The method of recording the jaw relationships using baseplates and occlusion rims, is widely carried out in clinical practice. However, as many dentures with an unstable occlusion are seen, it is thought that minor errors tend to occur easily using this technique. There are various reasons to explain this. If the clinician is not accustomed to the procedure of softening the wax, it will be difficult to soften the rims evenly. Without uniformly softened rims, an exact record cannot be expected. When the baseplates poorly fit the alveolar ridges, they are displaced by sliding over the occlusal plane during recording and thus the jaw registration is carried out with displaced rims. In addition, as the mucosa of the alveolar ridge is compressible, some portions of the baseplate settle into the mucosa slightly and another portion is raised up, but this depends on the case. In a case with severe ridge resorption, the baseplate will be easily displaced. In a patient with a loose temporomandibular joint or wearing an existing denture with a malocclusion for a long time, the eccentric relation might be easily recorded by a little undue pressure. In any case, it requires great skill for the horizontal and vertical jaw relations to be recorded simultaneously just by using the baseplates to establish an exact jaw relationship. The chairtime will also be prolonged, and thus the physical fatigue of the patient will increase. To solve these problems, the author divides the procedure into two stages. The gothic arch tracer is used for recording the horizontal jaw relation. The patient must come to the clinic once more, but as the final decision can be left to the use of the gothic arch tracer, the procedure for recording the vertical relation using baseplates can be performed stress-free and moreover the total chairtime for the recording jaw relations is shortened.



A mandibular element to be understood before recording maxillomandibular relationships and making tooth arrangements for complete dentures is border positions. Border refers to the boundary of a surface and may imply the limiting line. Border position is defined as the most posterior position of the mandible at any specific vertical relation. The border positions are limited by nerves, bones muscle, teeth when present and ligaments. The limiting is not a simple mechanical stoppage but a physiologic control through the neuromuscular system. The envelopes of motion of the mandible in the border positions has been recorded in three planes horizontal, frontal and sagittal and are usually described as three dimensional. Traditionally, a device known as a Gothic arch tracer has been used to record mandibular movement in the horizontal plane. It consists of a recording plate attached, to the maxillary teeth and a recording stylus attached to the mandibular teeth. As the mandible moves, the stylus generates a line on the recording plate that coincides with this movement. The border movement of the mandible in the horizontal plane can therefore be easily recorded and examined. When mandibular movements are viewed in the horizontal plane, a rhomboidshaped pattern can be seen that has a functional component, as well as four distinct movement components. 1. Left lateral border 2. Continued left lateral border with protrusion 3. Right lateral border 4. Continued right lateral border with protrusion

Left Lateral Border Movements With the condyles in the CR position, contraction of the right inferior lateral pterygoid will cause the right condyle to move anteriorly and medially (also inferiorly). If the left inferior lateral pterygoid stays relaxed, the left condyle will remain situated in CR and the result will be a left lateral border movement (i.e., the right condyle orbiting around the frontal axis of the left condyle). Therefore the left condyle is called the rotating condyle, because the mandible is rotating around it.


The right condyle is called the orbiting condyle, because it is orbiting around the rotating condyle. The left condyle is also called the working condyle, because~ it is on the working side. Likewise, the right condyle is called the nonworking condyle, because it is located on the nonworking'side. During this movement the stylus will generate a line on the recording plate that coincides with the left border movement.

Continued Left Lateral Border Movements with Protrusion With the mandible in the left lateral border position, contraction of the left inferior lateral pterygoid muscle along with continued contraction of the right inferior lateral pterygoid muscle will cause the left condyle to move anteriorly and to the right. Because the right condyle is already in its maximal anterior position. The movement of the left condyle to its maximum anterior position will cause a shift in the mandibular midline back to coincide with the midline of the face.


Right Lateral Border Movements Once the left border movements have been recorded on the tracing, the mandible is returned to CR and the right lateral border movements are recorded. Contracting of the left inferior lateral pterygoid muscle will cause the left condyle to move anteriorly and medially (also inferiorly). If the right inferior lateral pterygoid muscle stays relaxed, the right condyle will remain situated in the CR position. The resultant mandibular movement will be a right lateral border movement (e.g., the left condyle orbiting around the frontal axis of the right condyle). The right condyle in this movement is therefore called the rotating condyle, because the mandible is rotating around it. The left condyle during this movement is called the orbiting condyle, because it is orbiting around the rotating condyle. During this movement the stylus will generate a line on the recording plate that coincides with the right lateral border movement.

Continued Right Lateral Border Movements with Protrusion With the mandible in the right lateral border position contraction of the right inferior lateral pterygoid muscle along with continued contraction of the left inferior lateral pterygoid will cause the right condyle to move anteriorly and to the left. Because the left condyle is already in its maximum anterior position, the movement of the right condyle to its maximum anterior position will cause a shift back in the mandibular midline to coincide with the midline of the face. This completes the mandibular border movement in the horizontal plane.


Lateral movements can be generated by varying levels of mandibular opening. little or no lateral movement can be made. 5 . Mandibular movements in the horizontal plane:1)Left lateral 2)Continued left lateral with protrusion 3)Right lateral 4)Continued right lateral with protrusion CR– centric relation ICP –intercuspal position. The border movements generated with each increasing degree of opening will result in increasingly smaller tracings until. at the maximally open position.

Centric relation is the ideal arch to arch relationship and an optimum functional position of the jaws for the health. which was believed by many to be the rearmost. Features and Significance Of Centric Relation 1.Protrusive Relations --. midmost position in the glenoid fossa. 6. 2. 4. 5. Centric relation of the mandible is a hinge position. consistent reference position. In Centric relation condyles exhibit only pure rotation without translation. It is thus a reproducible position and therefore serves as a reliable reference to develop centric occlusion in artificial dentures. It is a mandibular position where the condyle disc assembly is seated in anterior superior position against the posterior slope of articular eminence.Right lateral --. and a physiologically acceptable position for deglutition. It is a starting point for the arrangement of artificial teeth in articulator to develop maximum intercuspation in complete dentures. It is the posterior border position and the posterior limit of the envelope of mandibular motion. It serves as a reference position for the occlusal reconstruction in dentulous situations.Lateral Relations --. comfort and function of the musculature. To summarize Centric relation is a reproducible. 3. upmost. It is a position where upper and lower teeth are braced against each other during deglutition. 6 . recordable.HORIZONTAL RELATIONS Horizontal relations are those that are established anteroposteriorly and mediolaterally and so are classified as: Centric Relations Eccentric Relations --.Left lateral Centric Relation Defined as the maxillomandibular relationship in which the condyles articulate with the thinnest avascular portion of their respective discs with the complex in the anterior –superior position against the slopes of the articular eminences. (RUM position). Mandibular movements return or terminate in centric.

phonetics and manual guidance is quick and a simple method. centric jaw relation is generally recorded by • • • • Wax closure method Functional chew in technique Graphic method Anterior deprogrammers Wax closure method of recording centric relation with swallowing. Eccentric Relations Is defined as any relationship of the mandible to the maxilla other than centric relation. If the motion in every part of the mandible as it is thrust forward has simultaneously the same velocity and direction. leverage and displacement of record bases is very common and this may result in inaccurate centric record. The movement in the joint is downward and forward. the motion could be correctly termed translatory. There is a tendency for the patient to bite and protrude the mandible. 7 . Tilting. Protrusive Relation is the relation of the mandible to the maxilla when the mandible is thrust forward. Patient co-operation and operator-induced errors should be considered. Limitations of Wax Occlusal Rim Method to Record Centric Relation Inconsistency of the record: two centric records taken for the same patient may not always be identical. Possibility of occlusal rims sliding over the other to any eccentric position either before .Recording Centric Relation in Edentulous Subjects In edentulous subjects. The condyles disk assemblies are guided downward by the articular eminences of the glenoid fossae. The term bite registration is therefore objectionable and obsolete. The angle of slide varies from patient to patient and from side to side. The eccentric relations that are recorded and used in complete denture construction are protrusive and right and left lateral. The arrow point tracing method is a reliable and scientific procedure of recording the mandibular border movements in the horizontal plane and captures the mandible at its posterior reproducible border position. during or after sealing the occlusal rims in centric relation.

