcm-£a ..nse AK-Wy-a√ .n-™n-cp-∂p.mew apX¬Xs∂ X∂n¬ \nd-™p-\n-∂n-cp∂ kam-[m\ hmRvO {]mtbm-KnI-am-bn-Øo¿∂p I≠.n-em-bn.n¬ ]cn-]q¿Æ kam-[m\w ssIh-∂p-sh-¶nepw Xncp-ta-\nsb kw_-‘n-®n-St.p-am-bn.p-sSbpw ]n≥Xp-Wt.v AXm-bXv `{Zm-k\ `c-Wk .bm-KØ . ImtXmen°m knwlm-k-\-Øn≥ Iogn¬ Dd-®p-Xs∂ \ne-sIm-≠p. ]utemkv am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv F∂o c≠p-t]¿ Ah-Imin-Ifmbn´p≠m-bn-cp-∂p.Ø . CsX√mw tI´pw hniz-kn®pw AXns‚ t t h / : p /w w .mØ Hcp hn`mKw ]´-°m-cp-sSbpw P\-ßf .` .n\v Ah-kcw e`n-°phm≥th≠n {]tbm-Kn-® Hcp X{¥w am{X-am-bn-cp∂p F∂p ]c-ky-ambn {]Jym-]n®p-sIm-≠v.° v msX At±-lØ . CXn\p ]e t]mwh-gn-I-sf-°p-dn®pw ].n¬ _lp-`q-cn-]£tØmSp-IqSn ]m m-°nb {]ta-b-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-bn-cp∂p B kzoI-cWw \S-∂Xpw.n\p am{Xw HutK≥ am¿ XntamØn-tbm-kv.sam-gn-sIm-Sp-Øp.m-Wp-≠m-bX . 1958 -˛se ]c-kv]c kzoI-c-Whpw XpS¿∂p\S∂ ]pØ≥Imhv Atkm-tky-j≥ ktΩ-f\hpw Ign-™t.√-¶n-epw. At∏m-tgbv°p am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv sa{Xm-t∏meoØm sX°pw -h-S-°p-ap≈ ap≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n-bnse Xo{hhmZn-I-fm-bn-cp∂ Hcp AXr]vX hn`m-KsØ kwL-Sn-∏n-®v 1958 Unkw_¿ 16. At∂-Zn-hkw Xncp-ta\n aqhm-‰p-]pg ]≈n-bn¬ hnfn-®p-Iq-´nb I≠\mSv `{Zm-k\ ]≈n{]Xn-]p-cp-jt.23 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ °-∑m-cp-tS-bpw.Ømfw B kam-[m\w ]q¿Æ-ambn A\p-`h-s∏-Sm≥ Ipsd Ime-Xm-akw IqSn th≠n-h-∂p. F∏nkvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-l-tZmkv Nn¥n-°-bp-≠m-sb-¶n-epw. CXn¬ G‰w IqSp-X¬ kt¥m-jn-®Xv Xo¿®-bm-bpw sNdp-∏I . s]mXpth B samgn ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n°p tZmj-I-c-am-bn-cp∂p. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _m-hm-bn¬ \n∂v A{X {]Xy-£a .m¿°v Xncp-ta-\n-tbm-Sp≈ sshcmKyw iX-Kp-Wo-`-hn-®p.Xp-S¿∂v k`mkam[m-\-ap-≠mbn.Ø .m-[m-\Ø . Ah-km\w 1958.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .m¿°pw `c-WØ . AhcpsS t{]c-Wa .d .Zm-kns‚ ]cn-KW . Cu hyh-ÿnXn s]s´-∂p.ƒ Gev]n-®p-sIm-Sp-°p∂ {]iv\w h∂-t∏mƒ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ .sN-ø-Ww. {]tXy-In®v A∂sØ At¥ymJym {]Xn-\n[n am¿ bqentbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bp-tS-bpw. tIhew ]´-Xz-an-√mØ hr≤≥ ]p∂q-km-Wv. F¶nepw B `qcn-]£ ]n¥pW \o≠p-\n-ev°p-hm-\n-Sb .m-bn√ F∂Xv \n¿`m-Ky-I-c-amb Hcp hkvXp-X-bm-Wv. F¶nepw I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ . XpS¿∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_m-hm-sb-s°m≠v Xncp-ta\nsb apS-°n-°p-hm-\p≈ ]cn-{i-a-am-bn.p.n-bn¬ \n∂n-cp∂ sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Ø∑ .m-sX. XpS¿∂v A[nI ImeXmakw IqSmsX ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm. {]iv\w F∏-nkvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-lt. AtXm-Sp-IqSn ]m{Xn-b¿°okv I£n t\Xm-°∑ .n-\p≈ `{Zm-k\ .mbn B hn`m-KsØ t{]m’mln-∏n-°p∂ Nne \o°-ßfpw D≠mIm-Xn-cp-∂n-√. Kohdp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhmsb aqhm‰p-]pg ]≈n-bn¬ £Wn-®p-h-cpØn ]c-ky-ambn kzoI-cn®p I£n-am-dnb-Xv. Cu hnj-a-k-‘n-bn-em-Wv 1942˛¬ Xncp-ta-\n.a . ap≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv I .

° p.o-b\ .bv°p hnt[b-ambn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏´ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ {][m\ Im¿Ωn-I-Xz-Øn¬ I£n t`Z-sat\y Cu k`-bnse kIe taev]-´-°mcp-tSbpw kl-I-c-W-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn.∂ Xp XS.psS bYm¿∞-e£yw Cu hnti.n-tebv°p am‰n ÿm]n-°s .] .K n. Xncp-ta\n ]uc-kvXy -Im-tXm-en-°mbmbn ÿm\m-tcm-lWw sNø-s∏-´p.«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k-\-Øn¬ Bcq-V-\mb F∂ hntijWw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xns\ tNmZyw -sNbvXpsIm≠p≈ B Iev]-\-bn¬. ae¶ck`-bn¬ ]cn-]q¿Æ sFIyhpw kam-[m-\hpw hnf-ßn-\n∂ Hc-¥c . _mhm Imew.yan√ F∂ \ne-]m-Sn¬ Xncp-ta\n ]c-am-h[n hnizm-k-Zm¿Vyw {]I-S-am°p-Ib . A`n-hµy Xncp-ta\n ssZhm-{i-b-tØm-Sp-IqSn A∂p kzoI-cn® \ne-]mSv F{Xtbm icn-bm-bn-cp∂p F∂v BZ-c] . Cu kam-[m\w Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS A¥y-Im-ew h .v.t bm.o-lmbv°v ]utcm-ln-Xyan-√m-bn-cp∂p F∂ ISpØ thZ-hn-]-co-XsØ Xm\pw ]n≥Xm-ßn-b-Xmbn -h-cp-at√m F∂ Nn¥. X∑qew At±-lØ . kp∂-l-tZmkn\v Hcp Xocp-am\w sNtø≠n-h∂p. 1958 -˛se ]c-kv]c [mc-W-Iƒ°pw hn.`.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .mbn `hn°p-Ib . am¿tXmΩm « . Cß-s\ -ap-t∂m-´pt]m-Ith 1962 ¬ Xncp-ta\n ].b n. ]e kplr-Øp-°fpw kap-Zmb t\Xm-°-∑mcpw k`m-k-am-[m-\sØ {]Xn Cß-s\-sbmcp Xmev°m-enI hn´p-ho-gvNbv°p Xncp-ta-\nsb t{]cn-∏n®p t\m°n-sb-¶nepw. ]. ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-ØmbpsS HutZym-KnI Npa-X-e-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v tIm´bw ImtXm-ent°‰v Ac-a-\-bn-tebv°v Xmakw am‰n.m-W.W .m-bX . am¿tXmΩm.˛mw \º¿ Iev]\ .n-°msX \n¿∆ml-an-√mØ ]X-\-Øn-em-bn.c p.m-Wp-≠m-bX . Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm Imew sNøp-∂Xphsc Ahn-sS-Øs∂ Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂p.v Xncpta-\n-bpsS ]q¿∆-Ime Ncn-{Xhpw {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sa√mw kq£va-\n-co£-W-Øn\p hnt[-b-am-°p-∂-]£w Xo¿®-bmbpw Xncp-ta\n bYm¿∞- ht tp :/ /w w .\ . am¿tXmΩm -«olmbv°p ]utcm-lnXyw e`n-®n-cp-∂n-√. ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bp-ambn Xncpta\n CS-s]-´p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-Xv.k . Cu k`-bpsS ÿm]-I-\mb am¿tXmΩm -«o-lmsb Xcw-Xm-gvØn-bn-´v.S. C∂v Cu k`-bn¬ A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp∂ `n∂-Xbv°p Xncp-ta-\ntbm Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ k`-bnse `c-W-k-an-Xn-Itfm bmsXmcp Imc-Whpw D≠m-°n-bn-´p-an-√. ae-¶c F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-l-tZm-kns‚ £Ww kzoI-cn-®v. Cßs\ hfsc kulm¿±-am-bpw.v.n-\m¬. Aßs\ B ]mh\ \maw ae-¶c kpdn-bm\n k`m- t t h / : p /w w .a p.b . Aßs\ 1964 sabv amkw 22 -˛\p tIm´bw am¿ Gen-bm IØo-{U-en¬ h-®.sc \ne-\n∂p ImWphm≥ `mKy-ap-≠m-bn√ F∂Xp XnI®pw tJZ-I-c-amb as‰mcp hkvXp-Xbm-Wv. F¶nepw I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm F∂ \ne-bn¬ aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\-bn¬Øs∂ Xmakw XpS¿∂p.sN-bvX-tXmSp IqSn. A∂sØ hnLSn-X¿ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .o£-Øn¬ hmgn-°-s∏-Sp-hm-\n-S-bmb {]Ya ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn-cp∂p Xncp-ta-\n-sb-∂p-≈Xv AXoh {it≤bamb hkvXp-Xb . Cu Btcm-]-WsØ ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-SpØn Xm≥ B hnti-jWw Dt]-£n-°p∂ ]£w. Xncp-ta-\nsb hf-sc-b-[nIw t¢in-∏n-®p. A[nI Ime-Xm-akw IqSm-sX.m-Wp-≠m-bXv. F∂Xp am{X-am-Wt√m FXn-cmbn D∂-bn-®n-cn-°p∂ GI Btcm-]-Ww.p-sS Zr„n-bn¬ Xncp-ta\n ]q¿∆m-[nIw BZ-cW . bmt°m-_v -Xr-Xob≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_m-hm ChnsS k∂n-ln-X-\m-bn.25 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ `-cWw Gev]n-®p-sIm≠pw ].b .t\m-°n-sb-¶n-epw.m-Wv. CXn-s‚-sb√mw ^e-ambn Aev]w a\xt¢-i-tØmSp IqSn-bmWv Xncp-ta\n Cu temI-Øn¬\n∂p bm{X-bm-Iphm-\n-S-bm-b-sX-¶n-epw. Xncp-ta\nsb ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn hmgn-°p-hm≥th-≠n. C∂p ImWp∂ aqhm‰p]pg `{Zm-k\ Ac-a-\-s°-´n-SØns‚ H∂mw \ne-bpsS ]Wn.∏-´t.j .q¿∆w Rm≥ Hm¿Øp-t]m-hp-I-bm-Wv. CXn-\p-]cn A\p-kva-cn-∏n®n-cn°p-∂-hn-[-Øn¬ Xs‚ ap≥Kman-tb-°mƒ IqSp-X¬ BZ-c-thmSpw kulm¿±-tØm-Spw-Iq-Sn-bmWv ]. Aßs\ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\-Øn¬ ho≠pw Akz-ÿ-X-bmbn.b pI am{X.s √∂p XpS¿∂p≈ kw`-hhn-Im-k-ß-fn¬ \n∂p ]I¬t]mse hy‡-am-bn-cn°p∂ Cu kµ¿`-Øn¬.ijw hmgn-°-s∏´ \mem-asØ ImtXm-en-°-mbmWp Xncp-ta-\n-sb-¶n-epw.b . am¿ tXmΩm -«o-lm-bpsS a°-fmb ae-¶-c-k-`m k-¥m-\ß .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . 1964 -˛¬ `mKy-kva-c-Wm¿l-\mb ].f . XnI®pw AIm-c-W-am-bn-Øs∂ Ip{]-kn-≤-amb \º¿ 203/1960 Iev]\ ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm-bn¬\n∂p hcp-hm-\n-Sb . x o / v t 26 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Øn¬ A¿ln-°p∂ Hc-kp-e` _lp-a-Xn-bm-bn-cp∂p CsX∂p t_m≤ys∏-Sp-∂-Xm-Wv.n\p knwlmk-\-hp-an√. _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hm-bpsS ]n≥Km-an-bmbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°s .∏-´p. At±lw AXn-s\m∂pw hgßmsX.Ø .∂ n. Cu Ime-L´. Aß-s\-bp≈ Hcp k`-bpsS t\XrXzw X\n-°m-hi .m¬ `c-WL .v ae-¶c . 203. 1958. x o / v t .˛sebpw 1964 -˛-sebpw ]c-kv]c [mc-W-Iƒ°v A\p-tbm-Py-a-√mØ bmsXm∂pw {]h¿Øn-°m-sXbpw Ign-™n-cp∂ ka-bØ . k`-bpsS ]mc-º-cy߃°pw XnI®pw A\p-tbm-Py-ambn ss[cy-]q¿∆w \ne-sIm-≠X . \nb-am-\p-k-cWw Xnc-s™Sp-°-s∏´ ]n≥Km-an-sb-∂-\n-e-bn¬.]q¿Øn-bm-°n-bXv. ]uc-kvXy -Im-tXm-en-°m knw-lmk\w t]¿jy-bn¬ \n∂p ae-¶c .n-emWv am¿ ]oe-Ik v n-t\mkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS ITn-\-amb FXn¿∏ns\ A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®p-sIm≠v hfsc t¢in-®n-´m-sW¶nepw Xncp-ta-\n.m-hmsb hio-Ic . am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°pw Xs‚ FXn¿{]-h¿Ø-\߃ Dt]-£n®p ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bp-ambn kl-Ic .n®p Ipg∏w kr„n-°p-hm≥ Nne ]cn-{i-a-߃ \S-Øn.a m.

ƒ ]I¿Øn Fgp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. CXn-s\-√m-an-S-bn¬ Cu Po-hNcn-{X-{KŸw Xøm-dm-°phm≥ k∂-≤-\mbn apt∂m-´p-h-∂n-´p-≈Xv XnI®pw kt¥m-j-{]-Z-am-Wv.ƒ°p ]pd-ta. sXmÆqdn-t\m-S-Sp-sØ-Øn-bn´pw kpdn-bm-\n-bnepw ae-bm-f-Ønepw Ihn-X-Ifpw {KŸ-ßfpw Na-b° v Ø .p-hsc At±lw I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ . Xncp-a-\- nse kw`-h-_-lp-e-amb Pohn-X-Øns‚ Hcp kw£n]vX Ncn-{X-sa-gp-Xp-hm≥ k∂-≤-\mbn Fs‚ bph-kvt\-ln-X≥ sI. tij-ap≈ h¿j-߃ At±-l-Øns‚ Pohn-X-Ønse kph¿Æ.a .mb {]kn-≤o-Ic .Ww Cu ]cn-ip≤ ]nXmhv Znhw-K-X-\mbn A[n-I-Imew Ign-bp-∂-Xn\p ap≥]p-X-s∂. `mKy-kva-c-Wm¿l-\mb At±lw 1975 Unkw-_¿ 8 ˛mw XobXn Imew -sN-bvXp. Npcp-ßnb ka-bw-sIm≠v Cu {KŸw `wKn-bmbn FgpXn Xøm-dm-°n bXn¬ At±-lsØ A`n-\µ .I .`m-jbn¬ In´m-hp-∂n-St.27 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 28 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ N-cn-{X-Øn¬ kph¿Æ-en-]n-If .{.nepw Xma-kn®v kpdnbm-\n.f . HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm Xncp-a-\- nse a≤y-ÿ{]m¿∞-\-Iƒ \ap°v tIm´-bm-bn-cn-°-s´.o-°ven. hn.psS ]{Xm-[n-].nse ]e Zb-dm-If .m w al .˛ 1976 t t h / : p /w w ao r a rt d o h ox v . N¿®vh .Ø .n-bmb kt¥m-ja .q¿∆w {]h¿Øn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Hcp hy‡n-bm-Wv.ns‚ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn `cn-®p.p≈ `mjm-kzm-[o-\hpw Hm¿Ω-i‡ .v sa{Xm-∑m¿ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ]´w-sIm-S ] . amΩ≥ Ft∂m-Sm-h-iy-s∏-´-X-\p-k-cn®v Fs‚ A\p-`-h-Ønepw Hm¿Ω-bnepw hcp∂ Nne Imcy-߃ Ipdn-°p-∂X .∏-Sp-∂X . thZ-im-kv{X-Øn¬ AKm-[ -]m-finXyw t\Sn.n¬ \nkvX{. Ip¿∫m-\bv°v D]-tbmKn-°p∂ lqtØm-Ωm -˛ -kpdn-bm-\nbpw ae-bm-fhpw ˛ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS IrXn-bm-W. amΩ≥ apt∂m-´p-h-∂n-cn-°p-∂Xv Nmcn-Xm¿∞y-P-\-I-am-Wv. bph-P\ .a .p≠v.n¬Øs∂ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp Ign-™n-cn-°p-∂p. 1962 -˛¬ ImtXm-en-°m -ÿm-\-tØbv°v sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p.ijw ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn Ah-tcm[n-°-s∏-´p.a .` .µ-amb {]h¿Ø-\ß . k n a o a ar h rt o .f .m-Wv..n¬ G¿s∏-´ncn-°p∂ amΩ≥.Ømfw ]pkvXI . IqSmsX kpdn-bm\n -`mj-bn¬ hyp¬]Øn kºm-Zn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.ß .p-kX v I .Im-e-L-´-am-bn-cp-∂p.h .£w Ah-Xc .ß .f .k . ]≈nIq-Zmi ]pkvX-I-߃ XpS-ßn-b-hbpw At±lw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p t t h / : p /w w .° .n¬ Zo¿L-Ime-ambn At±lw ka¿∏-W-_p≤ym A\p-jvTn-®p-h-cp∂ tkh-\-߃ {]iw-k\o-ba . C∂m-´nepw ioa-bnepw HutK≥ _mhm-sb-t∏mse kpdn-bm\n`mjm -]-fin-X-\mbn Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠n¬ thsd Bcpw D≠m-bn-´n-√. B `mcn® Npa-Xe .n-°bpw CXn\v F√m-hn[ ip`m-iw-kI .n¬ F\n-°X . BPo-h-\m¥w FgpØpw hmb\bpw ]T-\h . ae-¶c .nbpw I¿Ω-ti-jnbpw At±lw {]Z¿in-∏n-®n-´p-≠v.n¬ D’m-l] .˛¬ ]cn-ip-≤-\mb Koh-dpKokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm Imew sNbvXt.k .b . hn. Hcp sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm F∂ \ne-bnepw ImtXm-en-°m-sb∂ \ne-bnepw At±-lsØ F\n°v ASpØ-dn-bm≥ km[n-®n-´p-≠v. k n a ]mºm-°pS 5 ˛ 5. ]. Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv bqØv XpS-ßnb k`m-]c .n-∏n®p-sIm-≈p-∂p.p-ambn Ign-®p-Iq-´nb Hcp alm-\m-bn-cp∂p At±-lw.fpw t\cp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠v.I .k-an-Xn-bnse Hcw-Ka .ß .n-eI . 1927 apX¬ 1964 ¬ ae-¶ck`-bpsS ]c-am-≤y-£\mbn Ah-tcm-[n-°s . 1964.mb amΩ≥.W . Cßs\ hnhn-[ \ . Rm≥ CXp s]mXp-P\ .m w At±lw 1927 -˛¬ sa{Xm-\m-Ip-∂-Xn\v Hcp h¿jw apºmWv Rm≥ P\n-°p-∂-Xp-X-s∂.]-ÿm\w apX-emb Bflob kwL-S\ .ß . A\p-kvac . hn.t / l a tIm\m´v A{_lmw aev]m≥ . Imew sNbvX ]pWy-t«m-I-\mb tamdm≥ am¿ _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ {]Ya≥ _mhm-bpsS Poh-N-cn-{X-Øn¬ tN¿°m≥ Hc-\p-kvacWw FgpXn Ab-bv°-W-sa∂v {KŸ-I¿Øm-hmb sI. {]tXy-In®v Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv hnZym¿∞n{]ÿm-\w. 1943 apX¬ 1958 hsc-bp≈ At±-lØns‚ PohnXw Im¿ta-L-ßfpw tImfn-f-°-ßfpw I„-X-Ifpw sRcp°-ßfpw \nd-™-Xm-bn-cp-∂p.Æ . x do / v t Ct±lw ]sØm≥]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ Ah-km\w C∂m-´n¬ \n∂v e`n-°m-hp∂ hnZym-`ymkw ]q¿Øn-bm-°n-b-tijw ioa-°m-c≥ …o_msi-Ωm-is‚ IqsS ioa-cm-Py-ßf .ƒ. aebmf at\m-ca .ƒ hmbn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn°p-Ibpw ]pkvXI .ƒ hgn-bmbpw At±lw ae-¶c kpdn-bm\nk-`bv°v hne-tb-dnb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬Ins°m≠mWncn-°p-∂-Xv. ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm\n k`m kw_‘-amb hnhn[ cwK-ßf .

m-\hpw Xm≥ Pohn-®n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xs∂ Xs‚ ]n≥Kmanbv°p ssIam-dp-∂-Xv. Cu c≠p Imcy-ßfpw sNbvXpI-gn-™X .ƒ (Ip-cn-ipw-sXm´n IqZm-i. 4˛15 D≤-cn-°pw. x o At±-lØ -.a .b . A_vZ¬ aninlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ÿm\-Øn-t\m.ß . Koh-dp-Kokv kl-Zm-bpsS Hm¿Ω-Zn-h-ksØ {]m¿∞-\.n¬ At±lw C°mcyw Dds° {]Jym-]n-®p.ns‚ Zo¿L-ho-£-W-Øn-s‚bpw k`-bpsS `mhn-sb-∏-‰nbp≈ kpNn-¥n-X-am-bXpw ka-tbm-Nn-X-hp-amb {]mtbm-KnI _p≤n bpsSbpw Hcp aIp-tSm-Zm-lc . ]cpa-e -Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpsS Hm¿Ω-Zn-h-ksØ {]m¿∞-\) F∂n-hbpw At±lw cNn-®n-´p-≠v. Xs∂-bp-a-√.mkw shSn™p F∂p≈Xv Hm¿°p-tºmƒ At±-l-Øns‚ Zo¿L-Zr-„nbpw ssZh-\-S-Øn∏pw {]mtbm-Kn-I_ .«o-lm-bpsS Hm¿Ω-Zn-hk . ht tp :/ /w w .m-Ip-∂p-sh∂v kzbw t_m≤yam-bt. Xm≥ £oWn-X\ . At±lw ]t{Xm-kn¬ \n∂v H´pw Xmsg-b√ .ƒ.z-tØbpw kzmX-{¥y-tØbpw l\n°p-hm\pw ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns\ At¥ym-Jym-bpsS Hcp shdpw B⁄m\p-h¿Øn-bm-bn´p am‰p-hm-\pap≈ \o°-Øns‚ `mK-ambn am¿tØmΩm «olmbv°p ]´-Xz-an√ F∂p≈ ]m{Xn-b¿-°o-kns‚ 1970 se 203 -˛mw \º¿ Iev]\ h∂-t∏mƒ kzXth im¥\pw skua\pw Bbn ImWs∏-Sm-dp≈ am¿ HutK≥ _mhm knwl-sØ-t∏mse kS-Ip-S-s™-gpt∂‰p.∏mƒ _‘-s∏´ Bfp-Isf hnfn-®p.mb {]Xn-k‘n-bn¬ ImtXm-en-t°-‰p-ambn apt∂-dm≥ \ap°v km[n-®Xv aØmbn siΩmi (]n-∂oSv HutK≥ dºm≥) \n¬ \n∂p e`n® Adn-bn-∏p-Ifpw \n¿t±-i-ß-fp-amWv. x o / v t as‰mcp {][m-\-s∏´ kw`m-h\. apºv tIm\m´v amØ≥ aev]m-\®≥ ImtXm-en-°m. ""Fs∂-s°m≠v Fs¥-¶nepw km[n-°m-\p-s≠-¶n¬ Ct∏mƒ sNbvXp-sIm-≈Ww. hnizm-k-k-Xy-߃. AXv kzoI-cn-°-s∏´n√. ]t£ Imew At±-lsØ ho≠pw ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ sXmgp-Øn¬ sIm≠psN∂p \ndp-Øn. ac-Wm-\-¥c Ahÿ XpS-ßnb {KŸ-ßfpw At±-l-Øns‚ IrXn-I-fm-Wv. iht°m´ IqZmi XpS-ßn-bh.m-Wv.n[w At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv thZn-bn¬ Ccn-s°-Øs∂ At±lw {]kvXm-hn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.p-≤nbpw k`-bpsS `mhn-sb-∏‰. X¬^-ea .k . aØmbn siΩmi-\mbn ioa-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂ Ime-ØmWv A_vZ¬ an-inlm ]m{Xnb¿°o-kns‚ ^¿am≥ (Aw-Ko-Im-c-]-{Xw) Xp¿°n kp¬Øm≥ ]n≥hen-°p-∂Xpw A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ÿm\m-tcm-lWw \S-°p∂Xpw. ae-¶c .n-Sb . kp∂-l-tZm-kp-Iƒ. {]m¿∞\ ]pkvXI .° . Cu ap∂-dn-bn-∏ns‚ Kuchw a\- n-em-°nb Bfp-Iƒ AXns‚ apJ-hne-bv°p X ..ns‚ knwlm-k\ .W .mbn 1975 HtŒm-_¿ 27. A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ae-¶-c-bn¬ h∂v h´-t»-cn¬ Xncp-ta-\nsb apS-°nb kw`-hØ .Ø . At±lsØ ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn Ah-tcm-[n® Znhkw \S-∂-Xmb A\p-tamZ-\.ns‚ 41.n¬ ae-¶c .29 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ KZyhpw ]Zyhpw Bbn X¿÷na sNbvXn-´p-≠v.˛mw XobXn). Ah¿ bP-am-\\pw Zmk-\p-a√ F∂v A∂v A¿∞-i¶ .m w al k n a . At¥ym-Jym-bn¬ ]t{Xmkpw ae-¶c-bn¬ tXmΩmbpw k`-Iƒ ÿm]n-®p.psS kzbwio¿j-IX . F∂m¬ Cub-h-k-c-Øn¬ ae-¶-c-bn¬ ImtXm-en-t°‰v A\p-hZn®p Xcp-∂-Xn\v A_vZ¬ an-inlm A\p-Iq-e-nbmWv F∂pw -IqSn Adnbn-®p.knw-lm-k\w ae-¶c .k-tΩ-f\ . kphn-ti-j-Øm¬ ae-¶-c-k-`sb P\n-∏n® ]nXm-hmb tXmΩm-«olm 30 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ C≥Uy≥ k`-bpsS At∏m-kvtXm-e-\m-Wv.n-Iƒ \S-ØW . ]n∂oSv ]cn-X-]n®n´p Imcy-an√'' F∂p ]d-bp-I-bp-≠m-bn. At∏mƒ Xs∂ ]d-™p ImtXm-en-°m ÿm\hpw H´pw sshImsX ]n≥Km-ansb Gev]n-°p-hm-\p≈ \S-]S.n-bp≈ henb Icp-Xepw F{X al-Ø-c-am-bn-´p-≈-Xm-bn-cp∂p F∂p-≈Xv \njv {]bmkw a\- n-em-°p- t t h / : p /w w . a r a t r o d o h .` .n¬ kwPm-Xa . ae-¶ck` At±-lØ .k .mWv ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ÿm\hpw ImtXm-en-°m ÿ . / v t ae-¶c .n-√m-Øh . X° adp-]-Snbpw sImSp-Øp. am¿tØm-Ωm -«o-lm-bpsS knwlmk\w kw_-‘n®v At±lw FSpØ Dd® \ne-]m-Sm-Wv. IqSmsX a‰p {]tXyI IqZm-i. A∂v AhnsS \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp∂ k`m-cm-{„o-b-Ønse A¥¿ \mS-I-ßfpw AXp kw_-‘n-®p≈ bYm¿∞ ÿnXn-K-Xn-Ifpw DS-\pS≥ At±lw ChnsS Adn-bn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.b .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .m\w ]n≥Km-an°v ssIam-dn-s°m-≠p≈ Iev]\ sImSp-Øp.n-\p≈ ]›m-Øew ImWn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂X .m¬ ae-¶c .«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k-\-am-Wv.bn¬ ÿm]n-°W .n®p F¶nepw ]n∂oSv Xncn-™p-\n-∂p. ]´-Xz-Ønt\m bmsXmcp \yq\-Xbpw Cs√∂pw At±-l-Øns‚ IØp-I-fn¬ hy‡-am-bn-cp-∂p.a .sØ {]m¿∞-\.{I-aß .a∂p ImWn®v A_vZ¬ a-inlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\v Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-ap≠v (1908 [\p-amkw 30.n¬ aØmbn siΩmi≥ henb ]¶p hln-®n-´p-≠v.` am¿tØm-Ωm. BZysØ ImtXm-en-°m -hm-gvN-bn¬ At±lw (HutK≥ dºm≥) kl-Ic .n¬ ImtXm-en-t°‰v ÿm]n-°p-∂X .sa∂v.s .b . Npcp-°Ø . am¿tØm-Ωm.s∂ FSpØ-pw BZyambn ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm ÿ . am¿tØm-Ωm«o-lmsb kw_-‘n®v ]d-bp-tºmƒ At±lw 1 tImcn.m-Wv. ae-¶-c-k` XnI®pw kzbwio¿j-I-Xz-ap≈ Hcp kzX{¥ k`-bm-bncn-°-W-sa-∂p-≈-Xm-bn-cp∂p At±-l-Øns‚ B{K-lw. ]t{Xmkpw tXmΩmbpw Xpey-∑mcpw ktlm-Z-c-ß-fp-am-Wv. AXv Ncn-{X-Øn¬ A[n-I-sam∂pw ImWmØ Hcp al¬ kw`-ha . Cu Imcy߃ At±lw Dds° Nn¥n-°p-Ibpw ]d-bp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp∂p.˛mw XobXn ]n≥Km-ansb ImtXmen-°m-bmbn ÿm\mtcmlWw \S-Øn.˛mw Znhkw At±lw Cl-tem-Ih .

n¬ At±-lØ . .sc _lp-am-\n-°p-∂X . o . B kml-N-cy-Øn¬ F\n°p ]´w Xc-W-sa∂v \n¿t±-in®Xv HutK≥ _mhm-bmWv (Hu-tK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncp-ta-\n). 1943 apX¬ ImtXm-en-t°-‰n¬ tN¿∂p \n∂-Xns‚ ^e-ambn `{Zm-k\-Ønse sXmÆqdp iX-am\w ]≈n-Ifpw Xs∂ Dt]-£n-®p. F¶nepw At±-l-Øns‚ alma\-kvI-X-bpsS apºn¬ Rm≥ F∂pw BZ-cm-RvP-en-Iƒ A¿∏n-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p. 1962 ¬ At±-lsØ ImtXmen°m ÿm\-tØbv°v sXc-s™-Sp-Øt. hnhcw Adn™p sπbn≥ In´n h∂-t∏m-tgbv°pw I_dS°w Ign-™n-cp-∂p. At±-l-Øns‚ {]bmk Ime-L-´-ß-fn¬ aqhm-‰p-]pgbpw t t h / v t `mKy-kva-c-Wm¿l-\mb HutK≥ _m-hm-sb-∏‰n Cu sNdnb Ipdn∏v Fgp-Xp-hm≥ Fs∂ t{]cn-∏n®v AXn\v Ah-kc . amΩs‚ Cu ]cn-{i-asØ ssZhw A\p-{K-ln-°s´ F∂v Biw-kn-°pIbpw {]m¿∞n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.ns‚ A`n-{]m-b-tØmSv apgp-h-\mbn tbmPn-°m-sXbpw Ccp-∂n´p≠v. At±lw Imew sNøp∂ kµ¿`-Øn¬ Rm≥ hntZ-i-Øm-bn-cp-∂Xn-\m¬ B A¥y-bm{X-b-b-∏n¬ ]¶p-sIm-≈m≥ Ign-™n-√.Øm-s°bpw {]m¿∞-\bpw D]-hm-khpw FgpØpw hmb-\bpw am{Xw ]pkvX-I-߃ X¿÷a sNøp-∂-Xnepw ]pXnb {KŸ-߃ cNn°p-∂-Xnepw hym]r-X-\m-bn-cp-∂p. x do tPmk^v am¿ ]t°m-an-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm sk‚ v tXmakv Zbdm sh´n-°¬ apf-¥p-cpØn 28. \ΩpsS ]n≥Km-an.lm-Zc≥ ]qh-Øp-¶¬ sF∏v tXmakv IØ-\m¿ hfsc sNdp-∏-Øn¬Xs∂ acn-®p-t]m-bn. rt d o h ox . aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\ sI´n-S-Øn¬ (]-gb Hcp Po¿Æn® sI´n-Sw) 1958 hsc At±lw Ac-∏-´n-Wn-bnepw apgp-∏-´n-Wn-bnep-ambn Ign-™p-Iq-Snb kµ¿`-߃ C∂p≈ ]e¿°pw Adn-™p-IqSm. thW-sa∂p tXm∂nbm¬ X° ÿm\Øp th≠-Xp-t]m-ep≈ {]tbm-K-߃ \SØm\pw Adn-bmw. Ft∂mSv henb hm’-ey-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p. hcp-am\ am¿§-ß-fn-√msX Bbn. {]m¿∞-\-bnepw D]-hm-k-Ønepw ae-¶-c-bn¬ ]cpaeØn-cp-ta\n Ign-™m¬ C{X-tbsd D‰n-cp-∂n-´p≈ as‰mcp ]nXm-hns\ I≠p-In-´m≥ {]bm-k-am-Wv. / : p w Rm≥ _me-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ Imew apX¬ At±-l-Øn\v Fs∂ Adnbmw.si-Ωm-iv -]´w X∂Xpw Iio-im-]´w X∂Xpw At±lw Xs∂-bm-Wv. ] . AXv sNøp-Ibpw sNøp-am-bn-cp-∂p.t v/ a‰p-≈h .m w al k n a ao r a ]nd-hØpw At±-l-tØm-sSmØp Xma-kn-®n-´p-≠v.a .p-≠m-°n-Ø∂ sI.∏mƒ A∂sØ ImtXm-en-°m `mKy-kva-c-Wm¿l-\mb Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm C{]-Imcw ]d-bpI-bp-≠m-bn.∏´ Imcy-߃ hcp-tºmƒ hfsc Npgn-™n-dß . Nne kµ¿`-ßf . A°m-es .nepw BZ-cn-°p-∂X . Hcp k¶Sw Ah-ti-jn-°p∂p. F∂n-cp∂mepw At±lw ]nXr-\n-¿-hn-ti-j-ambn kvt\ln-°p-Ibpw Hcp ]p{Xs\-t∏mse IW-°m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p.p∂ _p≤nbpw Btem-N-\bpw Imgv-N-∏mSpw At±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ImtXm-en-°m-bm-bXn\v tijw ss{]h‰v sk{I-´dn Bbn-´pw. ""sIm≈mw.˛ 11 -˛ 1988 {][m-\s .m w al k n a o a ar h rt . I„-Im-eØp XI¿∂p-X-cn-∏-W-amImsX At±-lsØ \ne-\n¿Øn-bXpw i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øn-bXpw At\-IIm-e-߃sIm≠v cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-SpØ Xm]-k-Ncy am{Xam-Wv. ]n∂oSv F\n°v ]q¿Æ.31 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ hm≥ Ign-bpw.nepw At±lw as‰√m-hsc-°mfpw ap≥]-¥n-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kp∂-l-tZm-kns‚ Hm^okv sk{I-´dn Bbn´pw Xma-kn-®n-´p-≠v. Fs∂ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn hmgn-®Xpw Xncpta-\n-bmWv. BPo-hm-\¥w Hcp {_“-Nm-cnbpw Hcp Xm]-k\pw bYm¿∞ Zb-dm°m-c-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p.t£ hn\bw Aev]w IqSpX-em-sW∂p am{Xw. hn. /w 32 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ t t h / : p /w w .'' Hcp a\p-jy-t\bpw At±lw A]-am-\n-°p-Itbm Ip‰w ]d-bp-Itbm Bsc-∏-‰nbpw ]pO-ambn kwkm-cn-°p-Itbm sNømdn-√m-bn-cp-∂p. Fs‚ ]nXr-kt.

k .m w AtXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-k-∑m¿ ae-¶-c-bn¬ w GsX√mw hn[-Øw n-emWp Ign™ \mep \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ°n-S-bn¬ {]iv\/ ߃ kr„n-®-s/X∂ Ncn{XkXyw icn°p a\- n-em-°m≥ Cu hnj-b: ]T\w \S-Ønb I≠-\m-Sv CS-hI.ß .m-cy-ß- / v t fnepw CS.Ø n¬ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v ]pe-e¿Øn-hc .p-amb sNdp]p-kvXI .b . F∂m¬ t]m¿´p-Ko-kp-Im-cp-am-bp-≠mb kmwkvIm-cn-I.n¬ ASn-ÿm\ acymZ-Ifpw A®-S-°hpw At¥ymJym knwlm-k\w ]men-°m-dn-√.m°n.ß ƒ kr„n.p-≈p. x o 34 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ / v t .p-∂Xv h¿§o-b-hpw -˛ -hn-th-N-\m-]-chp-amb A[o-i-Xz-`mh-amWv. _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv c≠m-a≥ ImtXm-en-°m_mhmsb kzoI-cn-®Xpw Ah-km\w ImtXm-en°m Bb-t∏mƒ am¿tØmΩm-bpsS knwlm-k\ .Ø .° p∂ A\m.k .c .nbn¬ H∂p a .]-Za .fpw B{i-aß .p.n-®n-√.Ø . -tXm-akv am¿ AØm-\m-tkym-kv ae. ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v CS-s]-´n-√m-bn-cps∂-¶n¬ Cu B`y-¥c Ielw Xms\ ian-°p-∂X . \ap°v \oXn e`n-°pI {]bm-ka .ß .mw.h . al k n a a r a t r o d o h .n-√mØ DW¿∆p-≈-h-\mb B Imh¬`Ss‚ ˛ A√ Imh¬ amem-J-bpsS ˛ H≥]Xp ZiIw \o≠p-\n∂ AXy¥w {]tNm-Z\ .Xm-akv Øn¬ Bg-apmb t \m-tkym-kns‚ ""hgn-hn´ CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ {]iv\w kr„nam¿ AØmt °p∂p'' hF∂ {it≤-b-amb teJ\w At±lw 1999 HtŒm-_-dn¬ cNn® "" At¥ymIym ae-¶c _‘w: Hcp ]p\-ct.I .nepw CS-s]´v {]iv\ß . x o ae-¶-c-k` At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ Iogn-em-bn-cp-∂n-√.n\pw A∏-ktv Xm-enI ]Z-hn°pw FXn-cmbn D∂X-ÿm-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Db¿∂ i‡-amb \o°-ßsf XI¿ØXpw ].sf apXem-°n-s°m≠v At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v CXc k`-If .® .t cmKy {]h. F∂m¬ tIm]v‰n-°pIm¿ Cu `{Zm-k-\-ßfpw ÿm]-\-ßfpw ]nSn-s®SpØv kz¥-am-°n.n¬ CS-s]-´-tXmsS Cu kaq-l-Øns‚ hn`-P\w A\n-hmcyhpw imiz-X-hpam-bn.ƒ t\cn-´p-I≠v ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bm-bn-cp∂ h´t»-cn¬ Xncp-ta-\nsb [cn-∏n-®Xpw ImtXm-en-t°‰v ]p\-ÿm-]n-°m-\p≈ am¿§-߃ FgpXn Adn-bn-®Xpw 1912 -˛¬ \nc-W-Øp-h-®p.n-\m-bn-cp∂p km≤yX. t.` . Dd-°a . Xs‚ ]nXmhns‚ Kpcp-hmb I≠-\mSv CS-h-I-bpsS ]ueqkv am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkns\ H∂mw ImtXm-en-°-mbmbn am¿ A_vtZZv ainlm hmgn-®-t∏mƒ Xs‚ tae-≤y-£s‚ hne-°ns\ a\- m-£n-°p-Øp-sIm≠v \ncm-I-cn®Xpw k`m kam-[m-\-߃°pth≠n Bep-hm-bn¬h®p HutK≥ am¿ Xotam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm \S-Ønb B≤ym-flnI cwKsØ AXnkml-kn-Ia .fpw a[y-iX . F¶nepw Cu CS-s]-S¬aqew am¿tØmΩm {InkvXym\n-Iƒ c≠p hn`m-K-ß-fm-bn-Øo¿∂p. t r o d o h .f . aq∂n¬c≠p -`mKw kpdn-bm-\n-°mcpw ]m{Xn-b¿t°-‰ns‚ CS-s]S¬ AwKo-Ic .n¬ At¥ym-Jy≥ ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v kr„n®p.ƒ kr„n® Ncn{X kw`-hß .v.s ]´v Ipg. F∂m¬ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v Chn-SsØ hnπh {Kq∏n\v ]n¥pW \evIn-sIm≠v am¿ {KotKm-dn-tbmkv A_vZp¬ Peo-ens\ Ctßm-´b . t t h / : p /w w .b p≈ _‘.]mse B`y-¥c Ie-lß .b p.mb A¥na{iaw ]cm-Pb .psS Imcy-Øn-se-∂t.v Ae-Ik v {¥nb ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰ns‚ Iogn-ep≈ tIm]v‰. B hnip≤ PohnX Xcw-KW .v . A∂sØ ae-¶ck`-bpsS `c-Wm-[n-Imcn-bm-bn-cp∂ tXmakv A¿°-Zn-bm-°≥ Xs‚ hn`m-KØ .psS B`y-¥c {]iv\Ø .∏ .p-If .f .W X At¥ymJym knwlm-k\w ]pe¿Ønhcp-∂p-≠. Hcp dºm-\m-bn-cp∂ ImeØv At¥ym-Iy-bnse ÿnXn-hn-hc .¶ .s .psS tUm.˛.mb Pohn-XØ .p-am-bp≈ CS-s]-Se .ß . a‰p k`-If .\z-jWw'' F∂ ]T\m¿lhpw Nnt¥m-±o-]I .33 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ hgn-hn´ CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ {]iv\w kr„n°p∂p ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ae¶-c-k-`-bnse ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ bYm¿∞ Ncn-{X -]-›m-Øew Adn-bm-hp∂h¿°p am{Xta HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm Xs‚ \nkvX-{µamb {]h¿Ø\-ß-fn-eqsS ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S-\mb kw`h IY a\- n-em-Ip-Ib .p-≈X .v k`m _‘-Ønse Cu IS-∂p-I-b-‰-amWv ae-¶-c -˛ -At-¥ymJym kulr-Z-Øn\pw XI¿®-bp≠m-°p∂ as‰mcp hkvXp-X. sNbvX ]m]-߃ Igp-In-°f . Cu A\-[n-IrX CS-s]-S¬ Zo¿L-Ime i{X-pXbv° .m-Wv.` . ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS A`y-¥c {]iv\-Øn¬ CS-s]-Sm≥ Ah¿ Bcpw Xømdm-bn√.nIv k`-bpsS AXn¿Øn-°p-≈n¬ `{Zm-k\ .b . ae-¶ck`-bp-ambn am{X-a√ Cu {]iv\a .ns‚ khn-ti-jXIfn-te°p \ap°v H∂p ItÆm-Sn°mw.A-[n-Imc hnjb-ß-fnse kwL¿j-ß-fn¬.p-ßn-°p-fn°mw.a m.p-≠. am¿tØmΩm {InkvXym-\n-If . HutK≥ _mhmsb ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S\ .n¬\n∂v (aq∂mw A≤ym-bw) D≤cn-°p-∂p: tUm.b. ae¶-cb .psS B`y-¥c .I .ns‚ \ne-\n-ev∏n\mbn F√m ]uckvXy ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp-am-tcmSpw klmbw A`y¿∞n®p.m w al k n a a r a ae-¶c .∏-´Xpw XpS¿∂v 1942 ¬ aqhm‰p-]pg h®p ].{.

C°m-cy-ß-sf√mw k`-bpsS ImenI Ncn{Xw hni-I-e\w sNøp∂ GsXm-cmƒ°pw hy‡-am-Ip∂ kXy-ß-fm-Wv. ]p\¿Nn¥-bn-√mØ Cu \S-]Sn ae¶ck`sb ]nf¿∏n-se-Øn-®p. v . Iq\≥Ipcniv kXy-Øn-\p-tijw ae-¶ck`-bnep-≠mb {][m\ ]nf¿∏v am¿tØm-Ωm-k`. 3. t\cn-´p≈ `c-WØ . CXn\v am¿ Znh-∂m-tkymkv hgn-s∏Smb¿°okv _mhm/Bh/ ]≈n-°m¿ sNdpØp \n¬°p-Ibpw sNbvX-t∏mƒ Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw:Nne kzm`m-hnItp\oXn-t]mepw IW-°n-se-Sp-°msX At±-lsØ apS-°n. Ah-bn¬ {]Xn-k-‘n-Iƒ kr„n® Nne-Xpam{Xw ]cm-a¿in-°p-∂p.m-cp-am-bp-≠mb a tIkn¬ tdmb¬ tImSXn hn[n {]Imcw At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o. /w w 1.mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ A¥y-]m-ZØ .b .y-amb Cu CS-s]-S¬ a[y-]q¿∆-tZ-iØv Ccp-k` .psS cq]-h¬°-cW .mbpw AXoX-ambpw {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. . A∂v "ImtXm-en- .b . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ht _mhm-bpsS Cu \S-]Sn kr„n® `n∂X k`-bn¬ Gsd°mew \ne-\n-∂p.n-`m-Kß . \ho-Ic.n≥Iognemb tijw Cu k`-bn¬ ] .° .n®v A¿Ωo-\n-b≥ ImtXm-en-t°m-kmbn kzoIcn-®p.n-t\mSv kl-Ic .ƒ°v cq]w sImSp-°p-∂X . ae-¶ck`-bpsS `c-W-Øn¬ Bh-iy-s∏-Sm-sXbpw hyh-ÿm-]n-X-a√m-sXbpw At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v \S-Ønb CS-s]-Se . h rt o . t t h / : p 2.m-°p∂ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°-‰ns‚ Cu {]h-WX k`m¥c _‘-߃°v hfsc lm\n-I-c-am-Wv. F∂m¬ P\-߃ At±-lsØ Xnc-kvI-cn-®-Xn-\m¬ ]≤Xn s]mfn-™p.n¬ I¬Zmb kpdn-bm-\n.ØmsS D≠m-b-Xm-Wv. bm-t°m_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm A¿ta-\n-b≥ ImtXm-en-t°m-kns‚ Iogn¬ e_-t\m-\n¬ At±-lsØ FXn¿°p∂ Hcp {Kq∏n-\p-th≠n Hcp ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ hmgn-®p.m-{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bpsS CS-s]-S¬ ]e-X-c-Øn-em-Wv.mb `hn-jy-Øp-°ƒ Df.m w al k n a ae-¶c .fpw AwKo-Ic . At±lw k`m-`c . At¥ymJym ]m{Xnb¿t°-‰ns‚ A\m-hi .m-Wv.mbn CS-s]´v A[n-Im-ckoa hnkvXr-Xa . am¿ Xntam-Øntbmkv imeoØ F∂ t]cn¬ ta¬]-´-°m-c-\mbn hmgn®v Cdm-°n¬ I¬Zmb `{Zm-k-\-Øn¬ _Z¬ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-mbmbn Ah-tcm-[n®p. AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ ].bv°pw hgn-sbm-cp-°n. 1912 ˛.mA[n-Im-c-߃ H∂p-an-√. 36 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 5.a .t.` 17 ˛.a .n®v \njv]£ .mbn sa{Xmw `uXn-Im-[n-Im-c-߃ AwKo-I-cn-∏n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ DS-º-Sn-Iƒ ]m{Xnw iy-s∏-´p. CtXm-sS-bmWv Cu ioiva Ah-km-\n-®-Xv.k`bnse Hcp sshZnIs\ bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm. tImS-Xn-hn-[n-Iƒ hnK-Wn-®p-sIm≠v \nb-aØ . k`-bnse Akw-Xr]vX hn`m-KsØ Iq´p-]n-Sn®v B`y-¥c {]iv\߃ aq¿On-°p-hm-\p≈ kml-Ncyw kr„n-°p-∂p.m-b.n\v hncp-≤a . Cu \S-]Sn A¿tΩ-\n-b≥ k`-bn¬ Ac \q‰m-≠p-Im-esØ A¥-On-{ZØn\pw hn`-‡m-hÿ .ƒ°v {ian-°p∂p.p-Iƒ°v DZml-c-W-߃ \nc-h[nbmWv. CXns\ FXn¿Ø hn`m-K-Øns‚ XmXv]cyw am{Xw ]cn-KW .k . Adn-thm. AXn-\p-Im-cWw aXyqkv am¿ AØm-\m-kn-tbm-kns\ hmgn-®Xpw ]n∂oSv ]pd-Øm-°n-b-Xp-am-Wv.t / 1960 IfpsS Bcw-`Ø .n-®p-sIm≠v ae-¶c . {Iahncp-≤-amb Cu hmgn-°¬ BZyw apX¬t° {]iv\-߃ kr„n-°m≥ XpS-ßn.n¬ ImtXmen-t°‰v ÿm]n-®p.W Zqc-hym-]I .n\v km[yX \¬Ip∂ {]ÿm-\ß . F∂m¬ B kn\v ae-¶ck`-bn¬ `uXnI w t∏m-eo-Øm-bn¬ \n∂pw ]≈n-If.n¬ \n∂pw hn[n°v hn]-co-Xa . IqSm-sX-bm-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ At¥ymJym ]m{Xnb¿°o-kns‚ `c-WØ . C°mcyw kqNn-∏n-°p∂-Xn-\m-Wv ta¬]-d™ kw`-h-߃ D≤-cn-®-Xv. 4. A¿tΩ-\n-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okm-bn-cp∂ hkvI≥ Imew sNbvX-t∏mƒ _Z¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ Ccp h .At\z-jWw \S-Øp-Itbm At±-l-tØmSv hni-Zo-I-cWw tNmZn-°p-Itbm sNømsX At±-l-Øns\-Xnsc in£m-\-S-]Sn FSp-Øp.Ww \n¿∆-ln-®n-cp∂ ImeØv AXn\p≈ A`y¿∞\ ChnsS \n∂v ka¿∏n-®n-cp-∂X . At±-lsØ hmgn-®Xv A∂sØ ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS A`y¿∞-\tbm. x do / v t o a r t∏m-eoØm Bbn-cp∂ Cu \q‰m-≠ns‚ Bcw-`-Øn¬ ae-¶c a sa{Xmh´t»-cn¬ am¿ Znh-∂m-tkymkv sa{Xmk t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS t]cn¬ n A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm \S-]Sn ssIs°m-≠Xpw k`-bn¬ lahm-°n.n¬ A[n-Imc t]m°‰p-Iƒ \ne-\n¿Øp-hm≥ bXv\n-°p-∂p. ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS `c-W-Øn¬ Bh-iy-s∏-Sm-sXbpw hyhÿ IqSmsXbpw CS-s]-Sp-∂p. `{Zmk\w \„-s∏´ At±lw Ct∏mƒ bqtdm-∏n¬ Hcp s]t{Smƒ _¶n¬ tPmen sNbvXv D]-Po-h\w tXSp-∂p! ao r a rt d o h ox Ah-kcw e`n-°p∂nSsØ√mw A\-[n-Ir-Xa .¬ A_vZp¬avinlm ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm ae¶-cb .I-sfbpw \o≠ Ime-tØbv°v i{Xp-X-bn-em-°n. A\-[n-Ir-X-ambpw Btem-N-\-bn-√m-sXbpw k`m-t\-Xr-Xz-Øn\v hne°pw apS°pw \S-Øn-s°m≠v _Z¬ kwhn-[m-\ß .35 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Im-c-W-am-bn.

y-°m-cpambn Iq´p-tN¿∂m-bn-cp∂p F∂-Xm-Wv. ae-¶c k`sb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw kµ¿`-h-im¬ CXp KpW-I-c-ambn-Øo¿s∂-¶nepw Ncn-{X-]c . Xocp-am-\s . A¶-amen `{Zm-k\ `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS AwKoIm-cØ . CØcw \S-]-Sn-Iƒ°v h√ \nb-a-km-[p-X-bpapt≠m F∂Xv Hcp {]iv\-ta-b-√.psS kzm[o-\Ø . `cWkanXn tbmK-ß-fpw.a-Sp-°e . ev°p-tºmƒ Xs∂ kp∂-l-tZmkv IqS-epw.k . ht tp :/ /w w .Ø . At∏m-tg°v hmgn-°-s∏-Sp∂-Xn¬ \n∂p ]n∑m-dm≥ t{ijvT ImtXm-en°m _mhmbv°v km[n-°pam-bn-cp-∂n-√. t{ijvT ImtXm-en°m Xm≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\v Fgp-Xns°m-Sp-t°≠n h∂ hnt[b]{XsØ ]n∂oSv hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂Xv C{]Im-c-am-Wv. Cu A\-[n-IrX `cW ssII-S-Ø-ep-I-sf√mw ]m{Xn-b¿°okv \S-Øn-bn-cp-∂Xv Chn-SpsØ ÿm]nX XmXv]c .n-emWv ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v C°m-ea . tImSXn hne-°p-Iƒ \ne-\n- t r o d o h .pw.n-If . F∂m¬ `c-WØ . ]me-°p-∂Øv Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS ÿm\e_v[n-bn¬ Akw-Xr-]vX-cm-b-h¿ At±-lsØ ]pd-Øm-°m≥ Bcw-`n® {ia-Øn\v At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v ]n¥pW \evInb-XmWv A∂sØ k`m ]nf¿∏n\v aqe-Im-cW . tbmPn® k`-bn¬ 1970 Ifn-epw.n-bm-bn-cp-∂p.mcpw AXn-s\-Xnsc \oßn-bXpw kp∂-lt. k`m hn`-P-\-Øn\v apºv CXv kw`-hn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬ Hcp]t£ ae-¶c k`-bnse I£n hg°v D≠m-Ipambn-cp-∂n-√. Aßs\ k`m hn`-P\w kw`-hn-®-t∏mƒ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbv°v btY„w ae-¶-c-bn¬ CSs]-Sp-∂-Xn-\p≈ Ah-kcw e`n-®p. 1964 -˛se k`m kam-[m-\-Øn¬ Akw-Xr-]vX-cm-b-h-cp-ambn Iq´p-]n-Sn®v 1975 ˛¬ ].m w al k n a a r a ae-¶c .m-hm-sb-s°m≠v H∏n-Sp-hn-®p. ]me-°p-∂Øv aXyqkv am¿ AØm-\m-kn-tbm-kns‚ Ime-Øpw. CØcw CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ Zp -l-am-b-t∏m-gmWv 1993 ¬ Chn-sS-bp≈ `qcn]£w sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø∑ . t{ijvT ImtXm-en°m _mhm-bpsS `c-W-Im-ew apgp-h-\nepw ChnsS ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v \nc-¥-c-ambn A\-[n-Ir-X-ambn CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ \S-Øn-bX . Cu hnhcw t\csØ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm [cn-∏n-®p-t]m-ep-an-√. 1972 ¬ am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS ]utcm-lnXyw t]mepw \ntj-[n®p-sIm≠v bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm ae-¶-c-k-`bv°v I¬]\ Ab-®Xpw k`-bnse ]nf¿∏v io{Lhpw ]q¿Æ-hp-am-°p-hm≥ Imc-Wa .∏-´X .p-sa√mw XIr-Xn-bmbn \S-°p-∂X . t t h / : p /w w .n¬ \n∂p ]pd-Øm-bt∏mƒ ae-¶c k`-bn¬ X\n°v ]n¥pW e`n-°m\pw A_vZp≈m ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm-tbmSv ]I Xo¿°m\pw ]‰nb Ah-k-c-ambn I≠mWv ae¶-c-bn¬ ImtXm-en-t°‰v ÿm]n-°p-hm≥ At±lw k∂-≤-\m-b-Xv. bP-am-\\v Hc-Sna Fgp-Xn-s°m-SpØ hnt[-b] .mbn Dt±-iy-ip≤n tNmZyw sNø-s∏-Sm-hp∂ ae-¶c k`m `c-W-Ønse ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ssII-S-Ø-em-bn-cp-∂p CXpw.w. "C{X-am{Xw A]-am-\-I-chpw A¥- n-√m-Ø-Xp-amb Hcp DSºSn Fgp-Xn-s°m-SpØv Bcpw Hcn-SØpw ÿm\-ta-‰n-´p-≠m-bn-cn-°p-Ibn-√.v°cn-°s .sb kw_-‘n® Imcy-߃ Chn-SpsØ A[n-IrX t\XrXz-hp-ambn Btem-Nn-®√. ae-¶-c-bn¬ t{ijvT ImtXm-en-°m-t]mepw Adn-bmsX ae-_m¿ `{Zm-k\ .a . h´-t»-cn¬ Xncp-ta-\n°v FXnsc D≠m-bn-cp∂ tIm°-kn\v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bpsS ta¬ kΩ¿±w sNep-Øm≥ km[n-®Xv At±-l-Øns‚ apS-°n¬ Iem-in-®p. hmgvNbv°p Xte cm{Xn-bn¬ BWnXv ]pd-sØ-Sp-Ø-Xv.37 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 38 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ t°‰v ÿm]n-°p-hm≥ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-h≥ i]n-°-s∏-´-h≥' F∂v Iev]n® hy‡n-bmWv At±-lw.m-°p-∂X .X-am-bn-cp∂p' (1989 sk]vXw-_d.n\v ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ A[n-Im-c-߃ sh´n-®p-cp-°n.Zmkv sk{I-´dnsb am‰n {]Xn-jvTn-®-Xp-sa-√mw.n¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbv°v Fgp-Xnb IØn¬ \n∂v).n\v F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-lt.p-sIm-≠mWv k`-bnse B`y-¥c {]iv\ß .ns‚ `c- .Xbpw {]h¿Øn-®p-h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. x o / v t c≠m-asØ Imcyw. h´t»-cn¬ am¿ Znh-∂m-kn-tbm-kns‚ `c-WØ . 1975 ¬ ChnsS _Z¬ sslcm¿°n D≠m-°n-bt.`. AXv i¬aqk Bbn-cp-∂n-√. {]Xyp-X.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .∏mƒ IS-∂p-Ib .n\v At±lw A\paXn \¬In-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ImtXm-en°m hmgvN-bn¬ ChnsS \n∂v FgpXn Xøm-dm°n sIm≠p-t]m-bn-cp∂ i¬aqk ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm hmbn®pt\m°p-I-t]mepw sNømsX ImtXm-en-°mbv°v A[n-Im-csam∂pw \¬ImØ H∂n¬ t{ijvT_ .n-epw.{. x o / v t kJm {]Y-a≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bm-Is´ Chn-SsØ B`y¥c Imcy-ß-fn¬ \nc-¥cw CS-s]-´p-h-cp-∂p. ÿm\-ta‰ Imew apX¬ Xs∂ t{ijvT ImtXm-en°m ]utemkv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm-bpsS \ndpIbv°p apI-fn¬ apS-°ns‚ Iq¿Ø JUvKw t\¿Ø \qen¬ Xqßn-°nS-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.‰w Ffp-∏a .X . ae-¶c k`-bpsS kzmX-{¥y-Øn-t∑-ep≈ A\-[n-Ir-X-amb Itø-‰-am-bncp∂p {]kvXpX tbmK-Ønse Hmtcm \S-]-Snbpw Xocp-am-\-hpw.Zmkpw t{ijvT ImtXm-en-°mbpw FXn¿Øn´pw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp-_mhm AwKo-Imcw \evIn. 1975 ¬ ImtXm-en-°msb hmgn-®t∏mƒ {]Jym]n® A[n-Im-c-߃ t]mepw 1981 se kp∂-l-tZmkv Ih¿® sNbvXp. B t\Xr-Xz-Øn-s\-Xn-sc-bp≈ kzm¿∞-aX . HutK≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhmsb apS-°n.{.ƒ C{Xbpw cq£am-bXpw ]nf¿∏v imiz-Xh . 1980 ¬ bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xnb¿°okpw 1989 ¬ kJm {]Y-a≥ _mhmbpw t{ijvT ImtXm-en°m _mhmsb apS-°p-hm≥ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Bcw-`n-s®-¶nepw ae-¶-c-bnse Hcp `mKw i‡-ambn FXn¿Ø-Xn-\m¬ {]tbm-K-Øn-em-bn-s√∂p am{Xw.m-°nb A\-[n-IrX \S-]S.

