" The

spirit of antiquity,


In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, In picture speaking with heroic tongue,


with devout solemnities entwined

Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along, Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,


an harmonious decency confined,

As if the streets were consecrated ground, The city one vast temple, dedicate To mutual respect in thought and deed."












- 15 CENTf






THE TREE OF ARCHITECTURE, main growth or evolution of the various


The Tree must be taken as suggestive only, for minor influences cannot be indicated in a diagram of this kind.















(Formerly Professor of Architecture in King's College, London)






(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture

Formerly Lecturer on Architecture,

King's College, London





Bursar, 1893,

Tite' Prize Medallist,

1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallist for Design, 1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association ; Hon. Corr.

Member of the American Institute of Architects ; Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works,"














IN the Preface to the Fourth Edition

explained the


important additions

publication of this the present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an even more extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greater While much new matter has been introportion of the work.

which had been made since the original book in 1896, and I desire to point out that in

duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that already existing has not been overlooked, the utmost care having been

taken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplify such descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarks
as to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have been increased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up to

about 2,000. Many of the subjects shown in the previous have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of the

most recent discoveries.

The sale of four large editions in the space of a few years affords strong evidence that the book has been of service not only
to the strictly professional student and those connected with design in its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to that

body of amateurs to by year becoming a matter


Architectural History






It is gratifying to of lively interest. has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schools

in the leading Colleges

and Technical Institutions of Great

Britain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is upon these centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivated

and the future growth of interest in the Arts. causes have combined in helping towards the proper appreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts of design, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel, the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the general


interest in

The History

photography are undoubtedly important factors. of Architecture has, however, until recent years



been a sealed book to many who have wandered amongst the most beautiful creations of the building art without being able to understand their meaning or appreciate their quality a Grecian temple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling to them none of the evidences which render each a reflection of its own period in history, and which give to each ancient building
a special attraction, besides adding greatty to the interest and enjoyment of its examination.
of all ages,

Architecture has been described very truly as the printing press and it appears probable that in these days of enlightenof Architectural History will soon take its proper

ment the study

It is surely remarkable that place as part of a liberal education. it should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art with

which everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters us from the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines and illuminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcome

bound up with the history of the human not the mother of all other arts, since race, and, finally, from it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative crafts
of conditions intimately

of the succeeding ages


The time


in the

study of the architecture of the past


therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the history of other days, and enables the character and conditions of men


past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to all students and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem-

plating forms which will then have for

them a meaning and a






for helpful criticism in this edition,

lisher for his care in

Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher, and to my pubthe revision of the bibliography and in the



general production of the book. It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death of Professor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of the
present edition has been carried out by me.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1905.

in clear

Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to give and brief form the characteristic features of the archi-

tecture of each people and country, but also to consider those influences which have contributed to the formation of each
special style. They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject, Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround-

and that the main points of the physical geography, social progress, and historical development of each country require to be understood by those who would study and comprehend its

particular style.

In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and also
the qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analytical method has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities the
differences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the special character of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put in comparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles and, further;

more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases of each, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparative


styles themselves are then analysed

and the parts conthe analysis being carried out on the basis of the essential

As this system pervades parts which every building possesses. the whole book, either the influences, character, examples, or comparative features of each style, can be contrasted with those
in any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, which has been divided into five sections in each period, as follows



Geological, Climate.







v. Social




A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. B. Walls, their construction and treatment.



C. Openings, their character and shape. Roofs, their treatment and development.

E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration. F. Mouldings, their form and decoration. G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.




divided into the six leading influences that



expected to shape the architecture of any country or people, the first three being structural, the next two the civilizing

and the


containing those external historical events



alter or

vary the foregoing.
is, its


2 describes the character of the architecture, that

special quality,

and the general


produced by the buildings

as a whole.


the chief buildings in each described, being the corpus, which the style, briefly influences affect and from which the subsequent preceding

3 contains the

named and

comparative analysis is deduced. SECTION 4 is this comparative analysis,



in which every style of regarded as the solution of certain fundamental each building must have all or most of the parts



G, and consequently there is both interest and instruction be gained in learning and comparing how each style has
5 gives authorities and more especially directs the reader wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.

solved these points of the problem.