side. forward. 8 . The rotation may also be accompanied by a side shift. whereas the side that remains comparatively fixed is termed the working. The side that is pulled forward is termed the nonworking. The movement is both sliding and rotary. which can be recorded. The following factors contribute to inaccuracy: (1) Instability of records. and (6) The use of articulators that do not accurately adjust to all lateral interocclusal check records. The movements in the non.In the same patient. the muscles responsible for a straight protrusive movement are the inferior pterygoid muscles acting simultaneously. The controversy about the merits of eccentric records will exist as long as there are differences in the concepts of occlusion and posterior tooth form required for complete dentures. Dentists who prefer a cusp form posterior tooth and balanced occlusion in eccentric jaw positions or organic occlusion will require eccentric maxillomandibular relation records. Right and Left Lateral Maxillomandibular Relations are the relations of the mandible to the maxillae when the mandible is moved either to the right or to the left side. (4) Equipment used in record making. and inward. or rotating. Lateral maxillomandibular relations can be recorded. balancing. (2) Resiliency and displaceability of denture-bearing tissues. the corresponding side of the mandible is pulled forward and inward. (5)Lack of muscle coordination in the patient. The movements in the working side are rotational. The movement of the mandible is the result of the contraction of contra lateral inferior external pterygoid muscle. while the other side remains comparatively fixed. Protrusive relation is a bone-tobone relation. (3) Materials used in record. When the external pterygoid of one side contracts.working side are downward. or orbiting side. making. Dentists who prefer a noncusp form posterior tooth and balanced occlusion in centric jaw position will not require eccentric maxillomandibular relation records. because accuracy is a problem in the recording methods and the capabilities of the articulator to receive and reproduce the record. The question of necessity for eccentric records is controversial.

We do no know how much accuracy is required in many of the procedures in complete denture construction to ensure success. Each situation must be analyzed.There are no scientific data to support advantages of one concept over the other. and the method of choice is the method that is the most accurate. 9 .

depending on the placement of the recording device. Gothic arch tracing ensures that the centric record is made with minimal closing force equally distributed over the supporting tissues. All movements in the horizontal plane initiate from the apex of the Gothic arch. Central bearing tracing device is a device that provides a central point of bearing or support between maxillary and mandibular dental arches. which was later popularized by the Swiss professor Gysi in 1910. in 1866 illustrated the right and left intersection arcs of lateral movement. Even though Balkwill. needle-point tracing as the pattern obtained on the horizontal plate used with a central bearing tracing device. an arrow point tracing. The plate provides the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves and on which the tracing of the mandibular movement is recorded. History The earliest graphic recordings were based on studies of mandibular movements by Balkwill in 1866. The apex of tracing is a reproducible reference point. Clapp in 1914 described the use of a Gysi-tracer. gothic arch tracing. it became known as Gysi gothic arch tracing since it resembled Gothic architecture characterized by high pointed arches. which was attached directly 10 . It indicates the horizontal relation of the mandible to the maxilla. It consists of a contacting point that is attached to one dental arch and a plate attached to the opposing dental arch. Graphic records are either intra oral or extraoral. It may be used to distribute the occlusal forces evenly during the recording of the maxillomandibular relationships and /or for the correction of disharmonious contacts. The apex of a properly made tracing presumably indicates the most retruded relation of the mandible to the maxilla from which lateral movements can take place. The first known "needle point tracing' was by Hesse in 1897 and the technique was proved and popularized by Gysi around 1910. it was Hesse from Germany. which represents centric relation. in 1897 introduced the graphic method of recording centric relation. The Glossary of Prosthodontic terms recommends central bearing tracing. and Englishman.GRAPHIC METHOD The graphic methods record a tracing of mandibular movements in one plane.

The patient was told to bite hard on the tracing plate. designed a modified intra oral trace similar to.described the use of the Coble balancer The patient would hold the bearing point in the depression while plaster was injected for the centric record. The centric relation record could then be made without a change of vertical dimension. Silverman 1957 used an intraoral Gothic arch tracer to locate the "biting point" of a patient. which could result in the distorted record. In 1926 Sears used lubricated rims for easier movement and placed the needlepoint tracer on the mandibular rim and the plate on the maxillary rim.tracing more acute. Philips in 1927 recognized that any lateral movement of the jaws would cause interference of the rims. Robinson designed the equilibrator in 1952 . Messermann and others The Sears Recording Trivet had an intraoral central bearing point and two extraoral tracing plates. . which would retrude the mandible. 11 and Hardy later . central bearing screw of 3% radius on the lower rim. If: produced a functional record of centric relation with a uniform distribution of stress over the basal seat. which produced equalization of pressure on the edentulous ridges. HalI in 1929 use the Stansbery technique but he used compound as record. Pleasure1955 used a plastic disk. one each in the bicuspid and molar region. Hardy 1942 and Pleasure 1955 . a tracing device with a hydraulic system and 4 bearing pistons. Stansbery introduced a technique. This developed the functional resultant of the closing muscles. Philips. He believed this made the angle of the. The indentation made by the patient would be used for the centric record whether or not it corresponded to the Gothic arch apex. Plaster was injected after tracing was made. He developed a plate for the upper rim and a tripoded balls bearing mounted on a jackscrew for the lower the impression trays. House. In 1929. which incorporated a curved plate with a 4" radius mounted on the upper rim-and. Later graphic recording methods were developed which used the central bearing point to produce the gothic arch tracing . which was attached to the tracing plate with a hole over the apex of the Gothic arch. Various tracing devices were later developed by Hight. Sears. the Coble. This was named the central bearing point.

portion of both condyles: Therefore when both condyles are resting in the most retruded portion the needlepoint of the tracing will be resting at the apex of the tracing thus created. Hardy introduced a central bearing device with 2 heads. Various means of locking the tracer at the apex of the middle point tracing have been described. Arrow point tracing is difficult in excessively resorbed and flabby ridges as it causes instability of the recording bases and this restricts its use.anatomical teeth set to a flat plane of occlusion. the opposite condyle these movement cut lines extending to the point representing the most retruded. Wastrow. which was used as an. Musseinan. Copie. One end was brass pointed and used in recording the tracing. the other end consisted of a mounted steel ball bearing. Limitations Of Graphic Method Gothic arch tracing method is preferred in good edentulous ridges with normal interarch relation. A needlepoint tracing is fundamentally a single representation of the portion of the mandible and its movements in a horizontal plane. 12 . House and many others who had devised tracing procedures of their own which enabled them to secure dependable centric relation. as it is difficult to accommodate the tracing device without increasing the vertical dimension. These included (1) a hole or depression into which needlepoint would fall also (2) a plastic metal disk with a hole. Technique in which 3 cutting pins were attached to spherical occluding surfaces made with impression compound. Height. Sears. This served as convenience and a guide for the patient to hold .a needlepoint tracing one condyle moves forward and inward during a lateral movement followed by a movement in opposite direction with rotation occurring around. To make . Graphic method is not indicated when there is inadequate inter arch distance.a centric portion while the registration was secured by plastic needles techniques is an intra oral registration. which was placed over the apex of the tracing.Another change in the graphic method was using the central bearing as a tracer to register intra oral gothic by Blanchad.

It consists' of a contracting point which is attached to one occlusal rim and a plate attached to the other occlusal rims which provide the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves without any change in the vertical dimension. 2. the occlusion is habitually out of the centric occlusal position due to the functional adaptation of the body in which one masticates in a position comfortable to him/herself. In these instances conventional wax closure method is the alternative choice. 13 . It is used for the purpose of distributing closing forces. The central bearing helps to maintain the unstrained relation of the base plates to the supporting mucosa. When the patient has worn inappropriate dentures for a long time. with an almost ideal distribution of contact pressure. The Gothic arch method is indicated in these patients. evenly throughout the areas of the supporting structures during Recording of maxillary mandibular relations. Intra oral gothic tracing method is ideal in patients with habitual centric – A few complete denture patients develop habitual centric either due to faulty centric relation. With intra oral gothic arch tracing method. The device is placed at the central bearing point. The likelihood of sliding the lower jaw forward and laterally is hence eliminated. which is located as the center of the supporting areas of the maxillary and mandibular jaws. This is a case of "habitual eccentric occlusion". Stabilized base plates to prevent lateral movement and rocking thus ensuring minimum errors in recording. or due to prolonged use of very old denture with marked attrition which causes a forward habitual positioning of the lower jaw. the stylus eliminates occlusal contact from occlusal rims and therefore the habitual neuro-muscular memory or engram is absent. In these patients it is difficult to record centric relation with wax closures as they tend to move the jaw to habitual centric relation position. 3 A central bearing device/screw to provide a central point of bearing or support between the maxillary and mandibular occlusal rims. which is anterior to the actual centric. Parts Of The Gothic Arch Tracer The device used is called a gothic arch tracer which essentially consists of 1. A marking or recording and a tracing or recording table attached to the upper and lower arches.A sharp arrow point cannot be traced in persons with TMJ arthropathy.

while in others it is at variable inclinations. The central bearing point can be placed at the midline of the upper arch at the point where it is intersected by a line joining the distal surfaces of the second premolars. Stansberry has suggested placing the central bearing point at the point of intersection of the lines drawn from the cuspid on the side to the second molar on the other side.Villa) The tracer is located in a vertical position in some procedures.Means of locking the tracer at the apex of the needle point tracing:1) a hole or a depression into which the needle point would fall. This served as a convience and as a guide for the patient to hold a centric position while the registration was secured. 2) a plastic/ metal disk with a hole which was placed over the apex of the tracing. To obtain correct Gothic arch tracing stabilized base plates and central bearing point must be used and it must be perpendicular to condylar hinge axis of mandible. 14 . Positioning the tracer (H. Positioning Of The Central Tracing Point It is important to direct the force uniformly to the basal structures and thereby ensuring stability of the base plates and uniform vertical contact.

This movement cuts a line starting from a point. mandible and its movement on one plane. Therefore. When one condyle moves out in lateral. When the opposite condyle is caused to move on its path. Gysi tribyte . is a pin-point tracing on soot or carding wax that is shaped after a type of architecture known as the Gothic arch.Extra Oral Tracings And Devices A Gothic arch tracing. Extra oral: 1. Then the lower occlusion rim is adapted to 15 . Gysi technique In the original Gysi technique the occlusal plane is determined by locating the correct height of the upper occlusion rim. Failure to produce equal contact over the entire occlusal area of the opposing bite planes in centric-relation introduces tilting forces on the bases. A Gothic arch tracing is fundamentally a single representation of the position of the.This technique omits the use of central bearing plates which necessitates special care in establishing the contacting areas of the two bite plates. when both condyles are resting in their most retruded positions. This statement should be modified if several pins are used. The Phillips tracer indicates the condyle path as well as the direction and centric position of the mandible. This is called by Gysi as the Gothic arch. Different technique was designed since 1910. such as the Sears trivet and further modified if the tracing is of the type suggested by Phillips. the needlepoint of the' tracer will be resting on the apex of the Gothic arch thus created. which is the most retruded position of the rotating condyle. It sometimes is referred to as the arrow point tracing. as the name implies. it starts from the same point and cuts a line at an angle to the other line. the movement approximately rotates around the other condyle. the 2 condyles and the incisal point. Techniques Of Graphic Tracings Gysi suggested 3 main point of movement of mandible namely. If a recording device is used to record the incisor point as the mandible is moved laterally a V -shaped tracing is obtained. The apex of which is most retruded position of the mandible from which lateral movements are made.

2. the plane of occlusion. 3.Stansberry developed and popularized the use of central bearing point in connection with the tracing device for recording positional relations of the jaw with the Stanberry’s cheek bite appliance records can be made of centric jaw relations and protrusive relations. is adjusted using biometer). It traces 2 gothic arches simultaneously.R. 4. Stansberry cheek bite method . Sears Trivet The Sears trivet is a central bearing point tracer with two registration pins. (The V. 16 . pins are attached to the mandibular plate therefore they will give a reverse gothic arch as compared to those with the pin attached to the maxillary plate. No cusp height is introduced. No mention is made of the inclination of the tracing point. The tracing device is removable from its attachment locations on the maxillary and mandibular bearing plates. The biometer provides an indication of the portion of the mandibular by tracing and records the forces of closing. This means that even contact of the occlusion rims is lost when the patient makes forward or lateral excursions of the mandible because of the forward and downward movement of the condyles. or continous with.the upper rim at the correct vertical dimension of occlusion. The Gothic arch tracer is fixed to the upper rim at the occlusion rims with the tracing table paralell to. The .A Boos Bio-meter with tracing table and marker is another extra oral method for obtaining gothic arch tracing. It has the facility of making the records extra orally plaster of paris. The central beraing point is not used.

The Phillips Graphic record registers the centric relation and the condylar paths. 10) Mount a central bearing device. This arrangement develops an arrow point tracing with the apex anteriorly.5. Lower the stylus to the recording plate and 17 . Inspect the record bases and the recording devices for stability. The technique for an arrow point tracing using a Hight tracing device 1) Make accurate. Be sure to attach the devices securely to the occlusion rims. The stylus is attached to the maxillary rim and the recording plate to the mandibular. 8) Adjust the articulator with the condylar elements secured against the centric stops 9) Relate the maxillary occlusion rims of the soft wax record and attach the mandibular cast to the articulator with plaster. 12) Seat the patient with the head upright. The reverse develops an arrow point tracing with the apex posteriorly. 6. Phillips tracer is another type of tracing device that registers centric relation and the condyle path simultaneously. Many extra oral technique using a central bearing point has been developed such as scars trivet and terril. 5) Reduce the mandibular occlusion rim to provide excessive interocclusal distance 6) Make a face bow transfer and mount the maxillary cast 7) With the soft wax make a tentative centric relation record at a predetermined vertical dimension of occlusion. Height tracer with central bearing point. Make sure that there is no interference between the occlusion rim when the mandible is moved in any direction. stable maxillary and mandibular record bases. in a comfortable position in the dental chair 13) Place the record bases in the patient’s mouth with the attached recording devices. Exercise care to center the central bearing point in relation to the plate. 11) Mount the tracing device. both anteroposteriorly and laterally. 2) Attach occlusal rims of hard base plate wax 3) Contour the wax occlusion rims 4) Establish the vertical dimension of jaw separation with the mandible at physiologic rest.

The point of the stylus should be at the point of the apex of the arrow point tracing. It is possible to dislodge the mandibular record base by improperly placing the thumbs or by exerting excessive pressure. 16) Develop an acceptable tracing by dropping the stylus to the record plate. Place the tip of the thumb under the mandible near the chin. Place the tips of the index fingers under the mandible in the bicuspid areas. have the patient retrude the mandible to centric relation. prepare the tracing plate to record the tracing. 15) When the patient is proficient in executing the mandibular movements. 19) This record is a tentative record and will be checked with an interocclusal check record when the teeth are arranged and the wax is contoured. 18) Remove the assembly and mount with the mandibular cast with the new record. Calmly and quietly instruct the patient to move the jaw forward. 18 . 14) Retract the stylus and conduct the training exercises with the patient. 17) When a definite arrow point tracing with a sharp apex is made. The Ney Excursion Guide is an aid in training the patient.determine that the stylus maintains contact with the recording plate during mandibular movements. Inject quick setting dental plaster between the occlusion rims and allow the plaster to harden. A thin coating of precipitated chalk in denatured alcohol applied evenly with a brush provides a medium that offers no resistance to the movement of the stylus and produces a clearly visible tracing. backward and to the right and left while gently applying guiding pressure with the thumb.

1) The occlusal rims adjusted to the correct vertical relation They are mounted on an articulator with the screw tightened to maintain the relation of the casts. 3) With the central bearing plates attached to the bite plates. 5) Accommodation for cusp height in lateral movements is accomplished by raising the screw in the bearing plate by one and 1/2 turn. 4) A Gothic arch tracing is developed by the patient.Stansberry Functional Position Check Bite Method The appliance used consists of two bearing plates to which a stylus holder and graph plate may be attached. This relation is maintained and the plaster is injected when the plaster is injected. the central bearing screw is brought into contact and the tracing table and the stylus are attached. 2) The central bearing plates are placed in the template which has been placed on the bite plates that had been shortened to provide space for it. A second 9 inch is developed due 19 . When the plaster has set the record is marked and set aside for later use. A template for proper spacing of the bearing plates and a glass syringe to aid in placing plaster.

The Gothic arch angle is more than 120 degrees. This type of arrow point signifies a marked lateral movement of condyle in the fossa. Flat form – it is similar to typical arrow point except that it has more obtuse left and right lateral tracings. however their inclination to the protrusive path is not symmetrical -. either in the left or right joint. Typical – seen as a well-defined apex with a symmetrical left and right lateral component. It shows a weak retrusive movement. Patient training is of the lateral tracing is shorter. Apex absent /round form – instead of a sharp arrow point. This marks the position of the needle point for lateral the increased vertical dimension. 6) The central bearing point is raised one half turn more for the protrusive registration. Classification Of Arrow Point Tracing Gerber described six different types of Gothic arch tracings. The mean Gothic arch angle is about 120 degrees. From the apex of this tracing a mark 1/4 inch or 6mm distant is made on each lateral path. Asymmetrical form – the left and right tracings meet in an arrow point. 20 . Tracing should be repeated till a definite arrow point is obtained. It reflects a healthy TMJ without interferences in condylar path and a balanced muscle guidance. The symmetrical form indicates an undisturbed movement of the condyle in fossa and distal slope of eminence with symmetrically balanced muscle guidance. This form of tracing indicates an inhibition of the forward movement. the tracing is rather round.

Also seen in very old edentulous patients. Double arrow point – it is a record of habitual and retruded centric relation. however the extension of tracing is very limited.Miniature arrow point – similar to the typical arrow point. Atypical form – protrusive component does not meet at apex but on one of the lateral path. It is sometimes an artifact caused by the forward displacement of upper occlusal rim or backward dislodgement of the lower rim while moving them in the mouth. It can occur when the head of the patient is tilted too far posteriorly. Gerber felt that occasionally the distal extension is correct. This may happen in dentulous because of faulty muscular pattern due to parafunctional habits like bruxism. Dorsally extended arrow point – the protrusive path extends beyond the apex of the gothic arch. During registration procedure lower jaw is either forcibly retruded by patient (active retrusion) or forcibly retruded manually by the operator (passive retrusion). improper seating of record bases and painfully fitting record bases during registration. who are using complete dentures with incorrect centric relation. 21 . This signifies a forced strained retrusive movement of the lower jaw either by the patient or the operator. It is also an indication of a long period of edentulousness with an inhibition in condylar movements. but the tracing was obtained with the mandible in protruded position. This can be due to restricted mandibular movements. It is also seen when vertical dimension is altered during registration. Interrupted Gothic arch – break or loss of continuity of lateral incisal path of gothic arch. The arrow point tracing is correct but at a particular stage there was sliding of upper occlusal rim forward and lower displacing backward. This happens due to posterior interference at heels of occlusal rims during lateral movements. Allow patient training and repeat till a single gothic arch is obtained.

Weak Gothic arch tracing The picture indicates a lax and negligent performance of the movements. however. 22 . Assymmetrical form The tracing indicates a distinct inhibition of the forward movement in the right joint. badly constructed prosthetic appliances. The symmetry pointed indicates an form undisturbed movement sequence in the joints and uniform muscle guidance. The registration must be repeated: Stronger movements must be demanded from the patient. Miniature Gothic arch tracing The tracing points to cramp-like movements. It is. Classical The picture flat indicates distinct form lateral movements of the condyles in the fossae. badly fitting and pain-causing record blocks. most of all of the backward components.Evaluation of Gothic Arch Tracings Classical. possible that the Gothic arch was obtained with a protruded mandible. etc. Vertical line protrudes beyond the arrow point This tracing was produced either by forcible retraction or pushing of the mandible. edentulous state of long standing with inhibited movement in the joints.

Sedation may be indicated to relax the patient. Howard F. and that occlusal reconstruction. the apex of the initial tracing will be mounted frequently instead of having a definite apex. With this as the starting point .Vincent R Trapozzano: An analysis of current concepts of occlusion: JPD: 1955:5 764-782 When making a tracing for establishing centric relation on a patient with a normal temporomandibular joint. correction of occlusal disharmony of natural teeth. or denture reconstruction had been completed. a slight widening of the central grooves or fossa of the posterior teeth is made to provide an area larger than the size of the cusp which fits into the groove or fossa when initial tooth contact is made. Smith: A comparison of empirical centric relation records with location of terminal hinge axis and the apex of the Gothic arch tracing . If the cusp teeth are used. this is accomplished by allowing for “free play”. Since it is recognized that the individual will undoubtedly make many initial tooth contacts which vary from the most retrusive position (at the apex) to a slightly anterior (eccentric) position (on the blunted apex). With some persistence on the part of the patient and operator. Aside from the technical factors the rounded apex may result from the patient’s failure to understand what is required when the right and left lateral movements are made. provision is made for a limited range of horizontal movement of the mandible without engaging the inclined planes of the teeth. the results would be disastrous. habit or a slight filling in of tissues behind one or both of the condyles. or correction of occlusal disharmony. the resulting area of malocclusion would produce an inevitable shifting and sliding of the denture bases. a definite malocclusion would result whenever the patient decided to close in the more retruded position (at the apex). the patient may produce a needle point tracing with a definite apex. provision must be made to avoid “grooving” the patient to the most retruded position before inclined plane contact is made. Suppose the blunted apex of the needle point tracing had been accepted as the position of centric relation. In occlusal reconstruction. JPD 1975 : 33:511-520 A class III jaw relationship classically exhibits little anteroposterior 23 . which would result in instability of the dentures and all of its undesirable sequalae. Thus. In complete denture construction .

24 . It is difficult to locate the center of the arches to centralized the forces with a central bearing device when the jaws are in favorable relation and far more difficult if the jaws are in excessive protrusive or retrusive relation 4. Extra oral tracings made without a central bearing point are not considered satisfactory because although they indicate the correct anteroposterior position of the mandible. 2. while the other may suggest great importance. Therefore there is not much to be gained by securing a tracing without using a central bearing point. Displacement of the record bases may result from pressure. Significant Points In Making A Gothic Arch Tracing 1. Significance Of Gothic Arch Tracing It is important not to accept any other part of the tracing except the very apex as an indication of centric relation. When the patient chews lightly. while a class II exhibits much. 3. It is extremely difficult to maintain equalized pressure on the blocks of wax. On the other hand. if the central bearing point is off center when the mandible moves into eccentric relation to the mouth. It is difficult to stabilize a record base against horizontal forces on tissues that are pendulous or other wise easily displaceable. and it can cause soreness of the tissues supporting the dentures. patients will pull the mandible to complete retrusion many times under heavy closing pressure exerted during function of mastication. Therefore if the dentures are not constructed with centric occlusion in harmony with centric relation. One may suggest little importance for anteroposterior precision. However. if centric occlusion is in harmony with centric relation.movement. the patient can function properly with his mandible in all positions under light and heavy chewing pressures. An arthritic patient may exhibit limited movement in either direction. This uneven or premature contacting is a disturbing factor in the retention and stability of dentures. the teeth will not contact evenly when under considerable closing pressure. they may not record the correct maxillomandibular relation (superioinferior relation of the jaw). If a central bearing device is not used the occlusal rims offer more resistance to horizontal movements. they may often close their jaws in eccentric positions.

baseplate to the model and attach a roll of 25 . The bearing point is pointed and records a tracing on the opposing plate. It is difficult to stabilize a record base against horizontal forces on residual ridges that have no vertical height. . a blunt apex usually indicates an acquired functional relationship. either events additional tracing should be made. Double tracing usually indicates lack of coordinated movements or recording at the different vertical dimension of jaw separation. 9. To form the occlusal rims adapt a predetermined vertical dimension of occlusion. Ballard and the Messerman tracers are examples of intraoral tracing devices. Graphic methods can record eccentric relation of the mandibular to the maxillary. Compatible with normal physiologic stimulation in mandibular movements. Needles described the operation as follows:. register the movements of the mandible by means of three Gothic' arches. A graphic tracing to determine centric relation is made .5. They indicate both the centric position and the condylar paths eccentric. 12. Recording devices are not considered.tooth contact. Graphic methods can be considered the most accurate visual means of making a centric relation record with mechanical instrument. In. This harmonizes centric relation with centric occlusion and the antero-posterior bone. 6. This hole or depression is used to hold the patient in this retruded position while the registration is being recorded with plaster or some such material. 10. . Another type of intraoral registration is afforded by the Needles technique in which three pins attached to the maxillary rim. to bone relation with the tooth . It is difficult to stabilize a record base or bearing device with patients who have large tongues. 11. however all graphic tracings are not accurate. 7. A hole is drilled in the plate at the apex of the Gothic arch in some techniques that employ intra oral tracing devices. 8 The tracing is not acceptable unless a pointed apex is developed. one in the anterior portion and one on either side in the posterior region. Intra Oral Tracing Device Intra oral tracings combine a central bearing point with a pinpoint tracing. The Seidel.

and correct any errors. if any. thoroughly cut to the full depth of the respective pins. Thus the three. surface with Vaseline. and the molar wires should strike slightly outside the middle of the lower bite rim.5 mm. The incisal wire should strike the lower bite rim near the anterior border with the plates in centric occlusion. Trim the periphery to the contours desired in the finished dentures. One end of the wire is heated and forced into the modeling compound in the incisal region and the soft compound is packed firmly about the base of the wire. producing little. maintaining a light pressure on the bite rims.Soften the opposing bite rim by heating and take the bite in the usual manner. the mandible may be moved in every occlusal position. paths are deepened evenly. the pins come into equal bearing and each cuts a record of its path in the lower bite rim. above the surface of the bite rim. Trim the bite rim to the proper contour and by trial in the patient's mouth ascertain whether the position and direction of this surface are as desired. The insides of the bite plates are dusted with powdered gum tragacanth to help maintain them firmly on the ridges. The wires are then cut off about 1. This movement is repeated a few times and then the same is performed on the opposite side. Side and back again. In this way produce the opposing spherical surface upon it. They arc then placed in the patient's mouth and the patient is requested to close until one or' more of the pins come into light contact with the lower bite rim. Before these paths are cut too deep. Three pieces of wire are now imbedded in the rim of the upper baseplate. Now chill the rim and lubricate the occlusal. in this way a 26 . Each of these wires acts as a stylus to trace the paths of the respective points upon the surface of the lower bite rim. Grease the spherical plate and press it to position thus molding a spherical surface on the lower bite rim at the de-sired position. which gives the path of straight protrusion. separation at any part of the bite rims.soft modeling compound to form a bite rim. slight contact of the pins being maintained.material so that only the opposing spherical surface remains. If these procedures have been carried out properly. the patient is requested to retrude the mandible to its fullest extent and slide it to one. The patient is then asked to move the mandible forward and back in the median line. A wire is similarly placed on each side about the position of the distal side of the first molar. so that the tracing will not run off the edge of the lower bite rim. when the bite plates are placed in the patient's mouth. Chill both plates and trim away surplus.

As the pins scribe the Gothic arches on the mandibular rim. attached in the first bicuspid and second molar region' on the right and left sides of the maxillary occlusion rims. The form of the tracings will be found the same as Gysi's three-point tracing. When the three pins arc in the anterior angles of their respective tracings. By placing the pins in this position we are enabled to cut away the anterior portion of the maxillary occlusion rim to provide a window for observing the tracing appliance. The two units should be mounted in a manner.balanced three point contact -has been maintained and the path of each point has been recorded for protrusion and for working bite on each side. This is continued until the surfaces of the occlusion rim make contact. The graph plate is attached to the mandibular rim flush with the occluding surface of the rim. which will permit the point of the maxillary appliance to rest near the center of the mandibular graph plate. The depth of the tracings also gives a record of the vertical relations. the vertical dimension is diminished a little at a time by means of the setscrew on the maxillary appliance. The stylus portion of the tracer is attached to the vault of the maxillary trial base by imbedding the tripod prongs into Compound or wax. The patient then is instructed to make lateral and protrusive movements. the bite plates are accurately held in centric occlusion without the need of guide lines. The relationship plates are returned to the mouth. The Needles technique modified by the use of a Messerman central-bearing point tracer is suggested by Frahm In this procedure the occlusion rims are constructed in exactly the same manner as was described by Needles. 27 . Four pins are. and the screw on tilt maxillary appliance is adjusted so that it makes contact with the graph plate simultaneously with the contact of the maxillary occlusion rim pins on the mandibular occlusion rim. while any separation that has taken place between the bite rims at any point during these movements has been recorded by a shallower tracing at that point.

Coble Intra Oral Tracing Device Coble Balancer is a type of intraoral central bearing device. 28 . the upper and lower base plates make contact only through the central bearing point at or very near the center of the supporting areas of the upper and lower ridges. The central bearing point is attached with modeling compound to the upper base plate in the center of the palate at the intersection of the midline and a line joining the centers of left and right chewing areas. When placed in the mouth. The central bearing screw is raised or lowered to establish the vertical dimension that provides an adequate free way space and the clearance between the base plates at the distal borders is checked.

5mm) at a time until a tooth to tooth contact occurs somewhere on the arch during the excursive gliding movements. To lock the patients jaw in centric relation at the apex of the Gothic arch tracing without changing the vertical dimension. and drill a small hole through it down to.At the chosen vertical dimension. use a thin sheet about 1mm of clear Lucite as an overlay. the patient can perform jaw movements that are uninhibited by occlusal interferences. The patient is then asked to perform a gliding jaw movement and to stop when the central bearing point drops into the hole which was drilled over the apex of the tracing. The central bearing point is then shortened by one-fourth turn. quickly draws a Gothic arch tracing as the patient performs excursive gliding jaw movements. acting as a stylus. At first the central bearing screw is adjusted to keep all teeth out of contact in all gliding movements. the Coble Balancer is used again to integrate the gliding movements of the jaw with the occlusion of the teeth. but not into. The central bearing screw is shortened by half turn (0. and 29 . They are treated as functional prematurities. These occlusal contacts occur while the remaining teeth are still held out of contact by the central bearing point. Usually the first contact occurs on one or both second molars or on the canines. Sometimes it occurs between the denture bases behind the second molars if the interridge space is small. At the time of insertion of the processed dentures. And a Gothic arch tracing is quickly scribed. and are ground down until they no longer interfere. and to eliminate cuspal prematurities and collisions. With the sole point of contact between the upper and the lower dentures located where the central bearing point touches the graph plate. to perfect occlusal balance. the aluminum graph plate. the central bearing point.

rounded head of correlator pin 3. Apex of the tracings facing anteriorly indicates the most posterior position of the mandible during chew in procedure. Tension spring 4.articulating paper is reinserted to mark the contact areas during the jaw excursions. with the hole coinciding over the apex of the Gothic arch tracing. with the central bearing point still riding on the graph plate. Ballard Intra Oral Tracing Device 1. The other end consisted of a mounted steel ball bearing which was used as an anatomic teeth set to a flat plane of occlusion. All the prematurities are thus located. Hardy and Porter made a depression on the tracing plate with a round bur at the apex of the tracing. The central bearing point was held in a hole when a plaster was injected the centric would then be made without a change of vertical dimension. One end was brass pointed and used in recording the tracing. Mounting plate 6. Adjustable screw 5. Hardy introduced a central bearing device with 2 heads. The pathways running 30 . Palatal bearing plate 2 . marked and reduced until the majority of the teeth make contact during the gliding movements. Pointed end of correlator pin Metal points attached to the upper modeling compound rim will cut pathways in the occlusal surface of the lower modeling compound rim as the patient moves the mandible from side to side. The patient would hold the bearing point in the depression while plaster was injected for centric record. Pleasure improved this technique by using a hole which was attached to the tracing plate after the tracing was made.

It is difficult to stabilize a record base on residual ridges that have no vertical height. Hence it is more comfortable for the patient. In case of unequal jaw sizes. 3) The tracers must be definitely seated in the hole made by a round bur to assure accuracy when plaster is injected between the rims. If the central bearing point is not properly centralized. it is difficult to find a true apex. Any shift in the position of the stylus from the position of the apex of the tracing cannot be prevented or corrected when plaster is being injected. If the patient moves the mandible before the occlusal rims are secured. centralization should be done with respect to the lower rim. this destroys the accuracy of the record.laterally from the apex indicate the direction of lateral mandibular excursions and the pathways running posteriorly indicate protrusive mandibular excursions. Comparison Between Intra Oral And Extra Oral Devices HEARTWELL states that intraoral tracings cannot be observed during tracing. 31 . The tracer must be seated in a hole at the point of the apex to assure accuracy when recording the relation. Advantages and Disadvantages 1) The intra oral tracing device has less assembly. Precautions Displacement of record bases may result from unequal forces. Tracing with a blunt apex should not be accepted because a blunt apex usually indicates an acquired functional relationship of the mandible to maxilla and only a sharp apex indicates the point of centric relation. Since the intraoral tracings are very small. the records shift on their basal seat. Since any shift made is not seen and the procedure has to be repeated. it is difficult to find the apex compared to the extra oral tracing. that have flabby tissues and in case of patient with large tongue. 4) The intra oral tracings cannot be observed properly during the tracing procedure and hence the method loses some of its value. therefore the method loses some of its value of a visible method. Also it makes the procedure of assembling the device and recording procedure easier for the operator. 2) Since the intra oral tracing are small.

KAPUR K K and YURKSTAS A A (1957) compared the duplicability of records using various techniques The intra oral tracing procedure (hardy) The wax registration procedure (hanau) The extra oral tracing procedure (stansberry) They concluded that The intra oral and extra oral procedures were more consistent compared the wax registration method The intra oral and extra oral procedures became less consistent in patients with flabby ridges as compared to patients with good and flat ridges The consistency of the extra oral procedure did not vary significantly with different types of ridges The degree of consistency with the intra oral procedure decreased to a significant level in patients flabby ridges The wax method was less consistent than the other two procedures.The extra oral tracings are larger and therefore the patient can be directed and guided more intelligently during the mandibular movements. BOUCHER also recommended that centric relation should be made with minimal pressure to prevent displacement of the tissues supporting the bases. KINGERY (1952) reviewed the problems associated with centric relation which were 32 . It showed least consistency on flat ridges and the highest consistency on flabby ridges R. in order to achieve uniform simultaneous contact of the dentures. Boucher prefers the extra oral device. SOLOMON claimed that in intraoral method the errors are likely to be less because the tracing is situated closer to the centers of movements in the temporomandibular joint in comparison to the flexible extra oral device which inscribes mandibular movement in a plate situated outside the mouth further away fro the centers of mandibular movement. The stylus can be observed in the apex of the tracing during the process of injecting the plaster between the occlusal rims and recording the relation and no holes are required. Further the presence of extra oral tracer attachments prevents the lips from meeting each other and remains passive. the distinct advantage of intraoral tracing is the ability of the subject to perform mandibular movements with the lips in passive contact position. According to him .H.

Equalization of contact on the denture supporting areas – Equalization of vertical contact Problems of Errors Positional Errors caused by Failure of the operator in his registration of the correct horizontal relationship. Problem Of Recognizing The Symptoms Of Errors Associated With Centric Realtion Symptoms Of Unequalized Vertical Contact Loss of retention üIrritation on the crest of the lower ridge in the area of premature contactOne tooth or several teeth on one side seem too long to the patient or seem to strike first The patient may complain of clicking if the teeth are porcelain premature contact anteriorly or posteriorly Symptoms Of Error In Horizontal Relationship Anterior to CR o o o Looseness of lower denture denture consciousness Irritation under the anterior lingual flange of the lower denture Symptoms Of An Error In Horizontal Relationship Posterior to CR • • Looseness. Failure of the operator to record equalized vertical contact Application of excessive closure pressure by the patient at the time of recording Changes in the supporting areas Technical Errors may be caused by Ill fitting occlusal rims üIndiscriminate opening or closing of the occluding device or articulatorThe slight shifting of the teeth which occurs between the stage of final arrangement and the transfer to a permanent base material. especially of lower denture Irritation under the anterior labial flange of the lower denture (occasionally) 33 .Problems of Requirements Recording the correct anteroposterior or horizontal realtionship of the mandible to the maxilla in a position.

extreme resorption of ridges or extensive amounts of displaceable tissues on the supporting areas.Problems Of Recording Centric 1. 34 . The correctness of an individual registration is never assured until it is checked and verified by the observation of the operator 2. Methods Of Recording Centric • • • Limitations of Graphic recording No control over the amount of closure pressure Difficulty in placement of central bearing point when patients present extreme protrusion or retrusion of the mandible • Central bearing point is troublesome to use when patients present large clumsy tongues.

In this he groped these methods and attempt to review their limitation and possibilities. It does however have one value. 35 . a. In 1940 – Boos in his study in maxillomandibular relations established by biting power stated in his research on maxillomandibular relationship with the use of the power point. E O T P b. 3. reports that centric relation is not at the apex of the gothic arch. In 1952 – Granger stated that the apex of the Gothic arch tracing shows a sharp apex. the resultant biting point is located at apex of the needle point tracing in some patient. In 1952 – R H Kirgery conducted a review of some of the problems associated with centric relation. In order to do an accurate tracing it is necessary to do two tracing one on each side of the mandible. I O T P 2. anterior to the apex in others. He stated that he found by use of resultant biting power (point) that the needle point tracing is extremely accurate in some patient and in others it is unreliable. 1. In 1954 – Sicher in his study on positions and movement of the mandibular that centric relation is the ideal position which coincides with the median occlusal position. In 1947 – Apriele H and Saizer P in their publishing on gothic arch tracing and tempero mandibular anatomy stated that needle point tracing is the most accurate method of determining the centric relation. Function recording Direct check bite recording. Graphic recording method employing a arch or tracing as guide for check bite.REVIEW OF LITERATURE In 1910 –Gysis stated needle points tracing has been accepted as an accurate method of locating the centric maxillomandibular relation at a given degree of jaw separation.

Centric relation is a condyle fossae relationship. One rod it passed through the a needle holder and other placed on the tracing plate. When making a needle point tracing for establishing centric relation on a patient with normal temperomandibular joint the apex of the initial tracing will be rounded frequently instead of having apex and the objective is reached only after several appointments.In 1954 – Stansbury proposes a method to check the correctness of the central bearing position is the ideal position which coincides with the median occlusal position. Occlusal reconstruction and denture reconstruction can be easily demonstrated by means of needle point tracing. In 1955 . They should be parellel in all directions. To lock the patients jaw in centric relation at the apex of the gothic arch tracing without changing the vertical dimension we us a thin sheet (about 1 mm) of clear Lucite as an overlay and drill a small hole through it down to the aluminium glass plates.Max a pleasure in his article occlution of cuspless teeth for balance or comfort has elaborated that the central bearing screw is raised or lowered to establish the vertical dimension that provides an adequate freeway space. In 1954 – Stansbury proposes a method to check the correctness of the central bearing position. At a chosen vertical dimension the central bearing point acting as a stylus quickly gliding jaw movements. A gliding movemento to jaw and to stop when the central bearing point drops into the hole at the apex of the tracing. Movements can be made. B Properly apexed tracing 36 . The patient is then asked to perform. The logic for the selection of the most retruded unstrained position as the starting point for the correction of malocclution. A The blunted apex usually Obtained in an initial Attempt to make a tracing. In 1955 – Vincent R Trapozzano in his article on an analysis on current concepts of occlution defined centric relation as the most retruded unstrained position of the condyle in the Glenoid Fossae at any given degree of jaw separation from which lateral.

an intra oral removable screw attachment that constitute vertical stop and slip joints which holds Gysi face bow and a vertical marker. different inclination of the extra oral tracer were used. not if possible to secure equalization of pressure. This vertical dimension is result of study of Gysi. In 1961 – Honorotu Villa : In his article circulars rotation in mandibular movement summarized the geometric representation of the mandible and its movements are explained. to maxillary in centric maxillomandibular relation in through functioning of the closing musculature. In 1961 – Huges and Regli : In his study of what is centric relation observed that a sharp gothic arch tracing may be obtained with the condyles in more than one location in the glenoid fossa. These two plates are attached to upper and lower base plates. Vertical tracer consist of upper and lower metal plate which are shaped like balanced occlusal guide plates. Horizontal position of the mandible is registered by the gothic arch tracing. upper plate has a vertical plate and a gothic arch tracer. 37 . To obtain correct gothic arch tracing stabilized base plates and central bearing point must be used and it must be perpendicular to condylar hinge axis of mandible. The lower plate has a horizontal tracing table. In 1959 – Honorotu Villa in his article gothic arch tracing has summarized in his study of gothic arch tracing made by intra oral and extra oral methods was made. When using a central bearing point for patients with prognathic or orthognathic occlutions it is difficult. A simple method of locating hinge axis and correlating the circular opening movement and the lateral movements of the mandible has been described. Kurth shows that the resultant direction into centric occlution from a functional chewing strokes is always forward and upwards.In 1957 – Muyer M Silvermann on his article centric occlution and jaw relation and fallacies of current concepts writes the method of determining the horizontal relation of the mandible. In 1959 – Elmer E Francis in his article jaw relation in C D construction described vertical tracer is that which registers and determines the proper vertical dimension. centric relation and condyle path records.

The needle point tracing at a given vertical dimension of jaw separation under same controlled condition. In 1965 – Mohammed A. The apex of a tracing is indented with a bur. In 1968. In 1965 – Mohammed A. Joseph E Grasso and John sharry in the study of the duplicability of arrow point tracing in dentulous patients did a study with 15 white men (Detail 38 .In 1962 – Jones PM : In his study of eleven aids for a better CD stated in intra oral gothic arch tracer is used to determine the centric relation at the established vertical relation. So needle point tracing is reliable. In intra oral tracing procedure they found that the degree of variation in subsequent recording can be kept at a minimum of the central bearing point and the inclination of the tracing plate was accurate. In wax recording procedure minimum closing pressure is exerted and occlusal forces should be centralized and equally disturbed. under controlled condition there were not significantly different. 2. At a given vertical dimension of jaw separation. 1. Hence the needle point tracing is a reliable technique. A plaster intra occlusal record is made by injecting plaster into the patients mouth with the stansbury plaster syringe. The needle point tracing device is a reliable. W Arthur George and Russel H Scott : Article evaluation of the needle point tracing as a method of determining centric relation summarized. on the same individual at same sitting were not significantly different. accurate and practical method for locating centric relation. EL Aramany. Arthur and Scott concluded in a study on dentulous subjects to evaluate the graphic tracing procedure as a method for determining the centric relation. Two subject showed negligible lateral deviation at any degree of opening when one subject showed consistant deviation from midline when the vertical dimension between the jaw was increase 3. In 1964 – Kapur and Yurkstas : Based on the study on 35 edentulous patients using two centric relation recording procedures – Wax recording procedure and intra oral procedure. Extra oral needle point tracing was obtained from 10 subjects at five different levels of jaw separation. Needle point tracing were obtained from ten subjects at five different degree of jaw separation.

Relation record and location of terminal hinge axis and apex of the gothic arch tracing concluded that average empirical determination provided a centric relation point anterior to that determined by either the gothic arch and the hinge axis location . The use of central bearing point ensures equal distribution of pressure throughout the basal seat while the records are made. In 1982 – C Brusgagin. This physiologic rest position is used as a reference for establishing an acceptable interocclusal distance and the most retruded mandibular position is recorded in centric relation. in his clinical study of graphic registration of condylar path inclination summarized the angular values of the condylar sagittal pathway registration from 390 patients and obtaining by tracing Gothic arch 39 . cusp gliding on inclines involves change in vertical dimension.students between age group of 20 – 35) tracing were obtained at a fixed vertical dimension for each subject. G Preti and R Scotti . S Carrosa. The vertical jaw separation varied from subject to subject depending upon the cuspal teeth height of the posterior teeth and or the vertical overlap of the anterior teeth. In 1970 – Clayton. Michmann studying the intra oral technique for recording vertical and horizontal maxillomandibular relation in complete dentures wrote that the instrument used the Barnae stylus tracer is an intra oral tracing device. In 1975 – Smith in study in comparison of empirical centric. when the vertical dimension is changed. method was the most repeatable of the three methods. (Micheal Myer). In 1969 – A langer and J. Kotowiez and Myers : conducted a research on graphic recording of mandibular movements concluded the orientation of styli and recording table affected graphic tracing of mandibular movements. This technique is recording vertical and horizontal maxillomandibular relation is suggested. Variation pattern of the apex position of the needle point tracing were greater in an anteroposterior direction than in a mediolateral direction. This technique fulfils basic requirements for correct complete denture construction. In 1980 – in his article relation of gothic arch apex to dentist assisted centric relation concluded that thumb pressure can position the mandible consistently more posterior than the position indicated by the gothic arch apex is unfounded. It also states that dentist assisted jaw relation is more reproducible than relation indicating gothic arch apex.

The data subjected to statistical analysis give a median angular value of the condylar sagittal pathway equal to 33 degree and showed a great median value dispersion. Winstanley RB. The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. In 1989 – Winstanly : in his article the gothic arch tracing and the upper canine teeth as guide in the positioning of the upper posterior teeth concluded that the relationship between the position of the buccal cusps of the natural upper posterior teeth and the distance between the upper canine teeth has been found to be constant within + 1-2mm this may be of value when setting up artificial teeth for denture patients. It can be concluded that the mathematical technique outlines records a more accurate value between patient and L & R sides of the same patient and there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle. 1987 el-Gheriani AS. and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same the graph with the graphic recording was analyzed. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation. 40 . Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patient and were compared with the condylar inclination. The angular value of condylar sagittal pathway was repeated over time since variation found less than 5 degree were noted after repeatable registration in patients and temperomandibular joint disturbances as well as in patient treated with complete denture. and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle. In 1986. enabling them to be positioned close to the natural predessors. James W Robbinson. In 1987 – Winstanly : In his article gothic arch tracing and condylar inclination concluded that records and the patient referred for treatment of temperomandibular joint disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a Tanjent and by using a mathematical technique. in his article central bearing device for the dentulous patients with few or no posterior contacts.

Stohler CS Perceived changes in occlusion and decreased range of motion are often expressed by patients with masticatory muscle pain. p = 0. the direction of the lateral mandibular border movements. Twenty-five subjects of three nationalities carried out Gothic arch tracings.2 mm. enabling them to be positioned close to the natural predecessors. A relationship was found which may be of value in the setting up of anterior maxillary denture teeth. This 41 .44.03) and transverse (F = 35. A second objective was to determine whether pain can cause changes in the mandibular range of motion. repeated-measures study design.1988 el-Gheriani AS. Winstanley RB. The adverse loading of craniomandibular tissues that results from an inadequate maxillomandibular relationship in combination with the coexisting dysfunction is widely regarded as the cause of pain. Isotonic saline solution was used as a control. pain affected the orientation of the mandibular lateral border movements (F = 12.02) and their magnitude (F = 14. Winstanley RB The relationship between the position of the buccal cusps of the natural upper posterior teeth and the distance between the lateral arms of the Gothic arch tracing or the distance between the upper canine teeth has been found to be constant to within +/.004) directions. 1989 el-Gheriani AS. Davies AL. This study was designed to test whether pain can cause significant changes in position of the mandible and therefore form the basis for any perceived changes in the maxillomandibular relationship. with subjects blinded to the type of substance given. and the mandibular range of motion was studied in a horizontal plane with minimal occlusal separation.01). Similarly.97. Measurements between the side arms were compared with the upper intercuspid distances measured in the same subjects. p = 0. The effect of pain on the position of the apex of the gothic arch tracing. p = 0.0. The observed effect of pain can explain the perceived change of bite that is frequently noted by patients with orofacial pain. Five subjects who rated pain intensity on a visual analog scale were used in a single-blind.46. This may be of value when setting up artificial teeth for denture patients. All paininduced effects proved to be reversible. randomized. Pain significantly affected the position of the apex of the gothic arch tracing in anterior (F = 11. p = 0. 1996 Obrez A. Tonic muscle pain was induced by infusion of 5% hypertonic saline solution into the central portion of the superficial masseter muscle.

This article presents a technique that uses healing abutments to stabilize the record bases so that an accurate Gothic arch tracing can be made.4. Sadan A. This system provides effective data concerning mandibular positions for fabrication of dentures. and Gothic arch tracing. were selected for the study. or orthodontic treatment.20 years and no history of extractions. then recorded and analyzed. conducted to determine statistically the most repeatable mandibular position of 3 centric relation methods. Fourteen healthy adult volunteers (7 males and 7 females). depending on body position. With the use of dental implants to assist in retaining complete dentures. The gothic arch apex and tapping point varied. the gothic arch apex and the tapping point were close to the mandibular position determined by bilateral manipulation. Twenty-six edentulous subjects with no clinical evidence of abnormality of temporomandibular disorder were selected.61 +/.study provided evidence of an alternative causal relationship between pain and changes in occlusal relationship and questions occlusal therapy as treatment. directed toward the elimination of the underlying cause in patients with masticatory muscle pain. 1999 Watanabe Y Analyzed and evaluated the horizontal mandibular positions produced by different guidance systems. the problem of inaccurate recordings. Winstanley RB. Accurate casts were mounted on an articulator (Denar D4A) by means of a facebow and maximum 42 . with an average age of 26. Carruth PL Clinicians have long expressed concern about the accuracy of the Gothic arch tracing for recording centric relation in edentulous patients. 2003 Keshvad A. Horizontal position data for the mandible obtained by gothic arch tracing was loaded into a personal computer by setting the sensor portion of a digitizer into the oral cavity to serve as a miniature lightweight tracing board. In the supine position. can be significantly reduced. temporomandibular joint dysfunction. chin point guidance with a jig. 1998 Raigrodski AJ. made for patients without natural teeth. each mandibular position was displayed in a distinguishable manner on a computer display in real time. By connecting this with a digitizer control circuit set in an extraoral location. Three centric relation recording methods commonly reported in the literature were selected: bimanual mandibular manipulation with a jig.

z. mediolateral shift). Records were transferred to the articulator. anteroposterior. and data were extracted using a stereomicroscope modified to accept the mandibular position indicator. 1 day. A mechanical 3-dimensional mandibular position indicator was constructed and mounted on the articulator enabling the operator to analyze the mandibular positions in 3 spatial axes (x. superoinferior. Each centric relation method was recorded four times on each subject (at baseline. The results of this study showed that of the 3 centric relation methods evaluated. the bimanual manipulation method positioned the condyles in the temporomandibular joint with a more consistent repeatability than the other 2 methods. whereas the Gothic arch was the least consistent method. 1 hour. y.intercuspation silicone registration record. and 1 week at approximately the same time of day). 43 .

Smith: A comparison of empirical centric relation records with location of terminal hinge axis and the apex of the Gothic arch tracing . 1989 Sep. Winstanley RB. El-Gheriani AS. JPD 1975 : 33:511-520 6.:Use of personal computers for Gothic arch tracing: analysis and evaluation of horizontal mandibular positions with edentulous prosthesis. 1959:9:624-628 5. 2. J Oral Rehabil. 3.15(4):367-71. Sadan A. El-Gheriani AS. J Prosthet Dent.REFERENCES 1. Winstanley RB. Keshvad A. Howard F.58(5):638-42. Raigrodski AJ. 2003 Jun.7(4):273-6. 44 .The gothic arch tracing and the upper canine teeth as guides in the positioning of upper posterior teeth. 1999 Nov. Honorato Villa: Gothic arch tracing:JPD. 4. 9. Winstanley RB.A technique to stabilize record bases for Gothic arch tracings in patients with implant-retained complete dentures. Davies AL. Max A Pleasure: occlusion of cuspless teeth for balance and comfort JPD: 1955:5:305-312 8.Jaw muscle pain and its effect on gothic arch tracings.82(5):562-72.: J Prosthet Dent. J Prosthodont. Watanabe Y. Vincent R Trapozzano: An analysis of current concepts of occlusion: JPD: 1955:5 764-782 11. Carruth PL. 1987 Nov. 10. 7. El-Gheriani AS. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination. Stohler CS. Obrez A. 1988 Jul.16(5):481-90.75(4):393-8.12(2):90-101.The value of the Gothic arch tracing in the positioning of denture teeth. 1996 Apr. J Oral Rehabil. J Prosthet Dent. :Comparison of the replicability of routinely used centric relation registration techniques : Prosthodont. 1998 Dec. Winstanley RB.

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