tlmW-hm¿ anj≥.n¬ At¥ymJym knwlmk-\Ø . kmap-h¬ ^ne-Ivkn-t\mkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS Ime-ti-jw -B-WnXv shfn-®Øv h∂-Xv.m w al k n a .n¬ i{Xp-Xbpw hntZz-jhpw hyhlm-c-ßfpw \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. _p≤nbpw.\ . CXp aqew `n∂X-bn¬ \in-°p-∂Xv ]nXm-hn-t\mSp IqSn \n¬°p∂ hn`m-K-am-sW∂v ]nt∂m´p t\m°n-bm¬ a\- n-em-Ipw.`.n-°p-hm≥ k`m kvt\ln-Iƒ {i≤n°m-ØXv kwL¿jw XpS-cm≥ Imc-W-am-°p-∂p. Pohn-Xh .m-b F√m tImS-Xn-hn-[n-Ifpw adIq-SmsX \ntj-[n-®p-sIm-≠p≈Xmbn-cp-∂p. k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .b .Ww Is≠-Øp-hm≥ Fßs\ Ignbpw? t t h / : p /w w . 1981 se Za-kvt°mkv kp∂-lt.p-sa√mw C∂pw XpS¿∂p hcp-∂p.b . ae-¶c k`-bp-ambn \nc-¥c .˛se kp{]ow-tIm-SXn hn[n ssZh-lnX-Øns‚ {]Xn-^e . F∂n´pw bmsXmcp a\x-km-£nbpw \nba _lp-am-\-hp-an-√msX ae-¶ck`m `c-WØ .mbn Cu {]ÿm-\ß . ka-bh .n-\mWv ]nXmhv k`m `cWLS-\{]-Imcw am{Xta ae-¶c .` .n-\p≈-X.√ .m-\p≈ {]mtbm-KnI am¿§w Is≠-ØmsX {]iv\w Xocm≥ {]bm-k-am-Wv.n¬ \oXo-Ic .ƒ C√m-Xm-°m≥ euInI tImS-Xn°v A[n-Im-ca . Cu kao-]\w ae-¶c k`sb Fs∂∂pw Ie-l-cw-K-am-°n-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p.y-°m¿°v Ah-cpsS Dt±iye£y߃ t\Sp-∂X . \ne-hn-en-cn-°p∂ t\XrXzsØ A´n-a-dn®v hnL-SnX {Kq∏ns\ X¬ÿm-\Øv {]Xn-jvTn®v Hcp {]Xn-kw-hn-[m-\Ø .n¬ CS-s]-Sp-Ib .n¬ A`bw tXSpw.ø .fpw ImWn-°p∂ hy{K-Xbpw AXn\v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm \¬Ip∂ AwKo-Im-chpw {]tXyI ]cn-K-W-\-bp-amWv.ƒ ]cn-Wa .y-ßfpw k`m kw_-‘a .`m `c-WØ .n-\p≈ kt¶-Xß . {]kvXpX hn[n AXn-Po-hn-°m-\mWv DS-º-Sn-Iƒ kºm-Zn°p-hm-\p≈ {iaw Bcw-`n-®X . Xß-fpsS ÿm]nX Xmev]cy-߃ kwc-£n-°p-hm≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂h . o a ar h rt o . k`-bnse {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn-e√ ]m-{Xn-b¿-t°-‰ns‚ XmXv]cyw F∂-Xm-Wv.p-sa√mw ]mgm-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. hmgn-°¬ \S-Øp-Ibpw. CXn-s\√mw th≠n k`mw-K-ß-fpsS ]Whpw. Xs‚ Ah-Im-iß .n-Iƒ FSp-°p-Ib . ]uckvXy kphntij kamPw. ]≈n-°m-sc-t∏mepw Adn-bn°msX BWn-Xn\v cq]w \¬In-bn-cp-∂-Xv. Npcp°n∏d-™m¬ ÿm]nX XmXv]c .Zmkv ae-¶c . aq∂m-asØ hkvXpX.n-s√∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bpsS CXn-t\m-Sp≈ {]Xn-I-c-Ww.`.pw. ImcWw. A\-`n-e-j-Wob-amb ssII-SØ .a .a .bn¬ A®-S° . CX\p-hZ.m-f¬ \S-Ønb Ncn-{X-amWv ae-¶c .fpw ÿm]-\ß . t t h / : p /w w .Iaw D≠m-bn- 40 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ cp-∂n´pw AXn\p _Z-embn ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰ns‚ t\cn-´p≈ `c-W-Øn≥ Iogn¬ XpS-cp-∂X .mb Dc-ke . GXm-bmepw hnL-Sn-X-cp-am-bp≈ Iq´p-sI-´n-eqsS `cW kwhn-[m-\sØ De-bv°p-Ibpw HXp-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ cm{„obX{¥w A\p-h¿Øn-°p-∂X .m-Wn-h.¿ Cu {]ÿm-\ß .f .ƒ ewLn®pw \oXnc-ln-X-ambpw knwlm-k\w ChnsS CS-s]-´p-sIm-≠m-Wn-cn-°p-∂-sX∂v hy‡-am-Ipw. x do / v t At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°-‰ns‚ ae-¶ck`m _‘-Øns‚ Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ hyh-ÿm-]n-Xa .k .n-°s .b . CXp-aqew D≠m-Ip∂ Hmtcm ]nf¿∏nepw Hmtcm hn`mKw knwlm-k-\-hp-ambp≈ _‘-Øn¬ \n∂v hn´-I-ep∂p. 1995.∏-Sp∂nStØmfw Imew ae-¶c .¬ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂X . Cu A[n-Im-c-tI-{µ-߃ \ne\n¿Øn Xs‚ CS-s]-S¬ km[y-Xbpw A[n-Im-c-km-∂n-≤yhpw ae-¶-cbnepw ]pdØpw XpS¿∂p-sIm≠p t]mIp-hm-\p≈ am¿§-am-WnXv.p-Iƒ°v ]m{Xn-b¿t°-‰n\v Ahkcw \¬Ip∂ ÿm]-\ß .nse kIe ]mc-ºc .p-aqew ae-¶c .n¬ sIm≠p-hc .k .f .t / \mem-a-Xmbn.f .n-eqsS Acm-PI . knwlm-k-\-∏-≈n-Iƒ. hnizm-k-Øns‚ t]cv ]d™v P\-ßsf h©n-°p∂ Cu Ip_p-≤n-IfpsS Im]Syw Xncn-®d . Ah C°q-´¿°v kwc-£-Whpw t{]m’m-l-\hpw \¬Ipw. in£m \S-]S.mWv. hntZ-i -a-ebmfn ]≈n-Iƒ F∂n-hsb√mw C°q-´-Øn¬ s]Sp-∂-h-bm-Wv.n-°pw.v ta¬ kqNn-∏n-®n-´p≈ Hmtcm CS-s]-Sepw Ign-™t.k .m-sW∂v `wKn-hm°v ]d-s™-¶nepw A∂p apX¬ B hn[n ewLn®v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ae-¶-c-k-`m-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ CS-s]-´psIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.39 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ W-L-S\ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv AwKo-I-cn-®p.pw. C¥y≥ \nba hyh-ÿtbmSpw ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-tØmSpw Ah⁄ ]pe¿Øns°m≠p t]mepw ChnsS CS-s]-Sp-∂X .hpw kam-[m\hpw \ne-\n¿ØpI {]bm-ka . Ch-sb-°qSn ae-¶c k`-bpsS `cW kwhn-[m-\Ø .v. tdmb¬ tImSXn hn[n apX¬ `uXn-Im-[n-Imcw ]m{Xnb¿t°-‰n-\n-√.n¬ CS-s]-Smhq F∂v \njvI¿jn®-Xv.Xzw kr„n®v Hmtcm ImeØpw A[nIm-c° .m w al Ah-km-\sØ hnjbw: ChnsS Hcp AwKo-IrX `c-W{.∏mƒ Cu kzm¿∞ kvXpXn-]m-SI {Kq∏v sNdp-Xmbn h∂n-´p-s≠-¶nepw Ah¿ IqSp-X¬Iq-Sp-X¬ auenIhmZn-Ifpw D{K-hm-Zn-I-fp-ambn amdn-s°m-≠n-cn°p-I-bm-Wv. `mc-X-Ønse k`m kw_-‘-amb tImS-Xn-hn-[n-Iƒ AwKo-I-cn-°p-hm≥ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿t°‰v Hcn-°epw Xøm-dm-bn´n√ F∂-Xm-Wv.n\v Nne {]ÿm-\ß .n™v {]Xn-Ic .k .m-sXbpw \nb-aß .

41 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 42 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 1 IpSpw-_hpw _mey-Im-ehpw bm-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Ipcym-t°m-kv.m-fp-amb tUm. sF°-c-th-en¬.mb Xp-cp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw_-Øns‚ ]Xn-aq∂v imJ-I-fn¬ H∂mb tN´m-Ip-f-Øn≥Ic Xpcp-Ønbn¬ A{_lmw IØ-\m-cp-tSbpw ]pØ≥Ipcn-inse ]pcm-X\ IpSpw_-amb hmfn-tb¬ aØm-bn-bpsS ]p{Xn A∂-Ωb . ISpwK-a-wK-ew.v ]pcm-X\ {]i-kX v a .mKw At±-lØ . ss]en F∂o c≠p a°ƒ D≠mbn-cp-∂p. t t h / : p /w w . kn. Icn-ßm-®n-d.mb Hcp Ipdn-∏n¬ Cßs\ ]d-bp-∂p: ]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm 1884 Pq¨ 26. ae-¶c.\ . CXn¬ ss]en-bpsS \mev B¨a-°-fn¬ aqØ-bm-fm-bn-cp∂p _mhm-bpsS hµy ]nXmhv A{_lmw IØ-\m¿.\m-a-߃ D≠m-bXv. kp¬Øm≥ _tØ-cn. x o / v t HutK≥ _mhm ÿm]n® hS-Ic skbv‚ v tPm¨kv sslkvIqfnse ]q¿∆ hnZym¿∞nbpw C≥Uy-bpsS Bcm-≤y-\p-amb cmjv{S-]Xn sI.∏m-gmWv Bfp-Iƒ XΩn-ep-≈ _‘w IqSp-X¬ hy‡-am-Ip-∂-Xn\pw ASpØv CS-]-g-Ip-∂-Xn\pw ho≠pw CS- k n a a r a t r o d o h .mb cmjv{S-]X .n. GXm\pw h¿j-߃°v apºv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_t. C∂sØ ate-°p-cniv Zbdm ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ 15 G°¿ ÿew k`bv°v kw`m-h\ \¬In-bXv _mhmbpsS amXr-Ip-Spw-_-am-Wv.m-°nb Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂masØ ]p{X≥ C´o-c-bpsS k¥Xn ]c-º-c-Iƒ tN´m-Ip-f-Øn≥Ic Xpcp-Øn-bn¬F∂dnbs∏-Sp-∂p. C´o-cbv°v h¿°n. ]≈n-tb-en-°-c.Xs∂ amdn-t∏mb Hcp ÿnXnhnti-ja . Fkv. x o / v t Xpcp-Øn-bn¬.'' Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-Øns‚ XpS°w Nmh-°mSv Bbn-cp-s∂∂v a\- n-em-°p-∂p. Xpcp-Øn-∏n≈n ]≈n-bpsS sX°p-`m-KØ . tNem-Sv. A{_lmw IØ-\mcpsS ktlm-Z-c≥ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ hnØsb s\Sp-ºm-t»cn hb-en-∏d-ºn¬ tXmam hnhm-lw -sN-bvXp. s]cp-ºm-hq¿. B¿. Xr°-f-Øq¿ XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fnepw IqSmsX tIf-Iw.v. hnhn[ imJ-I-fn¬s∏-Sp-∂-h¿ Xncp-hm-¶pfw. Bb-Øp-IpSn. HmtW-cn¬. tImX-aw-Kew. _mhm kaq-l-Øn\p th≠n sNbvXn-´p≈ tkh-\-ßsfbpw \∂mbn Adn-bp∂ BfmWv {]nb-¶c . Cu teJI≥ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw Xøm-dm-°nbt∏mƒ cmjv{S-]Xn kkvt\lw Ab®pX∂ ktµiØns‚ Xmsg-t®-¿°p∂ {]k-‡`.˛mw Xob-Xn-bmWv `qPm-X\ . Hcp ]nXmt hns‚ h \mep.ns‚ Ncn{Xw Xøm-dm-°nb tImX-aw-Kew am¿ AØ-t\-jykv tImfPv ap≥ {]n≥kn∏¬ Sn. F.]p-{X\m-bn-´mWv "aØmbn' F∂ Ip´n P\n-®Xv.p-tSbpw ZznXo-b. Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw_-Øns‚ thß-t»-cn¬ imJ-bn¬s∏Sp-∂-XmWv tIcf Kh-s◊‚ v sk{I-´dn kmP≥ ]o‰¿ sF. HmW-t»cn¬. XpcpØn sIm´n-t»-cn-°p-Sn. X´mw]pdw F∂n-h-bmWv a‰p imJIƒ. ]pev]≈n XpS-ßnb ae-_m¿ {]tZ-iß-fn-ep-amWv Xma-ka . ]pcm-X\ tcJ-I-fnepw ]q¿∆n-I-cp-tSbpw sshZn-I-cpsSbpw ih-°-√-d-I-fnepw Nmh-°mSv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ F∂mWv tcJ-s∏-SpØn-bn-´p-≈-Xv.m-°n-bn-´p-≈X . tImS-\mSv. thß-t»cn¬. dºm-s\∂ \ne-bn¬ apX¬ ]cn-N-b-ap≠m-bn-cp∂p. /w w .psS ap≥ t{]m˛-ssh-kN v m≥kedpw tIc-f-Øn¬ Ce-Iv{Sn-°¬ F≥Pn-\o-b-dnw-Kn¬ BZysØ tUmŒtd‰v t\Sn-bb . Bb-Øp-Ip-Sn. If-∏p-c. ]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ _mhm Imh¬]nXm-hm-bn-´p≈ IpSpw_-tbm-KØ . _mhm-bpsS aqØ ktlm-Zc .m-bX . {_“-]pcw XpS-ßnb ]Sn-™m-d≥ taJ-ebn-epw.ns‚ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_sØ∏‰n t\cn-´p≈ Adnhv hy‡am-°p-∂-XmWv.a-°-fpsS ]n≥XpS¿®-°m¿ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ tN´mIpf-Øn≥ Ic. \mcm-b-W\v _mhmsb. Ah-cpsS \mem-asØ ]p{X-\m-bncp∂p A¶-amen `{Zm-k\ .p≈ tN´m-Ipfw ]p©-bpsS Ic-bn¬ Xma-ka .nse \mem-asØ ImtXm-en°m Bbn-cp∂ ]. tIm´-∏Sn. Ic-∏n-≈n¬. ae-¶-c-k-`-bn¬ A™q-tdmfw ho´p-Imcpw Fd-Wm-Ipfw Pn√-bn¬ hf-sc -Iq-Sp-X¬ AwK-ß-fp≈ IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_w.m w al k n a a r a / ktlm-Z-c-: ∑m¿ hnhn-[ -ÿ-e-ß-fn-te°v amdn Xma-kn-®-t∏mƒ B p ÿe-ß-ftp-ambn _‘-s∏-´m-Wv imJm. s\Spw-]-d-ºn¬. am¿tØmΩm «olm sslµ-hsc {]tXy-In®v {_m“-W- .bmKw kwL-Sn-∏n-°s . shtßme. t r o d o h .n\v Bephm ˛ aq∂m¿ tdmUn¬ Ccn-tßm-ƒ `mKØv \n¿Ωn®n-´p≈ Hcp IpSpw-_-tbmK sk≥{S¬ IΩn‰n Hm^okpw lmfpw tI{µam°n IpSpw-_t. ss]en Ab®pX∂ B[n-Im-cn-Ia .Ø .≥ ss]enbpsS aI-\mWv sIm®n≥ k¿∆-Ie .{]-h¿Ø-\ß .m-im-eb .. ]n.ns‚ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm.∏-´t. Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d.b .p-≠m-bn. Xpcp-Øn-∏n≈n.bm-K. Fw.m w al "I am happy to know that the Thuruthiyil kudumbayogam is publishing the history of this family which has an old and well established tradition of priesthood and which is known for its many contributions to the composite culture of Kerala. HutK≥ {]Ya≥ _mhm-bpsS aqe Xd-hm-Smb Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_Ø .ƒ Nn´-bmbn \S∂psIm≠n-cn-°p∂p. sIm´n-t»-cn-°pSn F∂n-ßs\ Adn-b-s∏-Sm≥ XpSßn-b-t∏mƒ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ F∂p≈ IpSpw-_-t∏-cp.bm-bn-cp∂ Koh¿Kokv am¿ {KotKm-dn-tbmkv Xncp-ta-\n.

v C{X-am{Xw bmX-\I .f .p-am-bn-cp-∂ ]nXmhv A{_lmw IØ\m-cpsS kzm[o\w _mhm-bpsS sNdp-∏-Imew apX-ep≈ Nn¥-I-sfbpw {]h¿Ø-\ß .‚bpw .n¬ \n∂v XpcpØn C√-߃ Xriq¿ {]tZiØv tN‰p-]p-g.t / x°mcmbno Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-°m¿ ]pcm-X-\-Imew apX¬ Irjnd. ]-cn[nbn√mkXy-sØ.m-bn-cp∂p A{_lmw IØ-\m¿.\ .k .p-t]mse ]utcm-lnXy ]mcºc .≈n : p XpS-ßn-bh ÿm]n° p∂ X n\v XpcpØn IpSpw_ ° m¿ ap≥ssI FSpt t Øn-´p-≈ X mW v .w-Kew / skbv‚ vt]mƒkv B≥Uv skbv‚ v ]o‰¿ N¿®v. C∂pw IpSpw-_Øn¬ Ggp sshZn-I-cm-Wp-≈Xv.n¬ Npcp-°a .` apgp-hs .mbn F√m kXyhpw ]pd-Øp-hc .p-≠m-bt.m-bn-cp∂p sNdp∏-Øn¬ Xs∂.]-Xn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\pw hmb-\bpw ]T-\hpw ioe-am-°p-∂X .Xm-e° v m-en-Ia .`. sh≈m-‰-∂q¿ XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fn¬ Ct∏m-gp≠v..k .y\mb cm{„cp-∂p. w-°m¿ Zo¿L-Imew Ipdp-∏pw-]Sn ]≈n-bn¬ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_ w ssI°m-c-∑m-cmbpw {]h¿Øn-®n-´p-≠v.n-°p-∂X .n\pw IpSpw-_ ] .nemWv Nne-hg.Ø .c .b . ]ca `‡\pw kpdn-bm\n ]fin-X\ .y-ap≈ H∂mthA{_lmw Wv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_w.º . tIp‰-߃ G‰p-]d X . A`n-o hµ ]Xn FSp-Øp-]d .™ n-´p-≈X . ]fin-X-\mb \s√mcp hm‹nbm-bn.a-°f .n-IX . At±-lØ . tImS-\mSv B{i-a∏ ..mWv Fd-Wm-Ipfw Pn√-bpsS hnhn-[ÿ-e-ß-fn-ep≈ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-°m¿. bma-{]m¿∞-\-Ifpw a‰pw IrXy-ambn \S-Øp-∂-Xn¬ \njvI¿j-bp-≠mbn-cp∂ Hcp sshZnIt{ijvT\ .c . Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-°m-cn¬ _lp-`q-cn-]-£hpw AXn¬ s]Sp∂p. h rt o . tXmam -I-Ø-\m¿ F∂n-h¿ Ipdp-∏pw-]Sn a IØ-\m-cpsS At]-£]≈n. F{_lmapw (_m-hm-bpsS ktlm-Zc ]p{X\pw tImS-\mSv am¿ HutK≥ sslkvIq-fns‚ ap≥ slUvam-Ã-dpw) Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p.√m. ]t£ ssZhhnfn-bp≈ Hcp _me-\m-sW∂v tXm∂-Ø° .b.n-®Xv.cm-b¿ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ ]utemkv a l IØ-\m¿°v "Xpcp-Øn-∏≈n' F∂v \ma-Ic Ww sNbvXv A\p-hZ. XpcpØ nb n¬ IpSpw_ Ø n¬ HutK≥ _mhm sb°qh SmsX ap≥X-e-ap-d-I-fn¬ Ggv sshZn-I¿ D≠m-bn-cp∂p.n-´p≈ ta¬∏-´° .m¿ ae-¶c . -sI. B≠-∏-d-ºv. CXn¬ ]utemkv k {]-Imcw A∂sØ Znhm≥ k¿ Sn. F∂mepw "Blood is thicker than water' F∂ Cw•ojv sNm√ns\ A\z¿∞-am-°n-s°m≠v IpSpw-_° . AXn¬ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-tbm-KØns‚ {]kn-U‚ v ^m.]p-dta AXn-\p-ap-ºp≈ Xe-ap-d-bnse BbØ pI pSn XpcpØna r bn¬ ]utem-kp -I-Ø-\m¿.n-bn¬ FØn AhnsS Xma-k-am-°p-Ibpw CS-∏≈n skbv‚ v tPm¿Pv ]≈n CS-h-Imw-K-am-IpIbpw sNbvXp-sh-∂mWv Ncn{Xw.° v m≥ km[n-t®°pw. Nmh-°mSv ˛ ]m-e-bv°¬ `mK-Øp-\n∂v {InkvXym-\n-Iƒ aX-]o-U-\߃°n-c-bmbn ]n¬°m-eØv sXt°m´v ]em-b\w sNbvX -Iq-´-Øn¬ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ h¿°n-sb∂ ]q¿∆ ]nXmhv CS-∏≈ .t.m-Øew _mhmsb hf-sc-tbsd klmbn-®n-´p-≠v. x do / v t ap≈p-Iƒ \nd™ ]mX-bn-eq-sS-bmWv _mhmbv°v PohnXw apgp-h≥ k©-cn-t°≠n h∂n-´p-≈X . 44 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ _mhm.A-t\z-jW .kw-`-h-ß-fp-≠m-bm¬ Xs∂bpw w A\nae-¶c .∏-´n-cp∂ ISpw-Ka . a .n-\pw ka-bh sb∂v temIw ASpØ ImeØv a\- n-em-°p-Ib.ns‚ c≠p.m-[n h . hS-°≥ Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnse an° P\-ßfpw ]≠p-ap-Xte Im¿jnI .› .n\pw ]›m-Ø] ._m-hmsb XnI™ BZ-c-thmSpw A`n-am-\-tØmSpw am{X-ta -Im-Wm≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈p.Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpsS Ip´n-°mew ]pØ≥Ip-cn-in¬ amXr-`h .T v a . ]n¬°m-eØv Fs¥√mw „. ]t£ Ch-bp-am-bp-≈ _‘sØ∏‰n B[n-Im-cn-Ia .kn.hn-Imcnamcm-bn-cp-∂p. _mhm-bpsS ]nXmhv IØr o \m¿°p.m-bn-cn-°pw.mbn ad-®p-hb .I .n\p th≠nbpw kln-t°-≠n-h∂ . Ncn{Xkw_-‘ambn \S-Øn-b.o-Xn-bnep≈ Pohn-Xa .]-Imcw ae-¶c At mwGI-IW kn-tb-j≥ sXc-s™w SpØv At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn-\m¬ ImtXm/ en-°m-bmbn Aht / cm-[n-°-s∏´ H∂m-asØ ImtXm-en-°m-sb∂ al-Xz: ta-dnb ÿm\w HutK≥ _mhmbv°v e`n-°p-Ip 1964 tabv 22.s∂ sNøp-sa∂v \ap°v {]Xymin-°mw.fbpw cq]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X .n-®X .mwp-∂XobXn bp-≠m-btn. IqSmsX A√{] skbv‚ v w tP°_vkv N¿®v/"Xpcp-Øn-∏≈n'sb∂v Adn-bs .m¿°v ]cn-ip-≤. al k n a o a ar m .n\v hfsctbsd klm-bn-®n-´p-≠v.∂-bm-bn-cp∂p. Ah-cpsS k¥-Xn-]c .ƒ k`-b° v p-th-≠nbpw Xm≥ Dd®p hniz-kn-®p-t]m∂ Imcy-߃ \ne-\n¿Øp-∂X .mWv a ‚ vta-c.okv C∂sØ Xpcp-Øn-∏n≈n skbv ]≈n B ÿe-Øn\v Aßs\ Xpcp-Øn-∏n≈n F∂ .mbn ]dbm-hp∂ coXn-bn-ep≈ ]g-°-a-√t√m aX-]-cn-h¿Ø-\-Øn-\p-≈-Xv. v .43 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ip-Spw-_-ßsf {InkvXp-a-X-Øn¬ tN¿sØ∂pw AXn¬ s]Sp-∂-XmWv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-sa∂pw hniz-kn®p t]mcp-∂p. ]t£ BXy¥n-Ia . {]mY-anI hnZym-`ym-khpw Ahn-sS-Øs .˛. A{_lmw IØ-\m-cpsS ]p{X-s\∂ \ne-bn¬ ]utcmln-Xy-Øn-te°v IS-°m≥ km≤y-X-bp-s≠∂ kqN-\-Iƒ A∂pXs∂bp≠m-bn-cp-∂p. hS-°≥ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hn`m-K-Øn-em-Wt√m IqSp-X¬ Bfp-Iƒ.n¬ Hcmƒ Icn-ßm-®nd `mK-tØ°pw as‰-bmƒ shtßme `mK-tØ°pw amdn-Xm-akn®p. ]ca `‡-\mbn ]n¬°m-eØv hf¿∂p hcp-sa∂v _mhm-bpsS sNdp-∏-Im-eØv Bcpw Nn¥n-®p-Im-Wp-I-bn-√.mb Xocp-am-\{.f .mt]cp-≠mbn. ae¶c-k-`-bpsS Xe-h-\m-bn. ssZhnI Imcy-ß-fn¬ IqSp-X¬ {i≤.ß . C∂pw `qcn-`m-Khpw Irjn-°m¿ Xs∂-bmWv..

IpSpw-_mwK-߃°v A`n-am-\tØmSp IqSn am{Xta Ch-sc-∏‰n kva-cn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈p.sI.cpw Cu Xeap-db .. s\bm-Wv. _m¶p-I-fnepw k¿°m¿ -˛ -A¿≤. ^m. -F-kv. hn.v tImX-aw-Kew am¿ AØ-t\-jykv tImfPn¬ \n∂v {]n≥kn-∏-embn dn´-b¿ sNbvX s{]m^.nepw C∂sØ Xe-ap-db .. ]n.mbpw At±lw tkh-\a . dn´. sNdn-bms‚ aI≥ AUz. aØm-bn XpS-ßn-b-hcpw A≤ym-]-I-cmbn tPmen t\m°p∂ a‰-t\-I-cp-ap-≠v.m-¶nwKv apX-emb cwK-ßf ..c . hn.F-®v.cpw a‰p tPmen-Iƒ D≈hcpw Ds≠-∂p-≈Xv hnZym-`ym-k-]-c-ambn IpSpw-_-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-´p≈ ]ptcm-KX .mbn dn´-b¿ sNbvX hn. s]mtemkv Ct∏mƒ tIme-t©cn sk‚ v ]ot‰-gvkn¬ tPmen-bp≈ s{]m^. tPm_n t]mƒ.F. ]n. t r o d o h . tP°-_v. Ub-dŒ . x o / v t a r a tUm.nse AwK-ßf .¿ C≥U-k{v Sokv A{_lmw tXma-k. tbml-∂m≥.\ . JmZn t_m¿Uv Ub-d-Œ¿ H. tXmakv t]mƒ XpS-ßn-bh . Sn. slUvam-ÿam-cmb H. t__n tPm¨. _ncpZw Ic-ÿam°nb tUm.c .n≥Ic XpcpØn hn`mK-Øn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. Fw.n¬ AUz. kn. hn.) XpS-ßn-b-hcpw C°q-´-Øn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. `mhn Xe-ap-dbv°pw A¬]-sa-¶nepw {]tNmZ-\hpw Bfl-ss[-cyhpw \¬Im≥ klm-bI .v ]n∂oSv FSpØp ]d-bm-hp-∂Xv kmP≥ ]o‰¿ sF.bmKw Hm^okv ( _mw•q-cnse Hcp {]apJ hyh-km-bn-bmb ]n. t__n. ]n.45 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ hrØn apJy sXmgn-embn kzoI-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw_m-wK-ßfpw \√ Irjn-°m-cm-bn-cp-∂p. hnhn[ F≥Pn-\o-b-dnwKv tImf-Pp-I-fn¬ s{]m^-kdmbpw. tkm_≥ ]o‰¿. tUm. Fkv. Fw. Fkv. -hn. ]o‰¿ XpS-ßnb-hcpw ap≥ Xe-ap-db . Sn.u¨kn¬ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp∂ tamfn F{_lmw. / v t Ct∏m-gsØ Xe-ap-d-bnepw Ime-Øns‚ am‰-Øn-\-\-pk-cn®v D∂X hnZym-`ymkw t\Sn-b-h¿ H´pw Ipd-h√. tÉv _m¶v P\-d¬ amt\-Pc . s{]m^. F∂m¬ Ign™ Xe-ap-db . IqSmsX Cdn-tK-j≥ hIp∏n¬ kq{]-≠nwKv F≥Pn-\o-b-dmbn dn´-b¿ sNbvX Sn. kn.º . hn. AUz.mbn tPmen t\m°n-bn-cp-∂h . cmPp t]mƒ (bp. Fw. kn._ . tPm¿Pv.a . sSIv\n-°¬ FUypt°-j≥ Ub-d-Œ-dmbpw sIm®n≥ bqWn-thgvkn-‰n-bn¬ t{]m ˛ sshkv Nm≥k-ed . thß-t»cn Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ AUz. x o ht tp :/ /w w .h¿°n Del-∂m≥ F∂n-h¿ A`n-`m-jI cwKØp tim`n-®p. Untπm-ambpw ]m m-bn-´p-≈-h-cmbn IpSpw-_-Øn¬ ]e-cp-≠v. t__n-bpsS `mcy. Gen-bm-kv. HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS ktlm-Z-c≥ Ipdn-bmt°m-kns‚ ]u{Xnbpw Koh-dp-Ko-kns‚ ]p{Xn-bp-amb jn_n-bmWp ]n. AUz.nse A`n-`m-jI . -Fw. Ipdn-bm-t°mkv kmP≥ ]o‰¿ sF. ].v skbn¬kv SmIvkv Hm^o-k¿ Sn. Ce-{Œn-°¬ F≥Pn\o-b-dn-ßn¬ kwÿm-\Øv BZy-ambn ]n.sI. -sP. F. Fw. Xncp-hm-¶p-fØv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ sXt°-∏d . Sn. sNdnbm≥. ]n. dn´.sP. sI. ss]en t t h / : p /w w .. sP. ) .m-Wv. Fd- a r a 46 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ t r o s{]m^. sU. tUm.n¬ ]ecpw {]tim-`n®p F∂mWv A`y-kvX-hn-Zy-cmb IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fpsS FÆhpw Db¿®bpw hy‡-am-°p-∂-Xv. sP. Ct∏mƒ slUvam-ÿam-cmb dh. tPm¿Pv. _m_p t]mƒ XpS-ßn-b-h¿ cm{„ob kmaq-ly -cw-K-ß-fn¬ Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-hcmWv. hn.. Un. sP. F. tImf-Pp-I-fnepw sslkvIq-fp-Ifnepw A≤ym-]I .p-jvTn®p.m w al k n a Wm-Ipfw Pn√m I . Ipcym-t°mkv tN´m-°p-fØ .mIp-sa∂ {]Xo-£-tbm-Sp-IqSn am{X-am-Wv. Cu t]cp-Iƒ FSp-Øp-]-d-bp-∂Xv C∂sØ bph-X-e-ap-d-bv°pw.nepw hnZym-`ym-kw ˛. tPmkv F∂n-hsc IqSmsX F≥Pn-\ob-dnßv _ncp-Z-hpw.. Ipcym-t°mkv.n-bmWv ImWn-°p-∂X . IpSpw-_t. tIU-dn¬ hcp-∂-Xv. ]utemkv Akn- v F≥Pn-\o-b¿ sI. -Sn. F. ]n. H.m w al k n a d o h . Xºn sNdn-bm≥.m-W. h¿°n. Gen-bm-kv. G{_-lmw. s{]m^. sI. XpcpØn IpSpw-_-Øn¬ BZy-am-bn-´m-sWmcmƒ sF. kn. sIm´n-t»-cn-°pSn Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ AUz. Sn. Fkv. s{]m^..k¿°m¿ Hm^o-kp-I-fnepw tPmen sNøp-∂-hcpw dn´-b¿ sNbvX-h-cp-amb \nc-h[n t]cp-≠v. ss]en.

t v/ Cu Ime-b-f-hn-emWp ioa-bn¬ \n∂p-h∂ «o_m siΩm-i-\p-ambn (]n-∂oSv …o_m am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kv) ASpØp ]cn-Nb .√m. sslkvIq-fn¬ tN¿∂p. kn. kpdn-bm\n `mj-tbmSpw kpdn-bm-\n.Xm-∂n-bXv kzm`m-hn-Ia .˛¬ A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .nencp∂ A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°okv HutK≥ siΩm-»\p dºm≥ ÿm\w \evIn.b . x do ae-¶-c-bnse euIn-Im-[n-Imcw GXp.nse an°.I-{µ-am-bX .ns‚ kpdn-bm-\n-bnep≈ {]kw-Kß .m-tI{µw apf-®p. am¿ At{]w F∂n-h-scbpw a‰pw ]cn-N-b-s∏-´p. .ap-ºp-Xs∂ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ Hcp hnhm-Z-]p-cp-j-\mbn amdn-bn-cp-∂p.o-£Ø . / v t ae-¶-c-bn¬ Xncn-s®-Øn-b-tijw tIm´bw sNdn-b-]-≈n-bn¬h®v …o_m am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm HutK≥ dºm-®\p I»o-im-]´w \evIn.e-an-ep≈ am¿ a¿t°m-kns‚ Zb-dm-bn¬h®v A∂v A[n-Im-cØ . rt d o h ox .∏-Sp-∂X .nepw kpdn-bm-\n-bnepw Hcp-t]mse Ah-Kmlw t\Snb aØmbn siΩm-i≥ hnhmlw Ign®v Hcp CS-h-I-∏-´-°m-c-\mbn PohnXw \bn°m≥ C„-s∏-´n-√.n¬s∏-´h .]-≈n-Ifpw Hcp-an®p kµ¿in-°p-∂X .n\pw At±-lØ .¿°v Cu \S-]S.p-kc .e .s .a .am¿§w kzoI-cn®pw ssI°-em°m≥ {ian®p ]cm-Pb .a . sI. A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ÿm\m-tcm-lWw sNbvXv Xmakn-®p-h∂ Ip¿°p-a-m Z-b-dm-bn-te°p t]mIp-∂-hgn Xpd-_vZo-\nse am¿ A{_-lm-ans‚ B{i-a-Øn¬.b .n®pw a{Zm-knse Bw•n-°≥ ]≈n-bn¬ \ΩpsS Bcm-[\ \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v dºm-®≥ Ahn-sS-t∏m-bn.Ø .m w al k n a / : Cu Ah¶c kpdn-bm-\n -k-`mwtpk-c-Øn¬ a{Zm-kn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ aeK-ßf .n\pw ae-¶c . CXn-\Iw kap-Zm-bm-¥c . _mey-Im-e -hn-Zym-`ym-k-Øn-\p-tijw Iuam-c-{]m-b-Øn¬Øs∂ sshZnI hnZym-`ym-km¿∞w ]mºm-°pS skan-\m-cn-bn¬ tN¿∂v. 1908 ¬ bdp-it.si-Ωm-i\m-bn-Øo-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Un. Aßs\ _mly-tI-cf `{Zm-k\ .nepw kpdn-bm-\n-bnepw {]kw-KI .m w al k n a ao r a 48 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Gen-bmkv XrXo-b≥.b . ae-bm-fØ .] v m-\m-bn-cp∂ tIm-\m´p amØ≥ tIm¿ F∏-nkvtIm-∏m-bpsS injyXzw kzoI-cn-®p.n¬ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS Bflmhv kt¥m-jn-°p-∂p-≠m--hpw.v. ae-bm-fØ .47 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 2 hnZym-`ymkw A{_lmw I»o-im-bpsS Kpcphpw I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØmbpw ]n∂oSv ae-¶c .b .ns\ XpS¿∂v 1912. XpS¿∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-k-∑m-cmb am¿ t t h / : p /w w .nse {]Ya ImtXm-en-°m-bp-amb apdn-a‰-Øn¬ am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv BWp \ΩpsS IYm-\m-b-Is\ aØmbn F∂p t]cn´p amtam-Zokm ap°n-b-Xv.m-Wt. CXn-\Iw IS-hn¬ ]ueqkv am¿ AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bn¬\n∂v siΩm-ip-]-´hpw In´n. ae-¶c .n-bn¬ HutK≥ dºm-®t.mhm Xncn-®pt]m-bX .\ .e .mb H´-[nIw ÿe-߃ kµ¿in®p a\ n-em-°p-∂-Xn\v CsX√mw HutK≥ siΩm-is\ klm-bn-®p. C∂p hf¿∂v hnI-kn® a{Zmkv CS-hI Hcp `{Zm-k\ . I»oim BIp-∂X .\mSv AXr-]X v n t.psSt Bh-iysØ ap≥\n¿Ønbpw ]tc-X\ .mb sI.n¬ \ap°v Hcp B-cm-[\ .nse {]Ya ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn Ah-tcm[n® Ncn{X {][m-\-amb NS-ßn¬ kw_-‘n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. aq ¬hgn Zp¿L-S-bm{X sNbvXv kpdn-bm\n-°m¿ IqSp-X-embn Xma-kn-°p∂ a¿±o≥.k-`-tbm-Sp-ap≈ Iqdp-\n-anØw …o_m siΩm-is . amΩ≥ am∏n-f-bpsS injy-\m-Im\pw Ign-™p.mhm ae-¶-c-bn¬ FØp-I-bpw. eqt°mkv h PUvPn-bpsS A`y¿∞-\b . ]n∂oSv a¿±o-\n¬ FØn am¿ A_vZp-≈msb ImWp-Ibpw Ip¿°p-am -Z-b-dm-bn¬ H≥]-Xpamkw Xma-kn®v kpdn-bm-\n.t\-Snb aØmbn siΩm-»≥ XpS¿∂v Cw•ojv hnZym-`ymkm¿∞w tIm´bw Fw.s . /w w . AXn-\p.n\pw CS-bm-bX .]m-Ip-Ibpw A o-dn-b-bnse am¿ aØm-bn-bpsS B{i-a-Øn¬h®v ]q¿Æ. sI.t.ƒ X¿÷a sNøp-∂X .mb Zb-dmbn¬h®v aØmbn F∂ t]cp-amdn HutK≥ F∂ t]cv kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw D≠m-bn. Ncn-{X-{]-kn-≤a . Xpd-_vZo-\n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Ime-L-´Øn¬Øs∂ ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS `mhn-sb-∏‰n dºm-®≥ Iqe¶-j-ambn Nn¥n-°p-Ibpw Zo¿L-Zr-„n-tbm-Sp-IqSn ae-¶-c-bnse k`m t\Xm-°-∑mcn¬ Nne-cp-ambn IØn-S-]m-Sp-Iƒ \S-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p-≠v.n-\p-ap-ºp-Xs∂ dºm≥ÿm\w \evIp∂ ]Xnhv ae-¶-c-bn¬ \ne-hn-en-cp-∂n-√. Xp¿°n -kp¬Øm-\m¬ A[n-Im-c-]{Xw ]n≥h-en-°-s∏-´-tijw Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ ko\n-b¿ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv A_vZ¬ ain-lm-bpsS IqsS Ipd-®p-\mƒ ]m¿Øp.∏´ A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .n¬ Xe-bp-b¿Øn-bn-cp∂ hg-°n¬ Xe-bn-SmsX Ign-®p-Iq-´m≥ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ ]c-am-h[n ]cn-{i-an-®p.‚-IqsS 1905 ¬ ioa-bv°p t. 1909. o a ar h rt o .˛¬ ae-¶c kµ¿in® A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°okn-s‚bpw Xs‚ kvt\ln-X\pw k¥X kl-Nm-cn-bp-amb …o_m am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kn-s‚bpw Zzn`m-jn-bmbn HutK≥ dºm-®≥ k©-cn-®ncp-∂p.`m-j-bn-ep≈ H´-[nIw Aaq-ey-{K-Ÿ-߃ hmbn®p ]Tn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.nepw kmam\yw \√ hypev]-Øn. Xpd-_vZo≥ {]tZ-i-߃ kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw Xpd-_vZo-\n-ep≈ am¿ HutKs‚ ]pcm-X\ . ap≥]-cn-N-bsØ ap≥\n¿Øn HutK≥ dºm®≥ \nc-W-Øp-sN∂v A_vZ¬ ainlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ kµ¿in°p-Ibpw kz]n-Xm-hns‚ Kpcp-hmb apdn-a-‰-Øn¬ ]ueqkv am¿ Cuhm\n-tbmkns\ ae-¶c . A∂sØ ]m{Xnb¿°okv hn`m-KØ . Xp¿°n k¿°m-cns‚ Iogn-ep≈ kpdn-bm-\n-°m-cpsS timN-\o-b-amb bYm¿∞-Nn{Xw.

]mtd-´ns‚ "h´-t»-cn¬ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv' F∂ k`mNcn{X {KŸ-Øn¬ \n∂v AtX-]Sn NphsS tN¿°p-∂p: HutK≥ d-ºm≥ k n a a r a t r o am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv Zoh-∂m-tkymkv ÿm\w G¬°m≥ Xp¿°n-bn¬ t]mbn Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂t. F∂m¬ HutK≥ dºm≥ ˛Xn-tamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm≥ ˛ A{]-Xo-£n-Xhpw hnkva-b-I-c-hp-am-bn -˛ -Im-tXmen-t°mkv ]Z-hn-bn¬ {]th-in-®X .n\pw apºpXs∂ ae-¶c . AXn-ep≈ hntcm-[a . Ime-KW . kndn-b-bnse k`-bpsS timNym-hÿ Ah-bn¬ hnh-cn-®n-cp∂p.b . HutK≥ dºms\ Hgn®v Bsc-sb-¶nepw sXc-s™Sp-Ø-b-bv°m-\mWv tIm\m´v tImc amØ≥ aev]m-\-®s‚ t]¿°p ]n∂oSv a™-\n-°-c-bn¬ I_-d-S-ßnb Gen-bmkv ]m{Xn-b¿°okv FgpXnbXv.`. tp :/ /w w aØmbn siΩm-i≥ 1905 ¬ Xp¿°n-bnepw kndn-bm-bn-ep-ap≈ k` kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw k\ym-k-Po-hnXw Imw£n® At±lw A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn¬ \n∂p dºm≥ ÿm\w kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.mb BfmWv am¿ A_vZp≈-msb∂pw At±lw AXn\pth≠n ae¶-ck .m w al .bv°p shfn-s∏-SpØn sImSp-ØX .˛ H .b .b .psS ]ptcmK-Xn°pw hnI-k\ .v.p-≠v. t h A°m-eØv HutK≥ dºm≥ Ab® c≠p IØp-Iƒ h´n-∏W tIkn¬ lmP-cm-°nbn-cp-∂p.k .n-te°v hcp-∂p-s≠∂pw A_vtZZv ain-lmbv°p ^¿am≥ ]n≥h-en-®-Xp-sIm≠p am{Xw `cWw 50 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ C√m-Xncn-°p∂p F∂pw Bflob I . A[n-Im-c-Øn¬ Ccp-∂-t∏mƒ AXv A-\p-h-Zn-°m-Xn-cp∂ A_vtZZv ainlm Xp¿°n kp¬Øm≥ A[nIm-c-]{Xw ]n≥h-en-°p-Ibpw XpS¿∂v A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ \o°ßƒ aqew `cWw \jvS-s∏-SpIbpw sNbvX-t∏mƒ t]¿jy-bn¬ \n∂p-t]mb ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w t]¿jy≥ k`-bp-am-bn ]pcm-X\-Imew apX-ep≈ _‘sØ ap≥\ndpØn ae-¶c .m-bn.n\p CXn¬ ÿm\-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°b . `c-Wm-[n-Imcw \jvS-s∏-´Xn\m¬ ]utcm-lnXy \¬h-cß .hn-cp-≤a .n¬ "A_vtZZv ainlm euIn-Im-[n-Im-c-Øn¬ \n∂pw am{X-a-√msX ]m{Xn-b¿°m ÿm\Øp \n∂p \o°-s∏-´n-´n-√.∏mƒ.]p-\ÿm-]-\m-`n-emjw h¿≤n-∏n-®X .n-√. shtßme sN´m-Ip-f-ßc A{_lmw IØm-\m-cpsS aI≥ aØmbn siΩm-is . Koh-dp-Kokv t t h / : p /w w . Cßs\ ]e kml-N-cy-߃ HØnWßnbt∏m-gmWv ae-¶c .n¬ ]p\-xÿm-]n®p F∂-XmWv Ncn-{Xw.b .fpw C√m-Xmbn F∂p≈ ssZh-im-kv{X. aØmbn siΩm-i\ . HutK≥ dºm≥ Xn-tam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ]Zw {]m]n® tijhpw AXn\p apºpw D≈ At±-l-Øns‚ ]te \S-]-SnIfpw Koh-dp-Kokv Zoh-∂m-tkym-kns‚ ImesØ kmc-Xcambn kv]¿in®n-´p-≈XpsIm≠v At±-lt.-bn¬ ImtXm-en-t°‰v ]p\xÿm]n-°m≥ kΩXamsW∂v Xt∂mSv t\cn´p ]d™p F∂pw HutK≥ dºm-®≥ ae-¶-c-bnse k`mt\Xr-Xz-Øn\v Fgp-Xnb IØpIfn¬ hy‡-am-°n.Ø . Fw.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .`.m-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ hmIØm\w ImcpNnd Koh-dp-Kokv dºm-\b® Hcp I . d o h .˛ -si-Ωm-ip -d-ºm≥ ˛ B°n-b-Xm-bncp∂p AXv.k .a∂p {]apJ sshZn-I\ .v.49 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 3 HutK≥ dºm≥ ae-¶ck`-bn¬ I£n `n∂X D≠m-Ip-∂-Xn\pw A_vZp≈m ]m{Xnb¿°okv ae-¶c . .Øbpw At±-lØ .s . Cu IØp-I-fmWv ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k-\.m-bn-cp∂ tIm\m´v tImc amØ≥ a-ev]m≥ A_vtZZv aninlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-knt\mSv IØp aptJ\ Bh-iy-s∏-´n-cp-∂p.n¬ FØp-∂X . AsX√mw A°m-esØ Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-tS-≠-Xm-Wv.Xp-d_vZo\n¬ Xmakn-°p-tºmgmWv am¿ A_vZ¬ ain-lm-bpsS bYm¿∞ \ne ae-¶c .n¬ ]m{Xnb¿°okv Xs∂-bm-Wv ' F∂p ImWp-∂p.ƒ skUv.` .mWv ta¬]-d™ FgpØn¬ _mhm {]I-Sn-∏n-®n-cp-∂-Xv.b .mb Nne-cpsS hymJym\w km[m-c-W-°m-cpsS CS-bn¬ sX‰n-≤m-cW P\n-∏n-®n-cp-∂p. I≠-\mSv CS-h-Ibv°v Hcp sa{Xms\ hmgn®p In´-W-sa∂v 1926 ¬ Bh-iy-s∏-´t. ]W-∏n-cn-hn¬ D’p-I\ .u-tKs‚ Zbdm kµ¿in-®-t∏mƒ HutK≥ F∂ t]cp kzbw kzoI-cn® siΩm-i-s\ ˛ am¿ A_vZ≈m i¿s_m -d-ºm≥.n\pw ChnsS ta¬]-´° . x o / v t HutK≥ dºm-®s‚ IØpIsf∏-‰n-bp≈ IqSp-X¬ hnh-cß .n¬ henb Nn´ ˛ Aev]w t]mepw Atßmt´m Ctßmt´m amdn-°qSm F∂p≈ \njvT ˛ ]men-°p-hm≥ ]‰msX ht∂-°mw.msc hmgn-°m\pw a‰p-ambn Hcp ImtXm-en-°msb hmgn®p \¬I-Ws .ns‚ {]h¿Ø-\ß . Ct∏mgpw At±lw Bflob Imcy-ßf .psS `mKyw F∂ \ . HutK≥ dºm≥.\.n-eb .∏mƒ Bcp-sSbpw Xs∂ {i≤sb A∂v {]tXyIw BI¿jn-°m-™Xpw F∂m¬ ae-¶ck`-bpsS `mhnsb hfsc kmcambn -_m-[n-®Xpw Bb Hcp kw`hw \S-∂p.b .fbpw Cu Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ-≠X .m-cy-ßfn¬ At±lw ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Xs∂-bm-sW∂pw ae-¶c-. …o_m am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv 1905 ¬ siΩm-i\ .Ø . x o / v t A_vZp≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ hchpw h´-t»-cn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bp-sSapS-°p-amWv ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k-\ ]p\x-ÿm-]-\sØ Xzcn-X-s∏Sp-Øn-bXv F∂Xv Hcp hkvXpX am{Xw.n¬ ImtXmen°m knwlm-k\w k`bv°p e`n-®-Xv.\ .

51 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Imew sNbvX 1109 Ipw`w hsc am{Xta Cu hmeyØns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp-∂p-≈-t√m. …o_m siΩm-»s‚ IqsS (HkvXm-Øn-tbmkvw sa{Xm≥) kndn-bm-bn-tebv°v t]mbn AhnsS k©cn®v am¿ Znh-∂/m-/ tkym-kn-t\m-sSm-∂n®v aS-ßn-t∏m-∂p. XpS¿∂p siΩm-i≥ Xp¿°nbn¬ \n∂v Ab® IØp-Iƒ BZn-bmb tcJ-Ifpw am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkmbn kap-Zm-b-t°-kn¬ sImSpØ samgnbpw DS-º-Sn-Ifpw a‰pw B{ib-ambn kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.. .Ø .HutK≥ dºm≥ B Ah-k-cØn¬ A_vZ¬ aninlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ ImWp-Ibpw ssI apØpIbpw sNbvXp. . (1) t]msebp≈ FgpØp IqSp-Iƒ.f ..c .X-s∂-\n-°d . K..m-sX.n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ImeØv B ÿm]-\ß .m-W.msX F\n°p \n¿∆m-la .f . t\m°n FSpØ-Xm-Wv. d o h ox .n-\√ . ao r a rt k n an¬ I≠Xv 88 I∂n-bn-em-sW∂p Rm≥ HutK≥ dºms\ HSp-h l a h®m-Wv... A°w HutK≥ dºms‚ ssI∏-Sb . dºm-t\mSp ]d™t∏mƒ Ahn-Sp∂p ]d-bp-∂Xp kXy-amWv F∂ncp∂mepw Cu ÿnXn-bn-e√ ..t\-cn-´-dn-hp≠v..B.. Du¿t«-an¬ h®m-Wv. B.\mSp IqsS c p∂ p. B Ah-k-c-Øn¬ AhnsS h∂n-cp-∂Xv w F¥n-\mWv? w D ˛ HutK≥ dºms‚ ]Tn-®Xv Imew sNbvX Cuhm-\n-tbmkv wBbn-A∏≥ / sa{Xm-®t.. . Cuhm\n-tbmkv sa{Xm-®s‚ ImtXm-en°m ÿm\m-tcm-lW . x do / v t D ˛ t.m-Wv. -tNm -˛ -Hu-tK≥ dºm\pw Ahn-Sp-∂p-ambn Fgp-Øp-Ip-Øpt≠m? HutK≥ siΩm-is\ Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂Xp Xs∂ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkym-kns‚ samgn-bn-eq-sS-bm-hmw.ß .® .t / D ˛ Rß-ƒ Du¿t«-an¬ Xma-kn-°p-tºm-gmWv At±-lsØ dºm\m-°n-b-Xv..m-bm¬ kXy-\njvT ]ns∂ Bcn¬ \n∂mWv Bin-t°-≠-sX∂p Sn.M.em-IsØ Dt]-£n® dºm-∑m¿ kXy-\n-jvTb . 52 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ A∏≥ Ct∏mƒ Ds≠-∂mWv tXm∂p-∂-Xv.n-√m-Øh . dºm≥ Xp¿°n-bn-te°v t]mb/ Ipsd ]W-k-lHutK≥ : t∏mƒ At±lw m-bhpw sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-°-bp-≠m-bn.. dºms\ kw_-‘n®p Rm≥ Sn. F∂pw a‰p-amWv ]d-™-sX-∂p-Ø-cw.. -tNm -˛ -Hu-tK≥ dºm≥ 4 ˛mw {]Xnsb (am¿ AØm-\m-tkym-kv) BWv A\p-Iqen-°p-∂-sX∂v Ahn-Sp-tØ°p t\cn-´-dn-hps≠m? D ˛. A°-߃) Fgp-Øp-I-fpsS Iq´-Øn¬ \n∂p . HutK≥ dºms‚ D ˛ 86 CShw apX¬ C√ (A-_vZ-≈m-bpsS apS°p ktµiw CShw (26 -˛mw XobXn BWt√m ]pd-s∏-´-Xv). F∂p h®m¬ FXr `mK-tØmSp tN¿∂p-\n¬°p-∂X . F\n°v FgpXn Ab-b° v m≥ sImSp-Øb . Abm-ƒ HutK≥ F∂ t]sc-SpØXv HutK≥ F∂ ]cn-ip-≤s‚ \maØn-ep≈ Zbdm kµ¿in® \mƒ apX¬°m-Wv.n-™p-Iq-Sm. tXm∂p-∂p.n¬ kw_-‘n∏m≥ Rm≥ Ct∏mƒ h∂-Xn\p Xs∂ Rm≥ hS-t°m´p sN√p-tºmƒ Fs¥√mw D]-{Z-hß .v Cu Fgp-Øp-Iƒ (B. ae-bm-fØp Xma-kn® ImeØv s]mXp-ÿm-]\ .n¬ \n∂p sNe-hn\p sImSp-Øn-´p-≠v F∂pw am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkym-kns‚ samgn-bn¬ ImWmw. 94 I∂n 30 ˛mw XobXn am¿ Znh-∂m-tkymkv h´n-∏-W-t°-kn¬ sImSpØ samgn-bn¬ \n∂p Nne `mK-߃: tNm ˛ HutK≥ dºm≥ F∂mWv dºm-\m-bXv? v . A_vZ≈m ]m{Xn-b¿°o-km-Wv. ... \nc-WØp ]≈n-bn¬ m tNm ˛ HutK≥ d-ºm≥.. At±t]mb-sX∂v h l-Øns‚ hgn-s®-e-hn\v Hmtcm ]≈n-bn¬ \n∂pw Hmtcm am\y∑mcn¬ \n∂pw kw`m-h-\-bmbn In´n-b-Xm-Wv...... B. K... : …o_mtp -si-Ωm-»≥ ÿm\-ta¬°p-∂-Xn-\m-Wv kndn-bm-bn-tebv°v t Adn-™n-√.K. Icn-ßm{i ]≈n-°m-w tcmSv am¿ A_vZ≈m hmßnb DS-º-Sn-bn¬ km£n Bbn ImWp∂ w HutK≥ dºm≥. AXm-bXv Fs‚ t]cv A®-Sn® IqSp-Iƒ HutK≥ ChnsS \n∂p t]mIp-tºmƒ Rm≥ sImSp-Ø-b-®n-cp-∂-Xm-Wv. tNm ˛ -Hu-tK≥ dºm≥ ]d-™-sX-¥mWv? .f .. . al k n a o a ar h rt o m .mWv F\n-°p-≠m-Ip-∂s . tNm ˛ -Hu-tK≥ dºms‚ A∏≥ am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbm-kn-t\m-Sp-IqsS ]Tn-®n-´p-s≠∂v Ahn-Sp-tØ°p t\cn-´-dn-hp-t≠m? D ˛ Cuhm-\n-tbm-kv sa{Xm-®≥ ]d-™-dn-hp-≠v. AXn-\mbn ae-bm-f-Øp-\n∂v Ab-®n-√.X .n-√. p Cuhm-\n-ttbmkv sa{Xm-®≥ ImtXm-en-°m-ÿm\w G¬°p∂p F∂p t tI´-t∏mƒ h At±-l-tØm-Sp≈ Xmev]cyw ImWn-°p-hm≥ th≠n h∂v AXn¬ kw_-‘n®pw h®v t]mI-bmWv sNbvX-sX-∂p-Ø-cw. tNm ˛ B Adnhv Fßn-s\-bmWv? D ˛ \nc-WØp h∂n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ HutK≥ dºm≥ t\cn´p ]d-bp-I-bp≠m-bn-´p-≠v.