In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 the authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are



necessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow, even by those who have had the technical training, and have
either the building or complete

drawings of it before them. They have therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations, and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of the special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to. It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students who require an outline of architectural history as part of their artistic and professional education, but also to the increasing number of art workers who are interested in architecture in its relation to it is those accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly believed that a work in which architecture is treated as a result and record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasing public which interests itself in artistic development.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1896.


List of Illustrations

Prehistoric Architecture

General Introduction

Egyptian Architecture

Western Asiatic Architecture Greek Architecture



Early Christian Architecture Byzantine Architecture

Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) Italian Romanesque French Romanesque German Romanesque Gothic Architecture in Europe (General Introduction)
English Architecture

.......... PART THE HISTORICAL ........... .......... ..... .... ........... .......... .......... .......... .......... ....






1 1 1






















228 246
258 267
3.2 7



.....>...... ......... ....
. . . .




Early English Gothic Decorated Gothic
Perpendicular Gothic













. .








35 6

Scottish Architecture


. .

Irish Architecture







French Gothic Architecture Belgian and Dutch Gothic German Gothic Italian Gothic Spanish Gothic















424 437
^446 "446 45 6



Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) Italian Renaissance Architecture
. .






The Florentine School The Roman School The Venetian School
Vicenza and Verona









. .... .. . 623 628 . A . . Architecture in the United States . .. ..... '. ... . . .. .687 697 Index . \ . ... .. . 603 . . . . .. .. . The Jacobean Style The Anglo-Classic (Seventeenth Century) Style The Queen Anne (Eighteenth Century) Style/ The Nineteenth Century Style (1800-1851) . \ . .. .. . . Egyptian Spanish Persian Turkish Indian Glossary of Architectural . . .. ... . . 1851 to present time . ...671 Terms . . British Colonial Architecture . 578 .. ... . . .. . . 561 \ ..652 . Belgian and Dutch Renaissance Spanish Renaissance English Renaissance Architecture The Elizabethan Style .. .. 589 593 597 598 ... PAGE 495 496 497 5^7 . V German Renaissance . . .. ... .XIV Italian Renaissance Architecture \s CONTENTS..... .. 605 612 . .. . U Milan and Genoa The Rococo Style French Renaissance Architecture i- . . (b) (c) Chalukyan Dravidian .. . General Introduction Indian Architecture 1. ... 614 618 618 \.. . . 3. . . . .. .. . .. . ... . . . 634 653 657 659 659 663 667 669 . .. . \./. . 2.. . . .... . continued. . . . . . . . . 567 .. . . \ . ..527 533 545 551 f . . The Buddhist Style The Jaina Style The Hindu Style (a) Northern Hindu . PART II. . . THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. . . \. . . . .. . .\ /"A .... . .. . .. Chinese and Japanese Architecture Ancient American Architecture . .. . .. Saracenic Architecture Arabian Syrian . .. .

