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INTRODUCTION SOURCES OF ENERGY
CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES NON RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES `
These are the energy resources, which we are using to generate power for the past 200 years. Ex : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear.
NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES :
These are the energy resources, which are rarely used to generate power. Ex : Wind, solar, Tidal, Geo-Thermal, Ocean….
Nuclear. Geo-Thermal. Hydel. Ocean…. Ex : Wind. solar. Ex : Thermal. . Diesel.` NON RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES The availability of these energy resources decreasing day by day due to continuous usage (exhaustible). Natural gas. Coal. which are available in large quantity in earth & they are continuously restored by nature. Tidal.RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: These are the energy resources.
A power plant is a facility to generate electric power with continuous energy conversion
Heat Energy Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy
TYPES OF POWER PLANT
Steam (or) Thermal Power Plant Hydro Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Diesel Power Plant Gas Turbine Power Plant Solar Power Plant Wind Power Plant Geo Thermal Power Plant Tidal Power Plant
A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. • Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator or does some other work, like ship propulsion.
I n I n d i a more then 60% of power plants is thermal power plant . or natural gas are often called thermal power plants. the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. this is known as a Rankine cycle. power plant or powerhouse) is industrial facility for the generation of electric power. A power station ( generating station. . Power plants burning coal. fuel oil. After it passes through the turbine. Thermal power plants contribute maximum to the g e n e r a t i o n o f P o w e r f o r a n c o u n t r y. A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. Water is heated.
• The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London. also used reciprocating steam engines. in 1882. with notable improvements being made by James Watt .Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century. • As generator sizes increased. • James Watt . eventually turbines took over.
Qin 2 3 Boiler Win Compressor (pump) Heat exchanger 1 4 Wout Turbine T 2 3 Qout P 2 3 1 1 4 4 v .
a fluid evaporates and condenses. Ideal cycle is the Carnot Which processes here would cause problems? . In these types of cycles.
reheating and regeneration. Objectives: design an optimal vapor power cycle use idealized Carnot cycle as the model. Carnot cycle T 2 3 T 2 (a) 3 OR 1 4 (b) 1 4 s s . discussion concerning the increase of the efficiency of an idealized Rankine cycle. optimize the Rankine cycle using concepts of superheating. consider all theoretical and practical limitations and redesign the cycle accordingly Idealized Rankine cycle.
Q=0. TLTH) 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 . THTL) Reversible isothermal compression (3-4. Q=0. TH=constant) Reversible adiabatic expansion (2-3. TL=constant) Reversible adiabatic compression (4-1.• Idealized thermodynamic cycle consisting of four reversible processes (any substance): Reversible isothermal expansion (1-2.
area under the process curve 1-2-3. 1 2 dV>0 from 1-2-3 PdV>0 3 Work done on gas = PdV.Work done by gas = PdV. area under the process curve 3-4-1 subtract 1 Net work 2 4 3 1 Since dV<0 PdV<0 2 3 .
• For a typical steam power plant operating between TH=800 K (boiler) and TL=300 K(cooling tower).TH) and it can be shown that hth=1-(QL/QH)=1-(TL/TH). rev • The efficiencies of all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs are the same. . hth. Therefore. the maximum achievable efficiency is 62.• The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a reversible one operating between the same two reservoirs. irrev < hth. the Carnot heat engine defines the maximum efficiency any practical heat engine can reach up to.5%. This is called the Carnot efficiency. • Thermal efficiency hth=Wnet/QH=1-(QL/QH)=f(TL. rev)A= (hth. (hth. rev)B • Both Can be demonstrated using the second law (K-P statement and Cstatement).
Let us analyze an ideal gas undergoing a Carnot cycle between two temperatures TH and TL.mRTLln(V4/V3) 4 to 1. (V2/V3) = (V1/V4) and (V2/V1) = (V3/V4) hth = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) since ln(V2/V1) = ln(V4/V3) It has been proven that hth = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) for all Carnot engines since the Carnot efficiency is independent of the working substance. adiabatic expansion. Q41 = 0 (TL/TH) = (V1/V4)k-1 (2) From (1) & (2). DU34 = 0 QL = Q34 = W34 = . 1 to 2. Q23 = 0 (TL/TH) = (V2/V3)k-1 (1) 3 to 4. isothermal compression. . DU12 = 0 QH = Q12 = W12 = PdV = mRTHln(V2/V1) 2 to 3. adiabatic compression. isothermal expansion.
8 0.2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 L h (T ) 1 th H T 900 L TL Temperature (TL) . 1 L Efficiency h 1 th L T 300 1 0.6 Th( T ) 0. how is the thermal efficiency changes with the temperature.667 66.6 of the energy: More work can be done Fixed T 900( K ) and increasing T H Increase TL TH( TL ) 0. the higher the "quality" Efficiency 1 0.A Carnot heat engine operating between a high-temperature source at 900 K and reject heat to a low-temperature reservoir at 300 K.2 0 200 Lower TH Fixed T 300( K ) and lowering T 300 h (T ) 1 T th H H 400 600 800 1000 T Temperature (TH) The higher the temperature.4 0.7% T 900 H H 0.4 0. (a) Determine the thermal efficiency of the engine. (b) If the temperature of the hightemperature source is decreased incrementally.8 0.
Heat becomes useless when it is transferred to a low-temperature source because the thermal efficiency will be very low according to hth=1-(TL/TH). one would like to increase the temperature of the combustion chamber. That is why low-temperature reservoirs such as rivers and lakes are popular for this reason.• Similarly. that sometimes conflict with other design requirements. thus. the more difficult for a heat engine to transfer heat into it. . the higher the temperature of the low-temperature sink. • Work is in general more valuable compared to heat since the work can convert to heat almost 100% but not the other way around. Example: turbine blades can not withstand the high temperature gas. This is why there is little incentive to extract the massive thermal energy stored in the oceans and lakes. •To increase the thermal efficiency of a gas power turbine. However. Solutions: better material research and/or innovative cooling design. lower thermal efficiency also. thus leads to early fatigue.
However. to maintain a constant temperature above the critical temperature is also difficult since the pressure will have to change continuously. how do I get this number from?) and that is not practical. What is the maximum temperature in the cycle? • Isentropic expansion in a turbine from 3-4. . What is the quality of the steam inside the turbine? Will high moisture content affect the operation of the turbine? • Isentropic compression process in a pump from 1-2. Also.• Maximum temperature limitation for cycle (a). is it practical to handle two-phase flow (liquid + vapor) using such a system? • The latter two problems can be resolved by the use of cycle (b) from previous slide. Can one design a condenser and transmission line system that precisely control the quality of the vapor in order to achieve an isentropic compression? Even we can. the (b) cycle requires the compression(1-2)of liquid at a very high pressure (exceeding 22 MPa for a steam.
These droplets can produce significant damages to the turbine blades due to corrosion and impact. . To avoid transporting and compressing two-phase fluid. It can also increase the thermal efficiency of the cycle. its temperature and pressure decrease and liquid droplets will form by condensation. 3 T 2 1 4 s • when the saturated vapor enters the turbine. One possible solution: superheating the vapor. we can try to condense all fluid exiting from the turbine into saturated liquid before compressed it by a pump.
2-3 constant pressure heat 4-1 constant pressure heat rejection 1-2 isentropic pump addition 3-4 isentropic turbine . This cycle follows the idea of the Carnot cycle but can be practically implemented.
h1=hf@ low pressure (saturated liquid) Wpump (ideal)=h2-h1=vf(Phigh-Plow) vf=specific volume of saturated liquid at low pressure Qin=h3-h2 heat added in boiler (positive value) Rate of heat transfer = Q*mass flow rate Usually either Qin will be specified or else the high temperature and pressure (so you can find h3) .
Qout=h4-h1 heat removed from condenser (here h4 and h1 signs have been switched to keep this a positive value) Wturbine=h3-h4 turbine work Power = work * mass flow rate h4@ low pressure and s4=s3 .
Wnet=Wturbine-Wpump OR Qin-Qout Thermal efficiency hth=Wnet/Qin . The temperature of the steam at the inlet of the turbine is 550°C. Find the net work for the cycle and the thermal efficiency. An ideal Rankine cycle operates between pressures of 30 kPa and 6 MPa.
that means that the temperauture entering the pump is 5°C below the saturation temperature. if you subcool it 5°C. . Pump is not ideal h pump Wideal Wactual Wactual v f P2 P 1 h pump Turbine is not ideal hturbine Wactual W ideal note that thisis an inverse of the pump equation There will be a pressure drop across the boiler and condenser Subcool the liquid in the condenser to prevent cavitation in the pump. For example.
Thermal efficiency can be improved by T (a) Lowering the condensing pressure (lower condensing temperature. high moisture content T 4 s . lower TL) (b) Superheating the steam to higher temperature ( c) Increasing the boiler pressure (increase boiler ( c) increase pressure temperature. increase TH) 3 T 3 (b) Superheating 2 1 4 2 1 s 2 (a) lower pressure(temp) 1 s Low quality.
The optimal way of increasing the boiler pressure but not increase the moisture content in the exiting vapor is to reheat the vapor after it exits from a first-stage turbine and redirect this reheated vapor into a second turbine. T 3 high-P turbine Low-P turbine high-P turbine 3 5 low-P turbine 4 boiler 4 5 6 2 1 2 pump 1 condenser 6 s .
thus. the averaged temperature of the vapor entering the turbine is increased. Reheating allows one to increase the boiler pressure without increasing the moisture content in the vapor exiting from the turbine. One major reason is because the vapor exiting will be superheated vapor at higher temperature. By reheating. Why? Energy analysis: Heat transfer and work output both change qin = qprimary + qreheat = (h3-h2) + (h5-h4) Wout = Wturbine1 + Wturbine2 = (h3-h4) + (h5-h6) . decrease the thermal efficiency. it increases the thermal efficiency of the cycle. thus. Multistage reheating is possible but not practical.
From 2-2’. Why? Use regenerator to heat up the liquid (feedwater) leaving the pump before sending it to the boiler. increase the averaged temperature (efficiency as well) during heat addition in the boiler. therefore. the temperature at 2 is very low. the thermal efficiency is lower. therefore. Lower temp heat addition T 2’ 3 higher temp heat addition T 4 5 6 2 2 3 1 Extract steam from turbine to provide heat source in the regenerator 1 4 7 s s Use regenerator to heat up the feedwater . the heat addition process is at a lower temperature and therefore.
Open feedwater: Mix steam with the feedwater in a mixing chamber. Open FWH 5 T 5 4 boiler Open FWH 4 3 2 6 (y) 7 (1-y) 2 (y) 3 6 (1-y) 7 s Pump 2 1 Pump 1 1 condenser . Improve efficiency by increasing feedwater temperature before it enters the boiler. Closed feedwater: No mixing.
the more feedwater heaters. Wturbine. Assume y percent of steam is extracted from the turbine and is directed into open feedwater heater. qout = (1-y)(h7-h1). Energy analysis: qin = h5-h4. . out = (h5-h6) + (1-y)(h6-h7) Wpump. in = (1-y)Wpump1 + Wpump2 = (1-y)(h2-h1) + (h4-h3) = (1-y)v1(P2-P1) + v3(P4-P3) In general. the better the cycle efficiency.
which converts water into steam. which produces mechanical power driving the alternator coupled to the turbine. The steam after expansion in prime mover is usually condensed in a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. of modifications and improvements have been made so as to affect economy and improve the thermal efficiency of the plant . In practice. a large no. Coal is burnt in a boiler. The steam is expanded in a turbine. however. Steam power plant basically operates on the RANKINE cycle.
This heat energy is used to convert the water into high pressure steam in the boiler. . where the steam is condensed into water and then circulated to the boiler. Which rotates the turbine shaft. This high pressure & high temperature steam is passed through the turbine. (where the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy) The turbine is coupled with the generator to produce the electrical energy.Working Principle : Coal is burnt in the furnace which releases the heat energy. The steam coming out of the turbine passes through the condenser.
Feed heater 14. Transmission line (3-phase) 4. Ash hopper 19. Cooling tower 2. Intermediate pressure turbine 10. Cooling water pump 3. Coal hopper 16. Electric generator (3-phase) 6. High pressure turbine 12. Superheater 20. Pulverised fuel mill 17. Steam governor valve 11. Induced draught fan 27. Reheater 22. Precipitator 26. Air intake 23.1. Air preheater 25. Condensor 9. Boiler drum 18. Low pressure turbine 7. Economiser 24. Boiler feed pump 8. Unit transformer (3-phase) 5. Chimney Stack . Forced draught fan 21. Deaerator 13. Coal conveyor 15.
OPERATIONS OF A THERMAL POWER STATION:
Below is a Diagram of the Basic Operation of a Thermal Power Station.
used coals as fuel for the generation of heat energy. As the water in the Boiler evaporated due to the intense heat, it becomes high-pressurized steams. • And the steams are passing through a conduit , it forces its way through the Turbine, thus rotating the Turbine. • The Turbine is connected to a Generator via a coupler. As the Turbine is rotating electrical energy is being produced. • After the steams have passed through the turbine, it enters a Condenser. The Condenser has got a cooling agent and the steam will go through the cooling agent via a pipe.
The steam thus changes back to its liquid form and returns to the Boiler. Then the quantity of coal required per hour would be given by Weight of Coal Required ==> Capacity * Steam Requirement * Heat Delivered/Calorific Value of Coal * Efficiency of Boiler
In general. both the construction and operation of a power plant requires the existence of some conditions such as water resources and stable soil type. the plant should be connected to electrical transmission system. The following list corers most of the factors that should be studied and considered in selection of proper sites for power plant construction: •Transportation network: Easy and enough access to transportation network is required in both power plant construction and operation periods.Therefore the nearness to the electric network can play a roll .. •Gas pipe network: Vicinity to the gas pipes reduces the required expenses •Power transmission network: To transfer the generated electricity to the consumers.
. changing of a sloping area into a flat site for the construction of the power plant needs extra budget. the parameters of elevation and slope should be considered. •Topography: It is proved that high elevation has a negative effect on production efficiency of gas turbines.•Geology and soil type: The power plant should be built in an area with soil and rock layers that could stand the weight and vibrations of the power plant. Therefore the site should be away enough from the faults and previous earthquake areas. In addition. •Earthquake and geological faults: Even weak and small earthquakes can damage many parts of a power plant intensively. Therefore.
protected areas. Water resources: For the construction and operating of power plant different volumes of water are required. Therefore. priority will be given to the locations that are far enough from national parks. wildlife. Population centers: For the same reasons as above. This could be supplied from either rivers or underground water resources. the site should have an enough distance from population centers. etc. . Therefore having enough water supplies in defined vicinity can be a factor in the selection of the site. Environmental resources: Operation of a power plant has important impacts on environment.
Steam generator: In fossil-fueled power plants. a steam drum. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. . pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. A fossil fuel steam generator includes an economizer. steam generator refers to a furnace that burns the fossil fuel to boil water to generate steam. and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure.
The other material like oil .bagasse etc are used as fuel. (4)Fully automatic oil &and gas fired boiler. (2)Water fired tube shell boiler. Boiler: Boiler is a cylindrical closed vessel made from the steel is called boiler. In which by boiling water high pressure stem can be produce. Boiler is a heart of the thermal power plant system The types of boilers use in thermal power plant are as below: (1)Circulating fluidzed bed boiler. In boiler coal is mainly used as fule. sawdust . wood. gas. . (3)Water tube boiler.
the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down-comers to the lower inlet water-wall headers. Boiler furnace and steam drum Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. . The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum.
it is piped from the upper drum area into tubes inside an area of the furnace known as the superheter. .Superheater Fossil fuel power plants can have a superheater and/or reheater section in the steam generating furnace In a fossil fuel plant. after the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the steam drum.
This is called thermal power plant. . Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the reheater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines.Reheater: Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes.
. or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. rotating drum grinders. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder.Fuel preparation In coal-fired power stations. the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The pulverizers may be ball mills. The oil is usually heated to about 100 °C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.
Air path:External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall .
Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage: Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. For this. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag Bottom ash collection and disposal: At the bottom of the furnace.• • • Auxiliary systems: Fly ash collection: Fly ashis captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. • • • . losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up to maintain a desired water level in the boiler steam drum.
large diameter shaft. the shaft has a number of bearings . The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimise the frictional resistance to the rotation.Steam turbine-driven electric generator: The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy.
For best efficiency. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam.• • Barring gear: Barring gear or turning gear is the mechanism provided to rotate the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed after unit stoppages Condenser : The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. • • • • .
the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented . Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 °C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure.
This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermalshock to the boiler metal when the feed-water is introduced back into the steam cycle. . Feedwater heater: Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.
A deaerator typically includes a vertical. There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another .Deaerator: Generally. power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feed water storage tank.
larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling. is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses . While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet. in an oil-sealed casing.Auxiliary systems Oil system An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. Generator heat dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates.
The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines.Generator high voltage system The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation(of the order of 115 kV to 520 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid .
Other systems Monitoring and alarm system Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication .
The four main circuits of the Thermal Power Plant : i) Coal & Ash Circuit ii) Air & Flue Gas Circuit iii) Feed Water & Steam Flow Circuit iv) Cooling Water Circuit .
COAL STORAGE COAL HANDLING ASH STORAGE ASH HANDLING BOILER Coal is used as the fuel & burnt in the boiler for the generation of steam. . Ash is produced due to the combustion of coal and it is removed from the furnace and stored in the ash storage yard.
This fresh air is preheated by the hot flue gases. CHIMNEY . Then this hot flue gas is used to heat the feed water in the Economiser & to preheat the atmospheric air in the Air preheater. The hot flue gases leaves the boiler. Fresh atmospheric air is supplied to the air preheater through fans. The flue gas passes through the dust collector for removing the dust particles. Finally the flue gas leaves to the atmosphere Boiler through chimney. This Hot air is supplied to the Boiler. Dust collector HOT AIR economiser Hot flue gas Air preheater Draught fan Air from atmos.
The condensate (water) leaving the condenser is passing through the economizer where it is further heated by means of flue gases and recirculated into the boiler. This steam is further heated in the super heater to increase the pressure & temperature. in which the water is converted into steam. where the heat energy of the steam is converted into mechanical energy. steam is used to rotate the turbine) The superheated steam expands over the turbine blades and it drives the turbine shaft which is coupled to the electrical generator. This high pressure high temperature steam passes through the steam turbine. Then the expanded steam passes to the condenser where it is condensed to water. . (ie . The feed water enters into the Boiler tubes.
. cooling water pumps and Cooling Tower. The hot water coming from the condenser is cooled in the cooling tower and it is re-circulated. This circuit consists of condenser. Abundant quantity of water is required for condensing the steam in the condenser which is taken from river or lake.
•Steam is generated in the boiler of the thermal power plant using heat of the fuel burnt in the combustion chamber. The function of the condenser is to condense the steam coming out of the low pressure turbine. •The steam coming out of the steam turbine is condensed in the condenser and the condensate is supplied back to the boiler with the help of the feed pump and the cycle is repeated. . •The function of the Boiler is to generate steam. •The steam generated is passed through steam turbine where part of its thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy which is further used for generating electric power.
The function of the condenser is to increase the pressure of the condensate from the condenser pressure to the boiler pressure. super heater. air heater and feed water heaters are used in the primary circuit to increase the overall efficiency of the plant . The other components like economizer. The function of the steam turbine is to convert heat energy into mechanical energy.
a huge amount of heat is lost in the condenser and secondly heat losses occur at various stages of the plant. Firstly. The overall efficiency of a steam power station is quite low (about 29%) mainly due to 2 reasons. THERMAL EFFICIENCY: η(thermal) = OVERALL EFFICIENCY: η(overall) = .
Initial plant. It can respond to rapidly changing load. hence transmission cost & losses are reduced. It can be located near the load centre. Less space is required. cost is low compared to hydel . Generation of power is continuous.
Efficiency of the plant is less. Transportation & handling of fuel is major difficulty. . Coal resources are depleting continuously. Maintenance & operation cost are high. Power generation cost is high compared to hydel power plants. Long time required for erection. Life of the power plant is comparatively less.
PROCESS INVOLVED IN THERMAL POWER PLANT STATION .
Steel & cement are other major consumers. 98.COAL AND ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA Coal. power . Seventy percent of the total coal produced is consumed for generation. Expected to increase to 427 million tonne in 2010. oil. gas and hydroelectric potential constitute the conventional sources of electricity generation.668 MW. coal reserves Coal production increased from 30 million tonnes to over 348 million tonnes in 1999. Total installed capacity of electricity generation in India is approx. India ranked third in the world with 7 percent of the total world reserves.
Expected to increase to 427 million tonne in 2010. Steel & cement are other major consumers.668 MW. coal reserves Coal production increased from 30 million tonnes to over 348 million tonnes in 1999.COAL AND ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA Coal. power . India ranked third in the world with 7 percent of the total world reserves. 98. gas and hydroelectric potential constitute the conventional sources of electricity generation. Total installed capacity of electricity generation in India is approx. oil. Seventy percent of the total coal produced is consumed for generation.
THE PRINCIPAL INVOLVED IN THE CLASSICAL POWER PLANT .
2% 13.0% 08. 51.9% 06.3% Japan 21.9% 07.8% 03.2% 01.1% 15.7% 19.4% 02.2% 16.Source Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Hydro Others India 59.3% 02.9% U.2% .5% 17.S.8% 00.1% 30.6% 22.
DM plant and Boiler blow down. Noise Pollution :- Land Degradation :- . High noise levels due to release of high pressure steam and running of fans and motors About 100 million tonnes of fly ash is generated by use of coal far energy production. The disposal of such large quantity of fly ash has occupied thousands hectares of land which includes agricultural and forest land too. NOx & Green house gas (CO2) are also matter of concern Water Pollution :Mainly caused by the effluent discharge from ash ponds.ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN COAL BASED POWER GENERATION Air Pollution :High particulate matter emission levels due to burning of inferior grade coal which leads to generation of large quantity of flyash Emissions of SO2. condenser cooling /cooling tower.
1.) DUE TO HARMFULL GAS EMMISSION DURING PROCESS IT HAS GREAT .)DEADLY EFFECTS OF POLLUTION WHICH IS GIVEN OUT AS A BIO PRODUCT IN THERMAL POWER PLANT PROCESS. 3. 2.) IT IS GREAT HAZARD TO THE HUMAN AS WELL AS FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT.
More than 25.6 MW (as on July. More than 630 million M3 water is required for disposal of coal ash as in slurry form per annum . 2003) 27 gas/naphtha based power plants with total generation capacity of 11299. Seventy one per cent of electricity production is based on coal and gas in the country.9 MW (as on July. 83 coal based thermal power plants with total generation capacity of 62880. 2003) More than 240 million tonnes of coal with ash content 35-45% is consumed annually by the Thermal Power Plants.which is 89% of total emission of SO2 from industries in India Nearly 100 million tonnes per annum coal ash is generated.000 hectares of land has been occupied for conventional disposal of ash. 3715 MT/day of SO2 is emitted from coal based power plants.
Pollutants CO2 Particulate Matter SO2 NOx Emissions (in tones/day) 424650 4374 3311 4966 .
Cement 7% Sugar 10% Others 1% Thermal Power Plants 82% Share of Suspended Particulate Matter Load (tonnes/day) by Different Categories of Industries (With Control Device). Total Load = 5365 tonnes/day .
Share of Sulphur Dioxide Load (Tonnes / day) By different categories of Industries (Total Load = 3715 Tonnes / day) Oil Refineries 3% Steel 5% Sulphuric Acid Plants 2% Others 1% Thermal Power Plants 89% .
may be prescribed limit of 150 mg/Nm3 irrespective of the generation capacity of the plant .EMISSION STANDARDS FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS Power Generation Capacity < 210 MW Particulate Emission Matter 350 mg/Nm3 150 mg/Nm3 = > 210 MW Depending upon the requirement of local situations. 1986. which may warrant stricter standards as in case of protected areas the State Pollution Control Board within the provisions of the Environmental (Protection) Act.
where Q is emission rate of SO2 in kg/hr. However. for larger capacities boilers (500MW and above) space provision for installing FGD system has been recommended.3 . H= Stack Height 220 275 200/210 or less than 500 MW 500 MW and above .) H = 14 (Q) 0. Power generation capacity Less than 200/210 MW Stack Height (mts.STACK HEIGHT REQUIREMENTS For the proper dispersion of SO2 emission from thermal power plant. stack height criteria have been adopted in country.
Total number of power plants Air Pollution Power plants complying with emission standards Power plants not complying with emission standards Power plants closed : 81 : : : 43 35 03 Water Pollution Power plants complying with ash pond Effluent standards Power plants not complying with ash pond Effluent standards Power plants closed : : : 49 29 03 .
Inconsistent supply of coal High resistivity of coal Inefficient operation of ESPs Delay in supply of ESPs Low Specific Collection Area (SCA) of ESPs Inefficient management of ash ponds Large quantities of ash generation .
sulphur and other impurities (coal benefaction) ca n be reduced from the coal before it is burned Combustion technologies : (FBC : CBFC. NOx and CO2 can be minimised by adopting improved combustion technologies End of pipe treatment (installation pollution control equipments such as ESP. IGCC) Post combustion technologies : Generation of emissions of SO2. fuel switching. is necessary.Need for adoption of CCTs To meet in creasing demand of power with minimal environmental impact for sustainable development. use of washed coal.PFBC. Classification : Pre-combustion Technologies : Ash. AFBC. efficient pollution control systems and proper by-product and waste handling & utilization. DENOx & De SOx systems) . adoption of clean coal technologies with enhanced power plant efficiency.
stating that : “On and from the 1st day of June 2002. it was recommended to use beneficiated coal in the power plants. .USE OF BENEFICIATED COAL In order to minimise fly ash generation. namely : Power plants located beyond 1000 km from the pit head and Power plants located in urban area or sensitive area or critically polluted area irrespective of their distance from the pit head except any pit headed power plants. A Gazette notification has been issued under EPA. PFBC & AFBC) and IGCC technologies are exempted to use beneficiated coal irrespective of their locations. the following coal based thermal power plants shall use beneficiated coal with ash content not exceeding thirty four percent. 1986. The power plants based on FBC (CFBC.
39 plants are required to use beneficiated coal not containing ash more than 34% w.t. 2002.t. shall yield following benefits during 2002-03: Reduction in tonnage (MT) Saving in transport cost (US M$) Saving in Diesel consumption (KL) Reduction in Bottom Ash (MT) Reduction in Fly Ash (MT) Reduction in CO2 (MT) 11 240 63750 2 8 23 Out of 81 coal based thermal Power plants. . 2002. June 30.Implementation of use of beneficiated coal in thermal power plant w.r.r. June 30.
bottom ash or pond ash in the manufacture of bricks and other construction activities Utilisation of flyash by thermal power plants and Specifications for use of flyash based products by Government agencies . GSR .Ministry of environment and forests has issued following directions under section 3 & 5 of Environment (Protection) Act. 763 (E) dated 14/09/1999 Use of flyash. 1986 vide a Gazette notification no.
Submission of action plans by the power plants New Power Plants • 30 % flyash utilisation within 3 year • 100 % flyash utilisation within 9 years Existing Power Plants • 20 % flyash utilisation within 3 year • 100 % flyash utilisation within 15 years Out of 81 power plants. . 52 power plants have been submitted their action plans remaining have been asked to submit action plans immediately.
Existing coal based power plants being monitored by the regulatory agencies and directions are issued Use of Beneficiated Coal in Thermal Power Plants Emphasis on clean technology for new plants Emphasis on utilisation of fly ash Emphasis on non-carbon/low carbon based technologies for power sector Emphasis on on cogeneration .
SPACIFICATION OF THERMAL POWER PLANT: (1)Power plant should be far away from the recidential area (2)Plant should have enough space for the future implimention (3)The physical west should be remove at proper place to avoid its harm effect. (7)Policy of worker and machinery should be paid at proper time . (4)Plants machinery should be maintain well and their inspection must done the proper time interval (5)Safety of the plant worker or employ should be maintain (6)All machinery of plant should as per standard regulation by Government.
(3)Wanakbori power plant-1470mw (4) Sikka thermal power station-240mw .THERMAL POWER PLANT IN GUJARAT: (1)Gandhinagar thermal power station-870. (2)Ukai thermal power plant-850mw.
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