-. AXn\v D’m-ln-∏n-°p-Isbm \S-ØpItbm sNøp-∂n-√. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ tIh-e-ØnemWv (\nß-fpsS) knwlm-k\ . Xp¿°n-bp-ambn Nne Fgp-Øp-Ip-Øp-Ifpw D≠m-bn.n-Iƒ kw_-‘n®v Ah-bn¬ \n∂p ]eXpw a\- n-em-°mw.b . .Ø°p h∂m¬ Fßs\ Iem-in-°p-sa∂p ImWmw. ae-¶-cbv°v Hcp ImtXm-en-t°mkn (a-{]n-bm\m)s\ In´-W-sa-∂p≈ tamlw Nne¿°p-≠m-bn.™m¬ Cu Ak-ly-{I-aß .. Ah¿ Fgp-Xp-∂-Xn¬ k` ]Ip-Xnbpw h∂n-´n-s√-∂mWp Rm≥ hnNm-cn-°p-∂-Xv. \S∂ sNbvXn CXp-Iƒ hnkvXc . sI.n¬ ]e Fgp-Øp-Iƒ Rm≥ Ab-®n´pw hnhcw Adn-bmØ-hn[w ImWp-∂-Xn¬ AXn-i-bn-°p-∂p. Fs‚ kma¿∞yw sIm≠-√.. -I-S-hnse sa{Xm-®s‚ hntbmK hm¿Øbpw \nß-fn¬ F∂-t]mse F∂nepw ]cn{`-aP . ssZth„w ]men-°-s´. IqSp-X¬ hnh-c-߃ ]n∂mse hcp-∂-Xm-Wv. ImWp-Ibpw wn-St. BfpIsf a\- n-em-°m≥ anSp-°≥ Fs∂m F¥mWv ImWn-°p-∂Xv? AXp F¥p-Xs∂ Bbmepw \mw F√mw I≠pw A\p-`-hn®pw icn°p Xs∂ .n¬ bmsXmcp tcJbpw ChnsS ImWp-∂n-√.Ø .n¬ Ign-®X .mWv \nß-fpsS ]m{Xn-b¿°okv X∂Xv. AXn¬ Fs‚ bm{X. x o / v t _n. Cu `cWw {ItaW ImWmw. ]n∂o-Sp≈ t{]m{Kmw a\- n-se-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v.e-an-tebv°p t]mI-Ws . ASpØ \mfn¬ ChnsS \n∂v Hdo-it. kXy-k-`-bmb \ho-I-c-W°msc AIm-cWw Rm≥ A[n-t£-]n-°p-∂n-√.f . a‰p h√-h-cp-sSbpw ssIbn¬ t]mbmepw henb Ipg∏w D≠m-I-cp-sX∂p IcpXn kq{X-Øn¬ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-h-bm-sW∂p tXm∂p-∂p. Nne¿ A¿≤-a-\ v A\y-a-X-Ønepw Cßs\ ]m¿°p-∂p. CXn-\n-Sb .) h c≠m-asØ ]mcm A¿∞-K¿`-am-Wv.a∂v hnNm-cn-°p-∂p. CtX-hsc ChnsSXs∂ Bbn-cp∂p.v. ""F√mw {Ia-s∏-Sp-Øp-sa-∂m-in-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv ImWmw'' F∂p≈ {]tbmKw aØmbn siΩm-»≥ \s√mcp Zo¿L-Z¿in BsW-t∂m. ]pd-s∏-´t. F∂mepw Fgp-Xnb ImeØv Xp¿°n-bnse ÿnXn-KX . ChnsS FØnb hnh-cw. A°m-eØmWv a-Ømbn siΩm-»≥ ]c-tZ-it.m (t\m´v: ˛ G-Xm\pw amksØ w ]cy-S\w aqew Xp¿°n-bnse sI´p-]mw Sp-Iƒ IsØ-gp-Xnb Bfn\p Ipsdsb√mw a\- n-embn.. Fw. Fhn-sS-sb-¶nepw CXn-\n-S-bn¬ \n∂-I∂v Hcp IpSn-en¬ {]th-in-°-Wsa-∂m-sWs‚ {]Y-tam-t±-iyw. A°w t r o Hama: Syria 22 nd Dec.\ . ae-bm-f-Øp-\n∂p : ""Iøn¬ Imin√ p m-Ø . ssZh-klm-b-Øm¬ Ct∏mƒ Hcphn[w kpam-dm-bn. ho≠pw At¥ymJym k`-tbm-Sp≈ \ΩpsS kJy-Xbv°v CXp-hs . ho´n¬ In´mØ cmP≥ A\ycm-PyØv Fßn-s\.sI. 3 ˛-BI . . 1906 (kp-dn-bm\n Xe-s°-s´-gp-Øv) k n a a r a Ign™ Xpemw 29 -˛mw XobXn Ab® FgpØp In´n. Cu ]® ae-bm-ft..∏mgpw sX≠pI-ev]\ . bu\m≥ IpSn-en\p kZr-iyw. -tI-h-eØn''emb-hs\ Ah-K-Wn®p ""sX≠pt Iev]\''tsImSp-Ø-Xn-ep≈ AXr-]vXnbpw D≠m-bn-cn-°mw. ]m.n-®n-cp-∂p. Npcp-°n-∏d . Fgp-Øp-Iƒ°p hnLv\w h∂-Xn¬ F\n°pw hyk\w D≠v. (kp-dn-bm-\n) -bpsS Ime-Øn¬ D≠m-bncp-s∂-¶n¬ B hnZz-⁄≥ At±-l-Øns‚ (kp-dn-bm-\n) Fß-s\-sb¶nepw hnkvX-cn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p..n-Xm-°fpw Adn-bmØ a°ƒ Ipe-Øn¬ C√m-Xn-cp∂m¬ G‰w \∂m-bn-cn-°pw. ""alm-P\k`'' B Imcy-Øn¬ Xmev]cyw {]ISn-∏n-®p. H∂m-aXv Ign™ Ipw`w apX¬ Rm≥ «o_m dºm-®-\n¬ \n∂p th¿]n-cn™p Nne ÿe-ßfn¬ Np‰n-k-©-cn®p \nßfpsS kpdn-bm\n k`-bpsS \nt£]w F√mw I≠p.53 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ CXn\p apI-fn¬ tN¿Ø am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkym-kns‚ samgn-bn¬ ]dbp∂ _n. Bfp-hoXw FgpØ-b-®m¬ \∂m-bn-cp-∂p. H∂m-asØ hcn-bn¬ ImWp∂ ""]m'' ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ (A-_vZ-≈m) Dt±-in-®m-sW-∂p-≈-Xn¬ kwib-an-√. x o / v t .y-am-bn-cp∂p F∂p ]d-™d . d o h .ƒ hfsc kq£n-®v. kpdn-bm\n t t h / : p /w w . Adnbp-Ibpw sNbv X / / ]Ww In´m≥ ""Ah-Imiw'' Ds≠∂p iTn-°p-∂-h¿. ae-bm-f-tØ°p h∂p F√mw \S-Øp-sa∂pw F√mw {Ia-s∏-SpØp-sa-∂p-am-Wm-in-®n-cn-°p-∂X . ImWmw.Ømfw hnc-‡n-bm-Wp-≠m-bXv F∂p hy‡-amWv...m¬ P\-߃ AXnZpxJØnepw ]›m-Øm-]-Øn-epw.v.. ImtXm-en-t°mkns\ hmgn®v In´p-∂-Xn-\p≈ km≤y-X-I-sf-∏‰n cl-ky-ambn At\zjn-°p-Itbm \nco-£n-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂Xp sIm≈m-sa∂v Chn-SpsØ A[n-Ir-X -tI-{µ-߃ A\u-tZym-Kn-I-ambn aØmbn siΩm-»\p \n¿t±iw \¬In-bn-cp∂p F∂p tXm∂p-∂p.m¬ kztZ-i]n-Xm-°fpw hntZ-i] . amkw tXmdpw [¿Ω-ti-J-c-Øn\p Fgp-XpI Xs∂.c-bp≈ Fs‚ At\z-jW .Ø .. at\m-th-Z\ AXn¿ ewLn-°p∂ `bsØ Hm¿Øp Ct∏mƒ ssIhn-Sp-∂n-√. AXm-Wt√m \ap°v Bh-iyw.n-bn-t°≠ Bhiyw Ds≠∂p tXm∂p∂n-√.. F∂o A°-{]-am-Wß . ssZh-k-lm-b-Øm¬ c≠mgvN-sIm≠v Ct±lw hyXym-k-s∏´ Nne \qX\ coXn-Iƒ G¿s∏-SpØn. Du¿t«-an-temfw Cßn-s\.F√m ÿe-ß-fnepw ]≈n-°q-S-߃ apX-emb hI-Iƒ°p AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.b . Iøn¬ Imin-√. al k n a a r a t r o d o h .Øbv°p t]mb-Xv.m w al 54 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ k`-tbmfw C{X Acn„ k` `qan-bn¬ Dt≠m? ae-bmfw F{X hntijw! ]me-°p-∂s‚ ss[cysØ Rm≥ «mLn-°p-∂p. ASpØ \mfn¬ ChnsS \n∂-b® FgpØp In´n-bn-cn-°p-sa∂p hniz-kn-°p-∂p. _n.

.{]-amWw HutK≥ dºm≥ H∂mw {]Xn°v (Ko-hd.psS \nt£-]ß .n-\m-Wv CsX-SpØp ImWn-®X .pw. BZy Imew apX¬ Xs∂ At¥ym-Jy¿ ae-¶c \{km-Wn-Isf ape-bq´n hf¿Øn F∂mbn A°q-´¿. Ahbv°p apJ-hne sImSp-°-Ww..b . ""ae-bmfw F{X hntijw'' F∂o A`n-{]m-b-߃ lrZ-b-Øn¬ \n∂p ]pd-s∏-´-h-bmsW∂p hy‡w.v At±lw h∂p Xß-fpsS sa{Xms‚ ÿm\w {Iao-I-cn-®-Xn-\m¬ tdmam-°m-cpsS \nin-Xa . …o_m siΩm-»-\n¬ \n∂p th¿]ncn™p.k`'' F∂v Fgp-XnbXv ""ssZh-Zq-jWw'' Bbn KWn-°m\pw Bfp-≠mbn F∂p ht∂-°mw.t / 56 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ \ne-bn-tebv°p aSßnt]m∂-h¿ ""]pØ≥'' Iq‰p-Im-cpam-bn.p-Øm≥ Ign-bp-sa∂v hniz-kn® ae-¶c \{km-Wn-Iƒ.n-t∑¬ I¿Øhyw D≠m-bn-cp-∂X .ƒ°pw B{I-aW .m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . 3.mew apX¬ sNbvXp-hc . IrX-⁄X .55 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Adn-™p. ""Acn„''. AXp "_m¿ F{_mbm' F∂pw ""F¢o-kn-bm-Ãn°m'' F∂pw Bbn-cn-°-Ww.v 1599 ˛.n¬ `qcn-]£ . ]{¥≠mw iX-IØnse Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mb _m¿ F{_mbm t]mepw At¥ym-Jymbv°p ae-¶c .sØ ASn®p tdmam-°q´n¬ tI‰-nbXv. Ah¿ B "]pØ≥' aSn. At¥ym-Jy¿ ae-¶c . ÿm]\-ßfpw kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw AwK-ß-fp-ambn [mcmfw CS-s]-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX-tijw Fgp-Xn-b-Xm-bXpsIm≠v..a . AXn\v apºv sa{Xm-∑msc Bh-iyap-≈-t∏mƒ.n\v Hcp sa{Xms\ thW-sa∂v ]Xn-hp-t]mse ]e¿°v FgpXn. A∂v B Zn°nse ""P\-߃ AXn-c‰ ZpxJ-Ønepw ]›m-Øm-]-Ønepw'' Bbn-cp∂p \n›-bw. AXym-h-iy. ]t{Xmkv XrXo-bs‚ IqsS {KotKm-dn-tbm-kmbn ChnsS h∂ ImeØpw sXfn-bn-®n-cp-∂p.p-Kokv Zoh-∂m-tkym-k)v Ab® XobXn C√mØ IØv F∂mWv CXn-s\-∏‰n h´n-∏-W-t°-knse BZy . bYm¿∞-Øn¬ am¿tXmΩm H∂m-as‚ ÿm\w {Iao-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v {KotKm-dn-tbmkv hcp-∂-Xn\p apºv At¥ym-Jy-tcmSv {]tXyI _‘w H∂pw ae-¶-cbv°v D≠mbn-cp-∂n-√.ƒ°pw Hcp Adp-Xn-hc . ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmbn ae-bm-fØp h∂t∏mƒ ""DS-a-ÿ≥'' BsW∂p `mhn-®-Xp-sIm≠v B Xcw ]ncn-hn\p Xp\n-™n-√m-bn-cn-°mw.f .m w al _n Fw.v. t t h / : p /w w . am¿ A_vZ≈m ]W-∏n-cn-hn\v ka¿∞-\m-sW∂v Cw•-≠n¬ Xma-kn-®t. {KotKm-dn-tbm-kn-s\bpw At±-lsØ Chn-tS°p \ntbm-Kn® A[n-Im-cnsbbpw Ah¿ FSpØp Xe-bn¬ h®p. Ad-_n-°Y . C{X Hs°-tbbp-≈p P\-°q-´Ø .L-´-Øn¬ klm-b-lkvXw \o´n-b-h-tcm-Sp≈ IS∏mSv hnfn®p ]d-bm≥ aSn-®n-√. At¥ymJym _‘w At¥ym-Jym-tbmSv ae-bm-f-Øn-\p≈ kJy-Xbv°v tcJ At\z-jn®n´v In´n-bn√ F∂Xv hfsc hfsc {]m[m\yw A¿ln-°p∂ hkvXp-XbmWv.bv°v Fs¥m-s°sbm henb henb klmb-߃ {]mNo-\I .mbn ]d-™n-´n√ F∂p kmcw.v AXp-t]mse Fßn-s\sbm Hcp At¥ymJym Iºw D≠mbn.e . ""\nß-fpsS kpdn-bm\n k`-bpsS \nt£]w F√mw I≠p'' ˛ lm-ky-ckw Xpfp-ºp-∂p. I„n®v 56 h¿j-amWv AhnsS \n∂-Xv.ß . A[n-Im-c-koa hnkvXr-X-am-°p-∂-Xn\v ]‰nb Ah-kcw h∂n-cn-°p∂p F∂p I≠v.ns‚ Hm¿Ω F∂p sXfn-bn-°p-∂X .Iq-SmsX inc- m. ""\nt£-]-߃'' tIhew \n m-c-߃ Bbncp∂p \n›-bw.mb hna¿i-\ß . A_vZ≈m kz¥w \m´nepw ""[¿Ω-ti-Jcw'' ]Xnhm-°n-bn-cp∂p F∂v Cu IØv sXfn-bn-°p-∂p. F¶nepw aSßn t]mcmsX \n∂-h¿ ""]gb Iq‰p-Imcpw'' ]gb t t h / : p /w w . CuKp]vXmb apX-emb ]m{Xn-b¿°o-k∑m¿°v Fgp-Xm-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.∏m-gpw. A°. HutK≥ dºms‚ Kth-jW . GXm-bmepw Xp¿°n-bnse kpdn-bm-\n-k` .hpw \nco£-Whpw hgn At¥ym-Jym ˛. bYm¿∞w Cuhn[w Bbn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xp¿°n-bn¬ F{X-am{Xw KthjWw \S-Øn-bmepw tcJ-Iƒ In´m≥ am¿§-an-√t. k n a o a ar ""\nß-fpsS kpdn-bm\n k`-tbmfw C{X Acn-„.n\p apºmWv Cu IsØ-gp-Xn-bs .√m. am¿ A_vZ≈m ChnsS h∂v B‰w-t_mw_v Fdn-bp-Ibpw X¬^e-ambn ChnsS c≠p I£n-Iƒ D≠m-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂X .p-∂p-s≠∂v Ah¿ \Sn-°p-∂p≠v. AXn-t∑¬ ]nSn-®ßp Rmep-Ibpw sNbvXp Ft∂ ]d-bm-\p-≈p.h-ln-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. . H∂mw am¿tØm-Ωm-bpsS ÿm\w {IaoI-cn-°p-∂X . 1653 -˛¬ Iq\≥Ipcniv hnπhw hgn Ah¿ B Iq´n¬ \n∂v c£-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.m-]m-cayw sIm≠m-bn-cn°mw Cu IY hf-cm≥ A\ph-Zn-®X .¶-c-_‘w kw_-‘n®v icn-bmb Nne hnh-c-߃ \ap°v e`n-®p. x do / v t C\n IØv H∂p t\m°mw. AhnsS tcJ-sbm∂p-an-s√∂v ChnsS \n∂v Hcmƒ t]mbn Kth-jWw \SØn Xr]vXns∏´p F∂v tcJs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂Xp sIm≠mWv Cu IØn\p {]tXyI {]m[m\yw Ds≠∂p ]d-™X .n¬ knw_mZv tXmfnte-‰n-b-Xmbn ]d-bp∂ IS¬ Ing-h-\n¬ \n∂v Abmƒ°p-≠mb A\p`hw ae-¶c \{km-Wn-Iƒ°v D≠m-IpI-bpw sNbvXp. c≠p Zn°n¬ kpdnbm-\n-bn¬ Ft¥m Fgp-Xn-b-Xmbn ImWn-®n-´p-≠-s√m.b .X∂v Hm¿t°-≠-Xp-≠v. Ah-tcmSp \ap°p kl-X]n-°mw. _m_n-tem¨.¬ BWv sa\-knkv \{km-Wn-If . 1665 t\mSv ASpØv {KotKm-dn-tbmkv Fs∂mcp sa{Xm≥ h∂p F∂p≈Xpw Ncn-{X-Imc-∑m¿ s]mXpth kΩ-Xn-°p∂ kwK-Xn-bm-W.b .. h rt o . At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Hcp sa{Xms\ Ab®p sImSpØp F∂p sXfn®pXs∂ ]e Ncn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p≠v..

.. IpkvX¥o-t\m-t]m-eo-kn¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ {]Xn-\n[n Bbn-cp∂ XotamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm\pw GXm≠v Htc Xc-Øn¬ s]´-hc .ØØn Ipsd ]Ww ]ncn-®m¬ sIm≈m-sa-∂p-≠v.° . IqsS D≠m-bn-cp∂ «o_m ht tp 58 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Adn-bmsX! Du¿t«-anse am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv ""amwkw \√-Xp-t]mse Xn∂p-∂p≠v'' F∂-Xns‚ ]nºn¬ Hcp IY-bp-≠v.u¿t«anse sa{Xm\pw amwkw \√-Xp-t]mse Xn∂p-∂p-s≠-∂mWv tIƒhn...s . sbdp-itew sa{Xms‚ \ne CXm-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬..c . Ch¿°v Hu∂Xyw \¬In..p-≈X ...p-≠v.p . F∂m¬ ]gb _mhm Iev]\ Ab-bv°p-∂-Xn\p Xøm-dm-Wv.. ae-bm-fØ . ""henb sa{Xm-®≥'' F∂v Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-°p∂Xv At±-lsØ Dt±-in-®p-Xs .. IØn¬ \n∂v kwK-X-amb `mK-߃ D≤-cn°p∂p:-˛ "" . Ch¿ c≠mfpw Iq´p-sI-´n-em-bn-cp-∂p. .57 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ PUvPn-sa‚n¬ ]d-bp-∂Xv. hgn-s°m-≈-°mcpw I≈-∑mcpw \∂m h¿≤n®p hcp-∂p. ae-¶c . D ..n\p IS-em-kn\p t]mepw ]W-an-√.. .n¬ a{]n-bm\sb hmgn-°m≥ ]pXnb ]m{Xn-b¿°okv (am¿ A_vZ≈ . kzm[o-\hpw ]W-Øn-\p≈ kuI-cyhpw. A_vZ-≈mbv°v ae-bm-f-sØØn ]Ww ]ncn-°W ..v.. cmPm-h\ .p-hZn-°p∂ ]£w IywXm Ign-™m-ep-S≥ IpkvX¥o-t\m-t]m-eo-kn-te°p≠v. At±-l-hpw.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . H . . Fgp-Xp-∂X .v .m¿ kzoI-cn-°p∂-h¿ ct≠m I„n-®m¬ aqt∂m am{X-ta-bp≈p.…o-_md-ºm-®≥ t]mepw Adn-bm-sX-gp-Xp∂ C°m-cy-߃ ]nXm-hn-t\m-Sp≈ _lp-am\w aqew FgpXn Btem-Nn-°p∂p Ft∂-bp-≈p..m-bn-cp∂p..˛ -kp-J-t`m-K-{]n-b-∑mcpsS ]dp-Zokm F∂p tIƒhn-s∏´ \K-c-Øn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂. aZy-]m\w. ]gb ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ X≈n CSm≥ klmbn® sa{Xm-∑m-cpsS ÿnXn.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .ƒ Chn-Sß . ]m{Xnb¿-°o-kns‚ kwK-Xn-bn¬ henb Ipg∏w D≠m-Im≥ am¿§-ap≠v.ß .n¬ NnX-dn-°n-S∏ ...A-t\Iw hne-tb-dnb ]pkvXI .f . AhnsS sN∂n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ cl-ky-ambn Ft∂mSp ]d-bp-I-bp-≠m-bn. A]-c≥ ss{IkvX-h-tem-I-Øns‚ Xe-ÿm-\-sa∂p hntijn-∏n-°m-hp∂ sbdp-it.. t t h / : p /w w .b .. x o / v t t\m´v:˛ am¿ tPmk^v Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Pohn-®n-cn-°p∂ Ime-ØmWv CsX-gp-Xn-bXv F∂p hy‡w.cp Imipw Iøn¬ C√. Cu tZi-Øp≈ sa{Xm-∑m-cn¬ kz¥w CS-hI ..n-\m¬ Is≠-¶nte Adn-™p-Iq-Sp. AXn-{Iaw h¿≤n-®n-cn-°p∂ ka-b-am-I-bm¬ Bcp sSbpw C„w \S-°pw. amwks°mXn CsXms° Xpd∂p ImWn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.m) Hcp-ßp-sa∂p teJ-I\p hnNmc-an-√..... taev]-´-°m-cpsS \ne.b .. .\-ΩpsS k` F√m ÿeØpw H∂m-bn-´mWv InS-°p-∂-Xv.. .∂... Xpd-_vZo≥Im¿ F√m-hcpw At±-lsØ am{Xsa kzoI-cn-°p-Ibp-≈p.n-°p-∂Xv kwibw BWv.. Xp¿°n-bpsS Xe-ÿm-\-sØ.. ]gb ]m{Xnb¿-°o-kn¬ (A-_Zv ¬ anin-lm) henb sXs‰m∂pw C√m-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ ]≈n-I-fn¬ Ib-‰m-™-Xn-\m¬ Nne-sc√mw (sa-{Xm-∑m¿) Xncn®p Zb-dmbn¬ FØn XpS-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Cu tZiØp hfsc Ipg-™n-´p-≠v..a-∂p≈ tamlw. ]pXnb _mhmbv°v (A-_Zv ≈ .m-W. bm{X apS-ßp∂-]£w henb sa{Xm-®\v A[n-Imcw A\p-hZ. i{Xp-°f .m-b° v )v ae-bm-fs .e-an-epw. `c-W-i‡n Cs√∂p am{X-a√ aZy-amw-km-Zn-Iƒ \√-t]mse D]-tbmKn-°p-∂h . am¿ A_vZ¬ anin-lmsb ÿm\-{`-„-\m-°p-∂-Xn\v Ch¿ kzm[o\w sNepØn. :/ /w w .. ho™n\v AhnsS hne-°p-an√. am¿ A_vZ¬ aninlm (]-gb _mhm) hmgn-°m≥ Xøm-dp-amWv F∂p IØn¬ ImWm-a-t√m. Nne {][m-\n-I-fpsS C„w km[n-®n-s√-t∂bp-≈p. Hcmƒ Xp¿°n-bpsS Xe-ÿm-\Øv k¿°m-cp-ambn CS-s]-Sm≥ kuI-cy-ap≈ ÿm\Øv. sbdp-i-te-anse sa{Xm≥ hne-°-s∏´ amwkw apdbv°p Xn∂p∂p.˛ -Iq-´p-Imcs‚ ÿnXn F¥m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°Ww F∂v Chn-Sp-≈-h¿ Duln-®p-sIm≈s´ F∂p -h-®-Xp-sIm-≠m-bn-cn°mw B Imcyw Fgp-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-SpØm-™X .h√ am\y--∑mcpw klm-bn-s®-¶n¬. x o HutK≥ dºm\pw ]nXmhv A{_lmw IØ-\mcpw / v t ..]p-Xnb ]m{Xnb¿-°o-kns\ hmgn-®n´p Xncn®p CS-hI .

sIm-Sp-Øp.Iq-Zm-ibpw A®-∑mcpw dºm-®\pw \S-Øn-s°m-Sp-Øp. Bh-iy-ap≈ klm-bn-I-sfbpw In´n. kaq-l-°-∏-ens‚ "\¶qcw' F∂p kaqlw HutK≥ dºm-®s\ hnti-jn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. bpsS k¿°mcpw kr„n® {]Xn-_-‘-߃ XcWw sNøp-∂-Xn\p …o_m-Zmk-k-aqlsØ {]mcw`w apX¬ klm-bn-®Xv HutK≥ dºm-®-\-√msX a‰m-cp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.nIw ]nt∂m° kap-Zm-b.s∂ ]d-bmw. Ipfn-cm-¶¬ ]utemkv IØ-\m¿.59 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 4 kphn-ti-j. -]n.sIm-≠mWv C°m-cy-Øn¬ H´pw Xmev]cyw C√m-Xn-cp∂ hS-Ic .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o . t t h / : p /w w .ƒ At±-lsØ A\-iz-c\pw [\y-\p-am-°n-sb∂p kwi-bt.nse Ipcn-in≥sXm´n ssaXm-\Øv Hcp sI´nSw \n¿Ωn®v 1918 -˛¬ At±lw Hcp Cw•ojv anUn¬kvIqƒ Bcw-`n-®-Xv.n-eqsS H´-[nIw IpSpw-_ß . GXm\pw h¿j߃°p-tijw aq°-t©-cn¬ ]t{Xmkv siΩm-»≥ Bcw-`n® …o_mZm-k-k-aqlw HutK≥ dºm-®s‚ al-Ømb the-bpsS ]n¥p-S¿®-bmsW-∂p X . Ch-sc√mw Ct∏mƒ \√ \ne-bn¬ Ign-bp-∂p. hS-I-sc-Øs∂ . sIm√-h¿jw 1105 ˛. Ch¿°v {]tXyIw ]≈n -h®v apt∂m-° -k-apZm-b-°m-cpsS ]≈n-bn¬ \n∂p am‰n \n¿Ø-W-sa∂v D≠mb A`n-{]mbsØ ]mtS \ntj-[n-®mWp {]h¿Øn-®X . sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS kl-I-cWw hS-°≥ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ …o_m-Zm-k -k-aq-l-{]-h¿Ø\w s]s´∂p hym]-n-°p-∂-Xn\v hf-sc-b-[nIw klm-bn®p F∂Xv Hcp Ncn{X-k-Xy-am-Wv.ei-sat\y ]d-bmw. Ccp-\q-dn-e-[nIw IpSpw-_-߃ H∂-S¶w amtam-Zokm ssIs°m-≠p.° v ¬ butk^v IØ-\m¿ F∂n-h-cp-am-bp≈ kvt\l-amWv Ahn-tS°v BI¿jn-®-Xv.h-ebv°v AsXmcp \√ hbem-sW-∂p. Cu sI´n-S-Øns‚bpw ]n∂oSv \n¿Ωn® c≠p \ne.nc-X≥ alm\Kc-amb a{Zm-kn¬ A[n-I-\mƒ XßmsX ae-¶-c-bn¬ Xncns®-Ønb HutK≥ dºm-®≥ hS-Ic ]≈nbpw kao-]. k`-bn¬ c≠p hn`m-K-߃ i‡-ambn {]h¿Øn-®n-cp∂ ImeØpw kaq-l-Øn\p [m¿Ωn-I -]n-¥p-W -\¬IpIbpw AXns‚ c£m-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXXv am¿ HutK≥ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm X . F∂m¬ ]≈nbn¬h®p ]gb am∏n-f-am-tcm-sSm∏w Ccn-°m≥ aSn® ]pXnb am∏nfsb Xs‚ H∏w IpSn°m≥ A`n-am-\-tØmsS hnfn®p _©n¬ Ccp-Ønb ck-I-c-amb kw`h-ßf .fpw Xs‚ kphn-ti-j -˛. kphn-ti-jt.s-∂b .p-t]mse Ch-cp-sSbpw amdn-bn-√.]p-eb . t t h / : p /w w .m-sW-∂p≈ Nn¥. hS-I-c-∏-≈-nbn¬\n∂p IqØm-´p-Ip-fØp \SØn-h∂ Bwt•m sh¿\m-°p-e¿ kvIqƒ {Km‚psIm≠p\S-Øm≥ hnjan®p k¿°m-cn-te°p hn´p-sIm-SpØ Ime-am-bn-cp-∂p.mb Hcp tZhm-ebw I≠v dºm-®≥ AhnsS FØn.hn-Zym`ymk {]h¿Ø-\\ . hnZym-`ym-k-cwKw sXcs™-Sp-Øp.sN-bvXp-sIm≠v Np‰n-k-©cn® dºm-®≥ kphn-tij {]h¿Ø-\ß .Xm-e] v cyw ap≥\n¿Øn FXn¿Ø kh¿Æ sslµ-hcpw k¿ kn. …o_m-Zmk kaq-l-Øns‚ F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ Un^≥kv Bbn-cp-∂p-sIm-≠v -sNbvX tkh-\ß .b .\ . kvIdnbm IØ-\m¿ Xs∂ AtX-∏‰n ]d-bp-∂Xp hmbn-°pI!: ""1902 ˛¬ hS-Isc hnim-ea .I≠v bP-am-\∑m-cpsSbpw kl-Ic-W-tØmsS AhcpsS hoSp-I-fn¬ Ib-dn-bn-dßn D]-tZin-∏m≥ XpS-ßn.¿ D≠m-bn-cp∂p.v ]gb am∏n-fb . A[xIrX-cpsS aXw-am-‰sØ kzm¿∞. Ip‰-n∏m-eb . Fkv.sI-´n-SØn-s‚bpw ]Wn-bn¬ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ A\p-jvTn® XymK-߃ C∂sØ Xe-ap-dbv°p a\- n-em-°m≥ {]bm-k-am-bn-cn-°pw. \qdp-IW-°n\v A[xIrX¿ k`m-X-cphns‚ ioX-f-Om-b-bn¬ Bizmkw Is≠-Øn-bn-cp-∂p.mb Xd-bm-\n¬ aØmbn IØ-\m¿ (C-t±lw Xt∂m-sSm-∂n®v bdp-i-te-an¬ t]mb-t∏mƒ AhnsS h®p Ncaw {]m]n®p).hn-Zym-`ym-k. At±-l-Øns‚ kphntij Xmev]c .{]-h¿Ø-\-cw-K-ß-fmbn kzoI-cn-®p.psS aZy-]m\w amdm-ØX ..p-ap-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.t / 60 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ k`-bn¬ tNcp∂ A[x-Ir-Xc .¬ ]≈n°-c.m-bn-cp-∂X .sf {InkvXp-k-`-bn-te-°p -tN¿Øp.h®p \S∂ …o_m-Zmk kaq-l -hm¿jn-I-Øn¬ H. Xs‚ kl-]m-Tn-If . Ahn-sSbp≈ Xmgv∂ PmXn-°m-cpsS CS-bn¬ \∑. ]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv Xncpta-\n-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\hpw Xma-kn-bmsX XpS-ßn.p-sIm≠v Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømt]mI-cp-sX∂v At¥ymIym {]Xn-\n[n \ntcm-[n®p F¶nepw At±lw ]≈n-°c ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ A≤y-£-X -h-ln-®p.psSbpw a‰pw A`n-hr-≤n°v Cw•ojv hnZym`ymkw AXy-¥m-t]-£n-Xa .y-{]-hm-lsØ XS-bm≥ B¿°pw Ign-™n-√.ÿ-eß . kaq-l-Øns‚ BZy-Ime hm¿jn-I-tbm-K-ß-fn-se√mw XpS¿®-bmbn A≤y-£-X -h-ln®psIm≠n-cp-∂Xpw HutK≥ am¿ XntamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm. Ah¿°p ]≈n-Ifn¬\n∂p hkv{Xw.X-s∂-bm-Wv.˛. x do / v t ]pXnb ]pXnb Xpd-I-fn¬ {]h¿Øn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\-√msX \njv{In-b-\mbn Ccn-°pI Akm-≤y-am-bn-cp-∂p. Fw.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .mWv. hS-Ic skbv‚ v tPm¨kv sslkvIq-fns‚ {]ikvX\mb ap≥ slUvam-ÿ sNΩ-¶pg kn.f . hnhm-lhpw ]pc. tIm´-b-Øn\pw Bep-hmbv°pw CSbv°v Cw•ojv kvIqƒ Hcn-SØpw Xs∂-bn-√. Cu {]tZ-iØv hf-sc-b[ . sNdnbm≥ {]kw-KI .

slUvam-kv‰ . ChnsS \ncWØp a´-bv°¬ Fw. ]m m-bn. kvIqƒ Imcy-߃ th≠-t]mse \S-Øns°m-≈m≥ sImti-cn-e® . Bin-®X .n. \me-W-hsc X∂Xp kz¥w ssI∏-Sbn¬ IW-°n¬ ImWm-\p-≠v. Rm≥ anUv kΩ¿ Ah-[n-°p. Fs‚-ta¬ ssIh®p {]m¿∞n°'' Ft∂mSp ]d-™p. dºm-®≥ ho≠pw cwK-Øn-d-ßn. Fs∂-t∏mse t{]m’m-lP .]-IS.n¬ \nt∂ A[nIw In´p-Ib . F.ns\ At±lw kzoI-cn-®p.∏-Sp-Øn-bX . Xmc-Xt. anUn¬ kvIqƒ sslkvIqfm-°Ww F∂ Btem-N\ 1919 Bcw`Øn¬ Xs∂ {]_-e-s∏´p. s\¬∏m-S-Øn\p sXm´v Gtg-°¿ ÿew.Un. Hcp ]q¿Æ.n-™p.n-e[ . x o / v t . Rm≥ hfsc t{]m’m-l-P-\-I-amb adp-]-Sn-bmWp sImSp-Ø-Xv. Ah¿ F{X-b[ . Fs‚ Kpcp`qX\pw klm-bnbpw 62 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Bbn-cp∂ Fw.n-bn¬ IÆpsh®v AhnsS FØpw.p≈p F∂p ]d-™p. `mKy-him¬ F∂p-Xs∂ ]d-b-s´.mb adp-]Sn Bcn¬ \n∂pw In´nbn-´n-s√∂v kt¥m-j-tØmsS At±lw adp-]Sn ]d-™p.n\pw {]Xm-]Ø .61 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Hcp ss{]adn s]¨]-≈n-°pSw ]WnXp k¿°m-cn\p sImSp-°m-\p≈ {iaw ]cm-P-b-s∏´pw InS-∂p.¿ sI. ]n.n-√m-Xn-cp-∂X . F√m-hcpw kΩ-Xn®p. A[n-Im-cØ .\pw sNm≈-tº-e® . ]W-∏n-cn-hn-\p≈ kma¿∞yw apX-em-bh ]q¿∆m[nIw {]Xy-£-s∏-´-Xv.p-≈p. tImf-Pn-te°p t]mbn.c . ka-b\ .Un. hn. dºm-®≥ ]Whpw s\√pw XSnbpw ]ncn®p sI´nSw Xo¿Øp.\ . x o Rm≥ 1918 ¬ _n.∏mƒ Fs‚ amXr. F∂m¬ _n. Ah¿ klmbw hmKvZm\w sNbvXp. ]Whpw s\√p-ap≈ Ah-k-cw. s\√pw ]Whpw XSnbpw tiJcn-®p. Rm≥ B kvIqfn¬ slUvam-Ãd .`-h\ .ssl-kvIqƒ \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v Hcp c≠p \ne sI´nSw H BIr-Xn-bn¬ ]Wn-bm≥ XpS-ßn. tZlw Im™-Xn-\m¬ henb ]c-thiw h∂p hoWp. Cw•ojv kvIqfn¬ ^okv sImSpØp ]Tn-∏n-°m≥ ASp-Ø I . Fs∂ hS-I-sc-Øs∂ ÿncw \nb-an-®p. IqØm-´p-Ipfw Fd-Wm-Ipfw tdmUn\p kao]w hS-Isc AXn-a-t\m-l-c-amb ssk‰p≈ Hcp sNdnb Ip∂n≥]p-dw.v. dºm-®≥ F{X sNdnb XpIbpw kt¥m-j-tØmsS kzoI-cn-®p. Akn- v sImti-cn¬ tXmakv IØ-\m-cpw. At±l-Øn\p aq∂p aWn-°p.∂ .a . Nmt°m-bpsS \n¿t±-i-a-\p-k-cn®v Fw..In-´p-Ib . Cu Ah-k-c-Øn-emWv dºm-®s‚ ico-cm-≤zm-\ k .Ø .ay\ ]mh-s∏-´h . IqsS t]mIp-∂h¿°v Bhiy aps≠-¶n¬ AsXms° t\csØ Ign-®p-sIm-≈-Ww.pØv Hcp ÿew sImSpØm¬ sI´nSw At±lw Xo¿Øp-sIm-≈m-sa∂p ]d-™p. P\ß-fn¬ \m\m-Pm-Xn.mcpw FØn.a-X-ÿ-cn¬ \n∂pw In´nb XpIbpw km[-\-ß-fpwsIm≠v anUn¬kvIqƒ sI´nSw hS-Ic ]≈n-ssa-Xm-\Øv Xo¿Øv 1093 CS-h-Øn¬ {]n∏m-d-´-dn -¢mkv XpS-ßn.. skan-\m-cn-bm-bncp∂p.h¿jw th≠n-h-∂p. Hcp ho´n¬ sN∂m¬ AhnsS ]d-ºn¬ \nev°p∂ F{Xbpw henb B™n-en-ØS. kvIqƒ amt\-P-c-mbn Ccn-°-W-sa∂p ]≈n-°m¿ At]£n-®X . Nmt°m. bnte°p t]mIp∂-Imcyw Dt]-£n-®p.n\pw ]WØn\pw taml-an-√m-bn-cp-∂p.nIw Ip´n-Ifp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.n-∏n-®pthm A{Xbpw A[nIw BibmWp dºm-®≥ {]Xy-£s .≥ ]d-bpw.hn-izm-kn-bm-Wv. A∂v F√m-hcpw Xs∂ hoSp-I-fn¬ ImWpw. DSs\ sh´p-Imsc G¿∏mSp sN-bX v p-Ig. Fs∂ slUvam-Ã-dmbn \nban®p. ]≈n-°m-cpsS tbmKw IqSn. Ab¬ ]≈n-°mcpw kl-Icn-°m-sa∂p ]d-™p. ]ecpw s\‰n-Np-fp°n \ncmi {]I-Sn-∏n®p.am-ÿ Ahn-Sw-hn´p t]mIm≥ Btem-Nn-®X .nIw \ncm-i {. ]≈n-bn¬ \n∂p hne-bv°phm-ßn. Hcp Znhkw Ccp-]-Øn-c-≠-cbv°v (3 aWn) hn{i-an®p Icn-°n≥sh-≈-amWp Ign-®-Xv. ht tp :/ /w w .m-esØßpw i‡nbn-√m-Øh . / v t Cßs\ ]ncnhp \S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°-th-bmWv Rm≥ At±-lsØ ho≠pw I≠p-ap-´p-∂X . Rm≥ ]cn-{`-an-®p-t]mbn. F. Rm≥ Cßs\-bp≈ Imcy-ß-fn¬ A∂pw C∂pw ip`m-]vXn. AXns‚ ASpØ sNdpXp sh´nt°m' F∂v DS-aÿ . Fs‚ e£yw Fs‚ Kpcp sI.≤ .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . Cßs\ henb XSn.Im-e-amWv ]ncn-hn-\p≈ kabw.n¬ Fs‚ amXp-e≥ aØmbn IØ-\m-cp-sam-cp-an-®mWv Rm≥ I≠-Xv. Aº-Xp -t\m-b-ºp.am{Xw eLp-`-£-Ww -a-Xn. ASpØ Znhkw Ad-°° .. Un. Ipt_c-IptNe hyXymkw IqSmsX kI-e-tcbpw kao-]n-°pw. XymK-io-ew. bv°v Hcp hnjbw In´m-Xn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Rm≥ ho≠pw Xr»n-\m-∏≈n Fkv.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . At±-l-Øns‚ t{]m{Km-an\p XS w h∂p-Iq-Sm. DS≥ Xs∂ ]W-∏n-cn-hn\p hoSp-tXmdpw \S-∂p.m-Ip-sat∂m Fs‚bpw kvIqfn-s‚bpw `mtKym-Zbw Hcp-an®p t]mIp-sat∂m Hm¿Ø√ Rm≥ ]d-™-Xv. hen-bXp tNmZn-s®¶nte sNdp-Xp.n\v Fs‚ Bfp-Iƒ°v kΩ-Xa . Cu Np‰p-]m-Sn-emWp dºm-®≥ Cw•ojv kvIqƒ Imcyw Btem-Nn-®-Xv.\pw a‰p-sams° A\p-hmZwsIm-Sp-Øn´v kztZ-i-tØ-°p-t]mbn. kvIqƒ Im-cy-sØ-∏‰n Fs‚ A`n-{]mbw tNmZn-®p. CXn\v Btdgp.n-\mepw Rm≥ sX°v tPmen kzoI-cn-°p-∂X . hn.h-∂t. AXp ]ncn-hns‚ a\ximkv{X-am-Wv. `£-Whpw kev°m-c-ßfpw kzoI-cn-°m≥ H°mØ t\mbºv. ""Rm≥ Ct∏mƒ acn-°pw.„w IqSmsX hoSp-tXmdpw k©-cn-°m-\p≈ kuIcyw.t. P . DS≥Xs∂ hS-I-scbpw kao-]-Øp-ap≈ ]≈n-°m-cpsS Hcp sNdnb tbmKw hnfn-®p-Iq-´n.X . CS-bv°nsS Bh-iyw-t]mse h∂ncp-∂p. ]≈n-bn¬ \n∂p ]Ww FSp-Øp.Xs∂ thW-sa∂p ]d-bp∂Xpw Xosc ]mh-s∏-´-hsc Hgn-hm-°m-Ø-Xp-sa-¥m-sW∂p Rm≥ Hcn°¬ tNmZn-®p.n-\mepw Fw. "AXp Xcm≥ \n¿_-‘n-°t√ dºm-®m. DS≥Xs∂ AXym-h-iy-Øn\p acp∂v Hcp t t h / : p /w w ..cbpw hn´n-√. ss\\m≥ slUvam-Ã-dmbn \nb-an-°-s∏-´p. AXp icn-bm-sW∂p R߃ ]Tn-®p.I .v ]≈n-°S. _n.

]mºm-°pS am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sslkvIqƒ F∂n-h-bpsS ÿm]-\-Ønepw am¿ HutK≥ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm \n¿Æm-b-I-amb ÿm\w hln-®n-cp-∂p.Øm-S\ . {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p∂-Xn-\p-ap≈ Xs‚ kzmX-{¥y-Øn\v Cu DS-ºSn _m[-Ia . A∂p-ap-X¬ am¿ bqen-tbm-kp-ambn ]nW-ßn-bmWp Ign-™Xv.n-\m-hi .q-Spw.n\p XS- hpw Xma-kh .Xn-cn-®Xv aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bv°m-Wv.y-s∏-´X . sI´nSw 1928 ¬ sslkvIq-fm-bn. kn.psS D∂a-\Ø .psS Bcm[-\m-tI-{µ-am-bn. `{Zm-k\ Ac-a\ ]nd-hØp ÿm]n-°m-\mbn ]ndhw]≈n At©-°¿ ÿew kuP-\y-ambn \evIn-sb-¶nepw ]e Imc-Wß-fm¬ Ac-a\ ]Wn \S-∂n-√.` . B{i-at. kn. Cu DS-ºSn sa{Xm≥ÿm-\Ø . sa{Xm≥ ÿm\w Gev°p-∂h . AdØ Dcp-∏-Sn-Iƒ h≠n-bn¬ Ib‰p-∂X .n\v Hcp ^≠p-≠m-°m-\mbn HutK≥ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm sNdmbn _m¶n¬ Hcp Nn´n tN¿∂p.tdmUv sa‰n-en-´-X-√.a∂v am¿ bqen-tbm-km-hi . h≠n hgn-bnse Ipgnbn¬ XmWp-t]m-hpI A°m-eØp ]Xn-hm-Wv -˛. am¿ At{]w (]n-∂oSp ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv) tkth-dn-tbm-kp-ambn kµ¿`-h-im¬ ImtXm-en-°mÿm-\-sØ-°p-dn®p hmZ-Øn¬ G¿s∏-tS-≠n-h-∂p.b . \m´n¬ h∂-t∏mƒ AXp cPn-Ã-dm°-Ws . tP°_v Cu teJ-It\mSp apsºm-cn-°¬ ]d-™-Xmbn Hm¿°p-∂p.k . At∏mƒ Imf-h-≠n-®{Iw ]nSn-®p-hn-Sp-∂-Xn\p dºm-®-\mWp apº≥.. sImti-cn-e-®\pw IqSpw. Rm≥ AXn¬ i‡-\-√.n\v Bƒ t]mcm-sX-h∂m¬ AXn-\pw I .t 64 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 5 sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm I≠\mSv `{Zm-k\ CS-h-I-bpsS sFI-I-WvtTy-\-bp≈ Xmev]-cy{]Im-c-amWv bdpite-anse am¿ a¿t°m-kns‚ B{i-a-∏-≈n-bn¬ h®v 1927.'' / CXn-\nsS 1918 ¬ kz¥-ambn Hcp B{iaw D≠m-°m≥ B{K-ln-°pIbpw ae-bm-‰q-cn\p kao-]-ap≈ tImS-\m´v sN´n-\S kotbm≥ B{iaw ÿm]n®v AhnsS Xma-ka . Bizm-k-ambn. tdmUn\p sXm´p hmßn-®n-´n-cp∂ ÿehpw sI´n-Shpw ]m´-°m-cn¬ \n∂p .n-bn¬ tN¿Øn-cp-∂p. ]n∂oSv tImS-\mSv B{i-ahpw ]≈nbpw ]pXp-°n-∏W . t t h / : p /w w XpS¿∂v {i≤.¿ cPn-ÿ DS-ºSn shbv°-W-sa∂ Hcp \n¿_‘ ]mc-ºcyw D≈-XpsIm≠mWv DS-ºSn Fgp-Xp-∂Xv F∂pw.n-s√∂pw DS-ºS.y-amb kwK-Xn-Iƒ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂X .˛¬ HutK≥ dºm-®s\ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv F∂ t]cn¬ a™-\n-°c-bn¬ I_-dSßnb Gen-bmkv XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm hmgn®-Xv.p-_‘ .n\v hgn-s∏-´n-√.m-°n.v `{Zmk-\Ø . Cu ÿew ]ndhw ]≈n-°p-Xs∂ ]n∂oSp h .∂ I≠-\mSv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm hn¬°pI-bm-Wp-≠m-bX . kwK-Xn-Iƒ apdbv°p \S-°-W-sa-∂-√msX [\tam {]Xm-]tam kpJtam Io¿Øntbm B{K-ln-®n-√.p-ap-≠m-°n. tIme-t©cn sslkvIqƒ. F∂m¬ ae-¶c . CXn-\pth≠n am¿ HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm KWy-amb tXmXn¬ klmbn-®n-´ps≠∂p ]tc-X-\mb amt\-P-c-®≥ Sn.n®v ÿm]n® ]≈n B Ing-°≥ {]tZ-iØp IpSn-tb-dn-∏m¿Ø-hc .nbp-Ibpw am¿ HutK≥ sslkvIqƒ ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o . I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\Øns‚ {]Ya sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn-cp∂ am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv 300 cq]bv°v (]n-∂oSv {]Y-a ImtXm-en°m am¿ _t -en-tbmkv ]utemkv {]Y-a≥) aqhm-‰p-]pg ]´-WØns‚ kap-∂-X-amb Hcp `mKØv Fw. x do / v t \m´n¬ Xncn-s®-Øn-b-tijw ]ndhw skan-\m-cn-bn¬ sa{Xm-t∏meoØm Xma-ka . AXpw Ipd-®p-t\-c-tØ°p sNbvXp. CXn-\pw -]p-dta ]ndhw skan-\mcn anUn¬kvIqƒ.m-hp-Ib .m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.63 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ho´n¬\n∂p In´n. t t h / : p /w w . Augen should be punished and returned F∂p Xncp-h√m-bn¬ \n∂v Hcp Iºn ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\p In´n.n-\pw.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . IqsS-bp≈ sNm≈tº-e-®≥ \b-Øn¬ s]cp-amdn _mhm-bpsS C„-Øn-s\mØv DS-ºSn Cw•o-jn¬ Hs∂-gp-Xn-s°m-Sp-∏n-®p. . dºm-®-∑m¿°v icocm-≤zm\w \ntcm-[n-®n-´n√ F∂p kam-[m\w ]d-™mWp sNøp-∂-Xv. sa{Xm≥ ÿm\w Gev°p-hm≥ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ ioa-bv°p-t]m-bt∏mƒ Hcp cPn-ÿ DS-ºSn sImSp-Øp. sI´n-S-Øns‚ hm\w Xmgv-Øp-∂-Xn\v BZyw Inf-®Xp dºm-®-\m-Wv.

65 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 1113.ƒ°pw a‰v Bh-iy-߃°pw sNe-hm-bX .m w ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 66 sNdmbn _m¶n¬ tN¿∂n-cp∂ Nn´n-∏-W-Øn¬ aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a-\-∏-dºn¬ tdmUv sskUn¬ ]WnX Ipcn-ipw-sXm-´n-°pw. kam-[m-\-ap-≠mb DS≥ AXn-\m-bn-´mWv {ian-®-Xv. 31000 cq]m sNe-hp-sNbvXv H∂mw-\ne ]Wn-bn®p.s . I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ .Ømfw {i≤ AXn¬ ]Xn-™n-√. ]W-∏n-cn-hn\p sX°≥ CS-hI . AhnsS Ct∏mƒ ImWp∂ ]≈n ]Wn-bn-®p. Ipd-®p-t]¿ ss[cyw. Ct±lw `c-Wt. B ]pc-bnSw BZm-b-I-c-am-°n-Øo¿Øv.p. Ct∏m-gsØ F{_lmw am¿ ¢oankv F∂n-hcpƒs∏-Sp-∂p.b .a∂p sa{Xm-®t. c≠mw \ne ]Wn-Xp. AhnsS at\m-lc .k .s .sIm≠v Hcp d∫¿tXm´w XpS-ßn.psS am¿ sXtbm-^n-tem-kv. NnIn-’I .hn‰v 3000 cq]mbpw CS-hI sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°p In´n.˛¬ ssIh-is .m w Ac-a-\-bn¬ H∂mw ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS FÆ-Ombm ]S-hpw.I-gn®p _m°n 3000 cq]m sdUn Iymjm-bn´p sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb Gev]n-®p.a .]mse am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-®\pw D≠m-Im-sa∂p Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm hnNm-cn-®p.p-sIm-≠pw.s . Cu ImeØv Npcp°w siΩm-»∑mcpw AhnsS h∂p Xma-kn®p ]Tn-®n-´p-≠v. tPmbn‚p.b . At±-lØ . Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm-\n-°m¿°v aqhm-‰p-]p-gbn¬ Hcp Bcm-[-\-mÿew Cß-s\-bp-≠m-bn.hn-´p-t]m-ImsX in„m-bp v Ign-°-W-sa∂v Hcp tXm∂¬.8 .I . \n¿`mKy-h-im¬ AXn-\m-tem-Nn-°m≥ IqSnb tbmKw ]ncn-®p-hn-tS-≠n-h-cn-IbmWp sNbvX-Xv. ÿew hmßm≥ ]Ww C√mXncp-∂-Xn-\m¬ 300 cq]bv°v t{]mankdn -t\m-s´-gpXns°mSp-ØmWv B ÿew ]≠v hmßn-b-Xv.X .n¬ Xmak-am°n. F∂m¬ sa{Xm®≥ Aßs\ sNbvXn-√.n\p apºpXs∂ B hkvXp ]W-bambpw ]m´-ambpw ssItb-‰a . and H. a Kandanad Diocese on Mar Augen Themotheose Metropolitan ofrthe a Paulose I. F√m-h¿°p-sa-∂t.∏-SpØn Ahn-sS-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂ sNdp-sI-´n-SØ . G.mbpw A\ym-[o-\s∏-´v ssIh-i-°m-cpsS tZl-fi-Øn¬ Bbn-°-gn-™n-cp-∂p.a-ev°p-∂X . H∂mw \ne ]Wn-Xt∏mƒ 1958 -˛¬ D≠mb kam-[m-\-sØbpw sI´nSw ]Wn-X-Xn-s\bpw a‰pw A\p-kva-cn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp am¿_nƒ ine AhnsS shbv°-W-sa∂p Nne¿ ]d™p F¶nepw Aßs\ {]iw-ks . Ac-a\ . Moran Mar Baselios k of the East. H.sIm-Sp-Ø-t∏mƒ kt¥m-ja . Mar n1912of the Ivaniose Metropolitan of happy memory Kandanad Diocese. Ahn-Sw. _: sNΩ-¶pg kvIdn-bm -I-Ø-\m-cp-tSbpw a‰pw ]cn-{i-aw.a∂v Hcn-°¬ sNΩ-¶pg A®-t\mSp Iev]n-®p. tIm´-bØp t]mbn Xmakw Dd-∏n-® I . A®≥ B hnhcw sa{Xm-®s\ Adn- .\mSp ]d-bW .psS bqlm-t\m≥ am¿ tkth-dn-tbm-kv.s .n\pw. H∂pw sNømsX F√mw Dt]-£n®v tImS-\m´v B{i-aØ . the Catholicose this site earned by H. Hcp ssI apX¬ Ccn-°s´ F∂p Nn¥n-°pI km[m-c-W-am-Wv. ]nd-hØv Ac-a-\-∏-d-ºp. the Patriarch of Antioch Moran h t Mar Baselios Yakoob Ill.bm∂pw ths≠-∂p-]d . al k n a a r a t r o d o h .n¬ hn{ian-°-W-sa-∂p-t]mepw Nn¥n-®p. G.1961 .ns‚ Ime-tijw tIm´-bØ .nbn¬Øs∂ Xma-kn-°W .m-bn.sØ Ipsd-\mƒ `cn® am¿ Iqdn-temkv Xncp-ta\n ]ndhw skan-\m-cn-°mbn ]Xn-∏n-s®-SpØXpw sa{Xm≥Iq-s∏∂v Adn-bs∏-´n-cp-∂Xpamb aq∂q-dn¬∏cw G°¿ hnkvXo¿Æ-ap≈ tNcn-°¬ NmØ-a‰w {]tZ-iØv InS-∂n-cp-∂p. the Catholicose of the East Moran r Gheevarghese II this Metropolitan Residenceowas erected by H.fbpw kvt\ln-Xs . c≠mw \ne Xo¿∂-t∏mƒ kt¥m-jn®v AhnsS sN∂p. 3000 cq]mbpw Gev]n-®p.Im-Wm≥ B{K-ln-®p.mb Ac-a-\-stI-t´nSw Xm≥ Xo¿Ø-Xp-sIm-≠pw. first installed in India in and formerly H. I≠-\m-Sn-S-h-I-bv°p -th≠n t t h / : p /w w . x o / v t aqhm-‰p-]pg Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ ]gb IpSn¬ sI´nSw If™v AhnsS Hcp Ac-a-\-sI-´nSw ]Wn-b-W-sa∂v sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°v B{K-l-ap≠m-bn-cp-∂p.°-´n-SØ . F¶nepw 10 G°¿ ÿew Hgn-∏n-s®-SpØp.sa-{Xm-®-\mb ]ueqkv am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkns‚ kl-I-c-W-°p-d-hp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂. A¶-amen CS-hI . a al Muvattupuzha 15 .™v Ahsc hne-°n.cbpw I≠p. Hgn-∏n-s®Sp-°¬ Akm-≤y-am-bn. ImtXm-en°m Bbm¬Ø h s∂bpw. aqhm-‰p-]pg Xma-kn-°p∂ Ime-ß-fn¬ kap-Zmb hg°p \nan-Øhpw a‰pw kmº-Øn-I-ambn a‰p -X-c-Ønepw sa{Xm-t∏meoØm hfsc A[nIw {]bmkw A\p-`-hn-®n-´p-≠v. :/ aqhm-‰p-]p pg Zo¿L\mƒ Xma-kn-®X . CsX-gp-Xp-∂ w kabw ]S-ßfpw/…m_pw AhnsS ImWp-∂n-√. H. AXn\v CS-hI sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb 9000 cq]m-bpsS Xmsg-∏-d-bp∂ hkvXp-°-fpw. during o Mar Ignatius the blessed period of H. Ah-cn¬ A¥-cn® sIm®n CS-hI .12 -d 1958. kmº-ØnI ]cn-an-Xn-sIm≠v th≠n-St. CXn¬ hfsc A[nIw thZ\n®p. ]t£ sNΩ-¶pg A®≥ ine-bn¬ Imcy-߃ sImØnh-®p. AXn¬ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv Xmsg tN¿°p-∂p:- / v t . H.p-h∂p ImtXm-en-°m-am-cpsS HutZym-Kn-Ih .m-eØpw c≠mw \ne-sb-∏‰n At\z-jn-®p-sIm≠ncp-∂p.I≠v Xr]vXn-s∏-´p. tXm´w hn‰v 26000 cq]m-bpw. x To the Glory of God and in Jubilant memory of the mutual o acceptance of the Patriarchate and the Catholicate on 16 . am¿ w HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS FÆ-Ombm ]Shpw Fgp-Xn-h-®p.

am-∂p-an-s√-¶nepw ]cn-ip-≤mfl \¬h-cs . kzX-{¥. hn.ƒ ]pdØp-sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂-Xn-\v. F\n°v H∂n-t\mSpw ]‰n-∏n-Sn-®n-cn-°-W-sa∂ kz`m-h-an-s√∂v' F∂p adp-]Sn ]d™p.67 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ bn®p.Ø°p-dn-®p≈ ]cm-a¿i\w AS-ßn-bX . {]m¿∞-\-bpsS \°¬ At±lw ImWp-Ibpw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. BZyw Xncpta-\nbpw IqsS-bp≈ sa{Xm-∑mcpw B kzoI-cW {]m¿∞-\b . kam-[m\w Bflm¿ ∞-ambn B{K-ln-®n-cp∂ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-®s‚ \n¿_‘w aqew Xe-Ip-\n-°m≥ Xøm-dm-bn. "A®-\d . x do / v t Bephm Xr°p-∂Øv skan-\mcn ]≈n aZv_-lm-bn¬ ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm Ab® Hcp {]m¿∞\ Xs‚ kl-]mTn Bbn-cp∂ AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{Xm-®≥ sNm√n kzoI-cn-°-W-sa-∂p≈ hyhÿ AwKo-I-cn®v B I¿Ω-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ At±lw kΩ-Xn®p.`.c . hnip≤ kp∂-l-tZm-kp-Iƒ apX-em-b-h -X-s∂.. kzmX{¥y kwc-£-Whpw km[n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ GI am¿K-a-Xm-sW-¶n¬ AXn\p Xe-h-W-ßm≥ At±lw k∂n-ln-X-\mbn. ]e ÿm]-\-ßfpw D≠m°n-bn-´p-≠v. Nne sa{Xm-∑m¿ AXn¬ ssha-\kyw {]I-Sn-∏n-®p.n-®t.a-∂√ . A¥n-aa . ]´-Xz-Øn\v Fs¥-¶nepw \yq\X-bp-≠m-bn-´-√.m-sX.v ae-¶c .k . F√mw \∂m-bn-cn-°W .bm-Ks .m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .mWp sNbvXX . o a ar h rt o .p-amb Bi-bß ..X-s∂-b√ At±lw sNbvXn-´p-≈-Xv. Bcm-[-\sb√mw ae-bm-fØ .{K-ŸßƒXs∂ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≠.m-bn-cp∂p AXv.∏-Sp-Ib .t. tIm´-bØv sshZnI skan-\m-cn-bn¬ {]n≥kn-∏m-fm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ ]d™p:˛ ""Rm≥ aqhm-‰p-]pg \n∂p t]m∂Xv \∂m-bn. ac-Wm-\¥ .m-hÿ . ae-¶-ck`-bn¬ kam-[m\w ssIh-cp-Øp-∂-Xn\v \S-Ønbn-´p-≈-Xn¬ G‰hpw {][m-\hpw tcmam-©-P-\-I-hp-amb {iaw HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Bep-hmbn¬ \S-Øs ._-t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv c≠m-a≥.mcpw `‡∑m-cp-amb ]nXm-°-∑m¿ cNn-®n-´p-≈Xpw thZ-hm-Iyw-sIm≠pw h¿Æ-\sIm≠pw ]cn-]p-„-am-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xp-amb {]pan-tbm≥ {]m¿∞-\-Iƒ F{Xbpw \√ ae-bmf `mjm-ssi-en-bn¬ ]cn-`m-js . Ct∏m-gmWv AXn-\p≈ ka-bhpw A®-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Bfp-If .n-™p-Iq-tS.Xo-cm-Øh . kam-[m-\m¿∞w A¥na{iaw \S-Ønb HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kn\pw A°mcyw \√ Xn´-am-bn-cp-∂p.X .b . t t h / : p /w w . _mhm Cu hyhÿbv°p hnt[-b-\m-I-W-sa∂v am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv A\p-kva-cn-∏n-®t∏mƒ _mhm FXn-cp-]-d-™n-√.ƒ hne.t / am¿ Gen-bmkv ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ae-bm-fØv FØnb-t∏mƒ D≠mb kam-[m-\m-tem-N-\-I-fn¬ h´-t»-cn¬ am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Xncp-ta-\nbpsS ]c-kv]c kzoI-c-W-X-Xz-tØmSp tbmPn-®p-\n-∂p.n¬ \ne-hn-en-cp∂ `n∂X-Iƒ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ]e {ia-߃ \S-Øn.. Zo¿L-amb Btem-N\ \S-Ønb tij-amWv am¿ AØm\m-tkymkpw am¿ bqen-tbmkpw AXn\p kΩXw aqfnb-Xv.n-em-°n-bn-cn-°p∂ C°m-eØv ta¬]-d™ kpdn-bm\n{KŸß-fnse AXn-hn-ti-jhpw ]fin-tXm-Nn-Xh . I≠-\mSv CS-h-I-°m¿ `qcn]-£hpw Dt]-£n®Xpw aqhm-‰p-]pg hn´Xpw D¿∆-io-im-]-ap-]-Imcw F∂ \ne-bn¬ k`bv°p-]t. _mhm Xs∂ kzoIcW {]m¿∞-\b . am¿tXmΩm-bp-tS-bpw.n¬ kw_‘n-°-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p hyh-ÿ. am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv kl-Zm-bp-sSbpw Hm¿aZn-h-k-ß-fnse s]≥Iokm \a-kvImcw Ch ]Zy-Øn¬Øs∂ ]c-n`mj-s∏-SpØn A®-Sn-∏n-®p. B¿°pw Ignhn√m-sXbpw a\- n-√m-sXbpw InS∂v Ft∂-°p-ambn \„-s∏-Sm-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xn\p sa{Xm-®≥ sNbvXn´p≈ tkh-\ß ..mWv. henb {]kn≤o-I-c-W-sam∂pw IqSmsX cl-ky-ambn Cu I¿Ωw \n¿h-ln-°m-sa∂m-bn-cp∂p ]c-kv]c kΩ-Xw.Iq-´-Øn¬ \n∂v H‰s∏-´p-Xp-S-ßn.m-bn-cp∂p B {]m¿∞\. ]nXm-°∑ . hfsc apsº Rm≥ B{Kln-®-Xm-Wv.mb aev]m\-®≥ X¿÷-a -sN-bvXp-h-®n-cp∂ ]pXn-b-\n-baw ]cn-tim-[n®v A®-Sn∏n®p.ns‚ ]´-Xz-Øn\p \yq\X-bp-s≠∂p hmZn®p h∂-hsc Xr]vXn-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ th≠n ""hr≤≥ ]p∂qkmb'' ]. I≠-\m-Sn-S-h-I°m¿ Fs∂ ad-∂Xv Hcp -X-c-Øn¬ KpW-am-bn-´p-≠v.∏-´X . ImtXm-en°m hn`m-KØ . ]e ÿeØpw {]h¿Øn-®n-´p-≠v. HSp-hn¬ Bephm h´ta-ik .y-߃.s .n¬ kw-_‘ . ]mºm-°pS ]tc-X\ . AXp-sIm≠v cm{Xn-bn-emWp _mhm Xnc- t t h / : p /w w . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hn`mKsØ sa{Xm-∑m-cpsS apºn¬ Xe-Ip-\n-®p-\n∂v s{Imbn-tØmZv dqlm F∂ {]m¿∞\ kzoI-cn-°m≥ Xøm-dmbn. k`bpsS tbmPn-∏pw.v atXm-]t.Ip¿∫m-\-bpsS lqtØm-am.Ω-f\w \S-Øn. F∂m¬ Ah-sb-°p-dn®v kzbw {]iw-kn-°p-Itbm AhtbmSv Akm-[m-cW t{]aw ImWn-°p-Itbm sNøm-dn-√. Ct∏mƒ Fs‚ {i≤ B¿°pw FØp-s]-SmsX ssIsb-gp-Øn-¬ am{Xw InS-°p∂ kpdnbm\n{KŸ-߃ X¿÷-a -sN-øp-∂-Xn-em-Wv.ijw a‰p sa{Xm-∑m-cpsS Imcy-Øn¬ _mhm kzoI-cW {]m¿∞\ \S-Øn-bm¬ aXn-sb-∂p≈ t`Z-KXn AhX-cn-∏n-°s ..n\pw. ]m{Xn-b¿°o- 68 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ kv -_mhm Imew -sN-bvX-tijw \S∂ ]e kam-[m-\m-tem-N-\-I-fnepw ]mem-º-SØv h°o-en-t\m-sSmØp ]s¶-Sp-Øp. ]m]an√mØ ainlm Xºp-cm≥ ]m]n-Isf c£n-°m≥ th≠n Cu temI-Øn¬ h∂-Xp-t]mse.mb Hcp ]cn-{i-aa .v '' s]cp-\mƒ]-Sn-bp≈ s]≥Iokm \a-kI v m-cØ .Z-i k .∏-´p.m-Wv. CtXmSp-IqSn ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -]-£sØ sa{Xm-∑m-cp-sS. ]´w-sImS hmN-Is .∏-SpØn A®-Sn-∏n-®n´p-≈Xv kmln-Xy-]-c-ambpw k`bv°v Hcp apX¬°q-´m-Wv. X¿÷-a.b .m-cp-sS Hm¿Ωbv°pw D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp-∂Xpw ]fin-X∑ .p-ap-≠m-bX . _mhm AXn\pw FXncp ]d-™n-√.m w al k n a .

Cßs\ aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂ -Im-eØv 1118 (1942) -˛¬ Aca-\-bn¬ h®v I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ s]mXp-tbm-K-Øns‚ km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hmsb ]c-ky-ambn kzoIcn®v HmIvkn-tbmkv ]mSn.p-dh .n¬ kw_-‘n-°W . tImf-Pn¬ \n∂p bm{X Xncn-®-t∏mƒ At±-l-Øns‚ at\m-ssh-jayw Adn-™n-cp∂ t\Xm-°ƒ hmhn´p Ic™p. Xma-kn-bmsX tIm´bw sshZnI skan-\mcn {]n≥kn-∏m-fmbn AhnsS Xma-ka . Iptd-°g . I≠-\mSv `{Zmk\-`-cWw Hcp {]iv\-am-bn-Øs∂ \ne-hn-en-cp-∂p.m-Wp-≠m-bX . Nne¿ t]mIp-∂-Xns\ XS- -s∏-Sp-Øn.n\p _.. a\- n\p henb kam-[m\w D≠m-bn. x o / v t . Xr°p-∂Øv skan-\m-cn-bn¬ CtX kabw as‰mcp hSw-h-en-bmWp \S-∂-Xv. am¿ AØm\m-tkym-kns‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kzoI-cWw \S-Øn-bm¬ aXn-sb∂p ]d™m-Ws{X At±lw ÿew hn´-Xv. kam-[m-\-Øn-\p-th≠n a‰m-sc-sb-¶nepw ImtXm-en-t°m-kmbn hmgn-°m≥ Xncp-ta\n \n¿t±-in-®XmWv. Ah-km\w At±lw _mhm am{Xw aXn-sb∂p kΩ-Xn-®p..\o-ßm-\p≈ {ia-ßfpw hnP-bn-®n-√.69 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 70 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ pta\n Xr°p-∂Øv skan-\m-cn-bn¬ FØp-∂-Xn\p {Iao-I-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\m-kv.nepw c≠p I£n-Iƒ XΩn¬ hyh-lm-c-ßfpw \S-∂p. Ac-a\ ]Wnbp-∂-Xn-\p≈ FXn¿∏p-Isf IqSp-X¬ i‡n-tbmsS X≈nam‰n sNΩ¶pg A®s‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Ac-a\ ]Wn \S-∂p. A∂mWv am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbm-kv. Nne hyh-ÿ-Iƒ A\p-kc .a-∂p≈ hmZ-Øn¬ \n∂v am¿ bqen-tbmkns\ ]n¥n-cn-∏n-°m≥ hfsc {iaw th≠n-h-∂p. CtXmsS ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hn`m-KØ .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .hpw k`sb tbmPn∏n¬ FØn®n√.n\p t{]c-W.b .°-kn¬ ImtXm-en-°m-]£Øn-\\ .n®p apt∂m-´p.v Xpº-a¨ CS-hI . am¿ Iqdn-tem-kv. 1116 ao\w 11 \p Bcw-`n®p 16 \p Ah-km-\n® h´-tai ktΩ-f\ . 1958 -˛¬ kp{]ow-tIm-SXn hn[n-bp≠m-hp-Ibpw Xma-kn-bmsX 1958 Unkw-_d .nIw ]g-°ap≈ ioa ssIsb-gpØp Imt\m≥ ]pd-Øp-hc .m-c\ . ]t≠ D≈n¬ ImtXm-en°m hn`m-K° .∏-Sp-Ib . tIm\m´v A{_-lmw -a-ev]m≥ F∂n-h-scm∂n®p samgn. x o / v t t t h / : p /w w . ht tp :/ /w w . ImtXm-en°m ]£sØ F√m Xncp-ta-\n-amcpw kzoI-cW {]m¿∞-\b .sIm-Sp-Øp. B hnhcw Adn™p Ign-™mWv _mhm tImf-Pn¬ \n∂p ]pd-s∏-´-Xv.∏-´X . an° ]≈n-If .Ø .n™p Xpº-a¨ CS-hI .p-∂X .m-°n.ns‚ s]m≈-Øcw Hcn-°¬ IqSn hy‡-ambn. Xm≥ hf-sc -\m-fmbn B{K-ln-®n-cp∂ kam-[m\w ImWp-hm≥ CS-bm-bXv At∏m-gm-Wv. tImX-aw-K-eØp amdm-t»-cn¬ C´o-cm aev]m≥ Xs‚ injy≥ _.s . ssZh-Øns‚ {]Xy-£-amb CS-s]-S¬sIm≠v A\m-h-iy-amb Hcp Iogvh-g-°-Øn¬ \n∂p ae-¶ck`sb c£n-°-bmWp sNbvX-sX∂p ImWmw. AsXms° im¥-ambpw `wKn-bmbpw \S-s∂¶nepw `{Zm-k\ .mbn-cp∂ HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kv. F∂m¬ Xr°p-∂Øv skan-\m-cnbn¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ am¿ bqen-tbmkv t]mbn-°-gn-™n-cp-∂p.kn. h¿Ø-am-\-߃°p th≠n am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkpw km£m¬ Hm¿ØtUmIvkpImc-\m-bn-cp∂ aq°-t©-cn¬ ]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øntbmkpw kµ¿`m-\p-k-cWw X{¥-]q¿∆w \oßn-bXv Xß-fpsS k`m ZuXyw XI-cm-Xn-cn-°m-\m-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ X\nsb AXp \n¿h-ln°m≥ G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xn¬ kwi-bm-ep-hm-bn-Øo¿∂ am¿ AØm-\mtkymkv D`-b-k-Ω-X-{]-Imcw kzoI-c-W-I¿Ωw \n¿h-ln-°m≥ Xøm-dmbn-√.n¬ kam-[m-\° . ]mºm-°p-S \ .n¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okpw ImtXmen-°mbpw XΩn¬ ]c-kv]c kzoI-cWw \SØn IØp-Iƒ ssIam-dpIbpw sNbvXp.mbn icn-bmb Imt\m≥ sXfn-bn-°p-∂X . kap-Zm-bt. kwK-Xn-Iƒ Cßs\ {ZpXK-Xn-bn¬ \oßn.\¬InbXv Ct±-l-am-Wv. k`-bpsS \∑-bv°p-th≠n 1942 ¬ ImtXm-en-°msb kzoI-cn-®Xv CXn-s‚-sbms° shfn-®Ø . am¿ AØm-\m-tkym-kv.psS `cWw i‡-\mb Zm\n-tb¬ am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv G‰-t∏mƒ ]Ø-\w-Xn´ hn´v aqhm-‰p-]pg-sbØn Xma-kn-®p. Hcp kp{]-`m-X-Øn¬ ImtXm-en-°msb aqhm-‰p-]p-gbv°p £Wn-®-X-√. 1953 -˛¬ tIm´-b-Øp-h®p \S-Ønb sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\m-`n-tjI I¿Ω-Øn¬ ]¶psIm-≠p. am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kv F∂o sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-am¿ hmgn-°s .b . CXn-\nsS Hcp ikv{X{In-bbv°p hnt[-b-\mbn GXm\pw BgvN-Iƒ sh√q-cn¬ Xma-kn-t°≠n-h∂p F¶nepw kpJw {]m]n®p Xncp-ta\n aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn°p-tºmƒ ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS ]n≥Km-an-bmbn sFI-I-WvtTy\ sXcs™-Sp-°s .v. tIm\m´v amØ≥ aev]ms‚ injy≥ _.p-Iq-ea . _mhm bp.m-Wp-≠m-bX .n∂p 700 sIm√-Øn-e[ .v.n-em-bn-cp∂p. ]n∂o-Sp≈ Ncn{X kw`-h-߃ \nco-£n-°p-tºmƒ.psS sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv (]p-Ø≥Im-hv) Imew -sN-bvX-t∏mƒ B CS-hIbpsS sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn ]Ø-\w-Xn-´-bn¬ Xma-kn-®p. Xm≥ ÿm\w Hgn™p amdn \nt∂°mw.

nbpw I≠-\mSv ]≈n-{]-Xn-]p-cp-jt.∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ Ak-¥p-„\ . Ch-cn¬ ssZh apºmsI sNbvX {]Xn-⁄-Iƒ Im‰n¬ ]dØn Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`hn´v tdmam-k-`-bn¬ tN¿∂ Nocm-tØm´w ^m. Hcn°¬ Xs‚ amXr-k-tlm-Z-cn-]p-{X-\mb hb-en-∏-d-ºn¬ am¿ {KntKm-dntbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm aqhm-‰p-]p-gb . ]gb skan\m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ F∂pIqSn Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ "I√m-t®-cn¬ ]p∂q-kns\' H∂mw-{]-Xn-bm°n tIm´bw Pn√m-t°m-S-Xn-bn¬ tIkv ^b¬ sN-bvXp. HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kns‚ bm{X ap≈p-Iƒ \nd™ hgn-bn-eq-sS-Øs . tPm¨ (bp. hn.f . At¥ym-Iy-bnse kndn-b≥ Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ik v vk .m w . IrjvW-ø¿. hn. aqtØSw e£y-{]m-]vXn-°mbn Nne IØp-Iƒ Ab-®n-cp-∂p. ]t£ Bg-Øn¬ thtcm-Snb B hS-hr£w adn-™p-ho-Wn-√. al k n a o a ar h rt o am\p-jnI aqey-߃°v A\y\pw ae-¶c .ß ..™ p.b .nIw hmKvZm-\߃ \¬In am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kns\ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv ]£-tØ-°pXn-cn®p ]nSn-°m≥ \S-Ønb {ia-߃ H∂pw ^en-®n-√. adp-]-£-Øns‚ FXn¿∏pw X{¥-ß-fpw -aqew `{Zm-k-\-Ønse an° ]≈n-Ifpw ]n∂oSv CS-bs\ X≈n-∏d .p-am-bn-cp-∂p. Koh-dp-Kokv (B-ep-h) F∂n-h¿ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p.mb h´-t»-cn¬ Kohdp-Kokv am¿ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-tb-°mƒ {]bm-kß .W .`. Aßs\ At±-lhpw `{Zm-k-\hpw 1942 HtŒm_¿ 7 ˛\p ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ sImSn-°o-gn¬ h∂p.nse ]nf¿∏ns‚ I∏n-Øm\p-am-bn-cp∂ am¿ bqen-tbm-kn\p ]nSn-In-´m-Xn-cp∂ c≠v taev]-´-°m-cmbn-cp∂p am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkpw sIm®n CS-h-I-bpsS am¿ tkth-dntbm-kpw.v.¬ D≠mb tIm´bw tImS-Xn-hn[n ImtXmen-°m-`m-K-tØ°v hfsc A\p-Iqe-am-bn-cp-∂p.h-∂n-´p-≠v.n¬ X≈n-°f .n¬ hnhcn-®t.t / A_vZ¬ aninlm 1912.mbn ÿnXn-sNbvXt∏mƒ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkns\ tdmam-k` .bm-KØ . F¶nepw k`-bn¬ kam[m\w D≠m-t°-≠Xv k`-bpsS C¥y-bnse ZuXy hnP-b-Øn\pw e£yt\´-Øn\pw AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-sW-∂p-I≠ am¿ Xntam-Øntbmkv AS-ßn-bn-cp-∂n-√.p-ambn FØn ÿm\-am-\ß . / : p /w w . tIkp hmZw-tI´ kvs]j¬ PUvPn _n.k . bYm¿∞ Imt\m≥.ƒ aqhm-‰p-]pg Bdp-t]mse s]cpIn F¶nepw Hcn-°-embn `c-taev]n® hnizm-k-Øns‚ LmX-I-\m- t t h / : p /w w . ^m.n-te°v £Wn-°m≥ Nne¿ taml\ hmKvZm-\ß .n-\mbn {ian-®p. aqhm-‰p-]pg \n¿Ω-em. x do / v t ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Iogn¬h∂-tijw aqhm-‰p-]p-gb .n¬ h∂v hf-sc-b[ .p-ambn \√ _‘w A`wKw XpS-c-W-sa-∂m-{K-ln® At±lw Ahn-sS-\n-∂p≈ \oXn-c-ln-Xamb {]Xn-Ic .b∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°s.F.∏-Sp∂ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ÿm\w G‰-ti-jw.ß .tIm-f-Pv).f .m`m-kp-c\ . .` .˛¬ ÿm]n® ImtXm-en-t°‰v km[p-hm-sW∂p-Im-Wn®p HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Ønb eLpte-J-bn¬ XobXn kw_-‘n-®p-h∂ Hcp ]cm-a¿i-\-amWv bqen-tbmkns\ sh´n-em-°n-bX . t t h Xm≥ t\XrXzw sImSpØ Bep-hm-bnse kam-[m-\-{iaw hnP-b- 72 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Øns‚ h°n¬ FØn-b-tijw XI¿∂-Xn¬ IpWvTn-X-\mb HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv kam-[m-\-{i-a-ß-sf-∏-‰nbpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp`mKsØ NXn-sb-∏‰ . 1938 ˛. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\p-am{Xw Ah-Im-i-s∏´ ÿm\hpw Npa-X-e-Ifpw ImtXm-en-t°mkn\p \¬Ip-Ibpw Hcp `c-W-L-S\ D≠m°n {]Xn-Iƒ ]pXnb k` ÿm]n°p-Ibpw sNbvXp F∂m-bn-cp∂p A\ym-bØ .ƒ \o´n.tIm-f-Pns‚ ap≥ {]n≥kn∏¬ ^m.w. 1943 ˛.nse {][m\ Btcm-]W .. kn. ^m. ‰n. ae-¶c . Xncp-h\-¥-]pcw B¿®v_n-j∏v _\-UnŒv am¿ {KntKm-dn-tbmkpw k`m ]cn-h¿Ø-\Ø . F∂m¬ hn[n-°p-ap-ºpXs∂ Nne kam-[m-\m-tem-N-\-Iƒ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. AXn¬ {][m\-s∏-´-XmWv Bep-hm-bn-te-Xv..b .kn.v.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . {]Xn-Iq-e -km-l-N-cy-߃ Xnc-am-e-Iƒt]mse B™-Sn-®p. Hcp IØnse Xob-Xnbpw Imt\m≥ kw_‘n® Xncp-Øp-amWv ]c-ky-ambn am¿ bqen-tbm-kns\ I≈-s\∂p ho≠pw ap{Z-b-Sn-°m≥ CS-bm-°n-b-Xv. G{_-lmw. {]tem-`\ . A_vZ¬ an-in-lm-bpsS apS°v F∂o Imcy-ßf .v aqhm-‰p-]p-gb .n¬ am¿ bqentbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm sImSpØ samgn I≈-am-sW∂p ka¿∞n°p-Ibpw Ahsb Hcp taev]-´-°m-cs‚ "Ahn-ip-≤ -{]-hrØn' F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.™ aqe-°√ . CtX XpS¿∂mWv Ip{]-kn-≤-amb ]ndhw a¿±\w D≠m-b-Xv.71 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 6 ]ndhw a¿±\w ]pjv]i-øs. bma {]m¿∞\-I-fnepw t\mºnepw D]-hm-k-Ønepw \n∂p {hX-\n-jvT-\mb Xncp-ta\nbpsS ZrV-\n-›-b-Øn¬ \n∂pw am‰m≥ B¿°pw Ign-™n-√. kn.nse Hcp sjÕn¬ Xma-kn® Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncp-ta-\nsb B]¬L-´-Øn¬ `{Zm-k-\Ønse Npcp°w Nne ]≈n-Iƒ am{X-amWv klm-bn-®X .pw ]oU-\-ßfpw "]e-h´w ]´n-Wnbpw' kln-t°-≠n.ijw ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hmsb kzoI-cn-®p. 1958 -˛-\p -ti-j-amWv am¿ tkth-dn-tbmkv ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Iogn¬ h∂-X.¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv `mK-°m¿. k`-bpsS ]ptcmK-Xn°pw kzmX-{¥y-Øn\pw ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\w IqSn-tbXocp F∂v At±lw ka¿∞n-®p.b .f .

73

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

Im≥, ]md-t]mse Dd®p \n∂ At±lw Xøm-dm-bn-√. ae-¶-c-bn¬ k`
ÿm]n-®Xv am¿tØmΩm «olm-bm-sW∂pw CXc k`-Iƒ°v AXnt∑¬ A[n-Im-ca
- n-s√∂pw Ing-°ns‚ A∏-kvtXm-e\pw {]Ya sa{Xm\pw
am¿tØm-Ωm-bm-sW∂pw hniz-kn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-h∂
am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv tdmam k`-bpsS \mW-bß
- fpw ÿm\-am-\ß
- fpw
XrW-h¬K-Wn-®p. kXy-hn-izm-khpw XXz-ß-fpw, an∂p∂ \iz-c-amb
\mW-b-ß-fpsS apºn¬ IqSp-X¬ tim`n-°p-sa∂v kzbw ImWn-®p-sImSpØ Xncp-ta\n IqSp-X¬ {]Im-in-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.
ae¶-c-k-`-bn¬ tIkp-s≠∂pw ]q¿Æ-X-bv°p-th-≠n-bmWp Xm≥
k` hnSp-∂s
- X∂pw ]d-™p-sIm≠v _Y\n am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv tdmam
k`-bn¬ tN¿∂-Xns\ XpS¿∂v At±lw ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse ]e {]apJ
hy‡n-Is
- fbpw tdmam-k`- b
- n¬ tNcm≥ £Wn®p. a‰p-k`- I
- f
- n¬ ImWp∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ {]K¬`-cmb H´-[nIw hy‡n-I-fp≈ k`-bmWv tdmam
k`-sb∂pw £W-°Ø
- n¬ ]d-™n-cp-∂p. k`-bn¬ Fs¥-¶nepw hy‡n]-ca
- mb {]iv\ß
- ƒ D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ km[m-cW
- °
- m-cmb Nne¿ k` amdpI
]Xn-hmsW¶nepw k`m kw_-‘-amb Adnhpw k`tbmSp Iqdpw XXz
Zo£-bp-ap≈ kap-∂X hy‡n-Isf AØcw {]iv\ß
- ƒ H∂pw Ae-´pI-bn-s√-∂mWv HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kns‚ al-Ømb amXrI
hy‡-am-°p-∂X
- v.

a
r
a

t
r
o

d
o
h

.
x
o

/
v
t

am¿ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS XZzmcm ae-¶ck`-bp-sSbpw Ncn-{X-Ønse
IdpØ Hc-≤ym-ba
- mWp ]ndhw kw`-hw. {]_p-≤a
- mb ]ndhw hen-b]
- ≈n
CS-hI
- bv°p ambn-®p-If
- b
- m-\m-hmØ Hcp If-¶a
- m-WX
- .v B ""Ccp-´d
- h
- [w''
aqew {]Xn-Iƒ temI-Øns‚ Zr„n-bn¬ A]-am-\n-Xc
- m-bn. ssZh-tIm]w
Ah-cp-sS-ta¬ sNmcn-™p. ASn-sIm≠ Bƒ A·n-Ip-fi-Ønse
I\Iw t]mse tim`n-®p.

al

k
n
a

.m
w "klZm'bpsS ]Z-hn-bn-te-°p-b¿Ønb Cu
HutK≥ _mhmsb Hcp
w
a¿±-\-Øns‚ bYm¿∞ Nn{Xw CXp-h-scbpw hc-sam-gn-bmbn h∂n-´n-√mØ-Xp-sIm≠v kw`/wh-ÿ-e-Øp-sN∂v Cu a¿±-\-Øns‚ ZrIvkm-£n-I/
fmb Nne-cn¬:\n∂p tiJ-cn® bYm¿∞ hnh-cß
- f
- mWv NphsS tN¿°pp
∂-Xv. btlmh
b
psS
A`nj
n‡
s‚
ta¬
Bcpw
F{X{]tem-`\w
t ssIh-bv°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v Cu kw`-hX-hs∂
t
D≠m-b
mepw
nh
c
Ww
klmh
bn-°p-sa∂p {]Xo-£n-°p-I-bm-Wv. 1942. I≠-\mSv ]≈n {]Xn-]p-cp-jtbmKw hnfn-®p-Iq-´n. B tbmK Xocp-am-\-{]-Imcw HutK≥ am¿ XntamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ]. _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥
ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hmsb kzoI-cn-®X
- ns\ XpS¿∂p≈ s]k-lm- hym-gmgvN
cm{Xn-bmWv tbip-{In-kvXp-hn-s\-t∏mse Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-

74

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

eo-Ømbpw kz¥-P\
- ß
- f
- m¬ A[n-t£-]n-°s
- ∏-Sp-Ibpw ssItb‰w sNøs∏-Sp-Ibpw D≠m-b-Xv.
I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\w- hI ]ndhw skan-\m-cn-bn-emWv A∂v sa{Xmt∏m-eoØm Xma-kn-®p-h-∂-Xv. s]klm ip{iq-j-Iƒ skan-\m-cn-bn¬
\S-Ønb tijw Xncp-ta\n hn{i-an-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.
A∂v ]ndhw ]≈n-bn¬ Hcp IΩ-n‰n-tbmKw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ]ndhw
Cw•ojv anUn¬ kvIqƒ slUvam-Ãd
- m-bn-cp∂ Be-∏m´v Uo°≥ F≥.Fw. -tXm-akv kndn-b≥ ÃpU‚kvv tIm¨^-d≥kv sk{I-´-dn-bmbn
tkh\w sNøm≥ c≠p h¿jsØ Ah-[n-bn¬ kvIqƒ hn-´-Xn-s\- XpS¿∂v Akn-Âns\ Npa-Xe Gev]n-®p. F∂m¬ kvIqƒ amt\-P-cm-bncp∂ Hcp sshZn-I≥ as‰mcp hnhmZ hy‡nsb a‰m-tcmSpw Btem-Nn°msX slUvam-Ã-dmbn \nb-an-®p. CtX-∏‰n ]≈n-°-Ωn-‰n-bn¬ tNmZyap-≠m-b-t∏mƒ amt\-P-cm-bn-cp∂ A®≥ Cßs\ ]d-™p:˛ ""Rm≥
kvIqfn¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ AhnsS slUvam-ÿ C√m-bn-cp-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v
Rm≥ Hcmsf \nb-an®p.'' H®-∏m-Sp-Iƒ°p tijw sa{Xm≥ I£n-°m¿
Cd-ßn-t∏m-bn. IΩn-‰n-bn¬ _mhm-°-£n-°m¿°m-bn-cp∂p `qcn-]-£w.
Ah¿ Ah¿°n-„a
- p≈ Xocp-am-\ß
- ƒ FSp-Øt- ijw IΩn-‰n- ]n-cn-™p.

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I£n a
- ’
- c
- Ø
- ns‚ i‡n IqSnh∂ B L´-Øn¬ ]ndhw SuWnse
Nne {]apJ hy‡n-Iƒ sa{Xm≥ `mKØpw a‰p Nnecpw ]mgq¿ -˛ -I-°mSp-Ic {]am-Wn-amcpw _mhm-`m-KØpw \n∂p ]≈n-°m-cy-߃ Ah-ch
- ¿°n„-ap≈ coXn-bn¬ Xncn-®p-hn-Sm≥ bXv\n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. _mhm-°-£n`m-KsØ hnIm-cnbpw {SÃn-amcpw BWv ]≈n-`c
- Ww \n¿∆-ln-®p-h∂
- X
- v.
Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-emWv skan-\m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂
HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-sb ]≈n-bn-te°v
sIm≠p-hc
- p-∂X
- n\v sa{Xm≥ I£n-bn¬s∏-´h
- ¿ D’m-ln-®X
- v. Xncp-ta\n
]≈n-bn¬ FØp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p≈ {]tbm-P-\hpw hnh-cn-°-s∏-´-s{X.
]≈n-bn-te°v t]mIp-∂-Xn\p apºv ImtXm-en°m I£n-bnse c≠p
sshZn-Icpw Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS km∂n-≤y-Øn-te°v B\-bn-°-s∏-´p. hey®-\mb Be-∏m´v aØmbn IØ-\mcpw Fcp-as
- ∏´n tXmakv IØ-\mcpw.
]≈n-bn-te°v t]mtI-≠-Xpt≠m F∂ A`n-{]mbw Be-∏m´v A®≥
Adn-bn-°m≥ FØn-bt- ∏m-tg°pw Xncp-ta\n Nph-∂I
- p-∏mbw [cn®p Xømdmbn \n∂n-cp-∂p. X∂n-anØw A®≥ FXn-scm∂pw ]d-bmsX Xncp-ta\nsb A\p-K-an-®p.

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A∂v ]ndhw {]tZ-iØp e`y-am-bn-cp∂ amÿ tamt´m-gvkv hI _ v
skan-\m-cn-bn¬ FØn. sagp-Ip-Xncn IØn-®p-]n-Sn® kt≠-kvIqƒ Ip´n-

75

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

Iƒ ]≈n-bn-te-°p≈ tdmUns‚ Ccp-hi
- ß
- f
- nepw AWn-\n-c∂
- p. ]≈nh-sc-bp≈ A©p ^¿temwKv- Zqcw _ n¬ k©-cn®p; efn-X-sa-¶nepw
BtLmj ka-\zn-X-amb kzoI-c-Ww. ]≈n-bn¬ D≠m-bn-cp∂ adp-I£n-bnse CS-h-I -hn-Imcn Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ sshZn-I¿ Xncp-ta\n ]≈nbn¬ Ibdn epØn-\n-bm -{]m¿∞-\, k‘ym -\-a-kvImcw F∂nh \SØn-b-t∏mƒ AXnepw kl-I-cn-®p.
IΩn-‰n-bn¬ `qcn-]-£-ap-≈ _mhm-I-£n-°m¿ ]ndhsØ Nne ]ucap-Jy-cpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ \S∂ kzoI-c-W-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°p-Itbm
X¬k-abw {]Xn-tj-[i
- _vZw Db¿Øp-Itbm sNbvXn-cp-∂n-√. F¶nepw
Xncp-ta\n ]≈n-bn¬ FØnb hnh-cs
- Ø-∏‰n Ah¿ ]c-kv]cw cl-kyambn N¿®- sN-øp-Ibpw IqSp-X¬ Bfp-Isf Xß-fpsS Btem-N\
- b
- n¬
]s¶-Sp-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.

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_mhm-°£n -ssh-Zn-I¿ Xncp-ta\n hn{i-an-°p-∂-Xp-h-scbpw ]≈nbn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. cm{Xn-bn¬ Ah¿ Ahn-sS-\n∂p t]mI-cp-sX∂p
kzoIcWw \evIn-b-h¿ ]d™p F¶nepw Ah¿ ÿew- hn-Sp-I-bm-Wp≠m-b-Xv. sa{Xm≥ `m-KsØ hey-®\pw ho´n¬ t]m-bn.

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sIm®-®-\mb Fcp-a-s∏-´n¬ tXmakv IØ-\mcpw GXm\pw siΩm»-∑mcpw kzoI-cWw \evInb Iq´-Ønse Nne sNdp-∏-°mcpw ]≈nbn¬Ø-s∂ -D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. {]im-¥-amb cm{Xn. aqhm-‰p-]pg Bdns‚
hncn-am-dn¬ \n∂p s]mßnb Cfw-sX-∂¬ ]≈n-∏p-c-bn-S-Ønse
sXßn≥tXm-∏ns\ XgpIn IS-∂p-h∂
- X
- p- am-{Xta B im¥-Xbv°v Fs¥¶nepw `wKw hcp-Øn-bn-cp-∂p-≈p. I„m-\p-`h BgvN-bm-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬
H´-[nIw `‡-P\
- ß
- fpw hcm-¥b
- nepw ]≈n-bI
- Øpw a‰pw [ym\-\n-cX
- cmbpw Dd-ßnbpw Ign-™p-Iq-Sn-bn-cp-∂p.

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""Hmim-\sb'' A\p-kw
va-cn-∏n-°p∂ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS ]≈n-{]-th-i\w
H´pw C„-s∏-Sm-Ø-h-c
psS
w A\p-`m-hn-Iƒ cm{Xn-bn¬ Ah¿°p `qcn-]£-ap≈ ]mgq¿, I°mSp
I-fn¬ Ibdn Cdßn ]≈n-bn¬ ""I≈≥
/w]d™vIc-Nne
Ibdn'' F∂pw a‰pw
ap´m-f∑
- msc ]≈n-bn-te°v BI¿jn®p.
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:
`n∂-Xt
-sp
bt\y I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\w `cn-®n-cp-∂ -Im-e-Øv, A\p-k-ct
W-t°-Sn\p sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm apS-°nb Hcp bph-ssh-Zn-I≥ XpS¿∂v
h
doØn¬ tN¿∂p F¶nepw Xs‚ sshcmKyw Xo¿°m-\mbn _mhm-I£n-

°m- c psS KpV- { i- a - ß ƒ°v kIe ]n¥p- W bpw \ev I n- s °m- ≠ ncp∂phs{X. kwL-Sn-∏n-°-s∏-´-h¿ Su¨ jm∏p-S-a-bmb ]≈n-{]-am-WnbpsS D]-tZ-i-hpw- tX-Sn. ]q´n-°-gn-™n-cp∂ I≈p-jm-∏n¬\n∂p I≈psIm-≠p-h∂v jm∏p-S-a-bpsS ho´n¬h®v ap´m-f-∑m¿°p \evI-s∏-´p.

76

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

doØn¬ tN¿∂ sshZn-I≥ Xe-bn¬ Hcp sI´pw-sI´n ap´m-f∑
- msc ]≈n∏-Sn-hsc A\p-bm-{X s
- NbvXp F∂pw ]d-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂p. Xncp-ta-\nsb ""IpSnbn-d-°m≥'' h∂ kwL-Øn¬s∏´ Nne¿ ]mgqsc Hcp ho´n¬ \n∂p
sh´n-sb-SpØ HSn-bm-ØXpw th≠{X hnf-bm-ØX
- p-amb Im∏n-hS- n-Ifpw
Icp-Xn-bn-cp-∂p.
A¿≤-cm-{Xn-bn¬ kwLw ]≈n-bn¬ FØp-tºmƒ AhnsS Bcpw
DW¿∂n-cp-∂n-√. ]≈n-bn¬ `P-\°
- m-cpsS at≤y h
- ®
- n-cp∂ s]t{Sm-amIvkv
hnf°v X√n-ØI
- ¿°-s∏-´p. sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS apdn°v ap≥hiw Ddßn-°n-S∂ sIm®-®\pw siΩm-»-∑mcpw DW¿Ø-s∏-´p. Xncp-ta\n InS∂p-dß
- nb apdn _e-ambn X≈n Xpd-∏n-°s
- ∏-´p. \n{Z-bn-em-≠n-cp∂ Xncpta-\n-bpsS tXmfn¬ ]nSn®v Btcm Ipep-°n. At±lw sR´n DW¿∂p.
Xncp-ta-\n°v ]≈n-ap-dn-bn¬ FØm-\p≈ Ah-Im-ihpw a‰pw tNmZyw
sNø-s∏-´p. DS≥ ÿew hn´n-s√-¶n¬ kwKXn hj-fm-Ip-sa∂pw a‰pw
Ah¿ ]d™p `oj-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn. H´pw FXn¿∏p IqSmsX Xncp-ta\n
apdn hnSm≥ Xøm-dm-bn. sNcp-∏p- t]mepw FSp-°msX ]pd-Øn-dß
- n. kwLØns‚ `oj-Wnbpw \nL≠p I≠n-´n-√mØ hm°p-I-fpsS h¿jhpw
XpS¿∂-t∏mƒ Xncp-ta\n ]≈n-bpsS sXt° -ap-‰-tØ-bv°n-dßn Ingt°m´p kmh-[m-\-Øn¬ \S∂p\oßn. ]cn-Nn-Xsc Xncn®dnbm≥ Ignbpw-hn[w \nem-hp-≠v. kwL-Øn¬ Hcp-hn-`mKw Xncp-ta-\nsb A\p-Kan®p. a‰p Nne¿ sIm®-®s\ ]nSnIqSn H∂p- sIm-Sp-Øp. IqSp-X¬ ASnIn-´p-sa-∂p-d∏
- mb Fcp-as
- ∏-´n-e®
- ≥ HmSn c£-s∏-´p. ÿe-]c
- n-Nb
- a
- n-√mØ
siΩm-»-∑m¿ ASn-sIm≠v e£y-an-√msX HmSn.

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]≈n-bpsS Ing-°p-hiw \S-bn-dß
- th sXm´p-]n-ºn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂h
- sc
Xncp-ta-\n-°d
- n-bm-am-bn-cp-∂p. \S-bn-dß
- p-tºmƒ Hcmƒ Xncp-ta-\nsb H∂m™Sn®p. ]pd-Øp-Xs∂ Im∏n-hSn {]tbm-Kn-°s
- ∏-´p. hnIm-ch
- n-hi
- \
- mbn
Xncn-™p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ ]nºn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ Bfns\ Xncp-ta-\n°v a\ n-em-bn. A°mcyw ]n∂oSv Xncp-ta\n shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-ap-≠v. A¿≤cm-{Xn-bn¬ \S∂ {Iqc-amb Cu kw`-hs
- Ø-∏‰n A∂v Xncp-ta\n hn{i-an®n-cp∂ apdn-bpsS hmXn-ev°¬ InS-∂p-d-ßnb D®n-∏n-≈n¬ tPm¨
Cßs\ ]d™p:˛ ""Rm≥ Fs‚ Pq_bpw tXm¿Øpw aS°n Xe-bn-Wbm°n Xncp-ta\n InS-∂n-cp∂ Xpd∂ apdn-bpsS hmXn-ev°-emWp InS∂Xv. ""a°sf \n߃ s]mbvs°m-≈p-hn≥, Rm≥ \msf cmhnse aSßn-s°m≈mw'' F∂p Xncp-ta\n ]d-™p. F¶nepw Rß-fn¬ Nne¿
t]mbn-√. A¿≤cm{Xn-bm-bt- ∏mƒ Hcp kwLw ap´m-f∑
- m¿ H‰-ap-≠p-SpØv
Ac-bn¬ tXm¿Øpw-sI´n Xncp-ta\n InS-∂n-cp∂ apdnsb e£y-am°n
i_vZ-ap-≠m°n IS-∂p-h-∂p. Rm≥ sR´n-bp-W¿∂p Xncp-ta\n InS∂

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77

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

apdn-bn¬ Ibdn c≠p km£mbp≈ IX-IS- b
- v°m≥ {ian-®Xpw ]pd-Øp\n-∂p≈ i‡-amb X≈-em¬ Rm≥ Xmsg adn-™p-ho-WXpw H∂n-®mbn-cp-∂p. Rm\pw H‰-ap-≠p-am{Xw DSp-Øn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Hcp ]t£
Fs∂bpw Ah-cp-sS I
- q-´Ø
- n¬s∏´ Bsf-∂p- I-cpXn a¿±n-®n-√. F¶nepw
Rm≥ `b∂v F¥p sNø-W-sa-∂-dn-bmsX \n∂p-t]m-bn. CXn-\n-S-bn¬
Btcm ]≈n-bn¬ Ibdn aWn ASn-®p. aWn-b-Sn -tI´p ]ecpw ]≈nbn¬ FØp-tºmƒ Xncp-ta-\nsb A{I-an-Iƒ ]≈n-bn¬\n∂p _e-ambn
]nSn-®n-d°n skan-\m-cn-bn-te°v B\-bn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Ah¿ ]e
hm°p-Iƒ A´-l-kn-°p-∂Xp tIƒ°m-am-bn-cp-∂p.''
aWn-b-Sn -tI´v HmSn-sb-Ønb ap≥ ]-≈n-{SÃn a¶n-Sn¬ h¿°n DXp∏ns‚ (Ip-™∏
- s
- ‚) a°-fmb Fw. bp. h¿°n, Fw.- bp. G{_-lmw, Fw.
bp. ]ueqkv F∂n-hc
- n¬ Ct∏mƒ ]nd-hsØ Hcp {]apJ ÿm]-\a
- mb
sk‚ vta-cokv _mt¶-gvkns‚ DS-a-ÿ-\mb Fw. bp. h¿°n Cßs\
]d™p: ""aWn-bSn i_vZw tI´p R߃ ]≈n-bn-te°v HmSn. Ipd-®pZqcw sN∂-t∏mƒ sh≈ tfml- am{Xw [cn® Xncp-ta-\nsb \mev]t- Xmfw
N´-ºn-Iƒ tN¿∂v sNcp-∏p- t]mepw CSm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°msX Ak-`yßfpw hnfn-®p-]d
- ™p \S-Øn-s°m≠ph-cp-∂Xv I≠p. R߃ t]Sn-®pt]m-bn. Ah-cpsS IÆn¬ s]SmsX R߃ tdmUns‚ Hcp- h-it- Ø°v
HXpßn \nev°p-Ibpw Xncp-ta-\nsb \S-Øn-s°m-≠p- t]m-Ip-∂-Xns‚
]ntº A{I-an-If
- psS t\m´w FØmØ Zqc-Øn¬ \n∂v skan-\m-cn hsc
A\p-K-an-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.'' A{I-an-kwLw skan-\m-cn-bn-te-°p≈
bm{Xm-at≤y ap≥ {SÃn-bm-bn-cp∂ a¶n-Sn¬ h¿°n DXp-∏ns‚ tdmUpssk-Un-ep≈ hoSns‚ t\¿°v tdmUn¬ InS-∂n-cp∂ sa‰¬ hmcn
Fdn™p. Cu Imcy-߃ hnh-cn-®t- ∏mƒ h¿°n DXp∏v Ic-™p-t]m-bn.
Xs∂ ImWp-tºm-sg√mw ""{]m¿∞n-t®mWw'' F∂p Xncp-ta\n ]d-bp-ambn-cp∂p F∂pw h¿°n DXp∏v A\p-kvac
- n-®p. Xncp-ta\n skan-\m-cn-bn¬
FØn-bt- ∏m-tg°pw A{I-an-kwLw ]ncn-™p.

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Xncp-ta-\nsb a¿±n® kw`-hs
- Ø-∏‰n 100 hb- p≈ Be-∏m´v aØmbn
A®≥ Cu teJ-It- \mSv 1976 sabv 7 ˛mw XobXn sh≈n-bmgvN kz`-h\
- Øn¬h®p ]d-™X
- n-{]-Im-ca
- m-Wv. ""Xncp-ta\n ]≈n-bn-te°p t]mIp-∂Im-cy-Øn¬ F\n°p a\- n¬ Xr]vXn-bn-√m-bn-cp-∂p. th≠m F∂p ]db-W-sa-∂p -hn-Nm-cn®p skan-\m-cn-bn¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ Xncp-ta\n Nph∂
Ip∏m-bhpw [cn®v ]≈n-bn-te-°p- t]m-Im≥ Hcp-ßn- \n-ev°p-∂-Xm-bn´mWp I≠-Xv. At∏mƒ FXn-cp-]d
- b
- msX Rm\pw kl-Ic
- n-®p. AhnsS
At∏mƒ Ccp-\q-tdmfw t]cp-≠m-bn-cp∂p F∂mWv Hm¿Ω. cm{Xn F´pa-Wn-tbm-Sp-IqSn R߃ ]≈n-bn¬ FØn. {]m¿∞\ I-gn™p Xncp-ta-

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78

ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥

\nsb Xncn®v skan-\m-cn-bn-em-°-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p Rm≥ Dt±-in-®-Xv.
Rm≥ \n¿_-‘n-®t- ∏mƒ Xncp-ta\n AXn\p kΩ-Xn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
]t£ Hcp tamt´m¿ hml\w sIm≠p-h-cm≥ sN∂-t∏mƒ AXn\p
ss{Uh¿ C√m-bn-cp-∂p. amÿ _ v k¿∆o-kv \-S-Øp∂ Ipcymt°mknt\mSv _ p sIm≠p-h-cp-hm≥ Rm≥ ]d-™p. F∂m¬ _kv
F{X {ian-®n´pw Ãm¿´m-Ip-∂n-s√∂v Ipcym-t°mkv ]d-™p. At∏mtg°pw kabw hfsc sshIn-t∏m-bn-cp-∂p. Fs‚ Ip∏mbw hnb¿Øp
\\-™-Xp-sIm≠pw F\n°p hfsc £oWw tXm∂n-bXp sIm≠pw
Ipfn®p hkv{Xw amdn ]≈n-bn¬ Xncn-s®-Ø-W-sa∂ B{K-l-tØmsS
Rm≥ ho´n-te-°p-t]m-bn. AXn\p apºp-Xs∂ Ahn-sS- \n-∂-h-tcmSp
""a°-sf, \n߃ t]mIp-hn≥, Rm≥ shfp-∏ns\ \a-kvImcw Ign-™ps]mbvs°m≈mw'' F∂p Xncp-ta\n ]d-™n-cp-∂p.

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Rm≥ ho´n¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ Hcp sshZn-I≥ hncp-∂p-Im-c-\m-bn-´p-≠mbn-cp-∂p. Ipfnbpw I™n -Ip-Snbpw Ign™p sXdp-Øp-h-®n-cp∂ InS°
\nh¿°msX AXn¬ Nmcn-°n-S∂p kwkm-cn-°th Rm≥ Dd-ßn-t∏mbn.
shfp-∏n\v A©p- a-Wn°v Btcm- h∂v Fs∂ hnfn-®p-W¿Øn "]≈nbnse kw`-h-sam∂pw Adn-™nt√' F∂p tNmZn-®p. a¿±-\-hn-hcw
]d™p. kw{`m-¥-\mb Rm≥ t\sc skan-\m-cn-bn¬ sN∂v Xncp-ta\nsb I≠-t∏mƒ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS IÆn¬\n∂p IÆp-\o¿ hogp-∂p-≠mbn-cp-∂p. Rm≥ Imen¬ Ipºn´p Xncp-ta-\nsb \a-kvIc
- n®p. DS≥Xs∂
Rß-fpsS Iq´-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ CØm-°p -ssh-Zys\ hcpØn Xncpta-\n°p th≠ NnIn-’ -\¬In.'' Cu Imcy-߃ FgpXn tcJ-bm°n
hbvt°-≠X
- pt≠m F∂ tNmZy-tØm-sS-bmWv A®≥ kw`hw aßmØ
Hm¿Ω-bn¬\n∂p hnh-cn-®-Xv. Rm≥ ssIapØn bm{X- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ
""A[nIw InS-°msX Aßp IS-°W
- s
- a∂ {]m¿∞-\tb F\n-°p≈p''
F∂p {]Xym-im-\n¿`-c-amb PohnXw \bn-°p∂ DØ-a-\mb B hey®≥ Ft∂mSp ]d-™p.

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skan-\m-cn-bn¬ FØn-b-tijw Xncp-ta-\n°p Ipgºpw FÆbpw
XncpΩpw F√mw e`n®p F¶nepw Ak-l-\o-b-amb thZ\ GXm\pw
Znhkw A\p-`h
- n-t°≠n h∂p. Im∏n-hS- n-bpsS \of-Øn-ep≈ c≠p ]mSpIfpw CSn-®s
- X∂p Icp-Xs
- ∏-Sp∂ Hcp ]mSpw kZm Ip∏mbw BOm-Z\
- wsN-bvXn-cp∂ B tIma-fi
- c
- o-cØ
- n¬ GXm\pw BgvNI
- ƒ ambmsX InS∂n-cp-∂p. t\cw- sh-fpØp ZpxJ-sh-≈n-bmgvN ip{iq-j-bn¬ kw_-‘n°m≥ h-∂-h¿ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS thZ-\-bnepw ]¶p-sIm-≠p. sa{Xm-®s\
]≈nbn¬\n∂p ]d-™-b-bv°p-∂-Xn¬ IqSp-X-em-bn-s´m∂pw AXn\p
{ian-®h
- ¿ B{K-ln-®n-cp-∂n-s√∂pw Hc-`n-{]m-bK
- X
- n-bp-≠v. F∂m¬ Ah¿

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pw s .h®p]pe¿Øp∂-Xnt\m {InkvXob kpIr-Xß . ]ndhw kw`-hs . At¥ymIym ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv -_mhm ae-¶-c-bn¬ FØn ImtXm-en-°msb Ah-tcm-[n-°pIbpw XpS¿∂v c≠p _mhm-amcpw H∂n®p ]ndhw ]≈n-bn¬ FØn ]≈n-bpsS ]S-hp-Iƒ ssItIm¿Øp-]n-Sn®p Ib-dp-Ibpw sNbv-X-Xns\ XpS¿∂mWv Cu au\-PmY ths≠-∂p-h-®-Xv.∏m-sg√mw Nne¿ Xncp-ta-\nsb I≠v Xß-fpsS _‘-s∏-´-h¿ sNbvX ZpjvIr-XyØn\v am∏p -tNm-Zn-°pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. t t h / : p /w w . hb-e-Øe \¬Ip∂ ZrIvkm-£n -hn-h-c-W-amWp (a-e-¶ck`mZo]w. _mhmbpsS A\p-hm-Z-tØm-Sp-IqSn Ipcn-ipw-sXm-´n-bn¬ Cßs\ Fgp-Xn-h-®ncn-°p-∂Xp ImWmw. Augen Mar Themothios (H. GXm\pw Znh-k-߃°Iw 31 t]sc {]Xn.nt\m Btcm-sS-¶nepw ]I. doØn¬ tN¿∂ sshZn-I\pw jm∏p-Im-c≥ {]am-Wn°pw AwK-ssh-Ieyw kw`hn® k¥-Xn-Iƒ D≠m-bn. Cu kw`-h-sØ-∏‰n Nne¿ km`n-am\w Bep-hm-bnse am¿ AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{Xm-®s\ t\cn´v Adn-bn-®t. s . tPmk^v (C∂v sshZn/ I≥) hS-t»-cn-b/-Øv.. H. Xs∂ a¿±n-®-Xn¬ X\n°v ]cn-`hw Cs√∂pw Ah¿ Btem-Nn-°msX sNbvX-Xm-sW∂pw Xm≥ AsX√mw £an-®p-Ig . Mankidyil (St.n-™p-sh∂pw ]ndhw ]≈n-bn¬h®v Xs∂ sa{Xmt∏m-eoØm Hcn-°¬ ]c-ky-ambn {]kvXm-hn-®p.p-Ibpw sNbvXp.¿°pw F√mw ]e-hn-[Ø .∏mƒ Ah-tcm-Sv. G.mbpw Adn-bmw. ]n∂oSv Xncp-ta\n ]ndhw ]≈n-bn¬ FØn-bn-´p-≈t. Mary's Bankers.79 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ign-®n-cp∂ aZyhpw [cn-®n-cp∂ hSn-Ifpw B A`n-{]m-b-KXn ASn-ÿm\-c-ln-X-sa-∂mWv hnfn-®-dn-bn-°p-∂-Xv. h rt o .psS 80 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ \nd-Ip-Sa .f . ]ndhw kw`-hsØ XpS¿∂v ImtXm-en-°m.f . Xncp-ta-\nsb \S-Øn-s°m-≠p-t]mb hgn-bpsS a≤y-`m-KØp Im¬e£w cq]m sNe-hm°n ]pXp-°n-∏-WnX at\m-l-c-amb Ipcn-ipwsXm´n ].Hu-tK≥ _mhm D’p-I\ . Moran Mar Baselius Augen I) Reconstructed by Uthup Varkey.P. Xncp-ta\n Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv hn`m-K-Øn-te°v Xncn-®p-h-cp-tºmƒ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\-Øn¬ \n∂p [mcmfw ]≈n-Ifpw P\-ßfpw Xncp-ta-\n-tbm-sSm∏w tN¿∂n-cp-∂p.hn-`m-K-°m¿ h¿jw-tXmdpw skan-\m-cn-bn¬\n∂p ]≈n-bn-te°v I„m-\p-`h BgvNbn¬ Hcp au\-PmY \S-ØpI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ Btcm-sS-¶nepw ]d-bp-∂X . hnf°p sXfn-®-h¿°pw Bfp-Isf hnfn-®pIq´n-bh .n\pw A[n-t£-]n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Iq´p\n∂-h¿s°√mw X°-Xmb in£ apIfn¬\n∂p e`n®p F∂-XmWv Cu kw`-h-Ønse Nn¥m¿l-amb Hcp hkvXp-X. p: 1998 P\p-hcn 1 ˛ 15 e°w) NphsS tN¿°p-∂-Xv: t ""Fs‚ ht kvac-W-bn¬ F∂pw \ne-\n¬°p∂ Hcp h¿j-amWv 1946.mb sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb a¿±n-°p-∂X . v .NbvXp F∂Xv Hcp kXy-am-Wv. Cu kw`hw At±-lsØ k`-bv°p-th-≠n-bp≈ Hcp kl-Zm-bmbn am‰n F∂-XmWp Ncn-{X-kXyw.p-sIm≠v k`-bv°p-Xs∂ t\cn-Sm-hp∂ £oWsØ ap≥\n¿Ønbm-bn-cn-°Ww B tIkv aµo-`-hn-∏n-°p-Itbm ]n≥h-en-°-s∏-Sp-Itbm sNbvXp F∂mWv ]n∂oSp a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-™-Xv.Ø-∏‰n ZpxJn® {]apJ hy‡n-If . HutK≥ _mhm 1970 Unkw-_¿ 24 \ .sN-bvXp.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox Cu kw`-hs .n¬ A¿ln-°p∂ in£ e`n-®X .Ø-∏‰n ]n¬°m-eß .tN¿Øv tIm´bw tImSXnbn¬ ^b¬sNbvX tI n¬ tIm´bw t]meokv kq{]≠v CS-s]-SpIbpw {]Xn-Iƒ Pmay-Øn-en-dß . ""btlm-hb . ]pdØp IS°v'' F∂v At±lw ]d-™X . Im∏n-hSn sh´n-sb-SpØ ]mgq-cp≈ ho´nse GI-]p-{X≥ ap‰Øp-\n∂p Xmtgbv°p hogp-Ibpw hSn apdn-s®-SpØ Ip‰n hb-‰n¬sIm≠p≠mb apdn-hns\ XpS¿∂v B ]ø≥ A∂p-Xs∂ Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬h®p acn-°p-Ib .p IqZm-i.mbpw Adn-bm≥ Ign-™n-´p-≠v. B .psS A`n-jn-‡s\ ssIh®-hcmcpw Fs‚ apdn-bn¬ \n¬°-cp-Xv. CØcw Hcp tIkv \SØp-∂X . al k n a o a ar . Xncp-ta\n ZpxJ-sh-≈n-bm-gvNsØ Zo¿L-amb ip{iq-j-Iƒ thZ\ kln®p \S-Øn.n¬ Hcm-fmb a¶n-Snbn¬ DXp-∏p -h¿°n HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS kvac-Wsb \ne-\n¿Øp-∂Xn-\p-th≠n.t / ssZh-Øns‚ A`n-jn-‡\ .m-bn-cp-∂n-√.m w ]ndhw a¿±-\-th-fw -bn¬ HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏meo-Øm-tbm-Sp-IqsS w D≠m-bn-cp∂ Uo°≥ hn. hSn {]tbm-Kn® Bfns‚ a¿Ω `mK-Øp-≠mb ]gp∏v h¿j-߃°p-tijw kIp-Spw_w Xncp-ta\nsb I≠v am∏n-c-∂-ti-j-amWv Icn-™-sX∂pw Adn-bp-∂p. ASn-bpsS I\-I-Pq-_nen ]m{Xn-b¿°okv `mKØp\n∂p h∂ HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncpta\n aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Ct∏m-gp≈ Ac-a-\-bpsS ÿeØv Hcp sNdnb sI´n-S-Øn-em-bn-cp∂p Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂Xv. CS-bv°p -sNbvX {]kw-K-Øn¬ Ign™ cm{Xn-bnse kw`-h-sØ-∏‰n Hc-£cw t]mepw ]d-™p-an-√. x do / v t In Memory Of H. Piravom) 1970.m-bn-cp∂ ].

F¥m-bmepw lmim BgvN Nph∂ Ip∏mbw [cn-°m-dn-√. Xncp-ta-\n°v Ah-Im-i-s∏´ Hcp ÿm]\w ]nd-h-Øp-≠m-bn-cp∂p.m-ln-Xy-tam. cm{Xn˛ -{]-`m-X. \mep. shfp-∏n\v A©pa-Wn°v cm{Xn. km[m-cW ]cp-°≥ sh≈-°-Ωokpw Im¬°p-∏m-b-hpw.ap-X¬ c≠p aq∂p.a . ]ndhw skan-\m-cn-tbm-S\ . AXmWv ]ndhw skan-\m-cnbpw AXn-t\mSv tN¿∂p-≠m-bn-cp∂ anUn¬ kvIqfpw.k .Ø .. sh≈n-sIm≠v km[m-cW D]tbm-K-Øn-\p-≈ Hcp ame C{X -am-{X-am-bn-cp∂p Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS B¿`mStam B¿`m-Sc .aWn ^m. {]`mXw apX-emb {]m¿∞-\I . D®-\-a-kvImcw Ign™v Xncp-ta\n A¬]w hn{i-an-°pw.a-Wnbv°v siΩm-»-∑msc hnfn-®n-cpØn thZ-]p-kvXIw amdn-amdn hmbn-∏n-°pw. -sP.a-Wn. F°mdm A\pk-cn-®p≈ cmK-Ønse AXp \S-Øp-I-bp-≈p. Xncp-ta-\n°pw AXp-Xs . kz¿Æw ]qinb Hcp ame.Im-e-am-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ cmhnse F√m-h¿°pw D]hm-ka . Xncp-ta\n aq∂p. B≠-S°-ap≈ s]¶okm {]pan-tbm≥.hSn. AXp aqt∂m \mtem tPmUn am{Xw.a-Wnt° Blmcw Ign-®n-cp-∂p-≈p.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . aq∂p. ]t£ A[nIw Xma-knbmsX Xncp-ta-\n-tbm-Sp-IqSn h∂ ]e ]≈n-°mcpw P\-ßfpw Xncn-®pt]m-bn. x o / v t IqsS D≠m-bn-cp∂ ]≈n-Ifpw P\-ßfpw Xncn-®p-t]mb kml-N-cyØn¬ `{Zm-k\ . hn. HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS {hX-\n-jvT-amb {]m¿∞-\m P ..n°v Ccp-]Ø .n-™p.o-hnXw a‰m-cnepw ImWm≥ Ign-™n-´n-√. F´p-aWn apX¬ Xncp-ta\n Fs¥-¶nepw Fgp-Xp-Itbm `mjm¥cw sNøp-Itbm sNøp-am-bn-cp-∂p. hn.81 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Iq´-Øn¬ {][m-\-s∏´ H∂m-bn-cp∂p ]ndhw hen-b-]-≈n. AXv ]≈n-bn-em-Wv.p-I¬ i .W .∂. FtXym-]y≥ B_p\m am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv apX-em-bh .ƒ \S-Øpw.fmSpw D≈ Xm¬]cyw ]cn-KW .\-a-kvIm-c-߃. Hcp sh¬sh‰p Im∏. k‘y.vIm-cw. ]{¥≠v aWn°v D®-\-a-kvImcw s]mXphmbn \S-Øpw. A©-c a . x o / v t ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn At±-lsØ hmgn-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn bmt°m_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hcp∂ Znh-kw. aq∂p.. Hº-Xp.w. At∏mƒ apcn-ß-°mbpw N°-°pcphpw tN¿Øp≈ sagp-°p-]p-c´.p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Hº-Xp.n-em-bmepw Xncp-ta\n ASpØp h®n-´p≈ clky kpdn-bm\n {]m¿∞\m ]pkvXIw FSpØv Nqc-ep-sI-´nb Nmcp-I-tk-c-bn¬ ImepaS-°n-bn-cp∂p {]m¿∞n-°pw.p-{iqj apgp-h≥ Xncp-ta\n `mjm-¥cw sNbvXp KoX-am°n Rßsf ]cn-io-en-∏n-®p.¿ FØn-°g . Cßs\ {]m¿∞n°p∂ a‰p ]nXm-°-∑msc Bscbpw Rm≥ I≠n-´n-√. sshIn´v k‘ym -\-a-kvImcw Ign™v tNmdv. Zm\n-tb¬ am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv ]e. AXn-s\-°p-dn®v kmc-K¿`-amb hni-Zo-Ic . AXn-\p-tijw ho≠pw Rßsf hnfn-°pw. cm{Xn Hcp.I-gp-I¬ ip{iq-jbpsS Km\-߃ ]Tn-∏n-°m≥ Xncp-ta\n Fs∂ Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øn. `mjm-¥cw A°m-eØv \S∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.n. Hcp km[m-cW Im∏. tPmk^v Ign-™m¬ Xncp-ta\n lmim BgvN -\-a- ht tp :/ /w w .a-Wnbv°v GXp tPmen-°n-Sb . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hn`m-K-Øn¬\n∂v Xt∂m-sSm∏w t]mcp∂ ]ndhw ]≈n-°m-tcmSpw P\-ßt. HutK≥ Xncp-ta\n Hcp ]gb Nph∂ Ip∏m-bhpw C´v tZh-tem-IsØ ]g-ba .. kqØmdm apX-emb \a-kvIm-cw.W . Ik-hp -]Wn sNbvX.. AhnsS Ibdn Xma-kn-°m≥ Ah-cpsS A∂sØ sa{Xm-®-∑m¿ {ian-°p-∂-Xmbn tI´v HutK≥ Xncp-ta\n aqhm-‰p-]p-gbn¬\n∂v ]nd-h-tØ°v Xmakw am‰n-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.hsc I´n-en¬ Fgp-t∂-‰n-cp∂v [ym\w.n-c≠ . Ip¿∫m-\bv°v hb-‰Øv sh´n-bn´ Hcp km‰n≥ Nph∂ Ip∏m-bw. amßmbpw NΩ-¥n. ]m´n\v F\n-°¬∏w Xm¬]-cyhpw Ignhpw a‰p-≈-hsc At]-£n-®p-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ skan-\m-cn-bnse k¨tU-kvIq-fnse apXn¿∂ Ip´n-I-sf-°qSn Imep. shfp-∏n\v A©p.c ..{]m-hiyw sN∂v Ip∏mbw H∂pam‰n \√Xv [cn-°m≥ ]d-™p. kz¿Æw -]q-inb Hcp …o_m.m w al k n a a r a 82 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ kvImcw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v `mjm-¥cw sNbvXp KoX-am-°pw.a-Wn-°v. Hcp ]pdwIp∏mbw. . B ÿm]\w adp-I£ . F°m-dm. -lm-im \a-kI v mcw XpS-ßnbh ]Tn-∏n-°pw. ]t£ Xncp-ta\n Iq´m-°n-bn-√. Cu ka- . Hcp \√ ]pd-¶p-∏m-bw.R-ß-fpsS `£Ww am{XamWv Xncp-ta-\nbpw Ign-°p-I. D®bv°v I™nbpw N°-°p-cphpw apcnß-°mbpw tN¿Øp≈ Hcp sagp-°p-]p-c-´nbpw amßmbpw tXßmbpw tN¿Ø-c® Hcp NΩ-¥nbpw Bbn-cp-∂p ÿncw Blm-cw.n¬ \n∂v H∂pw-Xs∂ hcp-am-\a . ssZh-am-Xmhn-t\m-Sp≈ .p-dn-bn¬ Ccn-°p∂p.p_-‘n-®p≈ kvIqfpw Aßs\ \„-s∏-´p. s]klmbv°v Imep-Ig . Ip¿∫m-\bv°p]tbm-Kn-°p∂ c≠p akv-\-]vkm-Iƒ. XpS¿∂v ib-\ \ .n®v Xncpta\n kvIqƒ ]≈n-°m¿°v Fgp-Xn-s°m-Sp-Øp.a-Wn°v cl-ky-{]m¿∞\ ap≥]-d™ {]Im-cw. t r o d o h R߃ sN√p∂ kabw t\mºp. Cu Iq´-Øn¬ ]ndhwImcpw t]mbn.a-Wn.m-bn-cp-∂p.n-°m¿ ssIh-i-s∏-SpØn. tXßm-bpw. t t h / : p /w w . amßm NX-®n´v D∏pw apfIpw sh≈hpw tN¿Ø amßm tamcv.° klmbw H∂pw A°m-eØv Xncp-ta-\n°v e`n®n-cp-∂n-√. km[m-cW D]tbm-K-Øn\v tIm´¨ sIm≠p≈ Hcp Nph-∂ -Ip-∏mbw. tI{µØn¬ \n∂v ]d-bØ .a-Wn-s°mcp I´≥Im-∏n. sh≈n.

fpw ImtXmen°m ]£-°mcpw Bh-iy-s∏-´p. aW-hm-´n-°p-th≠n Hs∂m-cp-ßW .m w cm{Xn Hcp.m-bnm cp∂p ]ndhw anUn¬ kvIqƒ slUv a mà ¿.\-S-Øn. Xncp-ta-\nbpw siΩm-i\pw Fcp-as∏-´n-bn-e-®\pw am{Xw D≠v.b-°p-dn®pw Xncp-ta\n {]kw-Kn-®p. ]nd-hsØ {]ap-J-cmb a¶nSn DΩ≥. ]Øp ]Xn-\-©p-t]¿. Imcn-ØS. Rm≥ Fgp-t∂-ev°m≥ {ian-®h p. F≥. Imcn-Ø-S-Øn¬ sNdn-bm≥ Ip™v. Ah[n Ign™v Xncn®p h∂-t∏mƒ :At±-lsØ kvIqƒ tPmen-°-\p-h-Zn-°msX Hcp slUv ]≈n-°-Ωn‰n p t \nb-an®p Ign-™n-cp-∂p. aZy-Øns‚ K‘w ]cnkcw apgp-h≥. "FSm aØmbn IXIp Xpd°v' F∂p ]d™v IX-In¬ CSn-°p-Ibpw sXmgn-°p-I-bpamWv.m-Wv.Xp-d∂p t\m°pw tºm-g-tØ°pw BPm-\p-_m-lp-hmb Hcp a\p/ jy≥ Fs‚ hb‰ n\p / Nhn´n adp-hiw IS-∂n-cp-∂p. ip{iqjm at≤y hfsc i‡-ambpw Bgambpw Bth-i-`-cn-X-\mbpw ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS kzmX-{¥y-sØ-°p-dn®pw Bh-iy-IX . .ncp-∂X . F¥p-sN-ø-W-sa-∂-dn-bmsX R߃ ]cn-{`m-¥-cmbn Xo¿∂p. F\n-°m-hiyw I¿Øm-hns‚ IcpW-bm-sW∂p'' ]d-™p.k . Rm≥ apdn-bn-te°v sN∂v siΩm-is\ hnfn®v \√ Ip∏m-bs .ams° FSp-∏n-®p.Ø .m-Wv. R߃ {]Xo-£n-®n-cp-∂X .s . Ah¿ Xncp-ta-\nsb ]ndhw ]≈n-bn¬ sN∂v Xma-kn-°m≥ \n¿_-‘n-°p-Ib .a-Wn-bw m-bn-°mWpw. \√ Hcp P\-°q-´-Øns‚ ap{Zm-hm-Iy-߃ apg-ßp-∂-Xn-\n-Sbn¬ IqSn ]≈n-bn-te°v R߃ t]m-bn.a∂v'' Nncn-®p-sIm≠v ]d-™p.Ø .p≈ sI´nS-Øns‚ ]Sn-™msd apdn-bn¬ Xncp-ta\n {]th-in®v hn{i-an-®p.tXm-akv siΩm-i\v amÃsd thsd t h At±-lØ . Ahcpw \n¿_-‘n®p ]d-™-X-\p-k-cn®v Xncp-ta-\nbpw _lp-am\-s∏´ A®-∑mcpw Xcy≥ siΩm-i\pw Hmen-°¬ Fw. G‰hpw `‡n-\n¿`-c-ambpw BI¿j-I-ambpw R߃ F√mw tN¿∂v ip{iq-jbn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-tbmSp kl-I-cn®p ip{iq-j. Rm≥ Hcp hi-tØ°v Xncn-™t-tt ∏mƒ AbmfpsS Im¬ hgp-Xn-t∏m-bn.n-¬ Ibdn ]≈n-bn-te-°v t]m-bn. al k n a o a ar h rt o . s]k-lm-bpsS Znhkw D®-bv°p-tijw Imep-Ig . ]oe-Ik v n-t\mkv Xncp-ta\n Fs∂ hnfn®v cl-ky-Øn¬ Ip∏mbw H∂p am‰n-°m-\p≈ am¿§w Bcm-™p. tSm¿®v-sse‰v apX-em-bh D≠v. hmbn¬ \n∂v hogp∂Xv \mdp∂ sXdn.n-te¬∏n®n´v ""C∂p Xncp-ta\n Zb-dm-°m-c-\mb ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS aW-hm-f-\m-Wv.p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. tXmakv siΩm-»\ .ns‚ tPmen Xncn-®p-sIm-Sp-°W . cm{Xn ]Ø-c.a .t / Rm≥ {]k-‡.83 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ bØv Rm\-hnsS D≠m-bn-cp∂p. R߃ Aß-s\-sb-¶n¬ C…m-an-te°v t]mIpw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.p-I¬ ip{iq-jb . At±l-Øns‚ Pohn-X-Øn-te°v \ΩpsS Bg-amb Nn¥sb Xncn-®p-hn-Sm≥ Hcp kw`hw ]d-™X .. Xncpta\n Fgp-t∂‰v Ip∏mbw C´p. R߃ ]≈n-bn¬ Ibdn k‘ym \ . Fw. Fs‚ hb-‰Øv Hcp `mcw. Rm≥ Ip∏mbw B ]mh\-amb Ic-ßf . s]klm hymgmgvN D®bv°p tijw ]≈n-°-Ωn‰n IqSn Cu hnjbw N¿® sNbvXp. A®∑m-cm-sc-¶nepw h∂v hnfn°msX Atßm´v hcn-I-bn-s√∂v Xncp-ta\n i‡-ambn ]d-™p.a∂v bph-P\ . Ah¿ Xncp-ta-\n-sb-s°m-≠p-t]m-Ip-hm≥ Xøm-dm-bn-´mWv \n¬°p-∂-Xv. Ft∂m-S¬∏w tZjy-s∏´v ""Xm≥ Fs∂ aW-hm-f≥ Na-bn-∏n-°m≥ h∂-Xm-tWm-sSm. C∂sØ k`-bnse sshZn-I¿°pw {][m-\mNm-cy-∑m¿°pw CXp a\- n-em-Iptam Ft¥m? d o h ox v .s . At∏mƒ bph-P\ . sF∏v km-dns\ ÿnc-s∏-Sp-Øn. A[nIw Xma-kn°msX Be-∏m-´-®-t\bpw Fcp-a-s∏´n tXma-k-®-s\bpw Iq´n-s°m-≠ph-∂p. \n-bpsS IqsS Bbn-cp-∂ wp. x do / v t . ASp-Ø-Xmbn Nph∂ Ip∏mbw FSp-Øp-sIm-≠p-sN-∂p.sIm≠ph-cm-sa∂v ]d-™p-t]m-bn. F∂m¬ `c-Wk .nXn AXn\p Xømdm-bn-√. IqSmsX t\mºn¬ `P\ Ccn-°m≥ h∂ Npcp°w Nne Bfp-Iƒ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Iøn¬ Ipdp-h-Sn.s . ]‰p-∂n-√.I v mcw ho≠pw \S-Øn. amXyp siΩmi\pw Rm\pw IqSn amÿ Ipdn-bm-t°m-kns‚ hI _kv sIm≠p-h∂ . ]≈n-bpsS sX°p-hi .m-tW. \s√mcp ak-v\]vkm FSpØv ASpØp sIm≠p-t]mbn AXv ssIbn¬ sImSp-Øn´v amdm≥ At]-£n-®p.a . Koh¿§okv ZznXob≥w _mhm At±-lsØ \nb-an-®n-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ c≠p h¿j-tØ°v kvI qfn¬ \n∂v Ah[n FSpØv ÃpU≥kv aqhv-sa‚n¬ /w {]h¿Ø\w \S-/Øn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p. Fw. {]ap-J-cn¬ Nne¿ A®-∑msc sN∂p.m-bn-cp-∂p. kwL¿jm-hÿ D≠m-Im≥ km[y-X-bp-s≠∂-dn-™p.n¬ tP°_v XpSßn ]ecpw skan-\m-cn-bn¬ h∂p Xncp-ta-\n-bp-ambn kwkm-cn-°p-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Rm≥ IÆp. AXp amdn. ÃpU≥kv aqhvsa‚ v sk{I-´-dn-bmbn ]. bp-h-P-\-߃ H‰-s°-´mbn Aß-s\-sb-¶n¬ k‘ym. k n a ao r a rt l a Be-∏m´v aØmbn A®s‚ aI≥ F≥. Rm≥ Hcp Zb-dm°m-c\ . ]≈n-bpsS Ingt°\S-bn¬ _kp \n¿Øn R߃ Cd-ßp-tºmƒ apgp-h≥ I¬∏S-hnepw Xncn-Iƒ IØn®p sh®n-cp-∂p.ß . Fw.p-Xs∂ kw`-hn®p.`m-K-Øn-te°v Xncn-®p-t]m-I-bm-Wv.ß . henb Hcp P\°q´w AXn¬ kw_-‘n-®p. IΩn‰n siΩm- 84 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ is\ Xncn-s®-Sp-Øn-√. Rm≥ Xs∂ CS-s°´pw sI´n-®p. At∏m-tg°pw AXp: t]m-se-sbm-p cmƒ Fs‚ hb-‰Øv Nhn-´p-Ib . siΩm» ≥ HutK≥ Xncpta. B¿`mSw H∂pw th≠.ƒ. ]Xn-hp-t]mse k‘ym\-a-kvImcw Ign™v R߃ Ipfn-°m-\m-bn-t∏m-bn. IqSnh∂ P\w F√mw ]ncn-™p-t]m-bn.\-a-kvImcw ]≈n-bn¬ \S-Øn°-bn√ F∂p ]d™v hmXn-ep-I-fn¬ Hs°bpw t]mbn-°n-S-∂p.a-Wn-bv°p-tijw R߃ Dd-ßm≥ InS-∂p. Hcp Xc-Øn¬ Fgp-t∂-‰p.

Kpcp-h-\p-`-hn® thZ\ t\cn´p IÆp-sIm-≠p.p-_‘ .p-≈ I¬∏-Sh . \ap°p. ""CS-bs\ hn´v BSp-Iƒ NnX-dn-t∏mbn'' F∂ Xncp-h-N\w ZpxJ-sh-≈nbm-gvN-bpsS B cm{Xn-bn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bnepw \nd-th-dn. ip{iq-j-Iƒ \SØm≥ Xncp-ta-\n°v Ign-hn-√m-Xn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ _lp-am-\-s∏´ Be-∏m-´®-\mWv skan-\m-cn-bn¬ ip{iq-j-Iƒ \S-Øn-b-Xv.p≈ CSh-gn-bn¬ IqSn \S-∂p.h n® ]mZm.v "a°sf \n߃°n„-an-s√-¶n¬ \mw s]mbvs°m≈mw' F∂p ]d™v ]pd-tØ-°n-dß .n®v I¿Øm-hn-t\msSm∏w hmNym¿∞-Øn¬ Xs∂ I„-a-\p-`-hn® alm-tbm-Kn-bpw c‡km-£n-bp-am-bn-Øo¿∂ ssZh-Øns‚ alm-]p-tcm-ln-X-\m-bn-cp∂p ]cnip-≤-\mb HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ ImtXm-en-°m.Im-Wp-Ibpw A\p-`hn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX-XmWv. Xs‚ Xebv°v ASn-tb¬°mXn-cn-°m≥ X°-hÆw c≠p ssIbpw Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn®v ]pd-tIm´v \S-∂p.t h≠n I„.th-Z\ a\ n-t\m-sSm∏w ico-c-Øn-\p-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ ZpxJ-sh-≈n-bmgvN A¿∞-h-Ømbn F√m {]Im-tc-Wbpw Ign-®p-Iq-´n. At±lw ASn-sIm≠v HmSn hgn-bc .hsc Icn-\o-en®p InS∏p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. \ΩpsS I¿Øm-hns‚ I„m-\p-`h . shfp-∏n\v A©-c. Ing-°p-hi .h-scbpw ]pd-tIm´p \S-∂p. Rß-sf-°p-dn®v Xncp-ta\n hfsc hymIp-e-\m-bncp∂p.h n. ]nXmth! R߃°p-th≠n {]m¿∞n-°-W-ta. amXyqkv siΩm-i≥ Xncp-ta-\n-tbmsSm∏w \oßp-tºmƒ Btcm At±-l-Øns‚ ]pdØv Im∏n-hSn sIm≠Sn-®p. ht tp :/ /w w R߃ Xncn®p h∂-Xn¬ k¥p-„\ . …o_m. Cu a¿±\w \S-∂Xv s]klm Ign-™p-≈ cm{Xn.` . ]Sn-If . AhnsS sN∂p Xncn™p \S-∂p. hgn-bcnIn¬ Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ kv{XoI-fpsS Iq´-°c-®n¬ tIƒ°m-am-bn-cp-∂p. hnh-c-߃ Adn-™ ]utemkv DS≥Xs∂ ]≈n-bn-te°v t]mbn. t t h / : p /w w . Xncp-ta-\n°v \√.mb ]oU-I¿ Xncp-ta-\nsb \SØn.Øm-S\ .µ .h¿jw ]q¿Øn-bm-bn. -Hu-tK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm-bpsS Xr∏m-Z-ß-fnepw R-ß-fpsS kvt\lhpw `‡nbpw IrX-⁄-Xbpw _lp-am-\hpw F√mw A¿∏n°p∂p. F\n-°-t∏mgpw icn-bmbn izmkw hnSm≥ {]bm-kap≠mbn-cp-∂p. ]t£.∏mƒ At±-lsØ skan\m-cn-bn¬ Ib‰n hn´n-´p-t]mImw F∂p Xocp-am-\n-®p. . Bsct∂m Fs¥t∂m F\n°v C∂pw \n›-ban√.p. Xe-bn¬ \n∂v Dd-°-Øn¬ t]mepw akv-\]vkm am‰m-dn-√mØ Xncp-ta\n ak-v\-]vkmbpsS ]pd-tIm-´p≈ `mKw Xe-bn-tem´v aS-°n-bn-´n-´p-≠.∏mƒ \n¿±-b\ .mb Xncp-ta\n Fs∂bpw Xcy≥ siΩm-i-s\bpw apdn-bn-te°v hnfn-∏n®p Ib‰n ]pd-sØ-¥m-sW∂p t\m°m≥ ]d-™p.Ø . Ip∏m-b߃ apX-em-bh .n-bt.mb Hcp a\p-jy≥ Xncpta-\n-bpsS ]pdØv Iøn-en-cn-°p∂ hSn-sIm≠v B™-Sn-®p. F¶nepw Rm\pw amXyp siΩm-i\pw ]pdsI \S-∂p. x o / v t . \njvTq-cc . x o / v t amÿ Ipdn-bm-t°m-kns‚ _kns‚ ss{Uh-dm-bn-cp∂ ]utem-kv. A{]-Imcw sNbvXp.psS ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw sN∂-t∏mƒ Hcp a\p-jy≥ hS-°p-hi . Xncp-ta\n I¬∏n-®-X-\p-k-cn®v ]®-°-Sp° Ac®v NX- 86 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ hp≈ `mKØv R߃ sIm≠p-sN∂v C´p. 1997 -˛se ZpxJ-sh-≈n-bmgvN Aº-Xp.\ p.f . A©¬s∏-´n-sb∂ ÿew IS-Øn-hn-Sm-\m-bn-cp∂p πm≥ F∂p ]d-bs∏-Sp-∂p.n-In-ep≈ C®n-∏≈ .n. siΩm-i\pw AhnsS FØn.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . Kpcp-ap-JØp \n∂p tI´X√.bpw RßfpsS kmam-\ß . Ip∏mbw s]m°n t\m°p-tºmƒ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS hesØ tXmƒ`mKw apX¬ CSsØ Bdm-Ωm-en.a .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .Øv \n∂v HmSnh∂v Fs∂ FSp-Øp-sIm≠v ih-t°m-´bv°v Ing-°p-hi . Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS hSn.a-Wn-tbmsS R߃ skan-\mcn-bn¬ Xncn-s®-Øn.85 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ im¥\pw kuay-\pamb Xncp-ta\n IXIp Xpd-∂p.Ø . Ipdn-bm-t°m-kns‚ ho´n¬ h∂p. AXp-sIm≠-am-{X-bn¬ Xncp-ta\n Xncn™p\n∂p.n¬ tPmWns‚ ho´n¬ A`bw tXSn.c .pw F√mw AhnsS\n∂v FSpØp-sIms≠Ø∂p. skan-\mcn ]Sn-°¬ FØn-bt. hcm¥-bn¬ \n∂v ]pd-tØ-°n-dß .t.ß ƒ \an®p kv X pXnbpw kvtXm{Xhpw A¿∏n-°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w ]cn-ip≤ ]nXm-hmb Rß-fpsS Kpcp ].

1964 ¬ Ing-°ns‚ ImtXm-en-°mbmbn A`n-tjIw sNøp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Xs‚ ap≥Km-an-bp-sSbpw Kpcp-`q-Xs .tv Ty\ sXc-s™Sp-Øp.87 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 88 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 7 \mem-asØ ImtXm-en°m aq∂m-asØ ImtXm-en°m _t -en-tbmkv Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b\p {]mbm-[nIyw aqew imco-cn-I-£oWw h¿≤n-®p-h-∂-Xn-s\-Øp-S¿∂v ae¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ 1962 sabv 17 -˛\p \nc-W-Øp-IqSn I≠-\mSv `{Zmk-\Ø .v. A∂p am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncp-ta-\nsb A\p-tam-Zn-®p-sIm≠p ImtXm-en°m _mhm sNbvX {]kw-KØ .ns‚ ko\n-b¿ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bmbncp∂ HutK≥ am¿ XntamØn-tbm-kns\ \nbp‡ ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn sFI-IW . AXn-\p-tijw B ]cn-ip≤ ]nXmhv sNbvX {]kvXm-h\ ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Fs∂∂pw X¶-en-]n-I-fn¬ FgpXn tN¿°p-hm≥ tbmKy-am-Wv.mWv sNbvXX .fpw Ahkm-\n-∏n®v anin-lm-bpsS k`sb ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-®v. kmtlm-Z-cy-Øn-s‚bpw kua-\ky-Øn-s‚bpw AZr-iy-amb _‘Øm¬ Ah¿ At\ym\yw tIm¿ØnW-°s .m-scbpw k¿∆.Ø∏‰.n\v kp∂-lt.∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sh-∂Xv B hnin„ ip{iq-jI .sN-bvXp-sIm≠v At±lw k`-bnse Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂hcpw a¨a-d-™-h-cp-amb kIe sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑m-scbpw Iio-»-∑mscbpw siΩm-»∑ .mhm hln® Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-amb ]¶n-s\-∏‰n sjh-en-b¿ kn.‚bpw `uXnIm-h-in-„-߃ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ Hma-√q¿ tZhm-ebw kµ¿in-®-tijw ]cn-]mSn A\p-kc . F∂m¬ Xncp-ta-\n°v aead-®p-sh-bvt°-≠/-X / ¶c kµ¿i-\s .a .sP.n-tbm..m-W. ""c≠p Znh-kØ sNbvX {]kv .f .n¬ kw_-‘n® t t h / : p /w w . AXns‚ Dt±-iy-sØ-∏‰.o-£Ww th≠-{X-bn-√m-Xn-cp∂ Hcp \yq\]£w k`m kam-[m-\sØ kwi-b-Zr„ym ho£n-°p-Ibpw ]m{Xn-b¿ °okv -_mhm FSpØ \ne-]m-Sns\ hna¿in-®p-sIm≠v At±-l-Øn\v Fgp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.t / ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse ]c-kv]c kzoI-c-W-Øn\pw kam-[m-\ -]p-\x-ÿm]-Øn-\pti-jhpw {InkvXo-bh . v . x do / v t ImtXm-en°m ÿm\m-tcm-lWw o a ar Xncp-ta-\nsb 22˛ 5 ˛.k-am-[m\w kw_-‘n®v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .Zm-kns‚ £Ww kzoIcn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXXv ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS Ncn-{X-Ønse Hcp \n¿Æm-b-Ikw-`h .hn-izm-kn-Is . Ing-°ns‚ Imt\m-\nI ImtXm-ent°m-kn-s\-bmWv k`-bv°mbn hmgn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂v kwi-bm-Xo-Xambn {]Jym-]-\w. Ah-fpsS Npa-X-eIƒ \nd-th-‰m≥ HsØm-cp-at.b.n®p tIm´-bØv Xncnsb FØp-Ibpw HutK≥ _mhm h rt o .˛ 1964 ¬ FØn-t®¿∂ DS≥ t Xm-h\.v ae-¶c k`m.I . k¿∆-`n-∂X .n-\Iw \mw t h k`bv°v Hcp ImtXm-en-t°m-kns\ hmgn-°p-hm≥ Xocp-am-\n-®n-cn-°p-∂p'' F∂p Ak-µn-Kv≤-ambn {]kvXm-hn-°p-hm≥ At±-l-Øn\p bmsXmcp XS- hpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.psS ÿm\m\p-k-cWw kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂v ss]Xr-I-hm-’eyw Xpfp-ºp∂ samgn-Iƒ sIm≠v {]kvXm-hn-°b .c .ntbm teihpw ktµ: l-an-√m-bn-cp p-∂p-sh-∂Xv tIm´-bØv 20 -˛ 5. At¥ymJym ]m{Xnw b¿°o-kv -_mhm Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS BK-a-\sØ-∏‰n ]e Bi-¶w Ifpw ]e¿°pw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂ ]c-am¿∞w wmb Bhiyw Ct∏m-gn-√.Zmkv Xocpam-\n-°p-Ibpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _mhm kp∂-lt.n¬ am¿ HutK\p hn\bw IqSnt∏mbn F∂p ]d-™Xv {]kn-≤-amb Hcp {]kvXm-h-\-bm-bn-Øo¿∂p.bmSp-IqSn {]b-Xv\n-°p-hm≥ At±lw k`ma-°sf Blzm\w sNøp-I-bpw AtXm-Sp-IqSn DZ-b-kq-cys‚ apºn¬ aqS¬a™v F∂-hÆw kwh-’-c-ß-fmbn k`sb Bh-cWw sNbvXncp∂ ]c-kv]c hntZz-jhpw sshcm-Kyhpw k`m-a-°-fpsS lrZ-bØn¬\n∂v A¥¿≤m\w sNøp-I-bpw.fbpw Ah-ch . Ipcy≥ 1964 HmKÃv 24 -˛mw XobXn ae-bmf at\m-c-a-bn¬ Fgp-Xnb Hcp teJ-\Øn¬ C{]-Imcw ]d-bp-∂p: al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox . k`m-]m-c-ºcyw A\p-k-cn-®v ae-¶c-bnse \mem-asØ ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS ÿm\m-tcm-lWw ]m{Xn-b¿ °okv _m-hm-bpsS km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ \S-Øp-∂X .m w al k n a .m ""].n¬ \n∂p hy‡-am-Wv.

]ptcm-ln- .t]m-se-bmsW∂v ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xp -t]mse k` temI-Ønse ap≈p-I-fpsS CSbn¬ ÿnXn.f . BI-bm¬ C∂sØ \ΩpsS kt¥mjw AXn¿Øn-b an-√m-Ø-Xm-Wv.mbn Hcp h¿jw XnI-bp-∂X .l W ip{iq-/j {ian®hsc√mw / kt¥m-jn-° X . Xncp-ta\n ImtXm-en-°m]£Øp ]c-ky-ambn tN¿∂Xv A`n-{]m-bß .v.b .k . al k n a a r a t r o d o h . CXp-aq-ew.£ . F∂m¬ _mhmXn-cp-ta-\n°v AXn-\-h-kcw e`n-®n-√.˛mw XobXn tIm´bw am¿ Genbm IØo-{U-en¬ h®v ae-¶c .n-\p-apºv \n߃°-dn-hp-≈X . k`m-a° . ae-¶c .b .p-t]mse kam-[m\ Iev]\ Ab-b° v p-Ibpw sNbvXp. a Ct∏mƒ B kam-[m\w ]q¿Æ-am-t°≠ NpaX e IqSnbp≠v sImrfpsS a≤y-Øn¬. hy‡n-]-c-amb t\´-ßfpw BZm-b-ßfpw Xm¬-]-cy-ßfpw kwc£n-°p-∂X .n\v ASn-o ÿm-\a .n-sebpw At¥ym-Iym-bn-sebpw kp∂-l-tZm-kw-K-ß-fpsS kl-I-c-W-tØm-Sp-IqSn am¿ HutK≥ XntamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn Ah-tcm-[n-®t.mbn \mw hnkvac . Rm≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-km-b-tijw C°m-cy-sØ-∏‰n KmV-ambn Nn¥n-°p-Ibpw knwlm-k\ .Ø°v sXc-s™-Sp-ØXv. Ie-lß .psS a≤y-Øn¬Øs∂ CS-b° v n-Sbv°v Ie-lß .n¬ k`-bn¬ ]cn-]q¿Æ.n-®p-If .hn-[Ø . Xncp-ta\n Cu ÿm\w H´pw B{K-ln-®-X-√.n-bn¬ XpS-cp-Ib .tijw sNbvX Ncn{X {][m-\a .mew apgp-h\ .b ..fm-Sp≈ tbmPn-∏p-sIm≠pam-{X-a√ .s∂ sNøpw.S. X∂na .f .n-Sm≥ km[n®p. x o / v t t r Aßs\ Cu k`-bpsS kam-[m-\Ø . 1958 ¬ Bcw-`n-®Xv 1964.nse F√m-h¿°pw kzoIm-cy-\mb H∂m-asØ ImtXm-en°m F∂ al-Xz-ta-dnb ÿm\w HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m _ .I-c-ß-fn¬ kzbw A¿∏n® Xncp-ta-\n°v ]{¥≠p h¿j-°mew `mc-ta-dnb Npa-Xe . Cu \√ {]h¿Ø\w aqew k`bv°v w D¬Ir-„X D≠m-Ip-sa∂p Rm≥ hniz-kn-°p-∂p.n\v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv I .m w ""Fs‚ {]nb.W .s .n¬\n∂v hnap‡n t\Sm≥ ]ecpw Nn¥n®p {]h¿Øn-®n-´p-≠. Ie-lØ .m-cq-V\ . Imew s .k-am-[m\w D≠m-sb∂p {]Jym-]\w sNbvXp-sIm≠v Cßs\ XpS¿∂p:˛ t t h / : p /w w .aqew Cu k`-bpsS kam-[m-\-Øn-\p-th≠n tcm.n-´p-≠v. k`bv°p hntcm-[-ambn Hmtcm - 90 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ImeØv \m\m.v Ah-cn¬ Hcm-fmWp a™-\n-°c . Cu kam-[m\w ]cn-]q¿Æn kt¥mjw kºq¿Æ-am-bn-cn-°p∂pla (I-ct.m°v ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°msb hmgn°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bmbn (I-c-tw Lm-jw). x o / v t ssZh-amWv Xncp-ta-\nsb Cu D∂-Xÿ .L-´Ø . Cu \√ kwK-Xn-bn¬ F√m-hcpw kt¥m-jn-°.mWv \√-sX∂p Adnbm-sX-b√ Xncp-ta\n ImtXm-en°m ]£Øv tN¿∂-Xv.∏mƒ ae-¶c . ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv I-£n-bn¬ \n∂.f .nØw k` hfsc £oWn-®p-t]m-bn. d o h .n¬ I_-d-S-ßn-bn-cn-°p∂ am¿ Gen-bmkv XrXo-b≥ _mhm Xncp-ta-\n. Cu sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømamsc sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-am-cm-bn-Øs∂ kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. C∂-h¿ Bflm-hn¬ kt¥m-jn-°p-∂p-≠m-hpw.® .` ]e. AXpa ≠mWv hfsc Zqsc-\n∂p h∂p Rm≥ \nßCt∏mƒ kam-bn-cn-°p-∂X.mhm ÿm\m-tcm-lW .NbvX ]cn-ip≤ ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hmsb Rm≥ kzoIcn-°p-Ib .¬ Aßs\ ]q¿Øn-bm-°-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wp≠m-bX . \mw Ct∏mƒ am¿ HutKs\ ImtXm-en-°m-bmbn hmgn®p F∂-Xpam{X-a-√. C∂p \S-Ønb ÿm\mw.b .mcpw B{K-ln-®n-cp-∂p. k¿∆-i-‡s‚ kpi-‡.n-s‚bpw DZvLm-S\w \n¿∆-ln-°p-Ibpw sNbvX ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .nepw hg-°nepw \S-∂I . F¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬ k`bv .Xs∂ thWw.ß .n¬ Dƒs∏-´n-cp-∂p.∏´ kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. BI-bm¬ k`bv°v kam-[m\w \evtI≠ Bhiyw D≠mbn.sN-øp∂ ]pjv]-am-Wv. {]Xn_-‘-߃ XcWw sNbvXp-sIm≠v Xncp-ta\n ae-¶-c-k-`bv°v kp[o-camb t\Xr-Xz-amWp {]Zm\w sNbvX-Xv.tfmSp kl-X-]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p.`m-K-ß-fn¬ sRcp-°-ßfpw ]oU-Ifpw D≠m-bn-´p-≠v. ImtXm-en-°msb Ah-tcm-[n°p-Ibpw Aßs\ ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS sFIy-Øn-s‚bpw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bpsSbpw ]pXnb A≤ym-bØ . F∂m¬ p t Ah¿°nXp ht km[n-®n-√.w.mb {]kw-KØ .t.Im-eØpw Xncp-ta\n ImtXm-en°mI-£n-bpsS BZ¿i-ßsf am\n-°p-Ibpw FXn¿`m-KsØ A`n-{]m-bß .p-sIm≠v \ΩpsS \nev°p-∂X . \Ωn¬ \n-∂-I-∂p-\n∂ sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-am-scbpw kIe ]ptcm-ln-X-∑m-scbpw \mw kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.p-ap-≠m-bn.p.'' Aßs\ ]m{Xo-b¿°o-kv -_mhm 1964 sabv 22. At±lw ChnsS h∂Xv hg-°p-Iƒ Xo¿°m-\m-bn-cp-∂p. ap≈p-I-fpsS CS-bnse iqim-\-]p-jv]w. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS A`n-em-j-߃ kºq¿Æ-ambn ^e-{]m-]vXn-bn¬ FØn-bXv kz¿Æsh≈n-bmgvN \S∂ ÿm\m-tcmlWw aqe-am-Wv. A{]-Xo-£n-X-amb hn[-Øn-emWv sXc-s™-Sp∏p \S-∂-Xpw.89 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ]e¿°pw A\p-`h .m-\t.`.n-\p. Cu kpZn\w ImWm≥ \nß: fpsS ]nXm-° ∑ mcpw Ahc psS ]nXm-°∑ .v.ƒ Xe-s]m°nbn-´p-≠v.Iƒ hln-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Bbp pw Btcm-Kyhpw ssZhw \evIn.k .n\v hfsc XymK-߃ kln-t°-≠n-h∂ . AYhm ssZhw AXn-\-t±-lsØ A\p-h-Zn-®n-√. k`-bn¬ apgp-h≥ B sFIyw ÿm]n-°m≥ B \S-]Sn klmbn-°-W-sa∂ B{K-l-Øn-s‚bpw {]m¿∞-\-bp-sSbpw ^e-am-bn-´p-Iq-Snbm-Wv. AXpsIm≠v C°m-e.n¬ F\n°v ChnsS htc-≠n-h∂ . k`-bnse Cu hg°v am‰p-∂X .n¬ Ie-lß . Ct∏mƒ Hcp Imcyw hy‡-am-°m≥ Rm≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂p.Lm-jw).mhmbv°p e`n®p.

Ø . BI-bm¬ \n߃ taen¬ `n∂-Xbpw A`n-{]m-b.'' ao r a rt d o h ox v .v Cu kµ¿i-\Ø .n-j∏ . A{]-Imcw Xs∂ kIe Assh-Zn-I¿°pw th≠n Rm≥ {]m¿∞\ A¿∏n-°p-∂p. al k n a o a ar .\n-an-j-߃.knw-lm-k\ . ]t{Xm-kns‚ At¥ym-Iym.vF-Øn-t®¿∂-Xv.m w al k n a 92 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 8 ImtXm-en-°-m ˛ -am¿∏m∏m kw`m-jWw 1964 Unkw_dn¬ t_mws_-bn¬ \S∂ Znhy-Im-cpWy tIm¨{Kkn¬ kw_-‘n-°p-∂-Xn-\mWp ]. Cu Ah-k-c-Øn-emWv C¥y-bnse Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-bpsS Xe-h\pw am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS knwlm-k\ .Xs∂ sNø-Ww. \mw \nß-fpsS k`-bpsS CS-b\ . / ∏m-bpsS apdn-b nte°v B\-bn-°-s∏-´p.m-cm-bn-Øs∂ kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.hy-Xym-k-ßfpw IqSmsX Fs‚ Cu ktµiw kzoI-cn-°-Ww.knw-lm-k-\hpw am¿tXmΩmbpsS ImtXm-en-°m.. kndn-bb . t]mƒ Bdm-a≥ am¿∏m∏m C¥ybn¬ FØn-b-Xv.cw-Kw.\n-∂mWp sh◊tb-dnb Hcp Imdn¬ _pUvlukv _nj]vkv ]me-kn¬ IrXy-ka . ssZhw k`bv°v A`n-hr-≤nbpw D¬Ir-„-Xbpw \evIs . XpS¿∂v ]. ImtXm-en°m-_m-hmbpw ^m. sI.sI.n-ep≈ F√m k`m-a° . \mw Chsc F{]-Imcw kzoI-cn-°p-∂pthm A{]-Imcw \nßfpw kzoI-cn-°W .n-te°p Rm≥ £Wn-®p-sIm-≈p-∂p. B B≤ym-fln-I t. h rt o . hn\-b-Øn-s‚bpw Xmgva-bp-sSbpw tIZm-c-ß-fmb Ccp-hcpw B≤ym-fln- . t_mws_ B¿®v _ . _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_m-hm-sb. DØc Z£nW {[ph-߃ H∂n®v ktΩ-fn- °p∂p.hpw c≠m-sW-¶nepw H∂p-Xs .'' t t h / : p /w w .nbpw C¥y-bnse hØn-°m≥ {]Xn-\n-[nbpw tN¿∂v ]. BbXv ssZh-am-Xm-hmb hnip≤ adn-bm-an-s‚bpw am¿tXmΩm«o-lm-bp-sSbpw k¿∆ ]cn-ip-≤-∑m-cp-sSbpw {]m¿∞-\-bm¬ Xs∂.t\-cn´p ImW-Wsa∂ am¿∏m-∏m-bpsS Nncm-`n-emjw ]q¿Øn-bm-bX . ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm imcocnI-£o-W-߃ hnkva-cn®p t_mws_-bn¬ ]d-s∂-Øn. \ΩpsS ktlm-Zc-\mb ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm Xncp-ta-\n-sbbpw a‰p sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-amscbpw kndn-bb .ti-j-ap≈ c≠p k`m.p-amb ].Ø . sI.ta-e-≤y£-∑m-cpsS B IqSn-°mgvN IqsS\n∂-hscsb√mw tImcn-Ø-cn-∏n-®p.91 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ X-∑msc kXy-]p-tcm-ln-X∑ .p. A∂p cmhnse t_mws_ _pUvlukv IØo{U-en-te-°p≈ hml\ KXm-KXw I¿i-\-ambn \nb-{¥n-®n-cp-∂p.m-sW∂p \n߃ hniz-kn-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬ \ΩpsS hN\w A\p-k-cn-°.t / Cu {]kw-K-Øn\p adp-]-Sn-bmbn HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm sNbvX {]kw-K-Øn¬ C{]-Imcw ]d™p: ""`n∂n® k`sb ]. _mhmsb Imdns‚ tUm¿ Xpd∂v kzoI-cn-®p.n¬ Bcq-V\ .mhm Xncp-ta\n H∂n-∏n® hkvXpX ae-¶c .` F°m-ehpw kvacn-°pw.v.n\p If-sam-cp-°n-b-Xn¬ KWy-amb ]¶p hln-®Xv A¶-amen `{Zm-k-\m-[n-]\mb ]oen-t∏mkv am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv (A∂p ^m.nse hncn-s®m-cp-°nb Hcp apdn-bm-bn-cp∂p kµ¿i-\.fpw Cu {]hrØn-bn¬ kt¥m-jn-°p-∂p-≠v. x do / v t 1964 Unkw-_¿ aq∂mw Xo-bXn cmhnse 9 aWn-°m-bn-cp∂p IqSn°mgvN \S-∂X . : p Ahn-t ktva-c-Wo-b-amb A\¿L. c≠mw-\n-eb. A{]-Imcw F√m sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø∑ .´. \ΩpsS Cu {]hrØn-bn¬ BI-am-\-k` kt¥m-jn-°m≥ Ch¿ AhnsS hc-Ww.b . sI. ]oen-t∏mkv) sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Bbn-cp-∂p.Pym-Xn- p-Iƒ sNmcn™ {]`m-]qcw B apdnbn¬ Xfw-sI-´n -\n-∂p. \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ°p. ]oen-t∏mkpw a‰pw Ahn-sS. Cu \√ {]hrØn-bn¬ Rm≥ \nßsf A\p-tam-Zn-°p-∂tXm-sSm∏w ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbv°v ssZhw kt¥m-jhpw A`n-hr-≤nbpw \evIp-am-dm-I-s´.b .∂-bm-Wv. {]mNnbpw {]Xo-Nnbpw XΩn¬hBt«-jn-°p-∂p. ^nen-∏ns‚ hk-Xn-bn¬ FØn hn{i-an-®n-cp∂ ].w. ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv _ .nep≈ am¿∏m/ _mhmbpw ^m. am¿∏m-∏m-bpsS A`n-emjw \nd-th-‰p-∂Xn\v F¨]-tXmfw hb- p-≠m-bn-cp∂ ]. ssZhw \sΩ A\p-{K-ln-°-s´.Iq-Sn-bmb C¥y-bpsS {]Ya I¿±n-\mƒ hte-dn-b≥ {Kmjy-kns‚ Ac-a\ . ].m am¿∏m-∏m-bpsS sk{I-w w ´d.. Fw. w]oen-t∏mkpw en^v‰n¬. At±-l-Øns‚ `c-WImeØv k` D∂-Xnbpw t{ijvT-Xbpw {]m]n-°-s´.m-scbpw \mw A\p-tam-Zn-°p-∂p.k .

.mb t_mws_.s . al k n a a r a t r o d o h . Ac.\/n∂ B Ahn. kulr-Zm-`n-hm-Z\ .n\pw am¿∏m∏m B{Klw {]ISn∏n-®p.ƒ H∂n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. h ]. Fw.93 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Im-\p-`q-Xn-If . Ah¿ CShpw hehpw sI´n-∏n-Sn-®p.ß .¿°pw am¿∏m∏m kµ¿i-\m-\p-hmZw \¬In. am¿∏m-∏m-bpsS at\m-l-c-amb Nn{X-Øm¬ apJ-ap-{Z-b-Wn-™ncp∂ A∂sØ ae-bmf at\m-c-a-bpsS Hcp {]Xn at\m-ca {]Xn-\n[n am¿∏m∏m-bpsS ]mh-\-I-c-ß-fn¬ ka¿∏n-®p.ns‚ Hcp kmbm”''ambn t F∂pw ]cnt e-kn-°pw.n-t\m-sSm∏w _mhm {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøp∂ ]pcm-X\ k`-bnse {]_p-≤c .a-Je .a-WnASp-°p-sa∂v {]m¿∞/ °q¿ \o≠p.a∂ \nebn¬ 470 hm°p-Iƒ AS-ßnb IØv am¿∏m-∏m X . kvt\l-Øn¬\n∂p P\n® kaXz-kp-µ-c-amb A¥-co-£w. kµ¿i-Isc ^m.X v pX hf-sc-b-[nIw hy‡-am-°n-bn-cp-∂p.µ-iß .f .Im-tXm-en-°m _mhm ].W ob "D®. tIcfw kµ¿in-°p-∂-Xn\pw AhnSpsØ ss{IkvXh .k v a .Ø .s . At\-I h . _mhm Adn-bn-®p. Fw.n¬ k©-cn-°p-∂X .fbpw A`n-hm-Z\w sNøp-∂Xmbpw am¿∏m∏m FSp-Øp-]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.√∂pw ].ijw AXv ASp-Øn-cp∂ I¿±n-\mƒ {Kmjykns\ Gev]n-®p. ]. Xs‚ {]mbhpw Btcm-Ky-\n-ebpw H∂pw IW-°n-se-Sp-°msX t_mws_-bn¬ FØn-bXv XΩn¬ ImWp-∂-Xn-\p≈ Ahm-Ny-amb kt¥m-jw -sIm-≠m-sW∂p ]. x o .psS Bfl-kØ X¿÷-ab . tXmΩm-«olmbp-sSbpw knwlm-k\ .c . HutK≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhmbpw ]. ]. ac-tßmen apX-em-bh .nepw C¥y-bnse Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ik v vk . _mhm tdman¬ FØn Ipd®p\mƒ Xs‚ am\ym-Xn-Yn-bmbn Xma-kn-°-W-sa∂pw am¿∏m∏m ]d™p.µ-is .v.t ImSn' kw`m. / v t ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Ø-en-\p-tijw ].m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . ]oen-t∏m-kmWp am¿∏m-∏mbv°p ]cn-N-b-s∏-SpØns°mSp-Ø-Xv.hsc h∂p I≠-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw Xm≥ Xr]vX\ .n-eqsS H´pw tNm¿∂p-t]m-Im-Xn-cn-°s´ F∂p IcpXn Ah AtX-]Sn NphtS . ]cn-]m-h-\-amb B A¥-co-£-Øn¬ Ah¿Æ-\o-b-amb {InkvXob kvt\lØns‚ AZr-iy-amb hoNn-Iƒ Iºn-bn√m Iºn-bn-se-∂t.n¿`-ca .]mse Ccp-h-cp-sSbpw lrZ-b-hn-]-©n-I-Ifn¬ Bfl-\n¿hr-Xn-bpsS A\p-c-W\-߃ kr„n-°p-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.` A∏-ktv Xm-enI k`-bm-sW-∂p≈ Ncn-{X-hk . tXma-kv. {]Xn-kt.p-amb ktµiw ^m. t]mƒ Bdm-a\pw / v t 94 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ GXm\pw an\n-‰p-Iƒ \o≠p-\n∂ B kw`m-jW . t t h / : p /w w .n-\p-tijw A∂p tI{µ-a-{¥nbpw C¥y≥ Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ivkv -k-`-bpsS {]ikvX AwK-hpam-bn-cp∂ F. alm \K-ca .f .m-cpsS kt¥m-j\ .∑ .sc t\cn´p ImWp-∂X .p-amb ktµ-iß .. am¿∏m∏mbv°p ka¿∏n-°m≥ sIm≠p-h∂ . bqtdm-]y≥ cmPy-ß-fn¬ At∏m-kvX-e-∑m¿ kphn-tijw {]kwKn® AtX Ime-b-f-hn¬Øs∂ C¥ybv°pw B `mKyw kn≤n-®-Xn¬ am¿∏m∏m kt¥m-jn-°p-∂-Xmbn ktµ-i-Øn¬ FSp-Øp-]-d-™n-´p≠v. s .Xpw 433 hm°p-Iƒ AS-ßn-bX . _mhmbpw ].t.n¬ \ne-sIm-≈p-∂p. sI.I.ƒ \nd-™p-\n∂ Ccp-kt.∂-bmWp hmbn-®X . I¿±n-\mƒ {Kmjykpw ^m. Hcp ]p©n-cn-tbm-Sp-IqSn ]{X-Øn¬ H∂p t\m°n-bt.mb am¿∏m-∏m-bpsS apJw Bfl-\n¿hr-Xn-bp-sSbpw B\µ-Øn-s‚bpw AXyp-∂X . ]oen-t∏mkpw am{X-amWv Cu lrZ-b-∏-I¿®bv°p km£yw hln-®-Xv.am¿∏m-∏mbpw ]c-kv]cw ssIam-dn-bXpw kvt\lhmbv]v XpSn-°p-∂X .p-t]mse tXm∂n. am¿∏m-∏m.I .nepww C¥y-bnse ItØm-en-°cpw Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ivkpw Imcpw Hcp ip`m-h-k-c-Øn¬ At∏m-kvX-enI hnizm-k-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ w \m-]q¿∆w {]Xymi {]I-Sn-∏n-®n-´p-ap-≠v.mb Hcp ]p\xk-am-K-a-\w.o-en-t∏mkv hmbn®p ka¿∏n-®p.n-{X-Ønse ""kt¥m-jØ ss{IkvXhpk`m-Nc .Xs∂ _mhmsb Xm\ncp∂ tkm^m-bn¬ ]nSn-®n-cp-Øn.j Ww : . _mhmsb kzoI-cn-°p-∂X . ae-bmf at\m-c-a-bpsS \yqU¬ln {]Xn\n[n hn.f . Xt]m-\n-jvT-amb {InkvXob Pohn-X-{]-hm-l-Øns‚ Hcp KwKm bap\m kwKaw Xs∂.¿j-߃ XΩn¬ ImWm-Xn-cp∂ ktlm-Zc . {InkvXob kpIr-Xß-fpsS \nd-Ip-Sa . AhnsS ÿm\hpw knwlmk-\hpw A[n-Im-chpw H∂pw {]iv\a-√.m Ccp ktµ-iß .mb AwK-ßs . ] .ß .f .psS Kncn-irw-KØ . x o ]. ]t{Xm-kn-s‚bpw ].

and Marthoma Syrians.m w al k n a As We salute Your Holiness and. Their traditions of Christian life and witness extend back to Apostolic times. it was also reaching out at the same time to embrace your own native land. The Council has opened vistas of new hope and expectations in the minds of Christians all over the world about the union of the Christian Churches. will inaugurate a new relationship of cordiality between our Churches. / : p /w w al k n a I may venture to express to your Holiness that the new spirit that Your Holiness and Your saintly predecessor have brought in. the venerable church of which you are the pastor. The pain which this causes also spurs Us on to strive humbly but confidently for the reconciliation of all Christians in the unity of the one and only Church of Christ (Decr de Oecumenismo. H. It established deep roots. How great a pleasure it would have been for Us to visit the state of Kerala and personally greet the flourishing Christian communities which are established there. o a ar h rt o . 24). There have been painful instances of groups changing from one faith to another often without theological or doctrinal grounds which I believe have not contributed to the best in Christian witness. the deliberations of the Second Vatican Council under the able leadership of both Pope John of blessed memory and Your Holiness. the Pope Paul VI We give glory to God. n. Let us join to praise God for all his It is in a spirit of great joy that We greet you today. We are able to salute the many thousands of Christians you represent. Greeting of H. in Your person. and from the beginning has contributed greatly to the spiritual and cultural life of India. for long it has been isolated from the main currents of Christian Church and its growth in the western world. 4. God grant that the fraternal greeting we are exchanging now be the pledge . Catholic Syrians. . 32). it maintained its connection with Persia and the See of Antioch. H. D. We had sent observers to the Council in response to Your Holiness' kind invitation. t t h blessings throughout the ages and to pray Him for His inestimable blessings and guidance in the years to come. Pope Paul VI to H. x do / v t If the restricted nature of Our present pilgrimage makes it impossible for Us to make this visit at this time. the Catholicos Augen I to H. This great land of India with its ancient history and tradition of great religious saints had extended its welcome to the Christian Church in the middle of the first century A. when St. the Catholicos Augen I Your Holiness. At present Syrian Christians include Orthodox Syrians. H. The Orthodox Church in India shares that hope and is united in prayer with Holiness in this great venture that the high priestly prayer of our Lord may be fulfilled in the way and time that the Holy Spirit wills. Inspite of all these influences and other vicissitudes it is a matter of profound gratefulness to God that we have kept the faith once delivered to the saints. Thomas one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ founded it. Fidelity to the faith preached by the Apostles and the Fathers as well as loyalty to the Apostolic charge which the Lord has laid upon Us make us understand that the way to full communion is a difficult one which offers an opportunity to the genuine charity of all Christians and to their patience is striving to carry out the inscrutable decrees of God. Even as We rejoice that so many Christians in this land glory in being heirs to the traditions of the Apostles.t / The Orthodox Syrian Church has been viewing with keen interest. t t h / : p /w w . ao r a rt d o h ox v . Holy Father in Christ. Our pilgrimage to the Congress which is meeting in this city of Bombay in order to renew Our devotion and fidelity to Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ receives new inspiration from the knowledge that you also have been able to come here to meet with us and exchange with Us a fraternal and Christian greeting. so also We face the reality that unhappily there do not exist the bonds of full communion among those whom the Lord calls to be of one heart and one soul (Act.95 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ tN¿°p∂p:˛ Greeting of H. Anglican Syrians. The Holy Trinity for His great mercy in making this meeting possible. and We rejoice in the fact that even as the message of love and reconciliation was being brought to Europe through Christ's Apostles. in the person of Your Holiness. H. The ancient Catholicate of the East was revived here at the beginning of this century and my humble self is the fourth occupant of the throne since its establishment in India in 1912. However. We wish to express our desire and determination that Catholics also fully accept that opportunity. ambassadors of peace. Through the centuries the Church has lived its life here as part of the life and history of India.m w 96 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ In spite of my old age and present conditions of health I did not want to miss this great privilege of meeting Your Holiness and exchange fraternal greetings with You on this historical occasion of the first visit to our land by the primate of the See of Rome. We are comforted by the fact that.

kn.h .n-te°p t]mbn. AXn-i-‡-amb ssiXyw A\p-`h . -sI. tUm. ht tp :/ /w w . ktΩ-f-\m-\-¥cw ].Zmkv sk{I-´dn Zm\n-tb¬ am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\m-kv.mbn 1965 P\p-hc . AJne temI k`m Iu¨kn¬ Atkm...ns\ XpS¿∂v ImtXm-en-°m.s .∏-´X . Ahn-SsØ Kh¿sΩ‚ v KÃv lukn¬ ].A-t¥ym-Iym -]m-{Xn-b¿°okns‚ £Ww kzoI-cn®v kndn-bb .ƒ Ah¿Æ-\o-b-am-Wv.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . _tk-en-tbmkv Koh-dpKokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm Bbn-cp∂p F∂v ChnsS Hm¿t°≠-Xp-≠v. dh.m-hmbv°p km[n-®p.97 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ of our common desire that.n-bn¬ FtXym-]y-bpsS Xe-ÿm-\a .≥ F∂ \nebn¬ HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhmbv°pw kw_-‘n-°p-∂Xn\p `mKy-ap-≠mbn. ae-¶c F∏n-ktv Im-∏¬ kp∂-lt. x o / v t 98 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 9 FtXym-]y≥ kp∂-lt .ß . hn. -_mhm A∂pcm{Xn Xma-kn-®p.e .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . "continued steadfastly in the teaching of the Apostles and in the communion of the breaking of the bread and in the prayers'' (Acts 2. ]utemkv am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv F∂o sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-amcpw. tP°_pw. tPmk^v F∂n-hcpw BUnkv A_m_m ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ C¥y≥ Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`sb {]Xn-\n[m\w sNbvXp.s . 42). C{]-Imcw Hcp ktΩ-f\w hnfn-®p-Iq-´W .∑ . kndn-b≥ Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ivkv k-`-bpsS Xe-h-\mb At¥ymIym ]m{Xnb¿°okv C·m-tXymkv bm°q_v XrXo-b\pw Cu tIm¨^-d≥kn¬ ]s¶-Sp-Øp. kn. sk{I-´dn ^m. H .Zm-kn¬ C¥y-bnse Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`m-Xe . kmap-h¬.v°msX ]s¶-SpØ ]. t]mƒ h¿Kokpw (C-t±-l-Øns‚ {ia-^e-ambmWv N{I-h¿Øn ktΩ-f\w hnfn®p Iq´n-b-Xv).u-tK≥ _mhm-tbmSv FtXym]y≥ N{I-h¿Ønbpw a‰p k`m-Xe . ‰n.n¬ {]mbm[n-IysØ hI-hb . t t h / : p /w w F¨]-Xp h .mcpw {]I-Sn-∏n® kvt\lm-Zc . with the grace of God and according to the ways which He will determine. FtXym-]ym-bn¬ D≠m-bn-cp∂ dh. the sacred writer tells us.a .Hu-tK≥ _m-hmbpw a‰pw P\p-hcn 11˛mw XobXn sIm®n-bn¬ \n∂p hnam-\-am¿§w t_mws_.a∂ Bibw BZy-ambn ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-®Xv Imew sNbvX ].n\pw ImtXm-en-°m _ .˛ -I-dm-®n -˛ -GU≥ hgn FtXym-]ym-bnse Akvam-db . x o / v t `c-W-Im-cy-Øn¬ kzX-{¥-ß-fmb ]uckvXy Hm¿Ø-tUm-Ivkv -k-`Isf kw_-‘n-®n-St.nse {][m\ k`m-tI-{µ-ßfpw hnip≤ \mSp-Ifpw Hcn-°¬°qSn kµ¿in-°p-∂X . Catholics and Orthodox in India may one day arrive at that happy state which once characterized their apostolic forbears who. tUm. ._m-hmbpw amt\-P- .b .mb BUnkv A_m_bn¬ tN¿∂ ]uc-kvXy Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`m-X-e-h-∑m-cpsS kp∂-lt.Ø .Zmkv FtXym-]y≥ N{I-h¿Øn-bm-bn-cp∂ slbven -sk-em-kn-bpsS ]cn{i-a^ . kn.Ømfw Ncn{Xw kr„n® Cu ktΩ-f\ . v Ign™ ].h . amt\-P-c-®≥ F∂ t]cn¬ {]kn-≤-\m-bn-cp∂ ^m.

hkvI≥ ImtXm-en-°mbpw {]kw-Kn-®p.f .ƒ kµ¿in-°p-∂X .m-hmbpw a‰pw ]d-∂p.t / BUnkv A_m_ ktΩ-f\w P\p-hcn 15 \p Bcw-`n®p. 18 ˛\p ktΩf\w ]p\-cm-cw-`n-°p-Ibpw Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-Isf kw_-‘n-°p∂ ]e kp{]-[m\ Xocp-am-\-ßfpw ssIs°m-≈p-Ibpw sNbvXp. hnip-≤. At¥ymIym t t h / : p /w w ._m-hmbv°p PohnX-km-bm-”-Øn¬ Hc-h-kcw IqSn e`n-®p. XpS¿∂v B_q\m am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv sNbvX {]kw-KØn-\p-tijw ]m{Xn-b¿°okpw ImtXm-en-°mbpw kap-Nn-Xa .n¬ At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°okpw kndn-b-bnse c≠p sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-mamcpw c≠p dºm-∑mcpw D≠m-bncp-∂p.mhm h tlmwkpw.mhm Za-kvtIm-kn-te°p t]mIp-Ibpw ImtXmen-°m. k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . A∂p sshIn´v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_m-hmbpw ImtXm-en-°m -_m-hmbpw N{Ih¿Ønsb kµ¿in®v kw`m-jWw \SØn. HutK≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhmsb ].Ø . A¿ao-\n-b≥ k`-bpsS {]mXn-\n[yw kw_-‘n-®p≠mb X¿°sØ XpS¿∂v sshIn´pw ]nt‰-Zn-h-khpw ktΩ-f\w \S-∂n-√.v.nIw sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm.mbn adp-]Sn ]d-™p. N{I-h¿ØnbmWv ktΩ-f\w DZvLm-S\w sNbvX-Xv. FtXym]y-bnse kµ¿i-\ -]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°p tijw P\p-hcn 25. ]pcmX-\-amb ae-¶ck`bv°v AZzn-Xo-b-amb ÿm\-amWv _mhm-bpsS kµ¿i\w aqew Ahn-sSbpw e`n-®-Xv. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv. ]m{Xn-b¿°m Ac-a-\-Ihma °msb I≠-t∏mƒ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm At±-lsØ kk-t¥mjw . ]n∂oSv ImtXm-en-°m. B_q\m sXtbm-^n-temkv F∂n-h¿ A≤y-£-th-Zn-bn¬ slbven skemkn N{I-h¿Øn-bpsS Ccp-h-i-ß-fn-ep-ambn Ccp-∂p.m w al ]. knen-jy≥ ImtXm-en°m tImdn≥._m-hmbpw a‰pw tIm]v‰nIv k`-bpsS AXn-Yn-I-fmbn ]e ]≈nIfpw kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.c .e-an-te-°p.˛mw XobXn sIbvtdm-bn-te°v ImtXm-en-°m _ . ]nt‰.n-]m-Sn-Iƒ°p-tijw ImtXm-en-°m _ . bmt°m_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xnb¿°okpw slbven skemkn N{I-h¿Ønbpw tN¿∂v kzoI-cn-°p-∂p.nse ]pWy-ÿe .m Benw-K\w sNbvXp kzoI-c n-®p.mb B‚-en-bmkv t_bvdq-´v. At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bpw.\m-Sp-If . AhnsS FØnb tijw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .t]m-bn.hy-Xym-k-sat\y H∂n: ®n-cp∂p Ipi-e -{]iv\w sNbvXp. k`m Xe-h-∑m¿°p-th≠n {]tXyIw k÷-am-°n-bn-cp∂ Hcp sIm´m-c-Øn-emWv ImtXm-en-°m -_m-hmbpw Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. x do / v t c≠p Znh-ksØ kµ¿i-\-Øn-\p-tijw ImtXm-en-°m -_m-hmbpw IpsS-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂h . w "ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse w kam-[m\w kp`-{Z-am-bn-Øs∂ Ccn-°p-∂pthm' F∂p ]m{Xn-b¿°ov -_mhm BImw-£m-]q¿∆w F√m-h-tcmSpw Bcm/wk_mhmbp-I-bp-≠m-bn. /c≠p amcpw knwlm-k-\. sa{Xm-∑mcpw _mhm-amcpw ]c-kv]cw Benw-K\w sNbvXp kzoIcn-®p. .m{X XpS¿∂p. slk-°m-bpw._mhm Ncn-{X-{]kn≤-amb aqk¬ kµ¿in-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.n-e[ .Zn-hkw BUnkv A_m-_-bn-te-°p≈ hnam-\b .n¬ ]s¶-Sp-Øp. HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m -_m-hm. F¨]-Øn-H∂p hb- p≠m-bn-cp∂ HutK≥ _mhm ktΩ-f\ .cpw bdp-it.99 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 100 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ c-®\pw a‰pw A∂p-cm-{Xn.n¬ ss[cy-]q¿∆w FØn-t®¿∂Xn¬ N{I-h¿Øn IqSp-X¬ k¥p-„nbpw B›-cyhpw {]I-Sn-∏n-®p.ß . Be-t∏m-bpw.ß . B hnam-\Ø .Xs∂ Cl-tem-I-hmkw shSn-bptam F∂p t]mepw `b-s∏-´p-t]m-bn.n\p ImtXm-en-°m. hnam\w BUnkv A_m_m Xmh-f-Øn¬ Cd-ßn-b-t∏mƒ N{Ih¿Ønbpw FtXym-]y≥ k`-bnse BŒnwKv ]m{Xn-b¿°o-km-bn-cp∂ B_q\m sXtbm-^n-temkpw ]Xn-\© .amcpw tN¿∂mWv ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn-s\bpw ImtXm-en-°m-sbbpw ssIapØn kzoI-cn-®X . o . A¿Ωo-\n-b≥ kp{]ow ImtXm-en-t°mkv hkvI≥. sZdn°pw a‰pw kµ¿in®p ]e kzoI-cW . h rt o a r \a. tp Ahn-StpsØ kµ¿i-\ ] . tImdn≥ ImtXm-en-°m-bpsSa BÿmF∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse kµ¿i\Øn\p-tijw k s^{_p-hcn 3 ˛mw XobXn n At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ Bÿm-\-amb Zam-kvI-kn-te°p laS-Øn¬h®v Ing-°ns‚ ImtXm-ent]mbn.

bpw Ign™v Hcp sNdp {]kw-Kt.m-bn-cp-∂p. ImtXmen°m Bÿm\-Øns‚ ÿm\-N-e-\-tØm-sSm∏w B Xncp-ti-jn-∏pIfpw am‰-s∏-´-Xmbn ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.at≤y ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_mhm ]≈n-bn¬ FØp- ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 102 Ibpw am¿_nƒ t]S-I-Øn¬ kq£n-®n-cp∂ am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS Xncp-tijn∏v AXp h®n-cp∂ ÿe-Øp-\n∂v BtLm-j-]q¿∆w sIm≠p-h∂v hnip≤ aZv_l .m-bn¬ {]tXyIw k÷-am-°n-bn-cp∂ at\m-lc . tUml F∂n-hn-Sß .b . / v t . B ]pWy-hkvXp 394. A\-¥cw _mhm-amcpw sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-amcpw dºm-®∑mcpw ]´-°mcpw ip{iq-jIcpw Xncp-ti-jn∏pw hln-®p-sIm≠pw ]≈n-bI . Ip¿_m-\. HutK≥ _mhm BZ-c-]q¿∆w AXv G‰p-hm-ßp-Ibpw Xncp-tijn∏v \evIn-bX .101 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 10 am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏v aqk¬ kµ¿i-\m¿∞w HutK≥ _m-hmbpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _mhmbpw Xoh-≠n a .m¿§w aqk¬ tÃj-\n¬ FØn-bt.m-hmsb Gev]n-°p-IbpwsN-bvXp.d k¬°m-c-ßfn¬ HutK≥ _mhm ]s¶-Sp-Øp.n¬ k©cn®p aebm-fn-I-fmb ae-¶-c -k-`mw-K-ß-fpsS kzoI-c-W.∏mƒ am¿tØm-Ωa m-bpsS ]´w tcJm-aqew "Ducnk sb-Sp-ØXv. .Øm-Sp-IqSn ImtXm-en-°m _ .«o-lm-bpsS Xncpti-jn∏v I≠pIn´n-b-Xv.k . Hcp am¿_nƒ t]S-I-Øn¬ AXv `wKn-bmbn kq£n-®p-h® .n-te°pw sIm≠p-t]mbn F∂mWp Ncn{Xw. C¥ybn¬ am¿tXm-Ωm -«olm kphn-tijw Adnbn®p F∂p-≈-Xn\v Hcp km£y-ambpw AXn-ep-]cn At∏m-kvX-es‚ `uXnIm-hi .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .n-bm-Wv.b .o bØv h hgnbpsStIm´t Xncn-s®-Øn-bt∏mƒ _mhmbv°pw am¿tØmΩm «olmXncp-tirAh¿Æ-\o-b-am-Wv jn-∏n\pw e`n® `‡n-\n¿`-c-amb kzoI-cWw o a ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmWv (am¿tXmΩm «olm-bpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏v \¬Inb r A©p sIm√w Ign-™t.n¬ Zo¿L-Im-ea .n¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .a . am¿ tkth-dn-tbmkv k°m-bnbpw a‰pw Ah¿°p lrZy-amb Hcp hc-th-ev]mWp \¬In-bX .mbn \ne-hn-en-cp∂ `n∂X Ahkm-\n-∏n®p kam-[m\w ]p\xÿm-]n-®-Xn\v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\p e`n® Hcp Znhy-k-Ωm-\-ambpw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_mhm Cu Xncp-ti-jn-∏ns\ ]cn-K-Wn®p.tLmjbm-{X-bpsS e£yw ]g-°t. _{km.v. / v t am¿tXmΩm.`. B Znhkw am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS Hm¿Ω (Zp-Ivtdm-t\m) Bbn sIm≠m-Sp-hm≥ k` \n›-bn-®p.n¬ Ddlm am¿tXm-Ωm.«o-lm-bpsS I_dn-S-ÿ-e-ambpw ImtXm-en-°m-am-cpsS Bÿm-\-ambpw Xo¿∂p. JØ¿.. Cu ]≈n-bpsS Hcp `nØn°v kw`-hn® tISp-t]m-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn B `nØn s]mfn® Ah-k-c-Øn-emWv am¿tXm-Ωm. _lvdn≥. XpS¿∂v t_mws_. Cu Xncpti-jn-∏ns‚ Awi-߃ ]n∂oSv ]e ÿe-ßf . al-Ømb Cu "kphn-tijw' ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_mhm C¥y≥k-`sb tI_nƒam¿§w Adn-bn-®p.Øp {]tXyI KoX-߃ Be-]n-®p-sIm≠pw Hcp kvtXm{X -{]-Z-£nWw \S-Øp-Ibpw XpS¿∂v hn.˛¬ Dd-lm-bnse am¿tXmΩm -«o-lm-bpsS ]≈n-bn¬ ÿm]n-®p.Xo-bX . I .m w w w / / : tp t h . .«o-lm-bpsS \ma-Øn-emWv Cu ]≈n ÿm]n-®n-cn-°p∂-Xv.p¿∫m\ ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.a-dnb aqk¬ sa{Xm-k\ Ac-a\ . x _mKvZm-Zv.n„w ae-¶c .∏mƒ aqk-ense sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm.of . x o BZy-Im-eØv C¥y-bn¬ \n∂v FtU- m-bn-te-°mWp am¿tXm-Ωm«o-lm-bpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏v sIm≠p-t]m-b-Xv. AXv Hcp I¿°-SIw (Pq-sse) aq∂mw. hnip≤ \mSp-I-fnse np-tijw Xs‚ Ah-km-\sØ kµ¿i-\-Ø n\ `mKy-hm-\mb HutK≥ a _mhm 1965 am¿®v 9 ˛mw XobXn alcm{Xn ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a-\-bn¬ kkpJw Xncn-s®-Øn.mb Hcp ]oT-Øn¬ h-b° v p-Ibpw {]tXyI {]m¿∞-\bpw [q]m-cm-[\ . t t h / : p /w w aqk¬ sk‚ v tXmakv ]≈n-bn¬ HutK≥ _mhm hnip≤ Ip¿_m\ A¿∏n-®p. Cu Xncp-ti-jn-∏mWv C∂v tIm´-bw -Im-tXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a\ Nm∏-en¬ kq£n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.n-cp-∂p. Ah-cpsS kzoI-cW .m-hm-tbmSpw k°mbn sa{Xm-t∏meo-Øm-tbmSpw IrX-⁄X {]Im-in-∏n-°p-Ibpw D≠m-bn.' ]cn-ip-≤m-flm-hns\Xncmb ]m]w). ""C¥y-bn¬ kphn-tijw Adn-bn® am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏v'' F∂p ]gb Fkv{X≥tKem A£-c-Øn¬ AXn-t∑¬ Fgp-Xn-bn-cp-∂p. Ime-{I-aØ .

ƒ kr„n-°p-∂X .psS kl-Ic .m-hmsb lqZmd b I. ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS ÿm\m-tcm-l-W-Øn-\p. Cu NS-ßn¬ ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhmbpw ioa-bn¬ \n-∂p-h∂ sa{Xm-∑mcpw am{Xta kw_‘n-®n-cp-∂p-≈psh∂v ImWn-°m≥ Nne Xev]c .n-®h .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .`.k-ev°m-c-ß-fn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.Zmkw-Kß .n-Iƒ t^mt´m s .m-hmbpw D≠m-bX . ae-¶c kp∂-lt. A∂sØ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ÿm\m. x do / v t ""ae-¶c .ØmsS ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-bn¬ D≠m-bn-cp∂ Ccp-hn`mK-ßfpw ]cn-]q¿Æ-ambpw H∂m-bn.n\pw ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _ .epw IÆp-Iƒ AS-bv°m-\m-hn-√t.ƒ sXfn-bn-®X .n\pw ap≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Nne {]am-Wn-Iƒ {ian-®p-sh∂pw AXv w `mKsØ / ]cm-P-b-s∏-´p-sh∂pw ]n∂oSv hy‡am-bn.103 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 11 Hcp hymg-h-´-°mew aq∂m-asØ ImtXm-en°m Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm 1964 P\phcn 3 ˛mw XobXn Imew.sN-bvXX .m-t\m\nse hyh-ÿsb am\n-®p-sIm≠v £Wn-°p-∂-Xn\pwoImtXm-en-°mh hm-gN v b . A∂v Fw.h´n tªm°p-≠m°n ]c-ky-s∏-Sp-Øn-bXv ss{IkvX-h¿ F∂ \ne-bn-ep-≈ Ah-cpsS A[x-]-X-\-Øns‚ Hcp AS-bm-f-am-bn. AXp-t]mseXs∂ ChnsS hmWn-cp∂ ImtXm-en-°m-amcpw Ahsc A\p-kc . Ahn-SpsØ kº-∂-cmb ae-bm-fn-I-fpsS B≤ym-fln-Im-h-iy-߃ \ndth-‰p-∂-Xn-\p≈ kwhn-[m\w XpS-cp-sa∂pw hyh-ÿ.p-Xq-Wm-bn-Øo¿∂ .n-°p∂ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .√m.b .ÿm-\m-tcmlWw Ncn{Xw kr„n® Hcp kw`-h-am-bn-cp-∂p. / : ae-¶-c-k -`-bpsS sNe-hn¬ C¥y-bn¬ FØnb ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv tpsa{Xm_mhmbpw ∑mcpw \yqU¬ln-bn¬h®v cm{„-]Xn tUm..cpw At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp-am-scbpw AwKo-I-cn-®n-√.∏ .ß . F∂m¬ w ]m{Xn-b¿°okv hcm-Xw n-cn-°p-∂X . AXm-bn-cn°pw F\n°v \evIm-hp∂ \nß-fpsS G‰hpw A`n-Im-ay-amb ]mcn-tXm-jn-Iw.b .Øm-Sp-IqSn \S∂ ImtXm-en-°m.n-bn¬ Dd-∏m-bn. t h cm-[m-Ir-jvWs\ kµ¿in-°p-Ibpw tIc-fØ .n¬ FØn H´-[nIw kzoIc-W.W .ƒ C∂pw sX°pw hS°pw Pohn-°p-∂p-≠. Cu ]c-kv]c FXn¿∏v F∂-t∂-°p-ambn amdn F∂v F√m-hcpw hniz-kn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.am{Xw Ah-ti-jn-°pw.n\pw ae-¶c F∏-nkvtIm-t∏¬ kp∂-lt.n\pw kºq¿Æ kam-[m-\Ø . ∑mcpw ae-¶c . B kXy-{]-Xn⁄ At±lw Pohn-X-Øn¬ \nd-th-‰p-Ibpw sNbvXp.p-kc .\ .n-®n-√.ns‚ shfn-®Ø . cn-I s .t]m-ep-an-s√-∂mWv A\p-`h .n¬ o tcm-lW a hyh-ÿb .ÿm-]\w k` apgp-ht‚-Xp-am-bn.n¬ D≠m-bn-cn-°p∂ kam-[m\w \n߃ apdpsI ]nSn-°Ww.Ø . ae-¶-c-k-`-bn¬ ]≠p-≠m-bn-cp∂ Ie-l-sØ-∏‰n C\nbpw Nn¥n-°pItbm AtX-s®m√n Fs¥-¶nepw ]d™p hg-°p-≠m-°p-Itbm sNøp∂-Xp-sIm≠v \ΩpsS k`bvt°m k`-bn¬ B¿s°-¶n-eptam bmsXmcp KpWhpw D≠m-Im≥ t]mIp-∂n-√. ImtXm-en°m ÿm\m-tcml-Wt.¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _ .ncX-tbm-Sp-IqSn ]n¥p-S-cp-sa∂p'' {]Jym-]n-®n-cp-∂p.n®v ImtXm-en-°msb £Wn-® nc p∂ ns √¶ nepw AsX√mw rcW a hnkvac . k¿t∆m-]cn hnip≤ PohnXw \bn-°p-Ibpw thWw.apºv ImtXm-en-t°m-kns‚ A[n-Im-c-ko-abn¬s∏´ Ipssh‰v apX-emb {]tZ-i-ß-fn-t∑-ep≈ Ah-Imiw ]m{Xnb¿°o-kns\ ]nW-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p-th≠n ae-¶c kp∂-l-tZmkv 104 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Dt]-£n® Imcyw hfsc sshIn -am-{Xta k`mw-K-߃ Adn™p-≈p.n¬ FØp-sa∂v 1964 s^{_p-hc .o n-\xp≈ hneßp-XS.v Iymad I≈w ]d-™m.n-®p-sIm≠v 1958 ˛. ImtXm-en-°m -ÿm-\mtcm-lWw t\cn-´p-I≠v kt¥m-jn® At\-Imbncw k`mw-Kß . skan\m-cn-bn¬h®v am¿ Xntam-Øntbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm sNbvX Nca {]kw-K-Øn¬ ""\ymb-Øn\pw kXy-Øn\pw {]am-W-Øn\pw \oXn-°pwth≠n \ne-\n∂ Imew-sNbvX Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS Ime-Sn-Iƒ hnizm-kÿ . ChnsS 1912 -˛¬ ÿm]n® ImtXm-en-°m -knw-lm-k\w A_vZp≈ ]m{Xn-b¿°okpw ]n≥Km-an-Ifpw AwKo-Ic . Fkv. ImtXm-en-°m.v.£ .se ]c-kv]c kzoI.nse sshIm.n-\m¬ 1962 sabv 17.n¬ ]s¶-Sp-∏n-°p-∂X .th-fb .n-Iƒ \o°p-∂X .k . ae-¶c kp∂-ltZmkns‚ £W-a-\p-k-cn®v m ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv _m-hmbpw aq∂p sa{Xm.m-hmbpw ImtXmen-°m _ .I-ev]\ ]pd-s∏Sp-hn-®-t∏mƒ AXv AtX-]Sn AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ hnk-ΩXn-®-hcpw ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv -_m-hm-bpsS {]kwKw tI´-t∏mƒ ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS A\pbm-bn-I-fmbn amdn-t∏m-bn-cn-°-Ww. t t h / : p Ign™ Imcy-߃ ]d™p hg-°p-Iƒ IpØn-s∏m-°p-hm≥ {ian-°p∂-h¿°v tem-Øns‚ `mcy-bv°p-≠mb A\p`hw ˛ D .n-emk bn-cn-°Ww ae-¶c kp∂-l-tZmkv tIkpI ƒ°v A¥na h nc maw CSp-∂n Xn\pw kam-[m-\-Øn\p kºq¿Æ-l`a -{ZX e`n-°p-∂-Xn-\pw -th≠nv ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv -_m-hmsb £Wn-®-sa X∂p Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p.I . 1958 ˛.Zmkv r Xocp-am-\n-®p. k` H´p°v AwKo-Ic .FIyw t]mjn-∏n-°p-∂X . /w w .n-\m¬ k`-bnse ""Rßfpw'' ""\nßfpw'' A{]Xy-£a .˛mw XobXn ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ sXc-s™-Sp-Øn-cp∂ HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bmbn Nm¿s÷-Sp-Øp.m-bn. v/ t ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bmbn Nm¿sP-SpØv ae-¶c .b .sN-bvXn-cp-∂p. Un.t.n\pw Nne XS- ß .mhm kam-[m-\.f . {]mtbm-Kn-I -X-e-Øn¬ Cu Xocp-am-\-Øn\v AsX-gp-Xnb IS-em-kns‚ hne.

apºp c≠p I£n-I-fmbn \n∂-h¿ Hcp-an®v Bcm-[-\ -\-S-Øn.b .psS ]ptcm-KXn ap≥\n¿Øn πm\nwKv IΩo-j≥ aptºm´p-h® \n¿t±-iß .D . F∂m¬ hn`n∂ Nn¥m-KX . AXp-sIm≠v temØns‚ `mcy-bpsS Imcyw A\p-kva-cn-∏n-®Xv hfsc \∂m-bn. k`m kam-[m\w D≠mbn-cn-°p∂ kml-N-cy-Øn¬ ]gb Imcy-ß-fn-te°pw apºp-≠m-bn-´p≈ Akp-Jß . Aßs\ k` sshIm-cnI sFIy-Øn-te°pw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn-te°pw \oßn.y-amb \S-]-Sn-Ifpw kzoI-cn-®p.BZcn-®p-am{Xw {]h¿Øn-®m¬ aXn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. CXc Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-If .mbn k` apgp-h≥ BNcn-®p. ImtXm-en-t°‰v sk≥{S¬ Hm^okv B[p-\n-I -\n-ebn¬ kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-∂X . ae-¶-c-bn¬ D≠m-bn-cn-°p∂ imizX kam-[m\w aqew k` kr„n-]-c-amb cwK-ßfn¬°qSn A`n-hr-≤n-s∏Ss´ F∂ ip`m-iw-k-I-tfm-sS-bmWp ]m{Xnb¿°o-kv -_mhm ae-¶c hn´-Xv.ns‚ A`n-{]m-bß .f .n-te°pw tI p-If .Zmkv kzoI-cn-®X .ns‚ Hcp `mK-am-Wn-Xv.Zm-kn¬ HutK≥ _mhm.L . tI pw I£n-hg. ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-tbm-sSm∏w kw_-‘n-°p-Ibpw XpS¿∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_m-hmbpsS £W-a-\p-k-cn®v kndn-bm-bnse ]≈n-Ifpw hnip-≤ -\m-Sp-Ifpw kµ¿in-°p-Ib .n-bn¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv_mhm sNbvX {]kw-KØ .Hm¿ØtUmIvkv kt≠-kvIqƒ kamPw {]kn-U-≠mbpw IWn-bmw-]-d-ºn¬ Ipcy≥ tIm¿F∏n-ktv Im-∏msb kamPw Ub-dŒ . Fw. tUhn-Uns\ ]ªn-t°-j≥ Hm^o-k-dmbpw kp∂-l-tZmkv sXc-s™SpØp.≈ .n¬ \ntbm-Kn-°s .k .bmKØn¬ ae-¶c .'' tIm´bw knwlm-k\ .n\v k`m amt\-PnwKv IΩn‰n Xocp-am\w FSpØp.105 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ A\p-`h . HtŒm-_¿ 5 ˛\p ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ amt\-PnwKv IΩn‰n t t h / : p /w w .`. Zm\n-tb¬ am¿ ]oe-Ivkn-t\mkv F∂o sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-am¿ djy≥ k`-bpsS BXnYyw kzoI-cn®p tamkvtImbpw a‰pw kµ¿in-®p.ns‚ ap≥Km-an-Iƒ°v Hcp hn`m-KØ .\ .m w al k n a a r a . Nne Imcy-߃ ]d-bmsX hnS-Ww. sI. At±-lØ . Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv sshZn-I. t r o d o h .n-\p≈ A¥-co£w kwPm-Xa .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . am¿tXm-ΩmbpsS Xncp-ti-jn∏pw Cu bm{X-bn¬ ]m{Xn-b¿ °okv _mhm \evIn.ƒ Imtem-Nn-Xa .Xv.ÿm-\hpw F∂p ]d-bmw.b .n-te°pw AkpJß-fn-te°pw t]mImt\ a\p-jy\p tXm∂p-I-bp-≈p. F√mk-Xy-ßfpw ]d-b-cp-Xv.nI-fn¬ Xg-ºn® c≠p Iq´-cpsS sshIm-cnI sFIyw km[n-°p-∂ I . ae-¶c .k .`-cW .m-ct. x o / v t 1965 P\p-hcn BZyw FtXym-]y-bnse BUnkv A_m-_b . ae-¶-c-k`m `c-W-Øn\v Hcp F∏-nkvtIm-∏¬ Iu¨kn¬ 1963 sk]vXw-_d .n-te°pw ]c-kv]cw sNbvXn-´p≈ t{Zmlß-fn-te°pw ItÆm-Sn-°p-tºmƒ ]ns∂bpw hncp-≤X .mcyw {ia-km-≤y-amb H∂m-bn-cp-∂p.Zm-kn-s‚bpw kwbp-‡ t.n-s‚bpw {]Xo-Ia .m-esØ PohnX kvac-WI .k-`I . HmKÃv 27. aq∂m-asØ ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS Ime- ht tp :/ /w w 106 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ tijw `c-W` . A¶-amen `{Zm-k-\Øns‚ Koh-dp-Kokv am¿ {KotKm-dn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-sb. . x o / v t HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm Npa-Xe Gev°p-∂-Xn\p apºp-Xs∂ k`-bpsS πm\nwKv IΩn‰n cq]w \evInb ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ ]ptcm-K-an-®psIm≠n-cp-∂p.nsb ap≥\n¿Øn ]pXp-Xmbn GXm\pw sa{Xm-∑msc hmgn°m≥ kp∂-l-tZmkv \hw-_¿ 20 \p Xocp-am-\n-®p.f .∏-´p. 1963 Pqsse amk-Øn¬ Ae-Ivknkv ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ sa{Xm≥ ÿm\m-`n-tjI I\-I-Pq-_n-en-bn¬ kw_-‘n-°m≥ amXyqkv am¿ AØm-\mt-kym-kv.mWp hln-t°-≠n-h∂ . Nne sshZn-I¿ apºp Ib-dn-bn-´n-√mØ tZhm-e-b-ß-fn¬ kt¥m-j-]q¿∆w _en A¿∏n-®p.≠ .mIpw.Un.psS BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\ß .ƒ A\yq\w XpS-cp-∂X .S.mbn {]Jym-]\w sNø-s∏-´p.°pw Xo¿∂p.m-bncp-∂p. skan-\mcn hf-∏n¬ IqSp-X¬ sI´n-S-߃ \n¿Ωn-°m≥ \n›bn-®p. ap≈p-Iƒ \nd™ ]mX-bn-eqsS k©cn® Xntam-Øntbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°v ap≈p-I-fpsS Hcp InS-°X-s∂-bm-bn-cp∂p ImtXm-en-°m. HutK≥ _mhmbv°v `mc-ta-dnb Npa-Xe .ƒ F√mw kp∂-lt. k`m.psS kp∂-lt.v.pw.b .n¬ tN¿∂ k`m-am-t\-PnwKv IΩn‰nbpsSbpw πm\nwKv IΩn-‰n-bp-sSbpw kp∂-lt.ƒ .a‰ HutK≥ _mhmbv°v ]e {]iv\ß-sf t\cn-tS-≠Xp-≠m-bn-cp∂p F¶nepw BZy h¿jßfn¬ k`m-\uI im¥-amb kmKc-Øn-eq-sS-bmWp \oßn-bX . Xs‚ sNdp-∏I . Un.I . AXp-sIm≠v k`-bpsS kr„n-]-c-amb {]h¿Ø-\ß .∏ .˛mw XobXn ]g-b-sk-an-\m-cn-bn¬ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS A≤y-£X . k`-h-Ibmbn saUn-°¬an-j≥ {]h¿Ø\w DSs\ Bcw-`n-°p-∂X .sN-bvXp.n¬ \S∂ ]uc-kX v y.v.¿ P\-dembpw ^m. s]cp-am-‰-Ønepw {]hrØn-bnepw F√mw hfsc kq£n®p \otß≠ Npa-X-e-bmWv F¨]-tXm-S-SpØ ]pXnb ImtXmen-°m-bpsS Npa-en¬ Ib-dn-bX .w ˛. ImtXm-en-°m-Zn\w k`-bpsS sFIy-Øn-s‚bpw kam-[m-\Ø .n¬ Bh-iy-ambn hcm-hp∂ t`Z-KX .f .`.ƒ ]pXp-°n. k`bpsS ]ptcm-KX .p-am-bp≈ _‘w sa®-s∏´p-h-∂p.n-\m-hi .b .mbn ]cn-jvIcn-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-l-tZmkv Xocp-am-\n-®p.sk-an-\mcn Hcp _n.n-Iƒ hcp-Øp∂-Xn\v ImtXm-en-°m -_mhm Hcp dqƒ IΩn-‰nsb \ntbm-Kn-®p. F∂n´pw ""temØns‚ `mcy-am-cmbn'' Nne¿ k`-bn¬ Xe-bp-b¿Øn F∂Xv \n¿`m-Ky-I-c-sat∂ ]d-tb-≠-Xp-≈p. tImf-Pmbn Db¿Øn-bXv 1965 s^{_p-hcn H∂p apX-em-sW-∂p-≈Xv sshZnI skan-\m-cn-bpsS {]n≥kn-∏m-fm-bn-cp∂ HutK≥ _m-hmbv°v IqSp-X¬ kt¥m-j-Øn\p hI-\-evIn.b .

At±-lhpw ]n∑m-dn-bn-cp- .ahenr \m-gvN.‰n.n\v ImtXm-en°m_m-hmbv°p km[n-®p. Pbn≥ ktΩ-f\w DZvLm-S\w sNøp-Ibpw D≠m-bn. kn\-Unse Nne AwK-ß-fpsS \ne-]m-Sn-t\mSv FXn¿Øp \nev°m≥ am¿ HutK≥ _mhm apXn-cm-Xn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠mWv Cßs\ kw`-hn-®-Xv. Un. / : A©p -tp ]sc ÿm\m¿∞n-I-fmbn sXc-s™-SpØp F¶nepw aq∂pt taev]´ ÿm\w sImSp-°p-∂p≈p F∂ Xocp-am\w t]¿°p tam{Xta h k`-bn¬ Atßm-f-an-tßmfw {]Xn-tj-[ -i_vZw Db¿Øn.Ø ._mhm {]Jym-]\w sNbvXp.n\v r o b.fpw a a’yhpw D]-tbm-Kn-°mw.c .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .‘w sa®-s∏-´X . Atkm-kn-tbj≥ IqSn ^m.n.ß .mb £oWsØ ap≥\n¿Øn 1970 Unkw-_¿ 31 ˛mw XobXn tIm´bw Fw. tPm¿÷v.¶ . sP. G{_lmw tIm¿F∏n-kvtIm∏m sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p.\p Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ hnfn-®p-Iq-´p-∂X . hn.e . tXmakv am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kpw.k-ahm-[m-\sØ XpS¿ tAwKo-Imcw \evIn∂p≈ A¥-co-£Ø .sk-an-\m-cn-bn¬ h®v HutK≥ _mhm \n¿∆-ln-®p.taen¬ a ImtXm-en-°m.t. k`-bpsS hnI-k-\-Øns‚ e£Ww F∂mWv Cu sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\m-`n-tj-IsØ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv_mhm A∂v hnti-jn-∏n-®X .kw-_-‘n® emL-h-Øns‚ n Npcp-°w. t]mƒ hdp-Ko-kv. kn. At¥ym-Iym ˛. ^m. G{_-lm-ans\ Gev]n-®Xpw _mhmsb hf-scb-[nIw kt¥m-jn-∏n-®p. ]n. .˛mw XobXn tIme-t©-cn-bn¬ h®v HutK≥ _m-hm-bm¬ bqlm-t\m≥ am¿ tkth-dntbm-kpw. Fkv.∏-´p. t t h / : p /w w A∂sØ Atkm-kn-tb-j-\n¬ HutK≥ _mhm sNbvX D]-{I-a{]kw-K-Øn¬ C{]-Imcw ]d-™p: ""ImtXm-en-°m-bpsS ]n≥Km-an-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ssZh-\-S-Øn∏v In´m-\mbn sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-am¿ ]cp-ae ]pWy-hm-fs‚ k∂n-[n-bn¬ A`bw {]m]n-®p.fpw Hgn-®m¬ ]mepw £otcm-ev]∂ .mw XobXn ]g-b. {]mcw-` k . ]gb skan-\m-cn-bpsS 150 h¿jw XnI-bp-∂Xv kw_-‘n® Pq_nen Unkw-_¿ Ah-km\w sIm≠m-Sn.h-ln-°p-Ibpw tIcf Kh¿Æ¿ G.™-Sp-Øt. Hcmƒ HgnsI _m°n-bp≈-h-sc√mw XymK-_p-≤n-tbmSpIqSn.h® aW-en¬ bmt°m_v IØ-\m¿°p ]Icw Sn. kn. G{_lmw ]Sn-™m-td-°c sXc-s™-Sp-°s . AXpw hsc C. F∂m¬ 1967 HSp-hn¬ ]pXp-∏≈n hen-b]-≈n-bn¬ kam-[m\w ]p\x-ÿm-]n-®Xpw sNdn-b] . sshZn-I {S-Ãn -ÿm\w cmPn.Ω-f\ . hcpt\mºm-N-c-W-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw H´pw Ipd-bv°msX emLhw x o-s∏´ ]cnØn-b-XmWv HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS ImesØ Hcp {][m-\ d jvImcw. aq∂p -t\m-ºpw. aW¿ImSv ]≈n-If ._m-hm-bpsS IØo-{U¬ Bbn-cn-°p-sa∂v 1966 am¿®v m HSp-hn¬ ]. HcmgvN aW¿Im-´p -]-≈n-bn¬ Xma-kn-®p- 108 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ sIm≠mWv tI p-Iƒ cmPn-bm-°n-b-Xv.]n-∑m-dn. aqtdm≥ Iq-Zmi 1967 Unkw-_¿ 21 ˛.n-s‚bpw tXmakv am¿ XotamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°p ae-_m¿ `{Zm-k-\-Øn-s‚bpw ]oent∏mkv am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°v A¶-amen `{Zmk\Øns‚bpw Npa-Xe am¿ HutK≥ _mhm \evIn.. a l am¿ Gen-bm.n\pw sa{Xm≥ ÿm\m¿∞n-Isf sXc-s™-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\pw \n›-bn-®p. PnwKv IΩn‰n sk{I-´d. ]oen-t∏m-kv. sh≈n-bmgvN Znh-kß .nse tI -pIƒ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°p-∂X .aqew ]pXp∏-≈n-bnepw Ip∂-¶p-fØpw FØn kam-[m-\ -ZuXyw \nd-th-‰m≥ _mhmbv°p Ign-™n-√. skan-\m-cn-bn¬ ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ hnfn-®pIq´p-Ibpw AhnsS XSn-®p-Iq-Sn-bn-cp∂ ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse F√m sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-amcpw aqhm-bncw ]≈n-{]-Xn-]p-cp-j-∑mcpw GI-I-WvT-ambn F√m-hn-[-Ønepw tbmKy-\mb amXyqkv am¿ AØm-\m-kn-tbm-kns\ HutK≥ _m-hm-bpsS ]n≥Km-an-bm-bn s .Ø . Znh-k-ß-fpsSkkwJy-bn¬ am‰-an-√..a . Fw. F.X-cs .Nm-∏¬ . ^m. sI. At{]w {]Y-a≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ t\mºv ]-co n-jI v cWtØmSv FXn¿∏v {]I-Sn-∏n® ImtXm-en-°m -]£w k`m. imco-cnI £oWw. CXmWp t\mºp.n-bmbn am¿®v 24˛mw ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ amt\w XobXn ]n. v/ t . .k-`m _ .ns\ XpS¿∂v At{]w B_q-Zn -d-ºms‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ ae-¶-c-bn¬\n∂v Hcp Xo¿∞m-S-IkwLw ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-sbbpw kndn-bm-bnse ]e ]≈n-Ifpw hnip≤ \mSp-Ifpw kµ¿in-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.kn.m-[n-]≥ Koh-dp-Kokv am¿ {KotKm-dn-tbmkv sa{Xmt∏m-eoØm \hw-_¿ 6 ˛mw Xob-Xnbpw Imew sNbvXXv am¿ HutK≥ _mhmsb ZpxJm¿Ø-\m-°n. ^m. F≥.. x do / v t imco-cn-Ia .∏mƒ _mhm-bpsS Npa-X-em-`mcw Gsd-°p-sd -e-Lq-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bp-am-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. tbml-∂m≥ aev]m≥.v. XpS¿∂mWv FtXym-]y≥ kp∂-l-tZm-kn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ ImtXm-en°m-_mhm t]mb-Xv. Unkw-_¿ 28 ˛. sNdm-bn. 1966 HmKÃv 24.≈n ]q´n tbip-IØ\m¿ Xmt°m¬ ]n. sIm√w CS-h-IbpsS am¿ tXthm-tZm-kn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm HmKÃv 6 ˛mw XobXnbpw A¶-amen `{Zm-k\ . tPmk^v Bbn-cp∂p Cu al-\o-b-ÿm\w {]i-kvX-am-bw \n-e-bn¬ hln-®/ n-cp-∂-Xv.n-emWv t\mºv ]-cn-jI v m-cØ .t\m-ºnse _p[b-Xv.n¬ ap≥ {]n≥kn∏¬Iq-Sn-bmb ImtXm-en-°m-_mhm A≤y-£-X. XpS¿∂v bqlm-t\m≥ am¿ tkth-dn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°v sIm®n `{Zm-k\ . IjvSm\p`-h -B-gvN-bpw. S.107 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ IqSn. tXmakv dºm≥ F∂n-hsc sFI-I-WvtTy\ sXc-s™-Sp-Øp. ]oen-t∏mkv am¿ sXtbm^n-temkpw sa{Xm-∑m-cmbn hmgn-°-s∏-´p.

\n߃ k`-bpsS kwc-£I .n¬ Nne ]´-°mcpw t\Xr-tam-ln-If . k`bpw hnP-bn-°pw. / v t F∂m¬ A¶-amen XpS-ßnb Nne `{Zm-k\ .ß .I ƒ.µ n.P p. tIme-t©cn saUn-°¬ an-j≥ Bip-]-{Xn. x o k n aK-amWv k`-bpsS kam-[m\w \inkzm¿∞-tam-ln-I-fmb Hcp hn`mal £an-°s´ F∂pap≈ Nn¥-bm-bn∏n-°p-∂-sX∂pw ssZhw Ah-tcmSp cp∂p ].Y ._m-h . k`-bv°p-th≠n I„-\-„ßfpw a¿±-\hpw G‰ ].vTa . ÃpU‚ v sk‚dp-Iƒ. AXoh `‡\pw \p-am-bno hn-®p. Nne-cpsS kzm¿∞.ß ƒ F∂nhsb√mw k`m.a .tNne¿ x hnhkr„n® Imcy-߃ t\csØ {]kvXm-hn-®n-´p-≈X . sshZnI tImf-Pv.bm-Sp-IqSn Pohn-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww.k-am-[m-\-Øns‚ k¥-Xn-I-fm-Wv.c .mmsb `cn-®-Xv.p-sIm≠v ChnsS o cn-°p-∂n-√. ]pXnb tImf.n-ancw _m[n® A¶-am-en-bnse Nne {]am-Wn-Iƒ sNbvX-sX∂v Ncn{Xw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øpw. \nß-fpsS A]-am-\hpw _lp-am-\hpw k`-bpsS A]-am-\hpw _lp-am\-hp-am-Wv. amt\-PnwKv IΩn‰n AwK-ßs .mWv.k-`-bn-ep-≠mb kam[m-\-sØ-Øp-S¿∂v k` ]e cwK-ß-fnepw ]ptcm-K-an-®p. k`-bpsS Nn´Iƒ A\p-k-cn®v \oß-Ww.sb Xmtem-en-°m≥ km[n-®n-√.Im-tXm-en-°m.mWv k`sb Ie°n-bs .mb Nne {]am-Wn-Ifpw a\x-]q¿∆w `n∂-XI .X∂v dim¥HutK≥ _mhm ]e-hpcp ]d-™n-´p-≠v.y-ßf . A\m. \n߃ k`sb c£n-°p-Ibpw a‰p-≈-h-cpsS apºmsI amXr-Im-]-cambn k∑m¿§-\n-jvTt.'' / v \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ k`m-a-fi-e-Øn¬ A`n-{]m-b-`n-∂-X-Iƒ. Aßs\ ]ptcm-KX .f .n-bn-te°v \oßns°m-≠n-cp∂ k`m-h-©nsb It√m-e-ß-ƒ Cf-°n-hn´v h©n-®-h-tcmSv .I-gn-™n-cp-∂p. k`-bpsS \nesX∂v'' _mhm ]d-™-tXm¿°p\n-ev]ns\ tNmZyw m . k`-tbm-Sp≈ kvt\lhpw hnip-≤-∑m-tcm-Sp≈ BZ-chpw F√m-hcpw {]I-Sn-∏n-®-Xn¬ kt¥m-j-ap-≠v.«o-lm-sbt ∏mepw apS° p-sa-∂mWp tXm∂p-∂a∂p. tN∏m´v Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Xncpta-\n-bp-tSbpw ]pen-t°m-´n¬ Zoh-∂m-tkymkv Xncp-ta-\n-bp-sSbpw Ime-L-´-Øn¬ Bw•n-°≥ hn`m-Khpw am¿tØm-Ωm-°mcpw ]ncn™p t]msb-¶n¬ HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m _ . Ass{IkvX-h¿ t]mepw sNøm≥ Adbv°p∂ Imcy-ßf .n\v ]. H. CXv A\p-{K-l-I-chpw kt¥mj-I-c-hp-amb Hcp kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. /w / : p t t h 110 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 12 ]ptcm-KX .n\pw sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS Im¿ IØn°p-∂-Xn\pw Ch¿ Xøm-dm-bn. / /k`sb H∂n®p `cn-°p-∂X. Aßs\ sNbvXm¬ \nß-fpsS IpSpw-_ßfpw cmPy-hpw. sX‰mb {]Nm-c-W-߃ hgn sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb A[n-t£-]n-°p-∂Xn\pw A\p-kc ..109 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ s∂-¶n¬ Imcyw \S-°p-I-bn-√m-bn-cp-∂p.n-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂X . apºv ®h . sslkv I qfpIƒ.-w Hu-tK≥ _m-hmsb ""{Iqin®'' tijw ho≠pw hnem-∏p-dØp IpØn-b -h-cmWv A¶-am-en-bnse Nne {]am-Wn-I-sf∂p w temI-saßpw a\-  wn-em-°n. a r a t r o d o h .fbpw GI-IW .¿s°√mw tami I\m≥tZiw I≠-Xp-t]mse k`tp `cnt bpsS sFIyw ImWm≥ Ign-™-X-√msX HutK≥ _mhm-sb-t∏mse h Hcp sFIy-k`.u-tK≥ _mhmbv°v `n∂n-®p-\n∂ : km[n-®p.mbn sXc-s™-Sp-°p∂-Xn¬ kt¥m-j-ap-≠v. sNbvXt. am¿tXm-Ωmcp∂ _mhmsb k`-bnse Akz-ÿ-X-Iƒ thZ-\tn-∏ r bpsS ]utcm-ln-Xyhpw knwlm-k-\hpw Nne tI{µß-fn¬ hna¿i-\oDd® \ne]mhnt[-b-am-b-t∏mƒ HutK≥ _mhm kzoI-cn® Sp-sIm-≠pa r am{Xw At±lw ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse i‡-\a mb Hcp ImtXm-en°m F∂ t]cv Ncn-{X-Øn¬ \ne-\n¿Øn-bn-´p-≠v. \n߃ kvt\l-tØmSpw kt¥m-j-tØmSpw {]h¿Øn®v k`bv°v alna ssIh-cp-Ø-Ww.∏mƒ k`-bv°p-th≠n Hcp c‡-km-£n-bm-Im≥t]mepw _mhm w aSn-Im-Wn-®n-s√-∂p-≈-XmWp w kXyw.Xm-e] v c .ƒ D≠m-°p∂-Xn\pw Bcpw CXp-h-scbpw \n¿∆-Nn-®n-´n-√mØ ""At¥ym-Iym hnizmk''Øns‚ t]cn¬ km[m-c-W-°m-cmb k`mw-K-ß-fpsS hnIm-cßsf NqjWw sNøp-∂-Xn\pw \o°-߃ Bcw-`n-®p.m-hm-bpsS ImeØv `n∂n-®p-\n∂h¿ H∂n-®p-h∂v Ncn{Xw kr„n-®p.c .nbpw hne-ßp-XS . ssZh-Øn-\p -kvXpXn.n-Ifpw HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS `c-W-Im-eØv ae-¶-c.mWv Zpc-`n-am-\ X . k _mhmsb ]m{Xn-b¿°okv apSn °m≥ km≤y-X-bp-s≠∂v Hcn-°¬ h-im¬ Adn-™-t∏mƒ a kµ¿`l ""At±lw am¿tXmΩm.

H . skan-\mcn-bn¬ XSn-®p-Iq-Snb a\p-jy-al .h-f¿Ønb Ip™n\p hnjw.v. C¥y-bpsS At∏m-kvX-e-\mb am¿tXm-Ωm «olmbv°v ]´w Cs√∂pw At±lw Hcp Assh-Zn-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-ap≈ ]m{Xn-b¿ °okv _m-hm-bpsS Ip{]-kn-≤-amb 1970 -˛se 203.˛mw iXm-_vZnam¿tXm-Ωm -« / sIm≠m-Snb h¿j: amWv 14 sIm√w tbmPn-®p-\n-∂-tijw amt\-PnwKv p IΩn-‰n-bnse Nne ∑m¿ am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS t]cpw ]d™v t\Xr-Xztt amt\-am\yØn-\p-h th≠n PnwKv IΩn-‰n t.n¬ C{]-Imcw ]d-™p: ""ss{IkvX-h-k` hnZq-c-amb `mc-X-Øn¬ ÿm]n-°p-I -am-{Xa√.n-ep-≈h .]n-Xm-hn-s\ kvacn-°p-tºmƒ \ΩpsS BÀmZw AXn-cp-I-hn-bpw.sc ]d™v [cn-∏n-t°≠ Bh-iy-hp-an-√.t / w w /o-lm-bpsS c‡-km-£n-Xz-Øns‚ 19.mWv ImtXm-en-°m _ . 112 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS ]mc-º-cy-Øn¬ A`n-am-\-t_m-[-an-√m-Ø-h-cpsS Cu thm°u-´n¬ ImX-emb bmsXmcp {]iv\hpw AS-ßn-bn-´n-s√-∂p≈ kXyw Nn¥m-i‡ .˛mw \º¿ Iev]\ (IØ-√) ]mep sImSp-Øp.m¿°p \evInb A\p-{K-lI . AXpsIm≠v As∂ßpw Bcp-sSbpw a\- n¬ C√m-Xn-cp∂ Hcp hnhm-Z{.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o . am¿tXmΩmsb∏‰n IqSp-X¬ ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn\pw At±-l-sØ-t∏mse ASn-bp-d® ssZh-hn-izmkw B¿÷n-°p-∂-Xn\pw ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ am¿tXm-Ωm.I-bn-s√-∂p≈ A`n-{]m-ba .n-cp-≤a .`-c-W-L-S\ AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-\p.s\m¥p k¶S-s∏-´p.tZ-i-ß-sf°mfpw Nne ]uckvXy tZi-ß-sf-°mfpw apºmbn kXy-hn-izmk-Øns‚bpw t{ijvT -]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s‚bpw hgn-Ømc sXfn-®p-X∂ Cu ]pWy.∑ .N-bvXpsIm≠v ].n-{X-Øn¬ Db¿Øp-Ib .sIm-SpØ {]XoXn-bmWp ae-¶-c-bn¬ kr„n-®-Xv.sc t{]cn-∏n-®p. am¿tXm-Ωm«o-lm-bpsS ]sØm≥]Xmw Nc-a -i-Xm_vZn tIm´-b-Øp -h®v AXnKw`o-c-ambn sIm≠m-Sp-∂-Xn\pw km[n-®p.m-ka . am¿tXm-Ωm-sb-∏‰ .Po-hn-X-Øns‚ k¬t{]-c-W-Itfm Dƒs°m-≈m≥ Ign-bm-sX-t]mb Hcp \yq\-]£w Ip{]-kn-≤n -t\Sn k`-bn¬ Ielw D≠m-°m≥ sNbvX Hcp ]mgvth-ebm-bn-cp∂p Cu thm°u-s´∂v ]n∂oSp \S∂ kw`-h-߃ km£n-®p. x do / v t .apºv ]m-{Xn-b¿°o-kv_mhmbv°v ae-¶-c -k-`-bp-sS -ta¬ D≠m-bn-cn-t°≠ A[n-Im-c-mh-Im-iß-sf-s®m√n X¿°-ßfpw hyh-lm-c-ßfpw \S-∂n-´p-≠v.p-am-bn-cp-∂p.c .n-bp≈ Cu ssZh-im-kv{X h . \ΩpsS I¿Ømhv At∏m-kvXe .u-tK≥ _mhm sNbvX DZvLm-S\ .]-kw-KØ . Un. ae¶c k`m. t t h / : p /w w .p-{ZsØ A`n-kw-t_m-[\ .s .\-{km-Wn-I-fpsS ÿm\hpw am\hpw k`m-Nc . ss{IkvXh-a-X-Øns‚ tI{µ-ß-fmbn Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ F√m ]m›m-Xy. A`n-am\w Db-cpw.n¬ \n∂pw AXp hgn ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-bn¬\n∂pw kzbw Cd-ßn-t∏m-bX .]iv\w.111 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ssZhw s]mdp-°p.bm-KØ . tIm´bw Fw. Ah-sbm∂pw am¿tXm-Ωm -«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k-\sØ Hcn-°epw kv]¿in-®n-cp∂pan√.m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .m-cmbn kwt_m-[\ sNbvXn-´p≈ Iev]\-Iƒ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kp-am¿ Ab-®n-´p-≈Xv Ncn-{X-tc-J-I-fm-Wv.n-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm\-amWv am¿tXm-Ωm -«o-lm.n-bp-≈h . k`-bpsS D∂- X-amb `c-W-k-an-Xn-bpsS {]m[m-\ytam B≤ym-fln-I. 1958 apX¬ Kuc-h-a¿ln-°p∂ bmsXmcp `n∂-Xbpw C√m-Xn-cp∂ k`bn¬ D∂-bn®v k`sb \in-∏n-°m≥ {ian-®-h¿ Hcn-°¬ ]›m-Ø-]nt°≠n hcp-sa-∂mWv ss{IkvX-h-k-`-bpsS Ncn{Xw ]Tn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp ]mTw.hpw ]pWy-I-c-hp-amb ]utcm-lnXyw Xrss°-IƒsIm≠v ae-¶-c-bpsS a°ƒ°p \evIn-s°m≠v am¿tXm-Ωm-«olm ae-¶-c.b .'' .hn-cp≤ \o°w ae-¶c . ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-amsc am¿tXm-Ωm-bpsS knwlm-k-\Øn¬ hmW-cp-fp∂ tae-≤y-£∑ .m-hmsb `cn-®-Xv. \ΩpsS i‡n-bp-sSbpw Bth-iØ .mb Nn¥m-KXn HutK≥ _mhmsb h√msX thZ-\n-∏n-®p. ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kv -_mhm thZhn-]-co-Xn-bm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xn¬ At±lw lrZ-bw.{.

.. kn.. a r a \ΩpsS ss«lnI Bio¿hm-Z-߃ hm’ey sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø∑m¿°pw \ΩpsS a°-fmb sshZn-I¿°pw Ahn-sS-bp≈ P\-Øn\pw \¬Ip-I.... Ch ChnsS Ahkm-\n-°s´...Syria Damascus t t No.p-am-b dh.. bqlm-t\ms‚ Gh≥tK-en-tbm-\n¬\n∂pw (20:21.....n-bpsS {]m[m\yw a\- n-em-°p-∂-Xn\v ssZh-imkv{X hn⁄m\cln-X-s\∂p tXm∂p-amdv bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv Ab® Iev]\ IqSntN¿°p-I-bmWv..v:˛- ..v Hcp `qj-Wa .h203/70 (ap{Z) _lp-am-\-]q¿Æ-\mb HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbmb \ΩpsS ktlm-Z-cs‚ t{ijvT-X-bv°v. ae-¶-c-bn¬ h∂v thZ-hn-]-co-X-ßfpw I≈-ßfpw Fgps∂≈n-°p-∂X ...n\pw _lp-am-\y-\mb Aß-bpsS t£a-mt\zj-W-Øn\pw tijw ]d-bp-∂-sX-s¥-∂m¬... am¿tXmΩm -«olmbpsS ]´w Xncn-s®-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v 1970 -˛¬ 203-˛mw \º¿ Iev]\ Ab® bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ⁄m\Øn-\p-th≠n ].Um. 155/70 h At¥ym-Iym-bp-sSbpw Ing-s°m-s°-bp-sSbpw `mKy-hm-\mb tamdm≥ am¿ C·m-Øn-tbmkv bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm Xncpa-\  . ZakvtImkv 27 -˛ 6 -˛ 1970 ...................... Cßs\ ]´m-∏-I¬ taev]-´-°m¿ I≈w. Hcp ]ptcmln-X≥ t]mepw BIm-Xn-cns° Fßs\ alm-]p-tcm-ln-X-\m-bn...mbn Nne¿ Nn¥n-°p-Ibpw Adn-hn-√mØ Chn-SpsØ Hcp ]‰w Ip™m-Sp-Iƒ AXn\v Hmim-\..113 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 13 ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ ⁄m\-Øn\v CXp. d o h .v°v......«o-lm-bpsS ]utcm-ln-XysØ kw_-‘n®v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbpsS IØv w w Syrian Patriarcate // of Antioch:and all the East p . Aß-bpsS Fgp-Øn\v hfsc \mfp-Iƒ°p -apºv am¿tØmΩm-bpsS knwlm-k\w F∂ Xe-hm-N-I-Øn¬ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-Xmbn Hcp IØv \mw hmbn®v hfsc A¤p-X-s∏-´p....b .. am¿tØm-Ωm -«olm GsX-¶nepw Hcp knwlm-k\w ÿm]n-®nt´-bn-√. I¿Øm-hns‚ Ir] Aß-tbm-Sp-Iq-sS..........˛ 24) hy‡-amIp∂ {]Imcw At±lw Hcp ]ptcm-ln-X-\m-bn-´n-√m-bn-cp-∂p. t r o d o h .mfw hnh¿Ø-\w) w w / en-°m -_m-hm-bpsS adp-]Sn ImtXm/ (ap-{Z) p: t t No. t..... hn......aXn kmtlm-Zcy Npw_-\Ø ..m w al k n a a r a t r o 114 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am¿tXm-Ωm.]´w sI´n-b-Xmtbm ImtXm-en-°m -knw-lm-k\w ÿm]n-®-Xmtbm {]kvXm-hn-®n-´n-√....... x o / v t ..]m-Sp-Ibpw sNøp∂Xv CXm-Zy-a-√.Hu-tK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm Ab-®p-sIm-SpØ adp-]S... ]m{Xn-b¿°m Ac-a-\mw-K-߃ Aß-bpsS ssI Npw_n-°pIbpw {]m¿∞-\-Isf Bt«-jn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v ]q¿hnI Ncn-{X-Im-c∑ ....m-cn-emcpw Xs∂ At±lw Bscbpw F∏n-kvtIm∏m Bbn. x o / v t (1938 -˛¬ tIm´bw Pn√m-t°m-S-Xn-bn¬ \S∂ kap-Zm-b-t°kv hnNmc-W. kmap-h¬ ]m{Xnb¿°okv hn`m-K-tØm-Sp -hn-S-hm-ßn-b-sX∂v A®s‚ {]i-kvX-amb ""kzm\p`h thZn-bn¬'' F∂ BflIY-bn¬ Bte-J\w sNbvXn-´p-≠v..«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k\w F∂p ]d-b-s∏-S-Ø-°-hn-[Øn¬.th-f-bn¬ A_vZ¬ a-inlm ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns\ 1905 -˛¬ kp∂-ltZm-kv -IqSn apS°n F∂p ]d-bp∂ Iev]\ sXfn-hm-bn -\¬Im≥ 1938˛¬ a™-\n-°c Zb-dm-bn¬ h®v am¿ bqen-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm B Iev]\ Fgp-Xp-∂Xv t\cn´p I≠-Xns\ XpS¿∂mWv Ahn-SpsØ aev]m-\pw temI-{]-ikvX ssZh-im-kv{X-⁄\ .......nse ]cn-ip-≤X ..... Xncp-a-\- nse Ipi-em-t\z-j-W-Øn\pw t£am-iw-kbv°pw tijw Adn-bn-°p-∂X .... Hcp alm-]p-tcm-ln-X≥ A√m-Xn-cns° Fßs\ knwlm-k\w ÿm]n-®p........ \memw \q‰m-≠n¬ ImtXm-en-°mÿm]\w D≠m-bXp apX¬ Cu \maw ImtXm-en-°m-am-cntem a{]n-bm\m-am-cnsem Bcpw D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´n√m F∂-XmWv Imcyw.......Im-Wn-°p-∂Xp I≠m¬ BcmWv AXn\p Iq´p\n¬°p-I) ...m w al k n a (a-eb .. c≠m-a-Xmbn am¿tØm-Ωm......

CtX-∏‰n ChnsS IqSnb kn\Uv \n›-bn®-X\p-k-cn®v AXns‚ sk{I-´dn hni-Z-ambn Xncp-a-\- n-te°v ]n∂oSv Fgp-Xp-∂X . ao r a rt d o h ox \ΩpsS ap≥Kman Imew sNbvX tamdm≥ am¿ _t -en-tbmkv Kohdp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m _ .a-Xn..b . ]. "ae-¶-cbn¬ kphn-tij hnØv hnX-®-Xn-\p-tijw Cu _me-k-`sb `cn-∏m≥.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o . 1970 ˛. Cu I¬]\ Fgp-Xnb ].hpw Im-tXm-en°m knwlmk-\hpw XΩn¬ Imt\m-\n-I-ambpw ae-¶-c-k`m `c-W-L-S\ {]Im-chpw D≈ sFIy-_‘w G‰-°p-d-®n¬ IqSmsX kwc-£n-°-s∏´p Im◊m≥ R߃ F√m-hcpw B{K-ln-°p-∂p. t t h / : p /w w . «olm ÿm\-tØ°v Db¿Ø-s∏-´p (t]Pv 164). {]Xn-tj-[m¿l-ßf .4. Imfn-bm-¶¬ F∂o {InkvXp-am¿§w kzoIcn® \mep {_m“W IpSpw-_ß . tbml-∂ms‚ kphn-tijw (20:21 -˛ 24) B[m-c-ambn tN¿Øn-´p-≠v.n\pw A¥n {InkvXp B{Kln-°p-∂X . ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm Xs∂ dºm-\m-bn-cp∂ ImeØv Fgp-Xnb k`m-Nc .m-Wv.t / ]. AXnse Xmev]-cy-{]-Imcw \ΩpsS _.w. 26 .m-hm-bpsS ImeØv Cuhn[ kwK-XnI-sf-°p-dn®v Ahn-Sp∂v Fgp-Xn-bn-cp-∂-Xmbpw A∂v kap-Nn-X-amb adp]Sn AXn\p \¬In-b-Xmbpw Adn-bp-∂p. ]m{Xn-b¿°m knwlm-k\ . aØm-bn-bpsS 10:5 ˛ 10 hsc H∂p hmbn-°p-I.o-lm-bm¬ ÿm]nX-sa∂p R߃ A`n-am-\n-°p∂ ]uckvXy Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv k`-sb°p-dn-®p≈ Rß-fpsS A`n-{]m-b-߃ Ahn-Sp∂v ]p\xNn¥\w sNøpsa∂v R߃ {]Xo-£n-°p-∂p.Rm≥ hm°p-Iƒ Npcp-°p-I-bm-Wv. ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ A[n-Imcw Chsb kw_-‘n-®p≈ Xncp-a-\- nse IØnse {]kvXm-h\ kXyØn\pw k`m-hn-izm-k-Øn\pw tbmPn-°m-Ø-Xpw. 116 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Catholicate palace Kottayam .m w al k n a ssZhw Atßbv°v Zo¿Lm-bp pw Bfl-i-coc kuJyhpw AhnSpsØ A[n-Im-c-Øn≥ Iogn-ep≈ _. 203 -˛mw \º¿ Iev]-\-bn¬ hn.s .n¬ IØ-\m¿ t]mepw Bbn-cp-∂n√ F∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. x do / v t . "F. sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑m¿°pw Iio»-∑m¿°pw hnizm-ka .√-∂pw. AtXm-Sp-IqSn hn. t]Pv 149). CXn¬ Ah-sc-√m-hcpw hfsc A¤p-Xs . ae-¶-c-k-`-bnse P\-߃ CXn¬ GXp hnizkn-°-Ww.se Iev]\ . ]I-tem-a‰ .m-sW-∂p-amWv ChnsS F√m-h-cp-sSbpw A`n-{]mbw.p-cn. Aß-bpsS ⁄m\-Øn\v CXp. sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑m-scbpw {][m-\-s∏´ Nne I»o-i-∑m-scbpw hnh-c-߃ Adn-bn-®p.n\pw \in-∏n-°p-∂X .1970 Baselius Augen I Catholicos of the East Ipdn∏v: bm°q_v XrXo-b≥ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bpsS Sn.a .mb Pohn-Xtam hnizm-ktam C√m-Øhcpw k`-bpsS XXz-ßsf kw_-‘n®v ]cn-⁄m-\-an-√m-Ø-h-cp-amb Npcp°w Nne hg-°m-fn-Iƒ am{Xw CuZri -kw-K-Xn-I-fn¬ Xev]-c-∑mcmbn D≠m-tb-°mw.ns‚ ^e-ambn aX-]c . I≈n.f .n-{X-Øn¬ tXmΩm-«o-lm-sb∏‰n ]d-bp-∂Xv Fs¥∂v H∂p t\m°p-I (kp-dn-bm\n k`m-N-cn{Xw.sa-{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑mcpw Iio»-∑mcpw hnizm-kn-I-fmb P\-ßfpw Xr°cw apØp-Ibpw Aß-bpsS ip{iq-j-I¿°v t£aw t\cp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS Ncn{X-Øn\pw Imt\m-\m-Iƒ°pw FXn-cp-am-sW-∂pw. F∂mepw k`-bnse `qcn-]£w P\-߃°pw CXv hfsc k¶-S-Im-c-W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. am¿tØmΩm«o-lm-bpsS ]utcm-ln-Xyw. i¶-c] . v .n¬\n∂v At±lw kv\m\w sImSpØv ]´-°msc G¿s∏-Sp-Øn. IqSp-X-embn X¬°mew \mw H∂pw Fgp-Xp-∂n-√.' CXn¬\n∂pw am¿tØmΩm alm]ptcm-lnX≥ Bbn-cp∂p F∂v A∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbpw kΩ-Xn-®n-cp∂p F∂v kv]„-at√? alm-]p-tcm-ln-X≥ As√-¶n¬ Fßs\ ]´-°msc hmgn-°m≥ km[n°pw? ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm Fgp-Xnb Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Xs∂ am¿tXmΩm alm-]p-tcm-ln-X-\m-bn-cp∂p F∂p tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bncn-°p-∂p.w. Chn-sS-bp≈ _.p≈ P\-Øn\pw kam-[m-\hpw t£ahpw \evIs´ F∂p {]m¿∞n-°p-∂p. Un. k`sb Ie-°p-∂X . t t h / : p /w w . tXmΩm. am¿tØm-Ωm « . 28 -˛se hk¥ ImeØv a‰p injy-∑m-tcm-Sp-IqsS hn. X≥\nanØw Ah Hcn°epw kzoIm-cy-ßf .∏-Sp-Ibpw G‰hpw ZpxJn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.115 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ign™ 27 -˛ 6 -˛ 70 ¬ Ab® Xncp-a-\- nse IØv e`n-®p.8 . knwlm-k\ .

.˛\p IqSn-bt..h ∂ \mep .. k`-bpsS Imt\m\m-Iƒ°pw `c-WL ...t Øm.¬ D≠mb ]c-k] v c kzoI-cW ..t K≥ _mhm Ab®psImSpØ \ntcm-[-\m⁄ kw_-‘n® Iev]-\-Ifpw ImtXmen°m knwlm-k\ kwc-£Ww kw_-‘n® Iev]-\bpw k`mw-K-ßfpsS A\p-kva-c-Wm¿∞w NphsS tN¿°p-∂p.n¬\n∂pw a‰pw Adn-™n-cn-°p-at.p-sX∂v 1973 BKÃv 7 ˛\p ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbv°v \mapw Fgp-Xn......˛¬ D≠mb kam-[m\ hyh-ÿbv°pw FXn-cmbn taev]´...... h IS-hn¬ t]mƒ dºm≥ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhmbn¬\n∂p taev]´w G‰ hnhcw \n߃ ]{X-dn-t∏m¿´p-If . x o / v t 1) ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm-\n-k-`-bpsS `c-W-L-S-\bv°pw At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okpw ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbpw XΩn¬ 1958 ˛....a ..I r. Aßs\ taev]´.. sNdp-h≈n kn.° . ae-¶ck`-bn¬ \ne-hn-en-cn-°p∂ `c-W-L-S\bv°v hncp-≤-ambn ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm t\cn´v taev]-´-°msc hmgn®v ae-¶-c-bn-te°v Abbv°m≥ ]cn-{i-a-߃ \S-°p-∂-Xmbn Adn-bp-I-bm¬ 1973 tabv 25 -˛mw XobXn IqSnb ae-¶c Atkm-tky-j≥ amt\-PnwKv IΩ-n‰n...Hu. t t h / : p /w w ......Ø .I q. t r o d o h ... amt\-Pnw-Kv IΩn-‰n-bpsS \n›-bhpw \ΩpsS FgpØpw Ah-K-Wn-®mWv ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhm t]mƒ dºm\p taev]´w sImSp-Ø-Xv......i y.° .S p..n-Iƒ°pw hncp-≤ambpw A\-[n-Ir-Xa ..m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h ..∏mƒ...t ]¿°v ].... hn. kzb-ÿn-X\pw BZy-¥-an-√m-Ø-h\pw kmcmw-i-k-ºq¿Æ\pw Bb {XntbI ssZh-Øns‚ Xncp-\m-a-Øn¬ (X-\n°p kvXpXn) am¿ tXmΩm-«o-lm-bpsS knwlm-k-\-Øn-t∑¬ Bcq-V-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ s]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbpw ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbpw Bb _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ (ap{Z) /w w ...p-t]mse Xot_ens‚ sa{Xm-∑m-cmbn..se 14 -˛¬ iii ˛mw \º¿ Xocp-am\hpw ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m _mhm-bpsS 1973 BKÃv 7 ˛mw Xob-Xnbnse 272/73..\bv°pw 1958.....msc hmgn®v ae-¶ck`-bp-am-bp≈ _‘w kzta-[bm hnt—-Zn°-cp-sX∂v ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-tbmSv At]-£n-®p.m⁄ ae¶c-k-`-bpsS Adnthm AwKo-Im-ctam C√msX cl-ky-ambn sa{Xm≥ÿm\w G‰p.n-Iƒ°pw N´w-sI-´p-Iƒ°pw hncp-≤a . A\-[n-Ir-X-ambn ]´-ta¬°p-∂hsc ""Nph∂ Ip∏mbw C´. ae-¶c k` At¥ymIy≥ k`-bpsS `mKtam imJtbm As√∂p ]fin-tXm-Nn-X-amb Xoknkv ka¿∏n® IS-hn¬ ]ueqkv am¿ AØ-m\m-tkym-kmWv ]m{Xnb¿°o-kn¬ \n∂p hf™ am¿§-Øn-eqsS ae-¶-c-bnse taev]-´-°m-c\m-Im≥ B{K-ln-®Xv....a mbpw At¥ymIym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm-bn¬\n∂pw taev]´w kzoI-cn-®n-cn- .n-te°v Ab-bv°c .a mbpw \nb... tXmakv IØ-\mcpw ta{]m¬ ]qXn-tbm´v ]mbvI-≠-Øn¬ tPm¿÷v Ipcy≥ IØ-\mcpw X߃ B{K-ln-®X ..ssa¬Ip-‰n-Iƒ'' F∂v apsºm-cn-°¬ NndØ-em´v kn.....n-cp-≤amb Cu ]´wsImS Imcy-sØ-∏‰n Btem-Nn-°p-Ibpw Xmsg tN¿Øn´p≈ \n›-b-߃ GIm-`n-{]m-b-ambn ]m m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.....m w al k n a a r a 2) ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm-\n-k-`-bpsS `c-W-L-S-\bv°pw k`m \S-]S. s]cp-º≈n Koh-dp-Kokv IØ-\mcpw. p t t {]nb-sc.n¬ \ap°v hfsc A[nIw ZpxJ-ap≠v.. ae-¶ck`-bnse Hcp Zb-dmb ]´-°m-c≥ k`-bpsS `c-W-L-S-\bpw N´w-sI-´p-Ifpw ewLn®v taev]´w Gev°m≥ ]m{Xnb¿°okv _mhmsb kao-]n-°p-Ibpw ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm A{]-Imcw 118 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ taev]´w sImSp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXX ..X ..√m..... x o / v t / : ......Fw..b . \ΩpsS F∏nkvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-lt........ Ch-cn¬ aq∂p t]cpw sshImsX cq]X Xncn-°mØ AXn-cq]-X-bn-te°p t]mbn-°-gn™p...c p....mbpw k`-bpsS tae-[nIm-csØ [n°-cn®pw k`-bn¬ `n∂n∏pw Ie-lhpw D≠m-°p-hm-\p≈ Dt±...S...[ n...n\pw k`-bpsS N´wsI´p-Iƒ°pw \S-]S..117 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 14 A\-[n-Ir-X s ..... tPm¿Pv tIm¿F∏n-ktv Im∏m hntijn-∏n-®Xv Cu kµ¿`Øn¬ Hm¿Ω-bn¬ hcp∂p.Zmkv Cu amkw 11..S nbpw A\...msc hmgn®v ae-¶c .˛mw \º¿ Adn-bn∏pw Ah-K-Wn®v ImtXm-en-°m-bp-sSbpw ae-¶-c -sa-{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bp-sSbpw A[n-Im-c-ko-a-bn¬ `c-W-Im-cy-ßfn¬ CS-s]-Sm-\p≈ Dt±-iytØm-Sp-Iq-Snbpw Cu k`-bnse Hcp Zb-dmb ]´-°m-c-\mb IS-hn¬ t]mƒ dºms\ At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm Hcp taev]-´-°m-c-\mbn hmgn-®-Xn¬ Cu kp∂-l-tZm-kn-\p≈ D¬°-WvTbpw {]Xn-tj-[hpw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw A{]-Imcw hmgn-°s∏´ IS-hn¬ ]utemkv am¿ AØ-m\m-tkym-kn\v ImtXm-en-°m-bpsSbpw ae-¶-c -sa-{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bp-sSbpw A[nImc-ko-a-bn¬ taev]-´°m-c\v ASpØ bmsXmcp A[n-Im-c-ßtfm Ah-Im-i-ßtfm D≠m-bncn-°p-∂-X-s√∂v Cu kp∂-l-tZmkv {]Jym-]n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.....mbpw ae-¶c Atkm-tky-j≥ amt\-PnwKv IΩn‰n-bpsS 25 -˛ 5 -˛ 1973..........≤ ..h n.. \nb-ah .a-{Xm-∑m¿°p i‡-amb \ntcm-[\ .

` ..n¬ \n∂p≈ B⁄sb [n°-cn°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂-Xmbn ImWp-I-bm¬. ÿm]-\ß .n-°p-∂Xv \oXnI-cn-°m-hp-∂X .˛mw XobXn ]n.a . Fw.f .k .bm.. \ΩpsS s]cp-ºn≈n sk‚ v tPm¿÷v ]≈n hnImcn Bbn-cp∂ ]n. Fw.©-cn) Hm¿K-ss\-knwKv sk{I- 120 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ´dn Bbn-cp∂ kn. Koh¿Kokv IØ-\m-cpw. kp∂-lt.ntem {]thin-°p-Itbm I¿Ω-߃ \S-Øp-It. ae-¶c . tijw ]n∂m-se. w / ¿ 15 -˛mw XobXn 1973 sk]v‰w-/_ : en-t°‰v Ac-a-\-bn¬ \n∂pw. BIm-i-Øn-ep≈ Rßw fpsS _mhm.Xm-Sp-IqSn Ahkm-\n-°p-sa∂p {]Xo-£n-®n-cp-∂t. \n߃ Ghcpw ]cn. kan-Xn-If .b .Ø . tXmakv IØ-\mcpw At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°okn¬ \n∂v sa{Xm≥]´w Gev°m≥ t]mIp-∂-Xmbn tIƒ°p-I-bm¬. \nßfpw {]m¿∞n-°-Ww.n-Ibpw At±-lØ . Cu k`-bnse GsX¶nepw ]≈n-I-fntem ÿm]-\-ß-fntem {]th-in-°p-Itbm taev]-´-°mc-\S. tijw ]n∂m-se.∏mƒ.p-sX∂v \ntcm[\w D≠m-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p-≠v.n-s\-Xn-cmbn D≠mb tIkn¬ At±lw Hcp sa{Xmt∏m-eoØm F∂ \ne-bn¬ ae-¶c . ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kndn-b≥ N¿®v saUn-°¬ anj≥ tlmkv]n-‰¬ (tIm-et.ntem kwL-S\ ..CXymZn w F∂v.ƒ \n¿h-ln°p-Itbm sNbvXp-Iq-Sm-ØXpw k`mw-K-߃ At±-lsØ AwKo-I-cn°p-Itbm kzoI-cn-°p-Itbm sNbvXp-Iq-Sm-ØXpw BIp-∂p F∂v Cu kp∂-l-tZmkv Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂p.a-dn-bm-an-s‚bpw a l am¿tXmΩm -«o-lm-bp-sS-bpw.˛mw \º-cmbpw Iev]\ Ab-®p. Ah¿ ae-¶-c-bn¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ N´w-sI-´p-Ifpw \S∏pw ewLn-°p-Ibpw tae-[n-Im-cØ .Zmkv ]m m-°nb ta¬]d™ \n›b-߃ A\p-k-cn®v \S-∂p-sIm-t≈-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p.√ . \ΩpsS ae-¶c F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-lt.fpw Uen-tK‰v Xncn-®p-t]m-bt.  . tIm´bw ImtXm(H∏v) p t \º¿t 80/74 h {]nb-sc..m-Ip-∂p.n-Ifpw ewLn®pw \sΩ [n°-cn®pw At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn¬ \n∂v taev]´w G‰p Xncn®p-hc ..f ..f∏‰n Btem-Nn-®-Xn¬.n-°p-Itbm sNbvXp IqSm-ØX . t t h / : p At±lw \ΩpsS GsX-¶nepw ]≈n-If .ns\ \ntcm-[n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. tija ap≈ kIe ip≤n-am-∑m-cp-sSbpw ip≤n-a-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw {]m¿∞-m \-I-fm¬ X-s∂.b .`.m-Im≥ \mw {]m¿∞n-°p-∂p.pØ GsX-¶nepw {]hr-Øn-Iƒ sNøp-Itbm Npa-Xe .mbn \ne\n¿Øp-∂X .m-sW∂pw AXp-sIm≠v Aßs\ sNøcp-sX∂pw \mw 1974 P\p-hcn 31. B ]c-k] v c kzoI-cW . BΩo≥. Fw. At¥ymJym ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn¬ \n∂v sa{Xm≥]´w Gev°m≥ t]mIp∂-Xn\p \n›-bn-®n-cn-°p-Ib .t / ao r k¿h-i-‡-\mb ssZh-Øns‚ Ir]bpw a A\p-{K-l-ßfpw \n߃ F√m-h-tcm-Spw-IqsS kZm h¿≤n-®n-cn-°k p-am-dm-I-s´.k . tXmakv IØ-\m¿°v 30/74. al k n a o a ar h rt o . Fw.ntem ÿm]-\ß .ƒ Ahsc kzoIcn-°p-Itbm Ah-cp-ambn kl-Ic .m w \ΩpsS `c-WØ .n¬ {]h¿Øn-°c . A∂v D≠mb kam-[m\w AtX-]Sn imiz-Xa .mb XXzw hnkvac .f . Koh-dp-Kokv IØ\m¿°v 29/74 -˛mw \º-cmbpw kn.ntem {]th- . k`mw-Kß .n-tem.I . rt d o h ox v .nse Hcp Zbdm ]´°m-cs\ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm taev]-´-°m-c-\mbn hmgn-®Xv 1958 -˛¬ \S∂ ]c-kv]c kzoI-c-WsØ XpS¿∂v ssIh∂ kam-[m\w A`wKw \ne-\n-∂p. ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm ]uckvXy ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\ . \ΩpsS k`-bn¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ N´w-sI-´p-Ifpw \S∏pw ewLn®v A{]Imcw ]´w Gev°p-∂Xv Ip‰-Ic ..n-Is .fpw \S-]S. .ntem Ah-bpsS `c-WØ . Ah¿ Ccp-∂n-cp∂ ÿm\-ßf .n\v ssZhw Xncp-a\ .n≥ Iogn-ep≈ ae-¶-c-bn-te°v Hcp Uen-tK-‰ns\ hmgn®v Ab-®-Xp-aqew D≠mb X¿°-ßfpw `n∂-XI . F∂m¬ Ah¿ \sΩ [n°-cn-°p-I-bpw. \º¿ 271/74 {]nb-sc.n-te°p ho≠pw {]th-in-°p-Itbm \ΩpsS k`-bnse GsX¶nepw ]≈n-If .n¬ A[n-jT v n-Xa .ntem {]ÿm-\-ß-fntem Fs¥-¶nepw ÿm\-ßtfm Npa-X-e-Itfm hln-°pItbm sNøp-∂X . x do / v t 1974 am¿®v 8 ˛mw XobXn tIm´bw ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a-\-bn¬ \n∂v.I .. /w w . BbXv ssZh-am-XmnC≥Uy-bpsS Imh¬]n-Xm-hmb hmb hnip≤ I\y-I.m-sW∂pw a‰pw hnh-cn®v h°o¬ apJm-¥cw \ap°p adp-]Sn Ab-∏n-°p-Ibpw ]n∂oSv ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn¬ \n∂v sa{Xm≥]´w Gev°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.119 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ °p∂ IS-hn¬ ]ueqkv am¿ AØm-\m-tkym-kv.Zmkv 1974 am¿®v 4 ˛mw XobXn IqSn Ah-cpsS Cu \S-]S.n¬ Ccn-°p∂ ta{]m¬ sk‚ v tPm¿Pv ]≈n hnImcn Bbn-cp∂ ]qXn-tbm´v ]mbvI≠-Øn¬ tPm¿÷v Ipcy≥ IØ-\m¿ \sΩ Adn-bn-°p-Itbm \ΩpsS A\p-hmZw hmßn-°p-Itbm sNømsX ÿewhn-Sp-Ibpw \ΩpsS k`-bpsS \nb-aß .Ø .Im-◊m≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂-h¿s°√mw thZ-\m-P-\-I-am-Wv.

\ . / v t Xn∑-bp-sSbpw ac-W-Øn-s‚bpw k¿∆ i‡n-I-tfbpw XI¿ØpsIm≠v I_-dn¬\n-∂p-bn¿sØ-gp-t∂-‰-h-\mb \ΩpsS I¿Øm-hmb tbip-an-in-lm-bpsS kam-[m\w \nßfpsS lrZ-bß . \mw kacw sNø-p∂Xv PU-c-‡-ß-tfm-S√.p-hsc \S-Øn-s°m-≈p-sa∂v \ap°v Dd-∏p-≠v....m w al k n a a r a 1958.W .sf ss[cy-]q¿∆w A`n-ap-Jo-Ic ... BΩo≥. \nß-fpsS {]m¿∞kse.m-an-s‚bpw C≥Uy-bpsS Imh¬]n-Xm-hmb am¿tXmΩm -«o-lm-bp-sS-w w bpw. 122 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ‰n-Isf \nb-an®v Npa-X-e-s∏-SpØn {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Bcw-`n-®n-cn-°p∂ Imcyw \n߃°-dn-bm-hp-∂-Xm-W-t√m.. Cub-h-k-c-Øn¬ ssZh-Øns‚ Icp-W-bnepw Ir]bnepw B{i-bn-®p-sIm≠v \oXn°pw kXy-Øn\pw tbmPn-®-hn-[-Øn¬ \mw {]iv\ß . \nß-fpsS Iø-b®v k`m-kvt\-lhpw Ign-hpwt]mse \n߃ k`sb klm-bn-t°-≠n-h-cpw.˛se kp{]ow-tIm-SXn hn[n-tbmsS \ΩpsS hyh-lm-c-ßfpw tImSXn. Hcn-°¬ am{X-a-√.. kIe Xn∑-bn¬\n∂pw tcmK-Øn¬\n∂pw im]-Øn¬\n∂pw \ΩpsS I¿Øm-hns‚ Pb-ap≈ …o_m \nßsf ImØp c£n-°p-am-dm-I-s´.n[n' F∂ t]cn¬ 25 e£w cq]-bpsS Hcp ^≠v tiJ-cn-°-W-sa∂ Imcyw Ign™ ImtXm-en-°mZn\-Øn¬ {]Jym-]n°-s∏-´X . kn. ssZhw n \nßsf A\p-{K-ln-°s´ tijw ]n∂ma k¿h-i-‡-\mb ssZh-Øns‚ al Ir]bpw A\p-{K-l-ßfpw \n߃ F√m-h-tcm-Spw-IqsS kZm h¿≤nm ®n-cn-°p-am-dm-I-s´. F∂m¬ A\-[n-Ir-X-ambpw A\ym-bambpw k`-bn¬ Nne¿ sNøp∂ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf th≠pw-hn[w t\cn´v k`-bpsS hnizm-k-tØbpw Bflob ip{iq-jI . DSs\ 5 e£w cq]sb-¶nepw D≠mI-Ww. XymKio-et. A‘-rIm-c-Øns‚ ss]imokhpw ssZhm-{i-bhpw NnI i‡n-I-tfmSpw hmgvN-I-tfm-Sp-am-Wv.k ..n-s‚bpw Xn∑-bp-tSbpw i‡n-Iƒ \ΩpsS k`-bnepw {]th-in®v {]iv\-ßfpw {]bm-k-ßfpw kr„n®p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-I-bm-W-t√m.. AXn\v \n߃ DZm-c_ .mbn hnPbw hcn-°pa hm≥ km[n-°p-Ib .\ ssZhw tIƒ°-s´.w-c£ ..√m.-I-b-‰hpw Ah-km-\n®v kam-[m-\-]-c-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃°pth≠n \ΩpsS Ign-hp-Isf \mw D]-tbm-Kn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ib . AXp-sIm≠v B ]≈n-bn¬ \n∂v . I.ØmSpw IqSn kw`m-h\ sNbvsX-¶n¬ am{Xta km[n-°q. 1973 sk]v‰w-_¿ 13 ˛mw XobXn tIm´bw ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a-\bn¬ \n∂pw. p1:-˛mw XobXn 1974 sabv t tIm´bw ht ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a-\-bn¬ \n∂pw. ]e {]mh-iyw. w / BIm-i-Øn-/ep≈ Rß-fpsS _mhm. F∂v. x o c≠m-bncw h¿j-tØmfw \ΩpsS k`sb ImØp c£n®v kIe {]Xn-k-‘-nI-fnepw \ΩpsS klm-bhpw c£-bp-am-bn-cp∂v C∂-tbmfw \sΩ \S-Ønb ssZhw-X-ºp-cm≥ \ΩpsS k`sb Xs‚ c≠m-asØ Fgp-s∂-≈Ø .p≈p..n¬ \ap-s°-√m-h¿°pw AXy¥w tJZ-ap-≠v. t r o d o h .pw-sIm≠p am{Xta Ah-rkm-\a . BbXv ssZh-am-Xmhmb hnip≤ I\y-I. tIm´bw. tijw ]n∂m-se. .sf B\-µn-∏n-°s´.n-\mbn ho≠pw \oXn-\ym-bt°m-SX .a-dn-b.121 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ in-°p-Itbm I¿Ω-߃ \S-Øp-Itbm sNøp-∂Xv A\p-hZ.√ . AXn-\p-th≠n \mw Nne IΩn- "ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\ .n-Isf kao-]n-t°≠n hcp-∂X .y-amWv. tij-ap≈ kIe ip≤n-am-∑m-cp-sSbpw ip≤n-a-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw {]m¿∞-\-I-fm¬ X-s∂.o-ba . t t h / : p /w ImtXmen°m knwlm-k-\-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw k`m-Xm-ev]cy-ß-fpsS ]cn-]m-e-\-Øn\pw th≠n \mw hf-sc-b-[nIw DW¿∂p {]h¿Øn-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´m-Wn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.m-bn-cp∂p. temIw apgph\pw \S-am-Sp∂ A‘-Im-cØ . (H∏v) .n-t°-≠Xv AXym-hi .t. CuhI. ÿm]-\-ß-fntem {]thin-∏n-°p-Itbm \ΩpsS k`mw-K-߃ At±-lsØ kzoI-cn-°p-Itbm At±-l-hp-ambn kl-I-cn-°p-Itbm sNbvXp-Iq-Sm-Ø-Xm-Ip-∂p. x o / v t d o \n߃ k`-bv°p-th≠n i‡n-bmbpw ap´n-∏mbpw th{]m¿∞n-°-Ww.. kwc-£W\n[n-bpsS {Sj-dm¿ ]n.p-≤n-tbm-Spw. ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k-\sØ kwc-£n-°pI {]nb-sc..m-ØXn-\m¬ At±-lsØ \ΩpsS ]≈n-I-fn-tem. C\nbpw hºn® Hcp kwJy ]ncn-™p-In-´n-sb-¶n¬ am{Xta Imcy߃ aptºm´p t]mhp-Ib .p-≈p.fbpw kwc-£n-°p-∂X .{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°v hfsc-b-[nIw ]W-s®-e-hp-≠v. hnizma t\mºpw {]m¿∞-\b . G{_-lm-ans‚ t]¿°v ImtXm-en-t°‰v B∏o-kv.m-Wt.˛ 4 F∂ hnem-k-Øn¬ Ab-®p-sIm-Sp-°-W-sa∂v \nß-fpsS kvt\l-tØmSv \mw Xmev]-cy-s∏-Sp-∂p. CtXm-SIw henb Hcp XpI sNe-hm-bn-°gn™p. w .\ .

n-t°-≠X .Øbv°v sXc-s™-SpØ ^m.b .v F∂m¬ k`t bn¬ `n∂n∏p-≠m-°p-∂X . . {]kvXpX Iev]\ NphtS tN¿°p∂p:˛ k`m`-cW . k`-bpsS Imcy-߃ `wKnbmbn \S-°W . ]p∂q-kv. CXn\pw ]pdta Nne `{Zm-k\ .Fw. s .n-®p≈ _mhm-bpsS Iev]\ hmßp∂-Xn-\mbn ^m.Nn-¥-I-sfm∂pw At±-lsØ H´pw Xs∂ kv]¿in-®n-cp-∂n-√. Pn.v _mlytI-cf `{Zm-k-\-Øns‚ A[n-]≥ amXyqkv am¿ AØm-\m-kn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm \ΩpsS ]n≥Km-an-bmbn sXc-s™-Sp-°s .t / 1974 HtŒm-_¿ 2 ˛mw XobXn \nc-WØ .. sa{Xm-∑msc hmgn-°p-∂X .tv Ty\ sXc-s™-Sp-ØX ._mhm IS-∂p-t]m-bXv.psS \°¬ Hcn-°¬IqSn hmbn®ptI´p. sI. imcocn-I-£oWw D≠m-bn-cp∂ am¿ HutK≥ _mhm.ƒ. `cW-L-S-\-sbbpw Imt\m-s\bpw ]mc-º-cy-sØbpw Atß-b‰w am\n-®psIm≠pw hyh-ÿm-]nX \S-]S.Ø .m-bt.ƒ kzoI-cn-®p-sIm≠pw sXc-s™Sp-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂ Cu A©p sshZn-Icpw k`-bn¬ tim`n-°p-Ibpw k`sb tim`n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-sa-∂p-≈-Xn\v \ap°v kwi-b-an-√.IqSn ]d-™m¬ Rm≥ H∏n-´pXcmw'' F∂p ]d™v Iev]\ .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o w w Bdp a . t t h / : p /w w .h®v ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tbj≥ sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\t.Ø .n\v ssh[hyw kw`-hn-®n-cn-°p-Ib . AtX-k-abw A[n-Im-c߃ hns´m-gn™p dn´-b¿ sN-bvXp Pohn-°m≥ At±lw A`n-e-jn-®p. DSp∏n tImS-Xn-bpsS DS-°p-≠m-Ipsa-∂p≈ `oXn HutK≥ _mhm-bv°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.a .{]-i-kvX-cmb sshZn-I¿°v am¿tXm-Ωm -«o-lm-bm¬ ÿm]n-Xamb \ncWw ]≈n-bn¬ h®v C∂v taev]-´kvYm\w \evIp-I-bm-Wv. hn.ƒ ssZhm{i-b-Øn¬ Pohn-°p-∂-h-cm-I-W-sa-∂p-ap≈ Nn¥-bm-bn-cp∂p A¥ywhscbpw At±-lsØ `cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv..I. A[n-Im-cm-hIm-i.. sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\m-`n-tjI-Øn\p apºv IS-º-\mSv h\n-Xm.n-emWv k`-bpsS tim`-\a .m-bm-”Ø .∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xn-\m¬ B `{Zm-k-\-Ønepw Hcp sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm \ntbm-Kn-°-s∏-tS≠-Xp-≠v.a-µn-c-Øn¬ hn{i-an-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ Nne {]iv\ß . ^m.n-\p-th≠n Nne¿ tImS-Xn-Isf kao-]n-°p-Ibpw h . -_m-hm-bpsS _p≤ni‡n°p bmsXmcp £oWhpw X´n-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂p≈Xn\v i‡-amb sXfn-hm-bn-cp∂p Cu Xncp-Ø-ep-Iƒ. x do / v t tXmΩm am¿ Zoh-∂m-kn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Znhw-KX . {]mbm-[nIyw aqe-ap≈ imco-cnI t¢i-߃ Hcp hn{i-aPo-hnXw sXc-s™-Sp-°m≥ At±-lsØ t{]cn-∏n-®p. tPm¿÷v.nse G‰hpw {][m-\s .ƒ°p-tijw tIc-fØ \me-©p.Ø .p-sh®v sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-am-cmbn hmgn-®X . Hm´w XnI-®v. -]n.m w al ""ae-¶c Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm-\n-k` Hcp \n¿Æm-bI Ime-L-´Øn-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Ip∂ Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ AXns‚ ssh]p-eyØn\pw hf¿®bv°pw hnI-k-\-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb hn[-Øn¬ A©p.v kw-_‘ .s .mb `mhnsb ap≥\n¿Øn Ct∏mƒ A©p-t]sc taev]-´-ÿm-\-tØ°v Db¿Øp-∂X .n-°W . kn.u-Ic . sI.nse AXyp-∂X \oXn-\ym-b]oTw Ipcp-°p-Iƒ Agn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.s .n-®´.n. F∂m¬ AXn-\p-apºv k`-bv°m-h-iyamb sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-am-scbpw Xs‚ ]n≥Km-an-tbbpw hmgn-°-W-sa∂pw am¿ HutK≥ _mhm BtemNn®v Dd-®n-cp∂p F∂mWv A\-¥-c -kw-`-h-߃ hy‡-am-°p-∂-Xv.n-\p-tijw At\-Im-bncw cq] sNe-hm°n / Hcp-°Ø / \nc-WØp hnfn® pI q´ nb ae-¶c Atkm-kn-tb-j-\mWv Ct∏mƒ hmgnp: Isc sFI-IW °-s∏-Sp∂tsshZn.a∂pw k`mw-Kß .ams° Ae-´p-Itbm Akz-ÿ-\m-°p-Itbm sNbvXn-´p-s≠-¶nepw {]im-¥-amb Hcp Pohn-Xkm-bm-”Ø .am-kß .XmSp-IqSn \ncWw `{Zm-k\ .∏´ kw`-hw.m-ksØ .mWv HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS Pohn-Xk .. hnizmkw ImØv \oXn-bpsS IncoSw {]m]n-°m≥ ]d-∂pt]mb ]pWym-flm-°-fpsS \nc-bn¬ HutK≥ _m-hmbv°pw Hcp ÿm\ap-≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Ipg-∏an-s√∂v R߃ Adn-bn-®t∏mƒ ""kJ-dnbm A®\pw amΩ-®-\pw.n-eq-sS-bmWv HutK≥ ImtXm-en-°m. ^m. tXma-kv.v \ΩpsS k`-bnse \n¿`m-Ky-Ic .ysØ ap≥\n¿Øn hn`-Pn-°p∂ Imcyhpw ]cn-KW . k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v . ssZhw k`sb \bn°p-∂p-sh∂pw ssIhn-Sp-I-bn-s√∂pw Cu kw`-h-߃ \sΩ A\p-kvacn-∏n-°p-∂p.˛mw XobXn RmbdmgvN \nc-WØ .p-≠v. .ß .123 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 15 `mKy-hm-\mbn IS-∂p-t]mbn 124 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ AXn¬ _mhm Nne Xncp-Ø-ep-Iƒ hcp-Øn. h . ^m.ß . k`-bpsS `c-WsØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw ]n≥Km-anbpsS kpi-‡ -I-c-߃ am¿ HutK≥ _mhmsb kwXr-]vX-\m-°n-bncp∂p. Xs∂ Aev]s . ^m.ps .a∂pw k` ]ptcm-Ka .\ . kJ-dn-bmbpw Cu Fgp-Øp-Im-c\pw IqSn s^{_phcn 14 -˛mw XobXn ASq-cn¬ FØn. . IqSmsX 88 -˛mw hb- n-te°p IS-∂n-cn-°p∂ tIm´bw CS-hI-bpsS amXyqkv am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbv°v Hcp AknÂns\ hmgn-®mt°≠ Imehpw AXn-{I-an-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Cu ]›m-Øe . tPmk^v F∂n-hsc 1975 s^{_p-hcn 16. t]mƒ hdp-Ko-kv. Sn.m-W. AXpsIm≠v sa{Xm≥ ÿm\m-`n-tjIw kw_-‘n® Iev]\ ]nt‰-Zn-hkw ]{X-Øn¬ CS-Wtam F∂v _mhm Rß-tfmSp tNmZn-®p.mb Nne X¿°-߃aqew Cu sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\m-`n-tjIw t\csØ \S-Øm≥ km[n-°msX h∂Imcyw ChnsS hnkva-cn-°p-∂n-√.ƒ `c-Wk .‰n.

m-eØv D]-tZ-in®pw ]Tn-∏n®pw {]h¿Øn® amXr-Ib .n¬ F°m-ehpw Xnf-ßn-\n-ev°pw.m¿°v tbip-{InkvXp Cu temI Pohn-XI .m w al 126 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am-bn-cn-°W .p-t]mse Rm≥ \nß-sfbpw Ab-b° v p∂p F∂p ]d™p ssI Db¿Øn A\p-{K-ln-®p-sIm≠v «ol-∑m¿°p \¬Inb {][m-\m-Nm-cy-Xz.m-cn-eq-sS a .t. Hcp `mKØv am¿ ¢nΩo-kns‚ H∂mw ]pkvXI-Øn¬\n∂v Cßs\ ]d-bp-∂p: ""Hsc-∏n-kvtIm∏m hmgn-°-s∏-Sp-∂Xp P\-߃ apgp-h-\pw -IqSn sXc-s™-SpØv ]cn-ip-≤m-fl. x o / v t GXm\pw amk-߃°p-tijw ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ÿm\hpw 1975 HtŒm-_¿ HSp-hn¬ ImtXm-en°m _mhm.n¬.mc {]h¿Ø-\ß . Fs‚ ]nXmhv Fs∂ Ab-®X .ß . «ol-∑m-sc-t∏mse k`mw-Kß . kz¿§m-tcm-lW .125 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ {InkvXob k`sb t]mjn-∏n®v ta¬`-cWw \S-Øp-∂X .ÿm-\hpw ImtXm-en-°mÿm\hpw Hgn-™-Xn-w \m¬ Xs‚ ]n≥Km-an-bmbn sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´ncp∂ amXyqkv am¿w AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømsb 1975 HtŒm/ _¿ 27 -˛mw XobXn :/ Xn¶-fmgvN Ncn-{X-ap-d-ßp∂ ]gb skan-\m-cn-bpsS Xncp-ap-‰-Øp p-h®v F∏n-kvtIm-∏¬ kp∂-l-tZmkv ae-¶-c-bnse A©mt en-°m-bmbn Ah-tcm-[n-®p.w.v C{]-Imcw hmgn-°s . Cßs\ AhnSpsØ.]n-b\ .W .\pw A≤zm-\{. I-ck . Imdpw tImfpw \nd™ Pohn-X-km-K-c-Øn-eqsS XIcmsX k©-cn® HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS PohnX \uI {]im-¥-kp-µ-c- .p-am-bn-cn-°Ww.psS A¥y-L´. x o / v t ae-¶c k`m-`-c-W-L-S-\bv°v hnt[-b-ambn hmgn-°-s∏-Sp∂ sa{Xm∑m¿°p -am-{Xta ae-¶-c-bn¬ ÿm\-ap≈p. Cßs\ taev]´.a .f .° .Øm-Sp-IqSn Imt\m≥ \n_-‘\ A\p-kc . C{]-Imcw Ahn—n-”-amb ssIh-bv]p-aqew sa{Xm-∑m¿ F∂ t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ taev]-´-°m¿ {InkvXob k`-bn¬ XpSsc D≠m-bn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p.n¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ At±-lØ . al k n a a r a t r o m .b .° . Cßs\ ae-¶-c -sa-w {Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm.ÿm-\hpw A\m-tcm-Kywaqew HutK≥ _mhm kza-\- m-se.n-s‚bpw Ah-Im-in-If . A\m-tcm-Ky-Ømepw {]tXyIw asØ ImtXmt h £Wn-°m-™Xn-\mepw Cu ÿm\m-`n-tj-I-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ Ign™n-s√-¶nepw am¿tXmΩm amXyqkv {]Y-a≥ _mhm ImtXm-en-t°-‰vAc-a\ .cpw Cu Imcyw C∂v ZrV-ambn hniz-kn-®ph-cp-∂p.m-c\p ImtXm-en°m ÿmØnt°m≥ (A-[n-Im-c-]-{Xw) \evIp-∂-Xm-Ip∂p.n-{X-Øns‚ Xmfp-If .Ø .aqew e`n-®n-´p≈ Ir]m-hc . sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-∑m-tcmSpw amt\PnwKv IΩn‰ntbmSpw Btem-Nn-®t.n¬ hn.mbn tae-v]´.£w ssZh-Øn-s‚bpw {]Xn-\n-[n.s .n-\mbn tbip{InkvXp ]{¥≠v {][m\ injy-∑msc sXc-s™-Sp-°p-Ibpw Ahsc Xs‚ ssIsIm≠v sXm´v A\-p{K-ln®v {][m-\m.v. At±lw Ip‰-an-√m-Øh .n-s‚-ta¬ ssIh®v HutK≥ _mhm A\p-{K-ln® cwKhpw a‰pw k`m-Nc . k n a a r a t r o d o h .'' F∏n-kvtIm-∏msb hmgn°p-∂Xv kw_-‘n®p lqZm-b -Im-t\m-\n¬ hni-Z-amb am¿§-\n¿t±-ißfpw a‰pw \evIn-bn-´p-≠v. ]uc-kvXycpw ]m›m-Xycpw Bb `qcn-]£w ss{IkvXh . AXm-bXv ssZh-k-a£w a\p-jy-s‚bpw a\pjy-ka .Nm-cy-Xz-Øns‚ \evhcw Ah¿°p {]Zm\w sNøp-Ibpw D≠m-bn. d o h . sa{Xm≥ ÿm-\m-`n-tj-I -th-f-bn¬ sNdp-∏-°m-cmb sa{Xm-t∏meo-Øm-am¿ t]mepw £oWn-X-cm-bn-Øo¿∂p F¶nepw sXmÆq-dn-te°p IS∂ HutK≥ _mhm ip{iq-j-I-fpsS A¥yw hscbpw {]k-∂-h-Z-\\mbpw i‡-\mbpw ImW-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. {InkvXp-hns‚ a\p-jym-hX .m{Xw ÿm\w Hgn-™p-t]m-Ip∂ ]mc-ºcyw HutK≥ _mhm ewLn®p alØmb Hcp amXrI kr„n-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv.] v ¿i\-Øm¬ Znhy-i‡n {]m]n-®-hcpw Ah-cpsS ]n≥Km-an-Isf ]c-º-cbm ssIh®v ta¬]-´-°m-cmbn A`n-tjIw sNbvXp-h-∂p.'' ""C{X al-Ømb F∏n-kvtIm-∏m -ÿm-\-tØ°p hcp-∂-h-cpsS {]h¿Ø-\w-sIm≠p ssZh-Øn\v al-Xzhpw k`bv°p hnP-bhpw D≠mIm≥ CS-bm-Is´ F∂mWp \ΩpsS _e-lo-\-amb {]m¿∞-\.b .ln-Xm-\p-k-c-W- t t h / : p /w w . k`m-`-cWw \n¿∆-ln°m≥ {]mbm-[n-Iyw-aqew Ign-bmsX hcp-tºmƒ dn´-b¿ sN-øp∂ k{ºZmbw k`-bn¬ kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xm-sW∂v HutK≥ _mhm kzPo-hn-XamXr-I-bn-eqsS ImWn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp. Cu amXrI F√m k`mw-K-ß-fpsSbpw A`n-\-µ\w B¿÷n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.n-bp-sSbpw A[n-Im-cØ . k¿t∆m-]cn Hcp alm-]p-tcm-ln-X≥ ssZh-Øn\pw a\p-jy\pw CS-bn¬ a≤y-ÿ-\m-Wv.Ø .m-{X-amWv tbip-{In-kvXp.ƒ a\p-jy\v A\p-`h .n®v ImtXm-en°m B Bfn\p ]´w sImSpt°-≠Xpw BWv.'' {]K-¤-cmb Cu A©p sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-amsc hmgn-®-tXm-Sp-IqSn ssZh-Øn\p al-Xzhpw k`bv°p t\´hpw D≠mbn F∂p _mhm {]kvXmhn-®p.∏-Sp∂ taev]´.sf \bn-°pI F∂ Kuc-hmh-lamb I¿Ø-hy-am-Wp-≈-Xv.]-Zh .\pw ⁄m\nbpw \n¿Ω-e\pw hn\b-ap-≈-h\pw at\m-`m-c-an-√m-Ø-h\pw DW¿∆p-≈-h\pw {Zhym-{K-l-an-√mØ-h\pw Ie-l-{]n-b-an-√m-Ø-h\pw Zbm-ephpw anX-`m-jn-bmb D]tZ„mhpw \∑-Isf C„-s∏-Sp-∂h .n-°p∂]£w kn\-Uns‚ kl-Ic . `c-WL-S-\-bn¬ Cßs\ ]dbp-∂p: ""Hcmƒ°v F∏n-kvtIm∏m Btbm sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Btbm ]´w sImSp-°-W-sa-¶n¬ B Bsf B ÿm\-tØ°v ae¶c Atkmkn-tb-j≥ sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw B sXc-s™-Sp-∏ns\ F∏n-kvtIm∏¬ kn\Uv AwKo-Ic .ijw Hgn-™p. ac-Ww-sIm-≠p a . Hcp F∏n-kvtIm-∏m-tbtbm sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-tbtbm hmgn-°p-tºmƒ hmgn-°-s∏-Sp∂ taev]-´-°m-c≥ kn\-Uns‚ A≤y-£\mb ImtXm-en-°mbv°v i¬aq-t m (-k-Ω-X-]-{Xw) Fgp-Xn-h-bvt°-≠Xm-W.∏-Sp-∂X .k .° .v.

cmhnse hnfn®v kam-iz-kn-∏n-°p-Ibpw .m-bn-cn-°mw. ÿe-ku-Icy-an-√m-Xn-cp∂ aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\ . Hc-h-k-c-Øn¬ / v n-S°v hgn-tbm-cØv / bm{Xm-th-fb.am∂pw A\p`-hn-®n-´n-√mØ Hcp taev]-´-°m-c-\m-bn-cp∂p HutK≥ _mhm.k .b . Imew-sNøp∂-Xn\v GXm\pw BgvN-Iƒ°p apºv ae-¶ck`bv°v Cu \q‰m-≠n¬ e`n® G‰hpw henb kw`m-h-\-bmb ]n. bm{X-bn-em-sW-¶nepw IrXy-k-abØv w hml-\-Øn-en-cp∂v IqsS-bp≈ siΩm-»-∑mwcp-ambn {]m¿∞n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p.m¿°p km[m-cW . sslkvIqƒ slUvam-Ãdpw Bb ^m.ß .n-bn¬ ]nSn-s]-Sm-dp-≈ tcmK-ß-sfm∂pw Xs∂ HutK≥ _mhmsb B{I-an-®n´n-√.mb thZ-\I .b .m-bn-cp-∂p. AsXmcp `mKy-ac . tPm¿÷v ]´vfm´v In´n. Hcn-°¬ Ac-a-\-bn¬ kqØmdm \a-kvImc ka-bØv Rm\pw a‰p c≠p-t]cpw A{i-≤-ambn s]cp-am-dn-b-Xn\v hSn-sIm≠v \√ ASnbpw iImchpw In´n. -Hu-tK≥ _mhmbv°v e`n® lrZ-b-kv]¿iIamb A¥n-tam]-Nmcw ae-¶c .˛¬ tImfPv hnZym-`ym-k-Øn\v Hcp-ßn-b-t∏mƒ.t.Ibpw k`m-ic .ƒ A[n-Is .X . al k n a k`m-kzm-X{¥yw A\yq-\a . ta¬]-´° .∏-´X .m≥! k n a o a ar h rt o .c-bn-te°v AXn-thKw \oßp-Ib .fbpw Im‰n¬ ]d-Øn-s°m-≠p≈ At¥ym-Iy≥ IS-∂m-{I-aW .W .o-cØ .s .mbn ]cn-c£ .n¬ tcmKw aqew imco-cn-Ia . I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ÿm\-tØ°p \S-∂.\p e`n® A`n-hmZyw Xs∂-bm-sW∂v Ncn{Xw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.m-bn-cp-∂p. Fs‚ ]nXmhv ]´vfm´v ]utem-kn\p IpSpw-_]-c-amb _‘-Øn\p ]pdta HutK≥ dºm≥ Bbn-cp∂ Imew apXte _mhm-bp-ambn ASp-Øn-S-s]-Sp-∂-Xn\pw XZzmcm At±-l-Øns‚ Bcm[-I-\m-Ip-∂-Xn\pw km[n®p. Xncn™p t\m°p-tºmƒ F{Xtbm hnkvabIcw F∂-√msX F¥p ] .127 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ amb IS-en-\° . sXmÆqdp Ign™ {hX\njvT-\mb B ap\n-h-cy\p c≠p aq∂p Znhkw \o≠p-\n∂ Akp-J-sØ-Xp-S¿∂v G‰hpw sa®-s∏´ NnIn-’bmWv e`n-®-Xv.n-°p-Ibpw. A∂v ss\tdm-_n-bn¬ ktΩ-fn-®n-cp∂ k`-I-fpsS temI-Iu¨kn¬ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS kvac-Wbv°v BZ-cmRvPen A¿∏n-®p. ao r a rt d o h ox v . t t h / : p /w w . Rm≥ 1954.b . Koh-dp-Ko-kns‚ Ißg Bip]-{Xn-bnse anI® NnIn-’bpw ip{iq-jbpw _mhmbv°v e`n-®n-cp-∂p.™-Sp-∏n¬ hnP-bn® HutK≥ dºms‚ {]Kev`-\mb FXn¿ ÿm\m¿∞nbv°v c≠p -thm´p t\Smt\ Ign-™p≈p.m w 128 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 16 sXm´p \n∂-h¿ tI´Xpw I≠Xpw ]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-amb k¬t{]-c-WI-sf-∏-‰nbpw k∑m-Xr-I-I-sf-∏-‰nbpw ]. AXpwey-am-Wv.psS kwc-£I . x do / v t l a ]cn-ip-≤ -Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpsSm {]m¿∞-\-bn-ep≈ Nn´bpw GIm-{K-Xbpw .s . F√m XXz-kw-lnX-Is .sc HXp-°n-\n-dp-Øp. F¶nepw I„-∏m-Sp-Iƒ \nd™ Cu temI-Øn¬ Xncpta\n InS∂p I„-s∏-SmsX 1975 Unkw-_¿ F´n\p IS-∂p-t]m-bn.t / kl-{k-°-W-°n-\m-fp-Iƒ t\m°n-\nevt° sNm∆mgvN sshIn´v `uXnI-tZlw Xs‚ ap≥Km-an-bpsS I_-dn-S-Øn\p sXm´-Sp-Øp≈ ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a\ Nm∏-en¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. Pohn-XØ .sX-cs .a .nse Hcp ap≈p-t]mse amdnb At¥ym-Iy-≥ _‘w Ah-km-\n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvX ].nse sNdnb `£W apdn kv{Io≥h®v ad®v F\n°p Xma-kn-°m\pw ]Tn-°m\pw kuIcyw Xcp-Ibpw ]n∂oSv F\n°v sshZnI hnZym-`ymkw \¬In A\p-{K-ln-°p-Ibpw sNbvX XymK _p≤n.° : I≠ Hcp Imgv N s b∏ ‰n Rm≥ {]m¿∞\ Ign-™p t t∏mƒ Xncpt a\ nt bmSv ]d™ p. Nca hnh-c-a-dn™v ss\tdm-_n-bn¬\n∂v ]oen-t∏mkv am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ]d-s∂Øn I_-d-S-°-Øn¬ ]¶p-sIm-≠p. _mhm-bpsS injy\pw dn´.nse {]m¿∞-\b.d .K . {]m¿∞\ kaht bØv hgn-tbm-cØv {i≤n-®-Xn\v DSs\ iIm-chpw ^m. as‰mcp k`m-t\-Xm-hn\pw e`n-°mØ BtKmf A¥ym`n-hmZyw Xs∂.`. tPm¿÷v ]´vfm´v Cßs\ FgpXp-∂p: ]cn-ip≤ HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm-bpsS kvt\l hm’-ey-tØmsSm∏w injy-Xzhpw e`n-°m≥ km[n-®Xv Rm≥ F∂pw IrX-⁄X .bmsS-bmWv kvacn-°p-∂Xv.sf F∂-t∂-°p-ambn IS-en-\° . amwkw A[n-I-an-√m-Xn-cp∂ _mhm-bpsS ico-c-tØmSv tcmKm-Wp-°ƒ t]mepw ]S-sh´n ]cm-Pb .

/ v t shtßm-e-bn¬ imtew kvIqfns‚ ÿm]-\-Øn\v ]´vfm´v aØmbn tImsd∏nkvtIm-∏mbv°v t{]c-Wbpw t{]m’m-l\ . A®≥ ChnsS {]h¿Øn-®p-sIm≈q'' F∂pw ]d™p. Rm≥ sN∂v ssIap-Øn.m 1958 sk]v‰w-_¿ 12 w -˛mw XobXn kp{]ow tImSXn hn[n Adn-™t∏mƒ Ac-a\ . F. km£m¬ a r s∏m-°nb Hcp sNdnb hcys‚ ]¿Æ-ime Xs∂. C{X-sbms° kuI-cyap≠v. henb kt¥mh aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\ .h®v epØn-\nbm \S-ØpI Xncp-ta\n Nn´-tbmsS ]men-®n-cp-∂p. kz¥w kmº-ØnI ]cn-an-Xn. Pn. w hm-kn-Iƒ Aev]w hnP-bm-Àm-ZØ w ]cn-ip-≤ -Xn-cp-ta\n AXv I¿i-\-ambn XS™p. x o .Ø .m-bn¬ {]th-in®v [q]w.hpw A\p-{Klhpw aqe-amWv 17 h¿jw Iß-g-bn¬ {]h¿Øn-°m\pw Hcp CS-th-fbv°p tijw Ign™-h¿jw Ahn-SpsØ _t -en-tbmkv kvIqfns‚ Npa-Xe Gs‰-Sp°m\pw km[n-®-sX∂v Rm≥ hniz-kn-°p-∂p. sb Ac-a\ . ""Zo¿LZr„n-tbmsS Nn¥n°q A®m. Fkv.tPm-en-°m¿°pw Hcp XpI kΩm-\a . tPm¿Pv (C-e-h-¥m-\Øv. H. aebmfw kvIqf√. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS t{]m’m-l\ . sk]v‰w-_¿ 14 -˛mw XobXn : aqhm-‰p-]pg pAc-a-\-∏-≈n-bn¬ \S-Ønb B h¿jsØ …o_m-Zmk t Koh-dp-Kokv ZznXo-b≥ _mhm-bpsS A≤y-£-X-bn¬ kaql-htm¿jnIw h Aev]w hn]p-ea . S. Xs‚ apºn¬ ta\n-bn¬ B°nb Hcp ]eI hs®-gp-Xpm hm≥ h®n-´p-≠v.p-≠v.n¬ hn\bm-\zn-X-\mb ]cn-ip≤ _mhm kS-Ip-S™v K¿÷n-®Xpw kao]-Ime kw`-hß .pw. Hcp ]≈n kµ¿in°p-tºmgpw kµ¿i\w Ign™v aS-ßp-tºmgpw aZv_l . HutK≥ _mhm F\n°p sshZnI ]´w X∂v A[nIw sshImsX Ißg Fw. C.o n. al k n a a r a t r o d o h .vkmbpw [cn®v Nmcn a Ccn-°p-∂p.n\v Hcpßn. Fs‚ bm{X w bmAev]w kzm¿∞-X-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. Bip-]{. Bip-]{Xn Nm∏-¬ IqZmi sNøp-Ibpw Fs∂ ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 130 Bip-]{Xn Nmπbn-\mbn \nb-an-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.n¬ hcpØn Xncp-ta\n Xs∂ At]£ ssIbn¬ sImSp-°p-Ibpw kvIqƒ A\p-h-Zn®v DØ-c-hm-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Hm^o-k¿ d ]n.hpw \evIn-bXv Xncpta-\n-bm-W. hnip≤ am¿tXmΩm «olm-bpsS knwlm-k-\-Øn¬ BcqV\m-bn.y≥ Hcp sh≈-°p-∏m-bhpwlXe-bn¬ ak-v\] .f . t t Rm≥ sN∂. ASpØ BgvN kvIqfpw tImf-Pp-sams° Xpd°pw. k`-b° v p-th≠n Ißg Bip-]{Xn Gs‰-SpØv Iev]\ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-®Xpw _mhm-bmWv. Xncp-ta\n .bv°p sXm´Sp-Øp≈ Un.Imcyw Xnc-°n. Akm-[m-cW hy‡nXzw / v t .mbn \SØn kt¥m-jn-®Xpw Hm¿°p∂p. Ac-a-\-bn¬ \n∂v bm{Xbv°ndßp-tºmgpw bm{X I . sIm√m-Sv) ®Xpw ]m¬. Ft∂m-sSm∏w Fkv. Hcp kµ¿i-I≥ ASpØph∂mtem Adn-bp-Itbm {i≤n-°p-Itbm C√m-bn-cp-∂p.n¬ 1953 apX¬ HºXp h¿jw Xma-kn®v HutK≥ j-tØmsS Ft∂mSv Xncp-ta\n ]d-™p. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS k∑m-Xr-I-Ifpw k¬t{]-c-W-Ifpw Pohm-h-km-\w -hsc Fs∂ `cn-°psa∂v F\n-°p-d∏ . : p bnse Hcp Poh-\-°m-c\pw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. aÆn-„n-I-bn¬asI´nsI´n-Sw. H∂mb ]cn-ip-≤ -k-`sb Hcp Zim_vZw `cn-®-Xpw. Hcp aWn-am-fnI Bbn-cn°pw Ac-a\rF∂ [mc-W-tbmSp o `mc-Xob EjnIqSn FØnb Rm≥ A¤p-X-s∏-´p-t]m-bn.m-Wt. _n.Øbpw tNmZyw sNbvX Ah-kc . AXnn t\mSv tN¿∂v Hcp Nmcp-I-tk-c-bn¬ I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k-\m-[n-]-\mb B a Ejn-hc .'' ""tcmKn C—n-®Xpw sshZy≥ Iev]n]n.nse At¥. Cw•ojv kvIqfmWv C\n Bcw-`n-t°-≠Xv'' F∂v D]-tZ-in-°p-Ib . ioa-°m-cpsS IpX-{¥-߃ ho≠pw k`sb ]nf¿Øn-bXpw hnip≤ tXmam-«o-lm-bpsS ]´-Xz-sØbpw knwlm-k\ . w tIm´bwImc-\mb F\n°v Xe Nmbv°m-s\m/ / cnSw thWw. ""CXv Hcp henb ÿm]-\-ambnØocpw. B ]gb N´w ]men-°p-∂-Xn\v XS- -am°n-bn-cp-∂n-√.Xn-bpsS hf¿®-bn¬ henb Xmev]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n® Xncpta\n ÿm]-I-\mb at\m-lc hdp-Ko-knt\mSp≈ aXn∏pw kvt\lhpw \nanØw Hcp ap{Z-tam-Xncw \¬In At±-lsØ BZ-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.mbn \¬Ipw.n™v FØp-tºmgpw ]≈n-bn¬ Ibdn epØn-\nbm \S-Øpw.'' Fs‚ B{Klw t]mse Rm≥ . tPm¿Pv (C-e-h-¥m-\Øv. Fw.s . Un.129 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ D]-tZ-in-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.b . ]≈n-b-IØp t]mbn / ssZhsØ al-/ Xz-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥ Iev]n-®p. ]≈n kµ¿i\w Ign™v aS-ßptºmƒ I]ym¿°pw a‰p. x Xncp-ta-\nsb hf-scbSpØv Adn-™n-´p≈ dn´.b . F. _n. sIm√m-Sv) C{]-Imcw FgpXp-∂p: o 1953 sabv amk-Øn-emWv Rm≥ BZy-ambn aqhm-t‰h p-]pg Ac-a-\-bn¬ FØp-∂-Xv.g.v ae-bmfw anUn¬ kvIqfn-\p≈ At]£ Xøm-dm°n At±lw aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a-\-bn¬ sN∂-t∏mƒ. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS hmb-\-bn-ep≈ GIm-{KX A\p-]aw Xs∂.GtXm ]pkvXIw hmbn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Iw Wv. AXns‚ Ing-°p-`m-K-Øp≈ \Sk ∏-¥-emWv InS-∏p-ap-dn. At]£ am‰n Xøm-dm-°n®v Ac-a\ . Sn. ""FSm tamt\! \n\°v C„-am-sW-¶n¬ ChnsS Xma-kn°mw. hmbn®psIm≠n-cn-°p-tºm-ƒ ASp-Øp-h∂v tai-∏p-dØp \n∂v Fs¥-¶nepw FSp-Øm-tem.√m.b .

y-Øn\p-am-{Xw.Xs∂ [cn-°pw. tbmPn-∏n-\p-th-≠n-bp≈ Hcp kw`m-jWw Xs∂ \S-Øn. F∂mepw sImSp-°p-∂-Xp. sX‰ns\ FXn¿°p-hm\p≈ \n¿`-bX .≥ ]fim-e k . x do / v t Xs‚ C√m-bva-bn¬ t]mepw AXn-Yn-Isf k¬°-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ At±lw ap≥]-¥n-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p.y-Ifpw A\p-Ic . kvt\l-\n-[n-bmb hey-∏® .o-ba . an°-hmdpw hcp-am-bn-cp-∂p.n-®n-´p-≠v.a . ]b-dpw. k`-bpw. k`-bn¬ Ggv bma {]m¿∞-\Iƒ {Iao-Ic . `£Ww Pohn-°p-∂Xn\p th≠n F∂ XXz-am-Wv B ]nXmhv kzoI-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. XnI™ `‡n. A¿≤cm-{Xn-bn¬ Fgp-t∂-‰n-cp∂v {]m¿∞n-°p-∂Xv Rm≥ I≠n´p-≠v. I™n-bpw. Hcp hyh-ÿbpw D≠m-°n. hnip≤ ]ueqkv sImcn-¥ytcmSp ]d-bp-∂Xv.m-Wv.ti-jta kwkm-cn-°m≥ XpS-ßp-I-bp-≈p.W .n\v C∂pw Rm≥ {ian-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Cu ka-bØv Nmbbpw eLp ISn-Ifpw DuWp tai-bn¬ h®p. D]-hm-k-hpw. Xncp-ta-\n°v hfsc _lpam-\y-\mb Hcp hy‡n Bbn-cp∂p At±-lw. HutK≥ Xncp-ta-\nsb kµ¿in-°p-∂X . Ah-tcmSv lrZy-ambn kwkm-cn-°pw. ]≈n hnImcn dh. ox v . / : p /w w . ssIb-£-c-am-Is´ AXn-a-t\m-l-c-hpw.n¬ Ah Dƒs°m-≈p-∂X . R߃°v t\mºv Bb-Xn-\m¬ ]m¬ D]-tbm-Kn°n√ F∂v HutK≥ Xncp-ta\n ]d-™p. ASp-°¬h-cp-∂hsc Ccp-Øn-b-Xn-\p. s]¶okm \a-kvIm-c-Øns‚ aebmf X¿÷-a. k`m Imcyßfpw a‰pw kwkm-cn-®p. At±-l-Øns‚ I¿°-i-amb Pohn-X-N-cy-Iƒ.Im-e-ß-fn¬ km£m¬ `mc-Xob k\ym-kn-am-cpsS PohnX coXn-X-s∂.b . am¿tØm-Ωm -«o-lm-bn¬ IqSn-bp≈ C¥y≥ k`-bpsS D¤-hhpw hne Ipd™ hkv{X-ßsf [cn-°p-Ib .aq-t∂m. A∂v Zo¿Lt\cw Ah¿ kwkm-cn-®p.v ae-bm-fw.t / cN-\m-coXn {it≤-b-am-Wv. kpdn-bm\n Fgp-Xp-∂Xv ]cp-¥n≥ Xqh¬ sIm≠mbn-cp-∂p.zw. Im∏-°q´w ct≠m.n¬ Bbn. Xncp-ta-\n°v Gg√ ]Xn-∂mev bma-߃ D≠m-bncp-∂p. hnizm-k-hpw. ""\n߃°v {InkvXp-hn¬ ]Xn-\m-bncw Kpcp- t t h .m w al k n a o a ar h rt t\mºp. Hcn-°¬ Iv\m\mb CS-h-IbpsS am¿ ¢nao-kv. /w w . {]mbm-[nIyw aqew Akp-J-߃ D≠m-Iptºmƒ t]mepw ]pXnb `£-W-{I-ao-I-c-W-Øn\v At±lw hgn-s∏-´n-cp∂n-√. Xncp-ta\n cmhpw ]Iepw apdpsI ]nSn-®ncp∂p. al k n a ao r a rt d o h Pohn-XN . Xncp-ta-\n-tbm-sSm-∏a .n¬ Akmam-\y-amb ]mfinXyw At±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ccn-°m≥ ]d-™-t∏mƒ At±lw aSn-®p. kwkvIr-Xw F∂o `mj-If .n¬ FØn.b .m w 132 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ bmtWm' F∂v tNmZn°pw. o .p≈ PohnXw Hcp henb A\p-`hw Xs∂ Bbncp-∂p. am¿tØmΩm «olm-bp-sSbpw s]cp-∂mƒ \a-kvIm-c -Ko-X-߃. At±lw kpdn-bm\n ]Tn°m≥ aqhm-‰p-]pg skan-\m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ImesØ t^mt´m A∂pw AhnsS D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. \a-kvIm-chpw Bbn-cp∂p.p≈p. At∏mƒ ]p¬∏m-bn´v AXn¬ CcpØn. sF. hben-∏-d-ºn¬ am¿ {KntKm-dn-tbmkv Xncp-ta\n Hcp Znhkw Hcp aWn-tbmsS Ac-a\ . kwi-b-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°pw. am¿ Koh-dp-Kokv kl-Zm-bp-sS-bpw. hfsc kulr-Z-]-c-ambn kwkm-cn-®p. thZ-]p-kvX-I-hpw.fpw IqSn Ign-bp∂ Hcp {]Xo-Xn. kpdn-bm-\n.mb hnizmkw F∂o khnti-j-X-Iƒ Xncp-ta-\nsb Akm-[-mc-W-amb hy‡n-Xz-Øns‚ DS-a-bm°n-Øo¿Øp. D≈-Xn¬ \√ Im∏m -sk‰v FSp°p-tºmƒ sk{I-´dn siΩm-i-t\mSv "Rm≥ s]Æp-sI-´m≥ t]mIp-I- ]mc-º-cy-hpw. Fw. sI. ]m¬ Hgn-°mØ Nmb Bb-Xn-\m¬ {KntKm-dn-tbmkv Xncp-ta\n IpSn-®n-√. aqhm-‰p-]pg kn. AXnYn k¬°m-chpw a‰p≈-h-tcm-Sp≈ s]cp-am-‰hpw Btcbpw BI¿jn-°-Ø-°-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. F√m aX-Øn¬s]-´-hcpw F√m k`m hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏-´-hcpw kµ¿in-°p-∂-Xn\v hcp-am-bn-cp-∂p. I„m-\p-`h BgvN \akvIm-c-Øns‚ X¿÷a XpS-ßnb At±-l-Øns‚ cN-\-Iƒ F√mw k`bv°p apX¬Iq-´m-Wv. / : pk`mw-K-Øn\pw hnizm-k-]-c-amb Bfl-hocyw DW¿ØGsXmcp tØ t Ø° hn[n-ep≈ k`m-kvt\lw Bbn-cp∂p HutK≥ Xncp-ta-\n-bph tS-Xv. tP°-_v. t\mºn¬ aq∂p-aWn Ign-bmsX `£Ww Ign-°p-I-bn-√. Imew sNbvX ]ueqkv am¿ {KntKm-dn-tbmkv Xncp-ta\n (A∂v t]mƒ h¿Kokv) Hcn-°¬ Xncp-ta-\nsb ImWp-hm≥ FØn. Xncp-ta-\n-am¿ c≠p-t]cpw k`m-Im-cy߃ N¿® sNbvXp. Hcn-°¬ \n¿Ωem tImfPnse A[ym-]I .c .m¿ Xncp-ta-\nsb ImWm≥ sN∂p. F∂m¬ AsXm∂pw {]mh¿Øn-Iam-bn-√. `£-W-tØ-°mƒ {][m\w Xncp-ta-\n°v t\mºpw. AXn¬ IqSp-X¬ h∂m¬ AXv ae-_m-dnse A®-∑m¿°v sImSp-°pw. AN-©e . atXm-]-tZi kXy-߃ thZ-sØ-fn-hp-Itfm-Sp-IqSn Fgp-X-s∏-´-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Fkv.131 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ac-a\ . AXpw AXym-hi .\pw sIm®p-a° . am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS c‡-km£n Zn\w BN-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xncp-ta\n D≤-cn-°p∂ Hcp thZ-`mKw Rm≥ Hm¿°p-∂p. Cw•o-j. efn-X-kp-µ-c-amb PohnX coXn. C∂v sshZn-I¿ D]-tbmKn-°p∂ lqtØm-tam-bpsS ae-bmf X¿÷-a. dn´-b¿ sNbvXn´pw Fs‚ Pohn-XØ .n-s\-Øn. Imt\m-\p-I-fpsams° N¿® sNbvXp. ]∏-Shpw Fs¥-¶nepw D∏n-en-´Xpw am{Xw aXn. Xncpta-\n-bpsS injy-\mWv ¢naokv Xncp-ta-\n.

la hey-∏-®≥ F√mw £an®v ]. ""A®m.mbn : hm’-ey-\n-p mb hey-∏-®s\ Htc kabw ZpxJ-Øn-s‚bpw kt¥mt [n-bkmKj-Øn-s‚bpw c-Øn¬ BgvØn.m¿ Gsd-bn√.h¿jw Ign-™ a Pn\v Bdp. . -Hu-tK≥ _mhm.mbn Hgp-In.p-t]mse _mhm-bpsS apdn-bn-te-°m-\b .\∂ \ne-bn¬ km[m-cW KXn°v sNøm\m-hmØ ]e Imcy-ßfpw.¿°v ]m]-]c . F¶nepw Ip™ptam-s\bpw hey-∏s .v. s]s´-∂mWv Hcm-ibw tXm∂n-bX . Imcy-߃ Fs¥∂p ]d-bm-\m-hmsX Ip™p-tams‚ IØv At±lw kplr-Øns\ _mhmbpw sR´n.v. AXp-sIm≠v a HutK≥ _mhmsb I≠v Rß-fpsS hnhm-lhpw Ip´n-I-fpsS amtam-Zom kmbpw \S-Øn®p XcWw.\bpw Cu ]X-\Ø . ""ae-th-S\pw arK-ßfpw t]mepw sNømØ Imcy-ßfmWv \n߃ sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂X .v.133 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ °-∑m¿ Ds≠-¶nepw ]nXm-°∑ . \nßsf Bflm-hn¬ P\n∏n-®Xp Rm≥ A√-tbm.'' al k n a a r a m . IqSmsX Ah-cpsS ]≈n-bnse A®\pw A∂v F´n\p tijw h∂v Fs∂ ImWm≥ ]d-bWw. \nba Zr„ym km[q-I-cn-°m-\m-hmØ Nne kwK-Xn-Iƒ apSn-b≥ ]p{Xs\-t∏mse A\p-X] .tbpsS Poh-Nc . HutK≥ _mhmsb I≠v Imcy߃ F√mw Xpd∂p ]d™p.'' ChnsS am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS ]nXr-Xzhpw A∏-kvtXm-enI ]n¥p-S¿®bpw At±lw hy‡-am-°p-∂p.a-Wn-°q¿ Ign™v Ip™ptam-s\bpw `mcyht sNº-I-t»-cn¬ sIm®p-sIm-®v tbbpw apdn-bn¬ \n∂p ]pd-tØ°p hn´p. _mhm-bpsS apJØv ss[cy-ambn H∂p t\m°m≥t]mepw Ign-bm-Xn-cp∂ Ip™p-tam-t\mSpw IpSpw-_-tØmSpw ⁄m\-hr-≤-\mb _mhmbv°v hm’eyhpw AtXkabw Aev]w shdp∏pw tXm∂n. DS≥ Xs∂ sIm®p-sIm-®ns\ hey-∏-®≥ kao-]n-®p. Ip´n-Isf ]pd-Øm°n IX-I-S-®p. / v (1975 Unkw-_¿ F´n\p Imew sNbvX ].) t r o ""{]nb-s∏´ hey-∏® . At∏m-tg°pw Fs∂ ImWm≥ ChnsS hcp-∂h . DS-s\ Xs∂ ap≥ \n›-b-{]-Imcw ]pdØp \n∂ AhcpsS hnImcn A®s\ _mhm AI-tØ°v hnfn®p. hfsc sshIn-bn´pw am∏p \¬In Hcp k`-bpsS ]c-am-≤y-£s. 134 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Gev]n-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. AØcw Hcp kwK-XnbmWv NphtS tN¿°p-∂-Xv.cpw a‰pw ÿew hn´n-cn-°pw.n¬ \n∂p IÆp-\o¿ [mc[m-cb .n¬ X≈m-\m-hmsX sIm®p-sIm®v ImtXm-en-t°‰v Ac-a-\-bn¬ FØn ]. F¥p sNø-W-sa∂p \n›-b-ant h √msX At±lw Ipg-ßn.Ø-n ∏‰n R߃°p hfsc ZpxJ-ap-≠v. _mhm-bpambn ASpØ kº¿°hpw _mhm-bn¬ kzm[o-\-hp-ap≈ Hcp kplrØmb sNº-I-t»-cn¬ sIm®p-sIm-®ns‚ Imcyw hey-∏-®≥ Hm¿Øp. p t Ac.'' t r o d o h .apSn-b-\mb ]p{X-s\-t∏mse Fs∂ Icp-Xnw bm¬ aXn. F¶nepw "Rm≥ k`m-≤y-£-\m-I-bm¬ A\p-X]n®p hcp-∂-h-sc apSn-b-\mb ]p{Xs‚ ]nXm-hn-s\-t∏mse kzoI-cn-°pI-b-√msX X≈m-\m-hn-√t√m' F∂p ]d™p {]iv\-Øn\p ]cn-lmcw \n¿t±-in-®p. Ip™p-tam-s‚bpw "`mcyw 'bp-sSbpw IÆp-If.w. \n߃ bYm¿∞-Øn¬ A\p-X-]n®p h∂-Xn-\m¬ k`m-≤y-£-s\∂ \ne-bn¬ Rm≥ \n߃°p am∏p.n-°m\pw km[y-a√ .\ . hnhmlw \SØm-sX-bp≈ Rß-fpsS Pohn-Xs . ImtXm-en°m _mhmbv°p am\p-jnI {]iv\ßsf ssZh apºmsI ka¿∏n®v ]cn-lmcw \n¿t±-in-t°-≠n-h-cp∂p. ]ndhØp-h®v ]≠v Im∏nwhSn sIm≠-Sn-sIm≠t∏mgpw Ic-bm-Xn-cp∂ ]pWy/ / N-cn-X-\mb _mhm-bpsS IÆp-Ifpw Cud-\-Wn: ™p. w kz¥w Ip™p-tam≥'' w / / kº¿°-an-√msX Ign™ph∂ Ip™p-tams‚ IØv h¿j-ßf . x o / v t \n›nX Znhkw sIm®p-sIm®v Ip™p-tam-s\bpw IpSpw-_-tØbpw ]d-™X .n-®p.X-cp∂p. a rp. "`mcym -`¿Øm-°-∑m¿' _mhm-bpsS apºn¬ ap´p-Ip-Øn. kplrØv sR´n-t∏m-bn..n-{X-Øn¬ A∂p tN¿t°-≠X . Ip™p-tams‚ hnhmlw Xs‚ ]≈nbn¬ h®v ASpØ Xn¶-fmgvN cmhnse A©-p aWn°p \S-Øn.m¿°v Ah-KW . Rß-fpsS aI≥ at\mR߃ \mSp-hn-´n´v Ggp. Ah-w cpsS hkv{X-߃ hnb¿∏p-sIm≠p \\-™p.h-b pw aIƒ ca-Wn°v \mep k -h-b- p-am-bn. Ip´n-Isf amtam-Zo-kmbpw ap°- .n-lmcw \¬Ip∂ ssZh-Øns‚ {]Xn-]pcp-j∑ .n-°p-∂h .v.n-s√∂p Xocp-am-\n-®XpwxF∂m¬ op-∂Xpw 34 k`mw-K-߃ Adn-™n-cn-°-W-sa∂v Ct∏mƒ Rm≥ IcpX d h¿jw apºv bYm¿∞-Øn¬ \S-∂Xp-amb kw`-h-amWv o NphtS tN¿h °p-∂X . _mhmsb ImWm≥ sN∂ B k`m-kvt\-ln-tbmSv _mhm Cßs\ ]d™p: ""ASpØ hymgmgvN cm{Xn F´p-aWn Ign-bp-tºmƒ Xm¶ƒ Ip™p-tam-s\bpw ho´p-Im-cn-tbbpw a°-sfbpw Fs‚ apdn-bn¬ sIm≠ph-cW .H´pw a\- -am-[m-\-an-√.

tP°-_v sImSn-bmØv w k n a ao r a rt . `nØn am{X-ap≈ Ahn-SpsØ I°qkv \∂m-°n-bXv Bcm-sW∂v Bcm-™p.™p. ]mfin-Xy-Øns‚ ]mc-ay-X-bn¬ d o h ox v .m-bn-cp∂ Ip™p-tam≥ 40 h¿jw apºv kz¥w amXr ktlm-Zco ]p{Xn-bmb tagvknsb alm-\K . Ipcy-®≥ (Ingp-ap-dn) Xncp-ta\n-bpsS tPyjvT ktlm-Z-c-]p-{X≥ kn. / : Cu tdmUns‚ p {]m[m\yw FSpØp Im´n-s°m≠v Hcp FgpØv a{¥n°v Ab-bv°tp-t∂-Xn-\p-th≠n ]. BZy-am-bn-´mWv.t / sI. _m°n 25000 cq]m ap\n-kn-∏m-en-‰nbn¬ \n∂v AS-®-t∏mƒ s]mXp-a-cm-aØv hIp∏v tdmUv Sm¿ sNbvXp. Aßs\ \S-°p-tºmƒ Hcp Znhkw Rm≥ Xma-kn-°p∂ ]Sn-™msd sI´n-SØ . ]ueqkv.\cw au\-ambn \n∂n´v Fs‚ Xebn¬ ssIh®v ""ssZhw \ns∂ A\p-{K-ln-°s´'' F∂p-]d .tXm-Xn¬ tcmKn-bm-sW-¶nepw Rm≥ C∂pw A\p-`-hn®p hcp-∂p.m°cp-p-∂I-bXvp≈p. tPmk-^n-\m-bn-cp∂p ]≈n-bpsS Npa-Xe. Hcp sNdnb {]mb›n-Ø-ambn 100 cq] tZh-temIsØ `fim-c-Ønepw CSm≥ ]d-bWw. I≠-\mSv a´ptΩ¬ A®≥. FÃn-ta‰v FSp-Ø-t∏mƒ l 50000 cq]m sNehv hcp-sa∂v a\-a  n-embn. t]cv tP°_v F∂m-sW∂pw Adnbn®p. ISa‰w ]pXp-t»cn sFk°v A®≥. Rm≥ thKw Cd-ßn-s®∂p ssIapØn. ap∏Xp h¿jw ]g°w D≠m-bn-cp∂ hm¿Unsek{][m\ tdmUmb aSp-°m-\n -˛ n tZ-h-temIw tdmUv Sm¿ sNbvXn-´n-√a m-bn-cp∂p. B A\p-{Klw euInI cwKØpw Bflob taJ-ebnepw sNdn-b. sImSn-bmØv (67) Ingp-ap-dn.\pw kz¿§w In´nb A\p-`h-am-bn-cp-∂p. hgn am{Xta sNøp-hm≥ km[nF∂v Xs∂-bp-a√ thsd w Hcp tPmenbpw sNøp-hm≥ km[n-°p-Ibpw C√. Fw. hnZym¿∞n-I-fn¬ siΩm-i-\mb kn. siΩm-i-∑msc ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂X . Iev]\ H∂pw Fgp-Xn-Ø-cp-∂n-√.I request you to give necessary order F∂ `mKw hmbn-®-t∏mƒ ""a{¥n-bt√ to kindly give F∂p am‰w hcpØp-hm≥ ]d™p. s\Spw-Ipgn ]utem-kv. ca-Wnbpw C∂v D∂X \ne-bn¬ Ign-bp∂p. ]n.s]≥j≥ ]‰n-bn´v Ct∏mƒ 9 h¿jw Ign-™p. tIme-t©cn Fw.aXn. ]n. HcmgvN Ign™v 25000 cq]m {Km‚mbn A\p-h-Zn®v adp-]Sn In´n. sNdn-bm≥ apX-em-b-h-cmbn-cp-∂p. hm°m-ep≈ Cu Iev]-\. Rm\m-sW-∂p ] . sP.n¬ k¿°m¿ tPmen-°m-c\ . A{]-Imcw IØ-b®p. Ip™p-tam\pw `mcyta-gvkn°pw Ip´n-Iƒ°pw Ah-cpsS hey-∏® . 5 h¿jw sNbvXmepw ]≤Xn .n¬ Ah¿°p Ipd®p hn{ia kabw sImSp-Øt. Ip™p-tam≥ CXn-\Iw dn´-b¿ sNbvXp \m´n¬ Xncn-s®Øn kIp-Spw_w Xma-kn-°p∂p (sIm-®p-sIm®v GXm\pw amk-߃°p apºv \ncym-X-\m-bn).m w\mb ap≥ ae-¶c aev]m≥ tIm\m´v G{_lmw wJ-IØ\m¿.ns‚ apºn¬ h∂v Fs∂. A©m-dp t. tP°-_v. ]mtd´v am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm. aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a\∏dºn-ep≈ ]Sn-™m-sd s . sNdn-bm≥ aSp-°m\n A\p-kva-cn-°p∂p: r temIw hm¿Uv ap\nkn-∏¬ Iu¨kn-ed..cw ImWn°m-sa∂p ]d™v Iq´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn H∂n®p Xma-kn-®-t∏mƒ P\n® at\m-Ppw.`m-K-Øp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Hcp apdn-bn-emWp ]m¿Øn-cp-∂X . {]m¿∞-\bpw ]Tn-∏n-°epw Ign-™m¬ Xncpta-\n-bpsS apJy-tPmen kpdn-bm-\n-bn-ep≈ Fgp- 136 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ØmWv ^m.v. ]≈n-bn¬ 100 cq]m ImWn° CSo-°Ww.p-t]mse Xs∂ A®≥ sNbvXp. tPm¿Pv ]´-vfm´v F∂n-h¿ Dƒs∏-´n-cp-∂p.hn-fn®p. Cßs\ Fgp-Xp∂p: 1956 G{]n¬. Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS injy {]ap- al t t h p / / : sI. A∂v {]Xn-h¿jw 5000 cq]m am{X-amWv Hcp hm¿Un\v e`n® n. . I´-bv°¬ tbml-∂m≥ h°o¬.n-\n-Sb . kvIdnbm IØ-\m¿. -kn.d . ap≥a-{¥n C. sI. HutK≥ _mhmsb Rm≥ I≠p. A°m-eØv Xncpta-\nsb kµ¿in°m-s\-Øp∂hcn¬ {]ap-J¿ hS-Ic sslkvIqƒ slUvamÃ-dm-bn-cp∂ sNΩ-¶pg kn. sI.˛ -sabv amk-ß-fn¬ IpSpw_ _‘-ap≈ ]mSØv ]utemkns‚ NnIn-’m¿∞w aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ FØn. Fkv. IØv h hmbn®p tI´ _mhm Xncp-ta-\n. CS-\n-e-°m-c\v Hcmfl kwXr-]vXnbpw. HutK≥ Xncp-ta-\n-sb-t∏mse C{X-am{Xw ]fin-X-\mb as‰mcmƒ D≠m-bn-´n-s√-∂mWv Fs‚ DØa hnizmkw. Nmt°m-∏n-≈.]¿°v \n∂p {]m¿∞n-°m\p≈ kuIcyta B apdn-bn-ep-≈p.∏mƒ Aev]t.'' _mhm ]d-™X . ]ndhw Fcp-a-s∏´n tXma-k-®≥. hn.∏´p. ]n. DØ-tc-¥y-bnse Hcp ]´-WØ . . HutK≥ am¿ Xotam-Øn-tbmkv Xncp-ta\n Xmsg `mKØv Ct∏mgsØ tjm∏nwKv tImwπ-Ivkns‚ hS°p Ing-t°.™ t. sI. thsd am¿Kw At\z-jnw ®-t∏mƒ 50 (Pn) F∂ C\-Øn¬ tIcfw H´p°p≈ ap\n-kn-∏m-en-‰n-Iƒ°v w Hcp e£w cq]m /{Km‚ v Ds≠∂v a\- n-em-bn. A®≥ 100 cq]bpw I]ym¿°v 50 cq]bpw hmß-Ww. x do / v t o h t H‰ -hm°p sIm≠v Im¬ e£w r t\Sn o a Rm≥ 1968 -˛¬ tZh]n.I-´nS-Øn-emWv F\n°v Xma-kn-°m≥ `mKyap≠mbXv.135 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Ww. B amkØn¬ Xs∂ F\n°v k¿°m¿ tPmen In´n. G{_-lmw.mbn asXc-s™-Sp-°s.ijw Xncp-ta\n F∂pw Ac-a\ tImºu≠v apgp-h≥ \S∂p t\m°p-am-bn-cp∂p.

W . Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS _p≤n A]mcw F∂v tI´p\n∂ {]ikvX\mb ap≥ A≤ym-]-I≥ ]d-™p. Xncp-ta\n. X∑qew Ct∏mƒ D≈ ssaXm-\Ø .nse A≤y-£{. `mhn-bn¬ F√mw icn-bmbn t\m°ns°m≈mw'' F∂p≈ IØns‚ \°¬ hmbn®ptI´ _mhm "ss\\m®m BZysØ hmN-I-Øn\v tijw ""AXn¬ Rm≥ tJZn-°p∂p'' F∂p IqSn tN¿°phm≥ Iev]n®p.\-S-ØmsX kvt\l-tØmsS Hcpt an®v \n∂v h ss{IkvXh ZuXyw \nd-th-‰-W-sa∂pw At±lw ]d-™p. . aXn¬ sI´n-t°ms´ F∂p Iev]n®p. D∂-X-amb Imcy-߃ km[n-°-W-sa-¶n¬ F√mhcpw Cu KpW-ß-ƒ kzmb-Ø-am°n {]h¿Øn-°-Ww. d o h .fpw {]Xn-_‘ . _mhm Ccp-Iq-´-scbpw hnfn-∏n®p. -kh n. Ccp hn`m-K-°m-cp-sSbpw \nthZ\w tI´ Xncp-ta\n {][m\w ]≈n-bmWv.n¬ FSpØp ]d-™p. ImtXm-en°m _mhm FIyp-sa-\n-°¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kn\p \¬In _lp-am-\n-®p. x o / v t ""F\n°v Ipsd amk-ßf .mbn ]≈n-Ifn¬ h∂v {Ia-ambn Imcy-߃ t\m°m≥ km[n-®n-´n-√. t\mºm-N-cWw F∂nh apJap{Z-bmbn kzoI-cn-®n-cp∂ ].m-bn-cp∂p HutK≥ / _mhm F∂p:Nq≠n-°m´n. AXn¬ a tbmPn∏v Xncn-®p-h-cm≥ F√m-hcpw {]m¿∞n-r°Ww..n-[Ø .ØmsS \bn-/°p-Ibpw sNbvX Hcp ]pWy-]p-cp-j\ . ]gb A¥-co£w C∂v `n∂-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. `mc-X-Øns‚ k k`-bn¬ Hcp \√ \msf D≠m-Ip-sa∂ n a {]Xo-£bpw ImtXm-en-°m.ß . s]mXptbmKw {SÃnsb am‰n.Hu-tK≥ _mhm kabw ssZhw Xcp∂ Xme-¥msW∂p IcpXn Hcp \nanjw t]mepw If-bmsX hmb-\-bnepw ]T-\Ønepw Bcm-[\ . As√-¶n¬ cmPnshbv°pI. ss\\ms\ hnfn®p.nepw F√m-h¿°pw amXr-Ib . a ktΩ-f\w DZvLm-S\w sNbv m X tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏n-fnse FIyp-sa\n-°¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kmb.m-bn-cp∂p F∂v ].n XpS-ßn-bt. / : p /w t t ]n. tbmPn®p t]mIm-sa∂p ]d™-t∏mƒ U]yq´n sk{I-´dn ]n. D]-hm-kw. Hcp tImSn cq]m-bpsS _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ {]Y-a≥ Nmcn-‰-_nƒ F≥tUm-hvsa‚ v ^≠n-te°v FIypsa-\n-°¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°okv _mhm 1000 tUmf¿ (46000 cq]) kw`m-h\ sNbvXp. x o / v t d o {]bm-kß . F≥. {]m¿∞-\.∏mƒ _t -en-tbmkv tImfPv A[n-ImcnIƒ ssaXm-\-Øns‚ sX°p-h-iØp≈ Ipsd ÿew tImfPns‚ ^pSvt_mƒ ^o¬Un\p th≠n hn´p-X-c-W-sa∂v Bh-iy-s∏´p. k`-Iƒ XΩnep≈ sFIyw C∂v A\nhmcyamsW∂pw tp ]c-kv]cw t]mcp.n-Ir-X¿ _mhmsb kao-]n®p. ae-¶c k`-bpsS ]c-tam∂X _lp-a-Xn-bmb ""Hm¿U¿ Hm^v sk‚ v tXmakv'' ].sb kºp-„am-°m-\p≈ ]pkvXI cN-\b .nI'' F∂p ]d-™p.ns‚ kuIcyw \„-s∏´n√. {SÃntbmSv "tbmPn®p t]mIm-sa-¶n¬ Aßn-s\ -sN-øpI. r o {]bm-k-ap-≠v.]-kw-KØ . _t -en-tbmkv am¿tØmΩm amXyqkv ZznXob≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm 2000 \hw-º¿ 19 -˛\p ]cp-ae ]≈n A¶-WØn¬ \S-Øs ._mhm l {]I-Sn-∏n-®p.nepw X¿÷a-bnepw sNe-h-gn®p. Rm≥ am‰n-sb∂v th≠. _t -en-tbmkv HutK≥ _mhm F√m h . ""ss\\m®m.∏´ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS Nca cPX Pq_nen alm-ktΩf-\Ø .m w al k n a a r a t r o 138 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 17 F√m-h¿°pw \√ amXrI ]. {SÃn-bp-tS-Xmbn Hcp FgpØv Xøm-dm°n sIm≠p-hc .Iq-´-scbpw hnfn-∏n-®p.sIm≠v a k`-bmb Hm¿Ø-tUmIvkv km[n-°m-\m-hmØ H∂p-an√. . am¿ Genbm IØo{U-en¬ CS-°m-eØv Hcp tIkv D≠mbn. ]≈n-°m¿ kΩ-Xn-°m-™t.∏mƒ tImf-P[ .137 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ am¿ Genbm IØo{U-ens‚ ap≥`mK-Øp≈ ssaXm\w Icn-¶¬ aXn¬ sI´n AS-hm-°p-∂ ] .fpw AXn-Po-hn®v ]m{Xn_mhmtp-∂hb-X¿°okv bp-ambn tbmPn®v k`-bn¬ kam-[m\w ssIh-cp-Ø n\pw km[n®p. Xncp-ta\n Cßs\ XpS¿∂p: {]m¿∞\. sNdn-bm≥ aSp-°m\n w . s]mXp-tbm-K -Xo-cp-am\w F\n°v Ah-K-Wn-°m\pw ]mSn√' F∂v ]d™p. Ccp._¿Ø-tem-antbm H∂m-a≥ sNbvX {]kww K-Øn¬ ssZh-Øn\p th≠n kzbw ka¿∏n-°p-Ibpw hnizm-k-Øn\pw w k`bv°pw th≠n H´-[nIw I„-∏m-Sp-Iƒ kln-°p-Ibpw k`sb ssZhmw {i-bt.

B al¿jn Xma-kn-®ncp∂ ÿew C∂pw sN´n-\-S-sb∂pw B `mK-sØ-]≈n sN´n-\-S-∏-≈nsb-∂p-amWv Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv (kao-]-Øp≈ ae-bm-‰q¿ ae-I-fn¬ hn. ss{IkvXh k`-bn¬ Bcpw Bcp-sSbpw kp∏o-cn-b¿ As√∂pw kvt\l-amWv k¿∆ {][m-\-sa∂pw sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm Nq≠n-°m-´n. ]≠v Ccp-I-c-Ifnepambn InS∂ sIm®n ae-bm-‰qcpw.W . dh. HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS ]pWy Pohn-X-Øns‚ {]tXy-I-XIƒ A\p-ka v c .n-®p. k`m sk{I-´dn G. _mhm-bpsS ktlm-Zc ]p{X\pw dn´-bm¿Uv sslkvIqƒ slUvamÃdpamb ^m. h\w-h-Ip∏p Poh-\-°m-c-\m-bn-cp∂ ]p¬°pgn ]utemkv A∂sØ hµy-Xm-]k . ae-bm-‰q¿ Ipcn-ip-a-ebpw ae-bm‰q¿ t^mdÃv Hm^okpw t\¿°p-t\¿ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂p. AXm-bXv Ccp-Ic . Biwkm {]kwKw sNbvX tUm. ]ueqkv I√-db .a∂pw ]d-™p.kn-≤n-Iƒ D≠m-bn-cp∂ Xm]-k-h-cy-\mb Hcp al¿jn ]≠v tImS-\mSv Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂p-sh∂pw At±-lsØ sN´n-kzm-an-sb∂v BfpIƒ hnfn-®n-cp-∂p-sh∂pw Hcp sFXo-ly-ap≠v.mb HutK≥ dºm-®\v Zm\w sNbvXp. Koh-dp-Kokv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv. G{_lmw Cßs\ Fgp-Xp-∂p: hnip≤ am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS ]mZ-kv]¿i-ta-‰-sX∂p hniz-kn°-s∏-Sp∂ ]pWy`qhn`mK-amb ae-bm-‰q¿ ae-\n-cI .ØmsS H∂mbn.m w 1922 emWv Hcp sNdnb Nm∏-en\v Bcw`w C´Xv. HutK≥ am¿ Xotam-Øn-tbmkv (Hu-tK≥ _mh) F∂n-hc . apJy{]`m-jWw \S-Ønb tUm. sI.f . v/ t s\bvtdm-_n-bn¬ h®v BtKmf ss{IkvXh k`-bpsS x kv. Chn-SpsØ {]kn-≤-amb B\ ]cn-io-e\ tI{µw [mcmfw hntZi k©m-cn-I-sfbpw BI¿jn-®p-h-cp-∂p.I-fnepw InS∂ ae-bm-‰q¿ `mK-߃ Hcp henb {Kma-amb tImS-\m-Smbn {]Jym]n-°-s∏´p. AhnsS kotbm≥ B{i-ahpw hn. hn. w w w / / : p t t h 2000 \hw-º¿ 19 -˛\p ]cp-ae ]≈n A¶-W-Øn¬ \S-Ø-s∏´ HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS Nca cPX Pq_nen alm-ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ \n∂v 140 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 18 ]. -a¬s°-bpsS \ma-Øn¬ ]≈nbpw ÿm]n-Xam-bXv bmZrOn-Ia . imaph¬.n¬ \ne sIm≈p∂ tImS-\mSv {Kma-Øns‚ Xne-I-°p-dn-bmbn ]cn-e-kn-°p∂ kotbm≥ B{i-ahpw ]≈nbpw am¿ HutK≥ sslkvIqfpw Ah-bpsS ÿm]-I-\mb HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS \nXy kvamc-I-ß-fmWv. s^{_p-hcn 2 \v am¿ a¬s°-bpsS \ma-Øn¬ ae-¶c aev]m≥ tIm\m´v amØ≥ tImsd∏n-ktv Im-∏m-bpsS kl-Ic . _m_p-t]mƒ..v°¬. ae-\n-c-IfpsS ]\n-\o-cmbn Hgp-Ip∂ s]cn-bm-dn-\m¬ kzm`m-hn-I-ambn hn`-Pn-°s∏-´-XmWv at\m-l-c-amb ae-bm-‰q¿.p-sX∂pw k` ]Øp-e£w cq]m kw`m-h\ sNø-Ws .\ .-Hu-tK≥ _mhmbpw tImS\mSv kotbm≥ B{i-ahpw ]≈nbpw ]. ]n. kn. al¿jn Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ aqt∂-°¿.ac-Wmo ka¿∏nRvPen e`n® HutK≥ _mh-mbpsS ]pWy kvac-Wb . sI.139 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Nmcn-‰_ . t t h / : p /w w . Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿ ae-bm-‰qcpw 1949˛se Xncp-.t. tUm. sP.Im®n kwtbm-P\ . sI. kn. x do / v t ]e. tPmk^m-Wv DZvLm-S\w sNbvX-Xv. tXmakv IrX-⁄-Xbpw o a r a k an l a m .m-sW∂v _m_p-t]mƒ FSpØp ]d-™p. Nmcn-‰_ .t.psS apºn¬ d °-s∏-´ as‰m-c-\p-]a ARvP-en-bm-bn-cp∂p ]cpae ktΩo f-\w. al k n a o a ar h rt o . Un.Øm-Sp-IqSn …o_m am¿ HkvXm-Øntbmkv . ˛ s . _u≤nI Xe-Øn¬ DØ-at.nƒ F≥tUmhvsa‚ v ^≠v hnZym-`ymk a{¥n ]n. h \nbp‡ ImtXm-en°m tXmakv am¿ Xotam-Øn-ttbmkv kzmK-Xhpw r]d-™p. tXmam-«olm h∂n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Cu sN´n-kzm-an-sb∂v hnfn-®n-cp∂ al¿jn Bcm-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v B¿°-dn-bmw)._m-[y-tØmsS adp-I£nbn¬ \n∂v ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns\ kl¿jw kzoI-cn® aq∂p {]ikvX hy‡n-Iƒ ^m.nƒ ^≠n¬ \n∂p sI´nSw ]Wn°v ]Ww sNe-hm-°c .psS aSn-Ø´.√ .

Abv°-c°p´n tamkkv tImsd-∏n-kvtIm-∏m. 20 apdn-Iƒ ]q¿Øn-bm°n hmS-Ibv°v sImSp-Øn´p≠v.∏mƒ ÿnc-amb hcp-am\w e`n-°m-\mbn ]≈n-bpsS hS°p `mKØv tdmU-cn-In¬ Ipsd. ht 142 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 1962 sabv amkw 17 ˛mw XobXn A`n-hµy Xncp-ta\n ]uckvXy ImtXmen-°mbpw ae-¶c sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bp-ambn sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw 1964 ¬ knwlm-k-\-ÿ-\m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp.v. AXns‚ Bcw`w apX¬ 30 h¿jw Rm≥ {]Y-am-≤ym-]-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p.b . ]cp-a-e -Xn-cp-ta\n F∂n-h-cpsS t]cn¬ Ipcn-in≥sXm´nIƒ ÿm]n-®n-´p-≠v. A{_lmw IØ-\m¿ B{i-a-Øn¬ Xs∂ Xma-kn-®p-t]m-∂p. amXyp-hn-s\bpw Gev]n®p.a . ].psS am¿ tkthdn-tbm-kv. s]mbv°m-´n¬ ]utemkv IØ-\m¿. Hcp PqWn-b¿ kvIqƒ ].n-\mbn k©-cn-®n-cp∂ ]≈n-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ kw`m-h-\-Ifpw ktlm-Z-c-∑m-cpsS klmb klI-c-Whpw ]≈n-bpsSbpw B{i-a-Øn-s‚bpw ]Wnsb Xzcn-X-s∏-SpØn ]Wn ]q¿Øn-bm-bt. ]. ].I v qƒ 1966 PqWn¬ sslkvIq-fmbn. tp :/ /w w . _mhm-bpsS \maØn¬ Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw 1997 \hw-_¿ 27.m-[n]s‚ `c-W-Øn¬ hn´p-sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂-Xmbn {]kvXm-hn-®p. A°m-eØv Xncp-ta\n-bpsS {][m\ B{i-bÿ .141 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Nm∏-ens‚ inem-ÿm-]\w \S-Øn. sI.m w al k n a 1967 Pqse aq∂n\v F\n°v I»oim ]´w X∂v Cu ]≈n-bnse hnImcn-bmbn \nb-an®p.nIw A\p-`h . Koh-dp-Kokv kl-Zm. ]≈n-bpsS \S-Øn-∏n\v Bh-iy-amb hcp-am\w e`n-°-Ø°hÆw IS-Iƒ tISp-]m-Sp-Iƒ Xo¿Øv hmS-Ibv°v sImSp-°p-Ibpw ]≈n∏p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ d_dpw sXßpw h®p ]nSn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.3 Xob-Xn-If . ]mØn-°¬ ]utemkv IØ-\m¿. dºm-®≥ kphn-tij {]kw-KØ .Xs∂ ap≥ssI-sb-SpØv ]≈n ]Wn-bpsS Npa-Xe Xncp-ta-\nbpsS ktlm-Zc ]p{X-∑m-cmb Fs∂bpw kn.m\w tImS-\mSv kotbm≥ B{i-aam-bn-cp-∂p. BØp-¶¬ Koh-dp-Kokv IØ-\m¿.≈n ]pXp°n-∏-Wn-tb-≠Xv AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-sW∂v Xncp-ta\n \n›-bn-®p. CXv kotbm≥ B{i-a∏ . A∂p-ap-X¬ ]≈n-bp-sSbpw kzØp-°-fp-sSbpw ta¬t\m´w hln-®p-hc .˛\v ]. ]≈n-bpsS πm‰n\w Pq_nen satΩm-dn-b¬ lmƒ ]Wn- . ssZh-am-Xm-hv. A¶-amen CS-h-I-bpsS am¿ sXtbm-^n-temkv F∂n-h-cpsS kl-Im¿Ωn-I-Xz-Ønepw \SØn.a . sIm®n CS-h-I-bpsS Imew sNbvX ]utemkv am¿ tkth-dn-tbmkv A¶-amen CS-h-I-bpsS Imew sNbvX am¿ {KntKm-dn-tbmkv F∂n-hcpw IWn-bmw-]-d-ºn¬ Ipcy≥ tImsd-∏n-kvtIm∏m. Koh-dp-Kokv klZm F∂n-h-cpsS \ma-Øn-emWv aq∂p t{XmtWm-kpIfpw. Ip‰n-∏m-eb .n-\p-tijw `{Zm-k\ `cWw hn´v tImS-\m´v hn{ia PohnXw \bn-°m-\mbn B{i-a-sI-´nSw ]pXp-°n-∏-Wnbn-®X . ]≈n-bpsS DS-aÿ X . Koh-dp-Kokv dºm-®≥ (Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-tIm-Sv) B{i-aØ .zØnepw sIm®n CS-hI .mhm DZvLm-S\w sNøpIbpw sNbvXp. am¿ a¬s°.n¬ hn. a r a t r o d o h . _t -en-tbmkv am¿tØmΩm amXyqkv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en-°m _ .≈ . Xm¬°men-Ia . XpS¿∂v _. BØp-¶¬ Koh¿Kokv tImsd-∏n-kvtIm∏m. At∏m-gmWv 1958 se k`m kam-[m-\Ø .X-s∂bpw At∏mtg°pw Po¿Æn®v Ah \mam-h-ti-j-am-bn-Øo-cp∂ ÿnXn-bn-em-bn. t t h / : p /w w .p-∂p.p-amb kotbm≥ B{i-a∏ . 1104 Ipw`w 10 -˛mw XobXn A¥-cn® At±-lsØ ]≈n-tbmSp tN¿∂v hS-°p-`m-KØv I_-d-S-°n.a .n-t°≠n h∂p.n¬ Xma-kn®v Ipsd B{i-aÿ sc ]cn-ioen-∏n-®p. _t -en-tbmkv _mhm. ]. sI. HutK≥ dºm-®s‚ {]Ya Bÿm\-am-bn-cp∂ Cu B{i-a-Øn¬ Xma-kn®v hS-°≥ `{Zm-k-\-ß-fnse siΩm-»-∑m¿.p∂ am¿ HutK≥ sslkvIqƒ tImS-\m-´p-Im¿°p e`n-® Hcp henb kΩm-\-am-Wv. ]. _mhm-bpsS {]kw-K-Øn¬ ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k-\-Ønte°v Xosd-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≈Xpw Ct∏mƒ Xncp-ta\nbpsS t\cn-´p≈ `c-WØn¬ Ccn-°p-∂X .m°n. 1962 Pq¨ 4 ˛mw XobXn Bcw-`n-® k .ap-dn-Iƒ ]Wn-I-gn-∏n®v hmS-Ibv°p sImSp-Øp. ]uckvXy ImtXm-en-°mbmbn \nc-W-Øp-h®v sXc-s™-SpØ Znh-k-amb 1962 sabv 17 \mWv tImS-\mSv am¿ HutK≥ kvIqfn\v A\p-hmZw e`n-®-Xv.°-´n-Shpw IS-Ifpw ]≈n. {]i-kvX-amb \nebn¬ \S-∂p-hc . C°m-eØv dºm-®s‚ hµy-]n-Xmhv A{_lmw IØ-\m¿ Xpcp-Øn∏n-≈n¬ \n∂p tImS\m´v ÿew hmßn IpSpw_ ktaXw AhnsS ÿnc-Xm-ak .° v ¬ butk^v IØ-\m¿ XpSßn ]ecpw ]≈n-bn¬ I¿Ωm-Zn-Iƒ \S-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.mbn ]Wn Ign-∏n® ]≈n-bpsS IqZmim-I¿Ωw 1972 s^{_p-hcn 2. x o / v t B[p-\nI coXn-bn¬ at\m-lc . Xs‚ ]nXmhv A¥y-hn-{iaw sIm≈p∂ tImS-\mSv B{i-a∏ .n-bpsS ]Wn°v IqSp-X¬ klm-bI . F.m-bn.mbn \n¿Ωn® B{i-as . ]pXp-t»cn Ck-lm°v IØ-\m¿ F∂n-hcpw ChnsS ]Tn-®-h-cn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. ]utemkv tImsd-∏n-kvtIm∏m. 1927 -˛¬ HutK≥ dºm-®≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xmt∏m-eo-Øm-bmbn hmgn-°-s∏´v I≠-\mSv `{Zm-k\ `cWw Gs‰-Sp-ØtXm-Sp-IqSn At±-l-Øns‚ {i≤ A{i-a-Øn¬ \n∂pw `{Zm-k-\-Øn-te°p.b . ]n. dºm-®-s‚bpw ]nXmhv XpcpØn tN´m-Ip-f-Øpw-Ic A{_lmw IØ-\m-cp-sSbpw Iogn¬ sshZnI ]cn-io-e\w \S-Øn-t∏m∂p. x o / v t ae-¶c k`-bnse hyh-lm-c-Øns‚ {]lcw Xntam-Øn-tbmkv Xncpta-\n hf-sc-b[ . hn. ].≈n A¶-amen `{Zm-k\ . hfsc Ipd®p ho´p-Im¿ am{Xap≈ Cu ]≈n ]pXp-°n-∏-Wn-bp-∂-Xn\v Xncp-ta-\n.am-dn.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . HutK≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm-bpsS {][m\ Im¿Ωn-IX .n¬ ].

nƒ ^≠v G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠. am¿tØmΩm «olm ÿm]n®Xpw {]Xn-k‘ . Fs‚ ]Z-hnbpw Poh\pw t]mbmepw am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS k`-bpsS knwlm-k-\-Øns‚ am‰n\pw aln-abv°pw lm\n.n-∏n-®p-sIm≠v Cu Poh Ncn{Xw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°-s´.n-If . 144 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ 19 Fs‚ ÿm\hpw Poh\pw t]mbmepw k`-m kzmX{¥yw If-™p-Ipfn°n√ aq∂p. _mhm-bpsS Nca cPX Pq_nen kvamc-Ia . F√m h¿jhpw Unkw-_¿ F´p Ign™p hcp∂ Rmb-dmgvN ChnsS ].h-cp-Øp∂ H∂n\pw Rm≥ Iq´p\n¬°p-I-bn-√.sf ap≥\n¿Øn ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ B Imh¬ `S≥ A¿∞-i¶ . sl-Uvam-ÿ kn.s . ]. HutK≥ _mhmbpsS Hm¿Ω-s∏-cp-∂mƒ BtLm-jn-®p h .Ø .p-sSbpw {]Xn-Iq-eß-fp-sSbpw CS-bnepw ssZhIr]bm¬ ]cn-ip≤ ]nXm-°-∑m¿ kwc-£n®pw `{Zambn `c-taev]n®-Xp-amb ae-¶-c-k-`-bpsS kzX-{¥-amb \ne-\n¬]ns‚ hne-tb-dnb \n[nbpw ÿm\hpw If™pIpfn®p IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-hm≥ Rm≥ Hcp-°-a√. F®v.Hu-tK≥ {]Y-a≥ _mhm sNbvX Ncn{X {]kn-≤a . am¿tØmΩm «olm-bpsS \ma-Øn¬ ]WnXv Ah-km\ an\p°p ]Wn-Iƒ \S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.p∂p. x do / v t . t t h / : p /w w .mbn aq∂p \ne-If . \n¿≤-\c . bp. tXmakv am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ømbpw A∂sØ Fw.p≈ Hcp Ipcn-in≥sXm´n hn. tIm´bw `{Zm-k-\m-[n-]-\m-bn-cp∂ ]mtd´v amXyqkv am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbm-kns‚ 75 -˛mw P∑-Zn\w {]am-Wn®v tIm´bw am¿ Gen-bm IØo-{U¬ A¶-WØn¬ tN¿∂ ktΩ-f\ .a∂ ]hn-{X]oT-Øn-encp∂v ]mcº-cy-ßfpw {]am-Wß . HutK≥ _mhm-bpsS kvamc-I-ambn ]ndam-SØv ÿm]n-°p∂ {]Xymi `hs‚ inem-ÿm-]\w ].Z-im-_vZ-߃°p apºv ].m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox ].fpw ewLn-°m-\√.c .fpw bqWn-t^mapw hmßn-s°m-Sp°p-hm\pw h¿jw-tXmdpw Hcp \√ XpI Cu ^≠n¬ \n∂p hn\n-tbm-Kn®p-h-cp∂p.n-emWv k` t\cnSp∂ Nne {]iv\ß .bv°nSbn-√msX C{]-Imcw {]kvXm-hn-®Xv. v .t / ].v s]cp-∂mƒ sNehp Ign™v In´p∂ ]Ww Cu ^≠n\v apX¬°q-´p-∂p.ß . ""Fs‚ amXmhv Fs∂ {]k-hn-®Xv ImtXm-en°m knwlm-k\ . amXyphpw Rm\pw {]kw-Kn-®-h-cn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. Fkv.mb tcmKnIƒ°pw A\m-Ym-e-b-߃°pw kmº-ØnI klmbw \¬Ip-hm\pw kvIqƒ Ip´n-Iƒ°v ]T-t\m-]I . _mhm-bpsS A\-izc hN-\-߃ hmbn°p-I.mb Hcp {]kvXm-h\ A\p-kvac . Un.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .'' t t h / : p /w w .. amXyqkv ZznXo-b≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm \n¿∆ln-°p-∂p.c .W . _mhmtbmSv `‡nbpw _lp-am-\-hp-ap≈ Bfp-Iƒ kl-I-cn®v _mhm-bpsS t]cn¬ Hcp Nmcn-‰_ .143 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ I-gn-∏n-°p-Ibpw CS-hI sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm ]utemkv am¿ ]t°m-antbmkv AXns‚ DZvLm-S\w 1999 P\p-hcn 21 ˛\p \n¿∆-ln-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

. ^m. ^m. sI. ]utemkv \mc-IØ . s{]m^. ^m. ]t{Xmkv samXm¬. F≥. x o amXyqkv am¿ Cuhm-\n-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm-bpsS 75 -˛mw P∑-Zn\Øn¬ sI. tXma-kv (tXmakv am¿ a°m-dn-tbm-k)v .¿: ^m.m w al k n a a r a t r o Ncn{X kvacW DW¿Øp∂ Hcp Nn{Xw 20 kwkm-cn-°p∂ Nn{X-߃ . ^m. ]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kv. ^m. ]oen-t∏m-kv (]oen-t∏m-kv am¿ sXtbm-^n-tem-kv). eqt°mkv tXm∏n¬. kvIdnbm \oem-¶¬. ]n. Ipcym-t°mkv H. G{_lmw Hmen-bn¬. ‰n. tPm¨. tXmakv am¿ XntamØn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm kn. sI. amXyqkv (amXyqkv am¿ _¿∂_mkv). ^m. hn. HutK≥ am¿ Xntam-Øn-tbm-kv.145 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ d o h Ccn-°p-∂h . amΩ≥ Biwkm {]kwKw sNøp-∂p. ^m. ]utem-kv. -sI. sF. tPmk-^v. ^nen-t∏mkv tImsd-∏n-kvtIm-∏m. ^m. ^m. ]utem-kv. ^m. bp amXyp F∂n-h-scbpw ImWmw. ^m. tImc hdp-Ko-kv. ^m. kn.v. tPmk^v (tPmk^v am¿ ]t°m-an-tbmkv). ^m. c≠mw \nc: ^m. ht tp :/ /w . tPmk^v sh≈n-bm-am-cn¬. tPm¿÷v ta®n-¶-c. ^m. ^m. ^m.. sI. hn. G{_lmw tN´m-Ip-f-Øn≥Ic. sI. kn. s{]m^-k¿. tPm¿Pv ]´vfm-´v. aØmbn N°m-∏n-≈n¬.\nc: ^m. t t h / : p /w w . ^m. kn. Koh-dp-Kokv apdn-a-‰-Øn¬. (tijw ASpØ t]Pn¬) w \mev]Xp h¿jw apºv aqhm-‰p-]pg Ac-a-\-bn¬ tN¿∂ Hcp sshZn-I-tbmKw. tPmk^v Ip‰n-∏m-e-bv°¬. hn. ^m. kJ-dnbm Imcp-th-en. Ipcym-t°m-kv Nhcpw πm°n¬. ^m. ^m. ‰n. ^m. x o / v t 146 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ \nev°p-∂-h¿: ^m. hn. ^m. _l-\m≥ (17 t]¿ Ct∏mƒ ]tc-X-cm-Wv).m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . Koh-dp-Kokv ]mtd¬. hn. sF. ^m. sI. hn. / v t apI-fn-se. kn. tXmakv If-hm¶¬.

HutK≥ _mhm k`m-`q-j¨ _lp-aXn AWn-bn-°p-∂p. Ct∏m-gsØ ]gb skan-\mcn amt\P¿ ^m.. kJ-dn-b. . w w w / / : p t t h \mep Zim_vZw apºv thßq¿ \S-Ø-s∏´ …o_m-Zm-k kaql hm¿jnI ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ h®v "]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbmkv' F∂ Poh-N-cn{X {KŸw BZy {]Xn {KŸ-I¿Øm-hmb ]n. tImin. Ct∏m-gsØ amt\-P¿ ^m. amXyqkv {]Y-a≥ ImtXm-en°m _mhm. sP. Pn.Hu-tK≥ _mhm-tbm-sSm∏w. ]n∂n¬ F≥. amΩ≥.m w al k n a o a ar h rt o aq∂p Zim-_vZ-߃°p apºv ]. 148 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ .147 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ v/ t . aØmbn amXyqkv F∂n-hsc ]. h¿°n°p \¬In-s°m≠v HutK≥ am¿ Xotam-Øn-tbmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm {]Im-i\w sNøp∂p. Sn. sI. amΩ≥. hn. x do / v t sshZnI skan-\m-cn°p-th≠n A©p e£w cq]m-bpsS F≥tUm-hvsa‚ v ^≠v tiJ-cn® ]n. 1976 ¬ tIm´-bØp tN¿∂ am¿ HutK≥ kntºm-kn-b-Øn¬ tIm\m´v x A{_lmw aev]m≥ {]kw-Kn-°p-∂p. a[yØn¬ {]km-[-I-\mb sI. sI. ]n. am¿ ]t°m-an-tbm-kv. hn. ‰n.d o h t r ao r a k an l a m . t t h / : p /w w . ]. tP°_v. kn. ImtXm-ent°‰v Ac-a\ ap≥ amt\-P¿ ^m. hn. G{_l o mw. tPmk-^v. Fw.

7. sP. -ss]en G{_lmw. 2. Koh-dp-Kokv. 3. H. tP°_v HmW-t»cn XpcpØn-bn¬. XpcpØn tN´mIpf-Øn¬Ic ^m. t t h / : p /w w . 6. ^m. 3. amØp -tXmΩm. 6. 7. tPmWn Xncp-hm-¶pfw Xpcp-Øn-bn¬. 5. Sn. ^m. ^m. 5. Bb-Øp-IpSn ^m. G{_lmw (B-b-Øp-Ip-Sn) Xpcp-Øn-bn¬. s{]m^.2. 4. Xncp-hm-¶pfw. hn. Bb-Øp-IpSn Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ ^m. Bb-Øp-Ip-Sn-bn¬ ^m. Xpcp-Øn. ^m.149 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-Øns‚ hnhn[ imJ-I-fn¬s]-´-hcpw Xnc-»o-e°v A∏p-dØp IS-∂-h-cp-amb hµy -ssh-Zn-I¿ tp :/ /w w . sI. XpcpØnbn¬ ^m. A{_lmw lmt_¬. x o / v t 1. ^m. -ss]en ]utemkv. ^m. t]mƒ tXm-akv Bb-Øp-Ip-Sn-bn¬. sI.tN´m-Ip-f-Øn≥Ic ^m. Bb-Øp-IpSn Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ ^m. -ss]en tXmΩm. G{_lmw XpcpØn tN´mIpf-Øn≥Ic. Gen-bmkv tN´m-Ip-fØn≥Ic Xpcp-Øn-bn¬. kJ-dnb hdp-Kokv XpcpØn HmW-t»cn¬. kn. ^m. 4. x o 150 ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ XpcpØn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-Ønse C∂sØ sshZn-I¿ / v t t h 1. .m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h . -tXmΩm ]utemkv.m w al k n a a r a t r o d o h .

m w al k n a ao r a rt d o h ox v .m w al k n a o a ar h rt o .t t h / : p /w w . x do / v t tImS-\mSv B{i-a-∏≈n πm‰n\w Pq_nen satΩm-dn-b¬ lmƒ DXvLm-S\w ]utemkv am¿ ]t°m-an-tbmkv \n¿∆-ln-°p-∂p. 151 152 . Dƒ®n{Xw ]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kv ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ ImtXm-en-t°-‰ns‚ Imh¬`-S≥ / t t h / : p /w w .t apf-¥p-cpØn I¿tΩ¬ Zbdm Nm∏-en¬ ]t{Xmkv am¿ HkvXm-Øn-tbm-kns‚ kwkvImc ip{iq-j.

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