. No. Perrot and Chipiez.W. .. ^Cockerell.. ^5. at Delos .. Penrose. XV11 GREEK ARCHITECTURE.. W. 14....... ." Temple of Apollo. angle 17. transverse section longitudinal section ^y. D K F . Greek Construction Portico of Parthenon. on the . . . . Chipiez. Name.. Capital of a column D E F Perrot and { The Gate of 16. Lions. Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter .. S. Penrose. I .. 19. . of Parthenon as at present at . view >C.. .. Panhellenius) at JEgina... of (The Theseion). K. Authorities. part plan angle of Parthenon as restored . section . Athens Penrose and others. Mycenae Acropolis at Tiryns.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. plan .. H.A. Treasury of Athens. .. . I Comparative plans of various forms of Temples.. . . . . west pediment east elevation . Restoration of a Doric entablature .. Island A B c Stuart and Revett. ... . Cockerell.... S. . Greek Examples III.. . 18. . Map of Greece... L f Plan of the Acropolis Greek Examples II. Greek Examples I..R.^ " . Pelasgic System of Construction. . Greek Examples IV.. The Doric OrderTemple of Ceres at Paestum Temple of Neptune (the Great Temple) at Paestum Temple ^Egina of Aphaia of Temple Theseus Athens The Parthenon (Temple of Athena).. .... j f ( .. Cockerell. plan I Gailhabaud. half elevation half transverse section .. of upper Acroterion Acroterion ridge tile. Athens . . . A B c Gailhabaud. View of lower Acroterion . F G.. . . f . A B c D. . . . .. E. 20. . plan Portion of shaft of column ' . Antefixse F.

.. end view of angle plan . . cornice looking up . fa9ade longitudinal section details of Interior .. . Stuart and Revett. south sides setting out of flutes section of entablature frieze of west cella wall plan of cornice looking . ... . .. . . . .. .. . The Theseion. Authorities. . Athens . Athens ... transverse section half south elevation. >n through (half se Michaelis. . method columns . ... Naos . : J Photo./ . ... . The Propylaea. plan (... ... Name. . . . Greek Examples VIII.. ambulatory . up . . . 23.. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. view fror sectional . . .. The Parthenon.. . .. half longitudinal section of .. . . . . longitudinal section . The Parthenon.. View of angle Comparative Restorations of the Methods of Lighting the Interiors of Greek Temples Method of lighting by Method of lighting by 26. Greek Examples V.. . plan of existing Lacunaria north and Metopes. . west .... 25.. ... 21. . Order i. clerestory skylight . | detail elevation of enta- blature 22. The so-called Theseion.XV111 No. Greek Examples VI... . . or Temple ' ? of Hephaestos east elevation . east fa9ade . . Athens. . Athens.. statue of Parthenos 24. half se Opist . Greek Examples VII.

Greek Examples VIII. Temple at Eleusis Greek Examples XII. No.. H. of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae. elevation section . Psestum.. J .') 29.. ... Athens... Inwood... plan long. Temple Temple at . .... . . P Q. and section Tower of the Winds.. F. .. . . N. The Temple of Neptune. section . Cockerell. . M. A. E F \ Penrose. . . c. B. F > Cockerell. of Jupiter Olympius at AgrigenSicily. transverse section G J Greek Examples IX..w.. . Choragic monument of Lysicrates. L. . Sicily. . The Propylaea.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .... Temple tum. Temple of Apollo Epicurius. plan long. sketch from N.. section elevation . D ) G J Stuart and Revett. . . Cockerell. . Athens Plan. . at Bassae north elevation transverse section . . . . details of capital Corinthian column . .. detail of single Corin- thian column . .. j. east portico The Archaic Temple of Diana. . Greek Examples XI.. mouldings 28... Middleton and others. . section Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum.. 30.. K M R Murray. E Interior plan of . Cockerell. Athens. Order . A B L ) east elevation S--'} - **<"' . continued. Paestum (the Basilica).. The Ionic OrderTemple on the Ilissus The Erechtheion. plan elevation . plan . ' ) . . Stuart ' (and Revett's Athens. elevation. . Gailhabaud. . . Stuart and Revett. .E. . Mauch. section through mutule ' . . elevation Durand. o. The Erechtheion. . XIX Authorities.. . . N j Greek Examples X. . I (Vol. . . Ephesus Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae ~ -\. w /. . . plan 27. . . . ... .... IV. . Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum. .. G of H. plan . Order . section detail of Interior . Mauch... Name.. plan. 26. setting out of flutes details of large K L. elevation .

.. theatre at Greek Examples Mausoleum at . . Lysicrates. view front fa9ade . [ 31. . the Stoa. and Angle view Athens . base and entablature south fa9ade three other restorations: D E F. 32. . F Plans of capital. E . Authorities. elevation . elevation section north elevation pl an .. Halicarnassos. . XIV. . continued. . Rome . . Orange Typical Greek theatre Roman 35. Cockerell. H 36. . and Revett. plan through base Sarcophagus from a tomb at Cnidus.. Choragic Monument of Athens 33- Comparative Examples of Greek and The A * B C D... Middleton and others. plan section ... . XII. Temple of Diana at Ephesus. Roman Pantheon... Greek Examples XIII... Diagram Capital of Corinthian Capitals.. .. . G H Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Theatres. . column to portico. at Olympia. Lion Tomb. Athens of capital from the .. looking up Typical example of Greek Acanthus leaf 34. Greek Examples XV.... Cnidus. . . .. side elevation 1 . .. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. G. . . . . Murray... . 30. end . Name. west fa?ade enlarged capital. . and > Society of Dilettanti. . Photo. .. .. Stoa. .XX No.. "Tomb of the Weepers' . plan Heraion . Typical Roman Acanthus leaf Plans of capital (A) looking up of relative sizes of Pantheon. transverse section half plans of basement and peristyle .. Inwood... south .. . Greek Examples The Erechtheion. enlarged elevation of Caryatid Porch 6? \.. .. Taylor and Cresy. .. west . . Newton and Pullan. Stuart Rome. elevation section west elevation half plans of peristyle roof '. ...

Canephora .. Rome. Taylor and Cresy... . Dr.-. Delos enlarged triglyphs. portico of Erechtheion..... Volute from Cyprian tomb Capital from Egyptian wall painting Bronze armour plate from Tamassos. sketch of angle 42..... Athens. side view front view . . . . . Comparison of Greek Mouldings I Comparison of Greek Mouldings II Greek Ornament The Ionic Volute I... Pantheon. .. enlarged capital.. . Volute Ionic Volute described by a whelk-shell Angle capital. elevation of the Pantheon. . Chambers. Athens Stuart and Revett. Durand. Cyprus . . \ J Temple on Ilissus. . Doorway of the Pantheon.... and and Roman Roman A N to Various. . Temple of Theseus the . } j Greek Corinthian Corinthian Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.. Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Doorways.. plan of piers . Greek Doric Athens Roman Doric. Rome. .. 37. A B. . Ward.. details c Mauch and Donaldson..... Name. XXI Authorities. half section half front view . looking up Temple of Nike Apteros... No.. . elevation of piers . . Doorway . . Erechtheion. ) M j" to V Taylor and Cresy. Richter. ... Mauch. . Comparative diagrams of the Greek and Roman Orders of Architecture. side view . . Ionic. . 1 40..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .. Doorway. . ornament from roof of choragic of Lysicrates. Stuart and Revett and Cockerell. Stuart and Revett. Rome . ... Greek Ornament Scroll II..... plan. Capital from Neandria Capital from the Heraion at Olympia Ionic Lycian tomb Goldman's method of describing Ionic . Mauch. D E to H 38... Athens Sanctuary of the Bulls. elevation details ... at } | Stuart and Revett. 41. Stuart and Revett. key plan Monument J. by Scamozzi Mauch... . side view front view . by Vignola Greek Ionic Athens Roman Roman 39- ... . N.

. .. .. . Stuart and Revett. to M Plan of the Roman Fora 1 A. . of Jupiter Olympius. Athens . 4546. . plan section elevation . ... Temple Athens of the Winds. . .. 49. . .. from . . Stuart and Revett. section . Caryatid figure from Erechtheion Greek Funeral Stele Typical with | Anthemion 43- Stuart and Revett. III.. C.. of the Winds. Map of the Roman Empire. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. f 48. . Honeysuckle ornament Lion's head. J. L Portion of caryatid figure Antefixa ornnment M N C.XX11 No. .. K. j Greek Ornament Capital. Watt. Roman Examples I. Athens Half elevation of Stele Head 44- . . A B c J. H j \ j Stuart and Revett.. Virilis. Capital. Tower . . Name. .. . Rome. Roman 47- facing and methods of heating vaulting and domes of concrete A I to H 1J./ Capital. 42.. . The Forum Romanum restored Joseph Gatteschi.Watt. Arch of Goldsmith's or Cresy. j Henry Middleton. A B I Athens Sculptures. Choisy. Cockerell. ... . front side . c Tower . Crowning ornament.. continued. . D. D E F Anta capital from Erechtheion Portion of frieze from Parthenon G Metope from the Parthenon Acanthus ornament Console from Erechtheion . Taylor and Cresy and others. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. view from the south-west . choragic Monument of Lysic rates. E .. .. \ II.. front fa9ade flank facade Arch of . choragic Monument of Lysicrates Stele head . . Roman Examples .. .. Greek Ornament II.. Temple of Fortuna . Rome. F Greek Ornament IV. Authorities. Roman System of Roman walling Construction of concrete with brick . Taylor and Silversmith's. Rome. plan . . Titus. plan elevation ..

North Africa Tomb at Dugga.. half .. near Tunis. .... . Taylor and Cresy.. . Roman Examples Tomb . peri- D . ment style and . j view of remains . . part . Great Temple . VI. . K Photo. J^Dawkins. . Temple . . front fa9ade details of entablature . L . transverse section. . plan of Jupiter.. c | Durand. Antoninus . . plan . Maison Carree. . at Nimes.. at Baalbec. .. Syria. . Rome Tomb at Wadi-Tagije. . . . V... . detail of to cornice corbel. plan front facade . .. M N Palladio.. Temple of Diana . . Rome. No. . . . section . . section front elevation part side elevation . cross section . III. . 49.. XX111 Name. Nimes .. . G Maison Carree. .. D H. 52.. D E F Palladio. and D E F Wood. . . . K L ^ Temple of Mars flank facade Ultor. . half section A B half long. Roman Examples Temple . .. . J. Rome... \\.-contimted. 51. . Authorities. . ... .. 54. plan and view . . . Roman Examples Temples . . . Middleton. Great Temple . part long.. perspective view half plans of base. at Rome. elevation half section A B c .. H I Rome. fa9ade ... Nimes. Asia Minor. Roman Examples The Pantheon ...section ... fa?ade section through . G A B c. of Saturn. cross section . plan 53.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. J Taylor and Cresy. . G Tomb at S. entrance . .. enclosing wall detail of main cornice .. E F Sketches. . . . 50. . { j half-plan Bronze mouldings round the " eye r . Tomb of Caecilia Metella. Rome. A B c plan part front elevation long. .. IV. plan ... .. .. Temple of Venus and Rome. . Remi in the Temple of . . Society of Dilettanti. . .. . .... at Mylassa. Roman Examples . plan . N o P . South of France and Faustina. H j '. . . . section .

. ... ... plan interior view . Arch of Septimius Severus. elevation .. the order and key plan .. . 61. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... 59- . and . .. . .. VII. . The Colosseum .. Roman Examples The Colosseum.. detail of capital keystone of arch coffer . section transverse section ... . 5556. .. . . ... arch the order and key plan . plan .. Rome. . Tivoli.. ceiling .. A B 60 Roman Examples . .. Pont du Card.. elevation Circus of Maxentius. .. section . . . Rome Plan (restored) Palace of Diocletian at ... section . Interior view . . . . of Vesta. . . . Nimes..... Photo. . . the order and G key plan . 57- Roman Examples . Nlmes . ' . Authorities The Pantheon. Basilica Ulpia.. .. . % .xxiv No. Piranesi. X. D B E J. Rome. elevation . D E F . . part elevation section. Baths of Caracalla. . section elevation .. Name. .. Verona .. H J detail of capital to coffer peristyle .. 62.... . A B c . .. .. . Taylor and Cresy. K A c 58.. Rome. Baths of Diocletian. Roman Examples Spalato IX. . plan . Middleton.. capital. .. ... