5G: Mobile Technology


Chapter 1

The present cell phones have it all. Today phones have everything ranging from the smallest size, largest phone memory, speed dialing, video player, audio player, and camera and so on. Recently with the development of Pico nets and Bluetooth technology data sharing has become a child's play. Earlier with the infrared feature you can share data within a line of sight that means the two devices has to be aligned properly to transfer data, but in case of blue tooth you can transfer data even when you have the cell phone in your pocket up to a range of 50 meters. The creation and entry of 5G technology into the mobile market place will launch a new revolution in the way international cellular plans are offered. The global mobile phone is upon the cell phone market. Just around the corner, the newest 5G technologies will hit the mobile market with phones used in China being able to access and call locally phones in Germany.

Truly innovative technology changing the way mobile phones will be used. With the emergence of cell phones, which are similar to a PDA, you can now have your whole office within the phone. Cell phones will give tough competitions to laptop manufacturers and normal computer designers. Even today there are phones with gigabytes of memory storage and the latest operating systems .Thus one can say that with the current trends, the industry has a real bright future if it can handle the best technologies and can produce affordable handsets for its customers. Thus you will get all your desires unleashed in the near future when these smart phones take over the market. 5G Network's router and switch technology delivers Last Yard Connectivity between the Internet access provider and building occupants. 5G's technology intelligently distributes Internet access to individual nodes within the building.

Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.


5G: Mobile Technology


Chapter 2

Cell phones are used millions and billions of users worldwide. How many of us know the technology behind cell phones that is used for our communication? I have also intrigued about the type of technology used in my phone. What are 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G technologies? 1G, 2G, 3G & 4G ("G" stands for "Generation") are the generations of wireless telecom connectivity. In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. Mobile Telephone Service, were not officially categorized as mobile phones, since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls. 1G (Time Division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access) was the initial wireless telecom network system. It's out-dated now. The analog “brick phones” and “bag phones” are under 1G technology. Cell phones era began with 1G.The next era, 2G has taken its place of 1G. Cell phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. This leap effectively took cell phones from analog to digital. 2G and 2.5G were versions of the GSM and CDMA connections. And GSM is still the most popular technology, but with no internet. Fortunately, GPRS, an additional service, is provided over GSM for the purpose of internet access. GPRS has been developed and thus, EGPRS was created. It's more secure and faster than GPRS. Then 3G came, the new Wireless CDMA technology. It is the first wireless telecom technology that provides broadband-speed internet connection on mobile phones. It has been specially made for the demand of internet on smart phones. Further development led to the creation of 3.5G, which provides blazing fast internet connection on phones, up to the speed of 7.2 MBPS. A smart phone can be connected to a PC to share its internet connection and 3G and 3.5G are ideal for this. But, as this WCDMA technology is not available in all regions, its not as popular as GSM yet. Before making the major leap from 2G to 3G wireless networks, the lesserknown 2.5G was an interim standard that bridged the gap. Following 2.5G, 3G ushered in faster data-transmission speeds so you could use your cell phone in more data-demanding ways. This has meant streaming video (i.e. movie trailers and television), audio and much more. Cell phone companies today are spending a lot of money to brand to you the importance of their 3G network. The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio
Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.


developed in the 1980s. Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS). While the GSM EDGE standard ("2. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone). but for now. the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency. Developers are now going for 4G (OFDMA).is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog. No doubt. these are typically not branded 3G. 1G technology replaced 0Gtechnology. making sure that the users get high-speed connectivity anytime anywhere. DECT cordless phones and Mobile Wi MAX standards formally also fulfil the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU. while 2G networks are digital. which is also known as “beyond 3G” or “fourth-generation” cell phone technology. voice-only cellular telephone standard. 4G will open new doors of revolutionary internet technologies. 1G and 2G.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 transmission technology. and Push to Talk (PTT).1 1G WIRELESS SYSTEM First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog(An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity). Although both systems use digital signalling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 3 . Eastern Europe and Russia.5G are the best. which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS). The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems. TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. typically 150 MHz and up. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States. and RTMI in Italy. Radio com 2000 in France. data and high-quality multimedia in real-time form all the time and anywhere. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places worldwide. Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS). 4G. 2. which will provide internet up to the speed of 1 GBPS! It is said to be able to overcome the problems of weak network strength and should provide a much wider network. refers to the entirely new evolution. used in Nordic countries. 4G promises voice. 3G and 3. 4G will allow for speeds of upto 100Mbps.9G"). JTAGS in Japan. and are based on completely different technologies. C-Netz in West Germany.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Keys: · · Developed in 1980s and completed in early 1990’s 1G was old analog system and supported the 1st generation of analog cell phones speed up to 2. 4 .4kbps Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system Allows users to make voice calls in 1 country · · Figure2.1: 1G Mobile Phone Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.

While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a 2G handset. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. Second generation2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radio linja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. TDMA allows for the division of signal into timeslots. PDC. If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. iDEN. IS-136.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 2. which had a jagged. 2Gtechnology is more efficient. 5 . the digital signal may not be enough to reach it. All text messages are digitally encrypted. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. CDMA technology is IS-95. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals . GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. other than the voice call or conference. picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). Different TDMA technologies are GSM. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages. 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. Although this technology originates from the Europe.unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer Analogue signals. the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen. In comparison to 1G's analog signals. it survived longer distances. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.2 2G WIRELESS SYSTEM 2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. As conditions worsen. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. but a call made from a 2Ghandset would fail completely. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). angular curve. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. in Europe. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Keys: · · · · Fielded in the late 1980s and finished in the late 1990s Planned for voice transmission with digital signal and the speeds up to 64kbps 2G was the digital handsets that we are used today 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. Figure2. 6 .2: 2G Mobile Phone Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.

better known as 3G or 3rdGeneration. 3G mobile technologies proffers more advanced services to mobile users. Keys: · · Transmission speeds from 125kbps to 2Mbps In 2005.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 2. Internet.V. The spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies.WLAN and Bluetooth) and mobile devices area (cell phone and GPS) · · · · · Data are sent through technology called packet switching Voice calls are interpreted using circuit switching Access to Global Roaming Clarity in voice calls Fast Communication. Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS). 3D gaming. 3G is ready to live up to its performance in computer networking (WCDMA. Mobile T. Multi-Gaming etc are also available with3G phones. Video Conferencing.3 3G WIRELESS SYSTEM International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000).3G is also known as IMT-2000. is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit packet switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. Video Calls. Spectral efficiency is the measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system. 7 . Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.

It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. and new frequency bands.3: 3G Mobile Phone 2. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television. 8 . GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. ITU 200 is still making decision to fix the data rates. while 348kbits Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. non-backwards compatible transmission technology.4 4G WIRELESS SYSTEM 4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is expected that 2mbit/sec for stationary users. However this feature is not currently working properly because.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Figure2. The basic feature of 3GTechnology (Third Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates.3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA.

· · · Video on demand.a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. Video conferencing. This agreement took place in order to increase its adoption by the users. · Location-based services. 3G (Third Generation Technology) system is compatible to work with the 2G technologies.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct spread). because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. 9 . 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users.3G technology is much flexible. TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code). Network authentication has won the trust of users. FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code. Tele-medicine a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. Third generation technology is really affordable due to the agreement of industry. Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.IMT-SC (single carrier). The aim of the 3G (Third Generation Technology) is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 when moving or travelling. These radio technologies operate under CDMA. ITU sell various frequency rates in order to make use of broadband technologies.subscribers can see as well as talk to each other.a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone.a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone. because the user can rely on its network as a reliable source of transferring data. Some of the applications are: · Mobile TV. TDMA and FDMA. IMT-MC (multi carrier). or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends · · Mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Figure2. 10 .4: 4G Mobile Phone Keys: · 4G is a conceptual framework and a discussion point to address future needs of a high speed wireless network · · · It offer both cellular and broadband multimedia services everywhere Expected to emerged around 2010-2015 4G should be able to provided very smooth global roaming ubiquitously with lower cost 4G Mobile Phone Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Comparision from 1G to 4G Figure 2. 11 .5: Comparison from 1G to 4G Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.

Operator is looking ahead for wide-scale deployment of LTE in 2012. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future. dialling speed. will become available in 2010. 5G technology including camera. Even though LTE provides wide range of growth for present wireless telecommunication. where have enormous splendid real time applications. But think of a common man who utmost utilize LTE for downloading a movie or make a video call. This paper mainly focuses on how a 5G network can Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Operators will also find that the timing is right to make the switch because much of the first generation of 3G equipment will need to be upgraded soon. 5G technologies which are on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. Fact is that there is no such groundbreaking application exists in real world to be utilized by a common man. But yet our question remains unanswered. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Pico nets has become in market.LTE might be rigorously used in Commercial/Industrial areas. audio player and much more you never imagine. LTE networking equipment and handsets. People are not in a circumstance to make use of those benefits in an effective manner. large phone memory. and should be rolled out in large quantities in Europe by 2012. video player.Some nations has planned to launch LTE within next quarter. MP3 recording. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. You might doubt how this verdict is applicable for current innovative world. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Concern is that our present wireless telecommunications is bottlenecked to use those applications in an effective manner. already under development.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 3 WHAT IS 5G & WHAT IT OFFERS? 5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. A user can also hook their 5Gtechnology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. As per the present status all over the world WCDMA is commercially launched . Why there is a need for 5G?. The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. clearly shows that within 2020 LTE will become the latest trend for wireless communication all over the world. 12 .

Ø If you can able to visualize lively all planets and Universe. Ø If you‟re mobile can estimate the quality of your new build house. 13 . Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Ø If you‟re mobile can able to suggest you possible medicine as per your healthiness. Ø If you can able to access your office desktop by being at your bedroom. Ø If you can able to navigate a Train for which you are waiting. Ø If you can able to pay all your bills in a single payment with your mobile.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 provide more approach to a common man to utilize his available possessions in an immense way to make him to feel the real progress. Ø If you‟re mobile can perform Radio resource management. car. Ø If your mobile phone get cleaned by its own. Ø If you can get the share value lively. Ø If you can able identify your stolen mobile with nanoseconds. Ø If you can lock your Laptop. Ø If you‟re mobile can able to calculate approximate Hike. Ø If you can able to expand your coverage using your mobile phones. Ø If you‟re mobile can able to provide recent worth on products using its barcode. Bike using your mobile when you forgot to do so. Ø If you‟re mobile can identify the best server. Ø If you can able to sense Tsunami/earthquake before it occurs. If you can able to fold your mobile as per your desire. Ø If you‟re mobile can share your work load. Ø If your mobile can intimate you before the call drops.

that is. IETF.1. from your car. Ø You are receiving regular MMS from your hospital about your medication need and next doctor appointment. To create such an environment.1 Ubiquitous Computing 5G would be about "ubiquitous computing". one needs to integrate various applications. as: Ø Your intelligent car will send SMS to your cell phone. anywhere. and Wireline) can be connected to one Super core with Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. So that you can view your sitting room on your laptop/mobile phone screen. by accessing secure website. where subscriber traffic is aggregated at aggregation point (BSC/RNC) and then routed to gateways. 3GPP2. Ø Your home security camera is attached to secured internet.eks Telecom has 3GPP. having the ability to access the applications want from any platform. o Common Platform: There is no common architecture for interconnecting various engineering practices.Flat IP architecture will lessen burden on aggregation point and traffic will directly move from Base station to Media gateways. emerging from various engineering practices. Vision of Super Core is based on IP platform. (As shown in figure). which creates a common platform for all engineering practices to regularize the interconnectivity issues as well as knowledge sharing. Wimax.2 Aggregator Existing telecom networks are fashioned in hierarchical way. To integrate these various standards. 4. All network operators (GSM. etc). One common governing body is required. 14 . ITU.1. which will bring radical change to human life’s daily approaches of doing things.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 4 BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF 5G TECHNOLOGY 4. Human life will be surrounded by intelligent sensors. requires systematic and time consuming approach. CDMA. Key challenges:Integration of various standards: Each engineering practice has their own standard (F. any time.

Flatter IP will shift some of the RR functions. hence. etc. Ø Transparency among network operators. Increased processing capacity will be allow Mobile devices (cell phones. churn management. With the shift to flat IP architectures. A failure of single node will impact huge number of subscribers across various network operators. high redundancy and security among core network entities is required. 15 .5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 massive capacity. semiconductor manufacturers advance to a new generation with smaller feature sizes. This is realization of single network infrastructure. all network operators will be moving to single core infrastructure. it will also perform some of the Radio Resource Management functions. The concept of super core will eliminate all interconnecting charges and complexities. mobile operators can Ø Reduce the number of network elements in the data path to lower operations costs and capital expenditure Ø Partially decouple the cost of delivering service from the volume of data transmitted to align infrastructure capabilities with emerging application requirements Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.1. PDAs. which is right now network operator is facing. This will lead to even the Flatter IP network. to Mobile devices from Base station. regarding Subscriber data. It will also reduce number of network entities in end to end connection. thus reducing latency considerably. etc) to do more tasks (instructions per minute) then before. This allows them to incorporate more functions into a given area of silicon and.3 Flatter IP concept At regular interval. Government regulatory framework for Super core 4. more features or new capabilities into electronic devices like cell phones. Key challenges Ø High redundancy requirement: Under Super core concept. As Flat IP has shifted some of the BSC/RNC’s radio resource functions to Base station. Finally your cell phone will not be just access device but.

creating greater flexibility in network planning and deployment Ø Develop a flexible core network that can serve as the basis for service innovation across both mobile and generic IP access networks Ø Create a platform that will enable mobile broadband operators to be competitive. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Ø All IP Platform. The 5G Nancore is a convergence of below mention technologies. it expand the potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms. Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks. 16 . What Nicholas Negroponte labeled the transformation of "atoms to bits. images and sounds are transformed into digital information.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Ø Minimize system latency and enable applications with a lower tolerance for delay. When words.4 5G: Nano Core Sophisticated technology has enabled an age of globalization. Ø Nanotechnology." the digitization of all media content.1. Ø Cloud Computing. from a price/performance perspective. upcoming latency enhancements on the radio link can also be fully realized Ø Evolve radio access and packet core networks independently of each other to a greater extent than in the past. These technologies have their own impact on exiting wireless network which makes them in to 5G. with wired networks 4.

New methods for partial reconfigurable offer design dimensions that allow the system to adapt to the opportunities and requirements of the terminals in a manner that shall maximize the spectral efficiency and also maximize the battery power.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Figure 4. As a result of growing level of acceptance of the wireless technologies in different fields. In heterogeneous wireless networks the concept is "always best connected" (always associated with the best quality).1: Architecture of 5G 4. and is proposed in different researches. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 17 .2 Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Interoperability The challenge in the design of the terminals is connected to the management of trade between the flexibility of how to use the spectrum and needed space and power to given platform. aimed at client terminals. challenges and types of wireless systems associated with them are changing.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Reviewing the concept of heterogeneous networks inevitably raises the question of interworking among the radio access technologies in a newly designed system. heterogeneous system or a heterogeneous network is considered as a unified network and access a single segment which will place the connection with the application servers in and out of operator’s network. In this case. The first method provides an integrated architecture of radio access technologies that builds heterogeneous network. which represents a focus for further development in this paper and refers to providing continuity of customer service in case of independent radio access technologies available to the mobile terminal by connecting on the network level. in this direction have been made different analysis and developed different standards that should define the levels of architecture connectivity for realizing vertical handover between different access technologies involved in the construction of heterogeneous domain. Apart from this difference. The introduction of this model implies interoperability protocol interoperability of lower levels of communication in the field of radio access. at a level that is common to all access technologies for communication between user applications with the appropriate application servers. mainly dictated by conditions in the radio access networks. In such networks are strictly defined rules for vertical handovers. i. 18 . interoperability between network technologies is done on the upper (network) protocol levels. or by the operator's preference. First one refers to a centralized operator access. The ultimate goal of both models for interoperability is the same and it is providing a transparent transfer of user information between client applications and related application servers without impact on the diversity of access technologies in the communication process and providing continuity of user sessions in the communication process. and as such is applicable in cooperative networks or in networks where the radio access technologies are owned by the same operator or operators who have cooperation. which will not demand changes in the RATs. In terms of the user or user applications. while user preferences Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. The second model is called the Internet model. The first model involves introducing a certain level of integration between the radio access technology through which mobile access terminal.e. while the second one defines the Internet model of interoperability. very important are vertical handover between access technologies and the conditions or circumstances which trigger handovers. To meet the relevant requirements of the user applications are generally considered two possible models for interoperability between building blocks of radio access technologies within the heterogeneous system. but only introduction of control functionalities the core networks. The main difference between the two models concerns the way in providing interoperability.

Each radio access technology has its own radio resource management and they are well engineered for maximum utilization of available resources. Radio access technologies can ensure achievement of customer service in the access part. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. The tendency of introducing heterogeneity in future wireless radio systems entails the implementation of different radio interfaces in the new terminals. vertical handover is accomplished as a result of the conditions under which user applications see main qualitative parameters of service or experience to the user. generally speaking. Variety of access technologies in order to realize the user requirements.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 are taken into cooperative architectures. In most of the radio access technologies which have been made. In these methods. the system makes adaptation of appropriate resources allocated according to the nature of the services. The heterogeneity of these networks allows the user terminal to perform a selection of radio access technologies depending on given preferences. which provide access technology for the user equipment. The second method is more general and relates to interoperate regardless of the user’s operators. 19 . This choice provides better conditions for user applications.

5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 5 DESIGN OF 5G MOBILE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G mobile systems. need to have four different access . Figure 5. autonomous radio access technologies. However. each of the radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the outside Internet world.1: Functional Architecture for 5G Mobile Networks Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 20 .specific interfaces in the mobile terminal. The system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new architecture) and a number of independent. if want to have access to four different RATs. Within each of the terminals. there should be different radio interface for each Radio Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile terminal. and to have all of them active at the same time. For an example. with aim to have this architecture to be functional. which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks interoperability.

3G and WiMAX have explicit QoS support. Figure 5. The purpose of IP is to ensure enough control data (in IP header) for proper routing of IP packets belonging to a certain application connections ..5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 The first two OSI levels (data-link and physical levels) are defining the radio access technologies through which is provided access to the Internet with more or less QoS support mechanisms. which is further dependent upon the access technology (e. either IPv4 or IPv6. Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies of the user. while WLAN has not) .2: Protocol Layout for the Elements of the Proposed Architecture Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 21 . and this layer is IP (Internet Protocol) in today’s communication world. regardless of the radio access technology.sessions between client applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. over the OSI-1 and OSI-2 layers is the network layer.g. Then.

and type of transport protocol. routing to the target destination and vice versa should be uniquely and using the same path. In regular inter-system handover the change of access technology (i. vertical handover) would mean changing the local IP address. change of any of the parameters of the socket means and change of the socket. ending the connection and starting e new one. that is. Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. To enable the functions of the applied transparency and control or direct routing of packets through the most appropriate radio access technology.e. In order to preserve the proper layout of the packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets. when there is a mobile user at least on one end of such connection. At the same time this control system is an essential Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. the local IP address and destination IP address should be fixed and unchanged. the establishment of communication from end to end between the client and server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate Internet socket uniquely determined by the application of the client and the server. in the proposed architecture introduce a control system in the functional architecture of the networks. Then. This means. Each radio access technology that is available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio access is presented with appropriate IP interface. Considering that. This layer is crucial in the new architecture. Fixing of these two parameters should ensure handover transparency to the Internet connection end-to-end.. closing the socket and opening a new one. 22 . This approach is notflexible. which works in complete coordination with the user terminal and provides a network abstraction functions and routing of packets based on defined policies. and it is based on today’s Internet communication. Each socket of the web is a unified and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport communications port. In order to solve this deficiency propose a new level that will take care of the abstraction levels of network access technologies to higher layers of the protocol stack. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized by its IP address and netmask and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network. This means that in case of interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the vertical handover between the respective radio technologies. target IP address and target appropriate communication port.

23 .e. and the client will only set a local IP address which will be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with Internet servers. are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across the radio access technology. The network abstraction level would be provided by creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces obtained by connection to the terminal via the access technologies available to the terminal (i. Establishing tunnel connections as well as maintaining them represents basic functionality of the virtual network level (or network level of abstraction). mobile user). The way IP packets are routed through tunnels. is presented in Figure . In fact. and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level Protocol. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol stack.. the tunnels would be established between the user terminal and control system named here as Policy Router. In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of tunnels connected to the number of radio access technologies. This way achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the mobile terminal. as well as to obtain a realistic picture regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a given server in Internet (or peer). and as such represents an ideal system to test the qualitative characteristics of the access technologies. would be served by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol. The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router. which performs routing based on given policies. or choosing the right tunnel.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 element through which it can determine the quality of service for each transmission technology. He is on the Internet side of the proposed architecture. for routing based on the policies. which form the proposed architecture.

. Figure given block-diagram of the software modules in the virtual network layer. network access to resources by the user terminal. Considering that the functions of the virtual network layer in the proposed new architecture include many functions related to connectivity. This choice provides better conditions for user applications. Namely. the need of the user application to establish communication with the some application server usually ends by initiating a connection through the network level. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.e. 24 .5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 6 ENTITIES AND FUNCTIONALITIES IN THE PROPOSED NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Heterogeneity of wireless networks enables the user terminal to perform a selection of access technologies depending on their preferences. the virtual network layer logically is divided into several cooperative software modules which perform different functionalities. i. The processes of achieving connectivity in new environments are strongly associated with the application process. security and continuity of the application sessions initiated by the user.

Ø ITHC (Inter Tunnel Handover Control). Ø MQPBR (Mobile Quality Policy Based Router). On the other side. SPME (Security and Policy Management Entity).5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Figure 6. and Ø QoS / QoE CM (QoS and QoE Control Manager). Ø SPME (Security and Policy Management Entity). Each software module has determined position within the global architecture to provide the ultimate functionality that is providing interoperability in 5G heterogeneous systems.2 Software Diagram of the Proposed Virtual Network Layer There are certain differences between client and server functions to a virtual network layer.1:Software Diagram of the Proposed Virtual Network Layer Figure 6. the Policy Router includes four software modules as follows: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø MCCSM (Media Connection Control Software Module). 25 . Providing functionality between software modules is done through precisely defined interfaces to other Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. and QoS / QoE CM (QoS and QoE Control Manager). On the client side there are five software modules that: Ø RAT-CCSM (Radio Access Technology . CPH (Client Profile Handler).Connection Control Software Module). CQPBR (Central Quality Policy Based Router).

Besides this basic functionality. 26 . generated PDP context with specified IP address.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 modules and with appropriate links between peer protocol modules on both sides of the architecture. Hence. The obtained information regarding the radio access technologies it forwards to another associated software module whose primary function is managing handover in the transmission of data between the established IP tunnels (the ITHC software module). we may distinguish among four basic functionalities carried out by the virtual network layer. RAT-CCSM module at the client side is using API interfaces for access to the appropriate software modules from the lower levels of radio access technologies in order to provide additional information. RAT-CCSM software module performs continuous monitoring of the status of each radio access technology in terms of radio parameters (signal received level) and in terms of IP connectivity through the same network. etc. The process of establishing the tunnel procedure begins Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. The tunnel is formed through the established IP connectivity of the particular radio access technology. In this way the software module has continuous information for the network and radio conditions in each radio access technology.) and the level of received signal of the corresponding radio access technology. First basic functionality of the virtual network layer is to provide a network abstraction. RAT-CCSM module starts a process to establish a tunnel between the mobile client and the Policy Router (in particular. Source IP address of the tunnel is the IP address obtained by the establishment of IP connectivity via the given access technology. This link is a way through which it receives information for improving connectivity of individual access technologies (e. This functionality is related to the cooperative working together of the RAT-CCSM and MCCSM software modules that are designed to make masking of the IP level seen by each radio access technology. Tunnels are formed between RAT-CCSM on the client side and MCCSM module in the Policy Router. where routing is based on policies determined on the offered Quality of Service.. while destination IP address of the tunnel seeing in the uplink direction from the mobile side) is the loopback address of the software module of MCCSM Policy Router. The second link of this module refers to the routing module. connection established with a given AP in WLAN networks and corresponding IP addresses. with the MCCSM module). Their interaction results in defining the appropriate tunnel interfaces (corresponding to the tunnels created by the radio access technologies) within the routing table.g. As can be seen from the diagram in Figure there are four common cooperative / coordination modules on different sides (client and server) that are interconnected.

The actual determination of the client mobile IP address will be marked with McIP. The mutual cooperation between these two modules is realized through the appropriate routing control protocol developed specifically for this purpose. where it is an IP address of the client in the heterogeneous network. At the same time. which is generated by SPME software module and it is then given to the MQPBR client module.SPME. This process is accomplished through any “free” IP address obtained from a radio access technology towards a defined IP address of the server on the other side. The second function is related to routing policies based on the determined Quality of Service offered by access technologies. Its goal is to provide proper prioritization of routes or routing rules via the tunnel interfaces within routing matrix / table. the MQPBR software module on the client side presents the client IP address which is obtained in the phase of the authentication and authorization by the software module for that purpose . which is seen as IP network address to them. so the software module has a direct connection with SPME module for management of security mechanisms. This would mean that routing table of this module expands and takes the form of three-dimensional routing matrix where for each initiated user application is defined priority for the tunneling interface. The communication of the upper protocol levels. In this case RAT-CCSM transparently forwards these packages directly to the network interfaces of the radio access technologies. The changes are initiated and controlled by MQPBR client module in cooperation with the ITHC module. The main feature of this software module. RAT-CCSM module triggers corresponding module on the client side (SPME) in order to carry out proper user authentication and authorization for the same approval to create a tunnel through the appropriate technology. is via McIP address of the user. After receiving the result of a process of authentication and authorization RAT-CCSM and MCCSM begin the process of establishment of an IP tunnel or reject the request. The third function is associated with managing security procedures or security mechanisms and policies applied to users. This functionality is accomplished by cooperative working between MQPBR and CQPBR software components on the client and server sides. is its ability to perform coordinated routing between the two software modules depending on the application that is initiated by the client. 27 .5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 with the authentication and authorization between the mobile client and the Policy Router. such as the transport. session and application levels. On the client side user terminal contains all the information in a local storage (in the mobile terminal) within the Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. in comparison with other routing software components.

Fifth functionality of the network architecture is dedicated to the user only. and the network. it is directly associated with the QoS / QoE module. the defined McIP address is announced to MQPBR and CQPBR modules. Software Module continually processes data from RAT-CCSM software module (realized tunnels and signal reception level of each access technology). Obtained policies and user parameters that describe a customer. Also. from which it receives information about the qualitative characteristics of each radio access technology used by the user. This module on the user side is represented as ITHC software module and has a direct interaction with other software modules of the virtual network layer. and such data is then made available to RAT-CCSM module as well as MQPBR and CQPBR modules and the IHTC module.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 security software module. while to IHTC are announced other policies contained in the CHP that should help it in the process of handover decisions. The results of these measurements are a direct input to the ITHC module for handover decisions between tunnels. in a form of predefined policies or gained knowledge from the user services. This functionality is intended to ensure continuity of customer service while taking into account the qualitative requirements of the applications. which can be part of the same Policy Router (but. 28 . All information for each user of this architecture. the measured parameters give a realistic picture of the Quality of Service that can be expected from the radio access technologies. it receives from the SPME the user policies as well as preferences of the user and the Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. are stored in this database . which are obtained from other systems and stored in CPH module. referred to as CPH. This functionality is accomplished by cooperative working between the QoS / QoE module on the client side and QoS / QoE module on the server side. and its location within the heterogeneous wireless network. The fourth functionality is associated with the management mechanisms for measuring the parameters that define the Quality of Service and Experience in terms of user applications. the authentication parameters and policies. Then. The purpose of this module in the mobile terminal (the client side) is to continuously measure the basic qualitative parameters of radio access technologies. with aim to decide which application will use which available radio access technology.CPH. The RAT-CCSM module is allowed to establish a tunnel. Measurements are carried out individually by each access technology. while the Policy Router stores the information for the mobile clients in an additional software module. Thus. the user. which in fact are on the path between the client and Policy Router. it is not mandatory).

If there is a need of changes of the access technology for an ongoing session. The criteria under which it will begin the procedure of handover are part of the software module and its internal logic.. the Policy Router on the network side. The change of priorities for the routes for each application is performed by the module responsible for policy-based routing. i. this module is required to initiate the process of handover between tunnels connected with the relevant access technologies.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 operator (that is the one that provides the functionalities of Policy Router).e. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 29 .

Figure 7.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 7 QOS FUNCTION BASED ON PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS Next Generation Networks (NGN) consists of support functionalities for data transport. as well as functionalities for support of services and applications. core and transit networks. So. Also. performance measurement is an intrinsic component in NGN. PME-FE is responsible for three groups of functionalities: performance measurements. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. in access. it can be performed by the mobile terminals in the wireless environment. 30 . and here this is very important to create mobile user assisted probing of the RAT performances.1:Network Performance Measurements Using RTP / RTCP and RTCP Extension Figure presents also detailed view of the general architecture for Management for Performance Measurements (MPM) in NGN. with added functionalities on the side of the mobile terminal (CPE – Customer Premises Equipment). The network architecture consists of the following entities: Ø Performance Measurement Execution Functional Entity (PME-FE) is an entity to perform performance measurements. process measurements and single configuration entity conducting the measurements. and control transport. The measurement of traffic is a basic control activity in order to provide Quality of Service. and it is usually performed at edge (border) network nodes.

Functions for processing of measurements include collecting measurement reports. PMP-FE is responsible for two groups of functions: processing of measurements and configuration of measurement tests across the network architecture. their analysis. and Ø Performance Measurement Reporting Functional Entity (PMR-FE) is an entity reporting the performed performance measurements.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Ø Performance Measurement Processing Functional Entity (PMP-FE) is an entity for processing the measurements. aggregation as well as analysis of measurements in cyclical periods. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 31 .

Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Ø 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. Ø Support interactive multimedia.accurate traffic statistics. voice.000 connections. Ø Global access. service portability. Ø 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. high capacity. and low cost per bit.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 8 BENIFITS Ø High speed. Internet. and other broadband services . 32 . and scalable mobile services. Ø The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. Ø Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution. streaming video.more effective and more attreactive .Bi directional .

The architecture includes introduction of software agents in the mobile terminal. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. and such change is based on the given policies regarding the Quality of Service and user preferences. On the other side. which provide possibility for IP-based communication on the network layer. besides the traditional Internet services. Currently. such as web and electronic mail as most used among the others. and giving more functionalities to the end nodes. and longer battery life for the same applications (services). will become reality in the future generation of mobile networks. is executed via tunnel change by the Policy Router. 33 . The Policy Router creates IP tunnels with the mobile terminal via each of the interfaces to different RATs available to the terminal. called Quality of Service Policy based ROuting (QoSPRO). Author have defined completely novel network architecture for such 5G mobile networks. as well as there is migration of all services in IP environment. which shall be placed in the core network. i. which makes it very likeable solution for the next generation mobile and wireless networks. more memory on board. vertical handover. as well as performance measurement obtained by the user equipment via new defined procedure for that purpose in this paper. Based on the given policies.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 9 CONCLUSION The development of the mobile and wireless networks is going towards higher data rates and all-IP principle. the change of the RAT. The proposed architecture for future 5G mobile networks can be implemented using components of the shelf (existing and standardized Internet technologies) and its implementation is transparent to the radio access technologies. mobile terminals are obtaining each year more processing power. here referred to as 5G.e. there are many available radio access technologies. including the traditional telephony and even television.. It is expected that the initial Internet philosophy of keeping the network simple as possible. which will be used for communication with newly defined nodes called Policy Routers.

It is also called as Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET). 3. 3GPP is an industry body set up to develop a 3G standard based upon wideband CDMA (WCDMA). 2. this intelligent technology is capable of interconnecting the entire world without limits. 3GPP2: Third Generation Partnership Project 2. Ad-hoc networks: It is a self configuring mobile network of routers (and hosts) connected by wireless.5G: Initerim hardware and software mobile solutions between 2G and 3G with voice and data capabilities and data rates ranging from 56 kbps to 170 kbps. 3GPP2 is an industry standard set up to develop a 3G standard based upon CDMA-2000.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 10 ACRONYMS 1G: Old-fashioned analog mobile phone systems capable of handling very limited or no data at all.6 kbps to 19. 2G: Second generation voice-centric mobile phones and services with limited data rates ranging from 9. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. 3GPP: Third Generation Partnership Project. Sometimes it is also called as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).5G: Interim systems between 3G and 4G allowing a downlink data rate upto 14 Mbps. 3G: A long awaited digital mobile systems with a maximum data rate of 2 Mbps under stationary conditions and 384 kbps under mobile conditions.2 kbps. 34 . 4G: Planned evolution of 3G technology that is expected to provide support for data rates upto 100 Mbps allowing high quality and smooth video transmission. In revolutionary view. in which the nodes may move freely and randomly resulting in a rapid and unpredictable change in network’s wireless topology. This technology is capable of handling streaming video two way voice over IP and Internet connectivity with support for high quality graphics. 5G: In evolutionary view it will be capable of supporting wwww allowing highly flexible dynamic adhoc wireless networks.

Since it uses the TDMA infrastructure. a smooth transition from TDMA based systems such as GSM to EDGE is expected. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. but it only supports data rates up to 1 Mbps. DAWN: Advanced technologies including smart antenna and flexible modulation are keys to optimize this wireless version of reconfigurable adhoc networks. the data stream to be transmitted is divided into small pieces.2 kbps over existing cellular phone systems. Like IEEE 802. Bluetooth also operates in unlicensed 2. DSSS: In Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. 35 . each of which allocated a frequency channel. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data is a wireless standard providing two way data transmission at 19.25 Mhz channel while 3X refers to 5 Mhz channel. GPRS: General Packet Radio Service provides data rates upto 115 kbps for wireless Internet and other types of data communications using packet data services.4GHz spectrum. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution technology gives GSM and TDMA the capability to handle 3rd generation mobile phone services with speeds upto 384 kbps. Then the data signal is combined with a higher data rate bit sequence known as “chipping code” that divides the data according to a spreading ratio thus allowing a resistance from interference during transmission.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Bluetooth: It is a wireless networking protocol designed to replace cable network technology for devices within 30 feet.11b. CDMA-2000: Sometimes also known as IS-136 and IMT-CDMA multicarrier (1X/3X) is an evolution of narrowband radio transmission technology known as CDMA-ONE (also called CDMA or IS-95). GSM: Global Systems for Mobile Communication is a world-wide standard for digital wireless mobile phone systems. FHSS: In Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum a broad slice of bandwidth spectrum is divided into many possible broadcast frequencies to be used by the transmitted signal. The standard was oroginated by the European Conference of Postal and Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Communication between users are differentiated by using a unique code for each user. 1X refers to the use of 1. also known as CDMA-ONE or IS-95 is a spread spectrum communication technology that allows many users to communicate simultaneously using the same frequency spectrum. to third generation. This method allows more users to share the spectrum at the same time than alternative technologies.

It is adopted by ITU under the name IMT-2000 direct spread. Photonic networks: A network of computers made up using photonic devices based on optics. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. WCDMA: Wideband CDMA is a technology for wideband digital radio communications of multimedia and other capacity demanding applications. with each signal located at a different wavelength. This results in a higher bandwidth of the signal than the one without varied frequency. 36 . WWWW: A world wide wireless web is capable of supporting a comprehensive wireless based web application that includes full graphics and multimedia capability at beyond 4G speeds. Mobile phones: Mobile communication systems that uses radio communication and conventional telephone switching to allow communication to and from mobile users. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol defines the use of TCP/IP and web browsing for mobile systems. WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing allows many independent signals to be transmitted simultaneously on one fiber. gateways and routers. The devices include photonic switches. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access is a technology for sharing a medium by several users by dividing into different time slots transmitting at the same frequency. or routing of specific wavelengths in photonic networks. Spread Spectrum: It is a form of wireless communication in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is deliberately varied over a wide range. Currently ETSI is responsible for the development of GSM standard. PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network is a regular voice telephone network.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) who was responsible for the creation of ETSI. recovery. Routing and detection of these signals require devices that are wavelength selective. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe that was proposed by ETSI. allowing for the transmission.

2011 [2]http://en. H. Tokyo. Janevski. Y-2002. [9] M. “A Novel Metric for Context-Aware RAT Selection in Wireless Multi-Access Systems”. 24-28 June 2007. October 2009. 37 .2173.wikipedia. Personal. Japan. “Optimising Radio Access in a Heterogeneous Wireless Network Environment”. “5G Mobile Phone Concept” – CCNC conference in Las Vegas. Germany. 32. [14] ITU-T. ICC’07. Telfor 2010. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). “M-RATS: Mobile-based Radio Access Technology Selector for Heterogeneous Wireless Environment“. Kervella. Ha Nguyen Tran Hasegawa. Dresden. [11] M. [10] W. Bodanese. November 23-25. B. Scotland. p. Glasgow. “General overview of NGN”.2001. Belgrade. Janevski. Perez-Romero. Murata.org/wiki/5g [3]5G: Nano core by Imtiaz ali [4] http://google. Harada. Elsevier Computer Communications 31. Sallent. T. [13] A. ”An overview of vertical handover decision strategies in heterogeneous wireless networks”. “Representation of user satisfaction and fairness evaluation for user-centric dynamic spectrum access”. 2008. Y. 13-16 September 2009. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology.com [6] ITU-T. Luo. [7] ITU-T. 2009. IEEE International Conference on Communications. Y. Kassar. G. [8] T. Tudzarov. 2010. Pujolle. December 2004.2607-2620. Agusti. R. July. O. E. Y.5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 Chapter 11 REFERENCES [1] Aleksandar Tudzarov and Toni Janevski Functional Architecture for 5G Mobile Network International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. “Overview of ubiquitous networking and of its support in NGN”. Serbia. “Management of performance measurement for NGN”. 14-18 June 2009. September 2008. [12] J.

May 18-23. Porjazoski. M. 38 .5G: Mobile Technology 2011-2012 [15] T. Latkoski. A. IEEE Eurocon 2009. Tudzarov. P. Saint Petersburg. Dept of CS &E Vemana Institute of Technology. Russia. Janevski. “System for Analyses of End-to-End Quality of Data Services in Cellular Networks”. 2009.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful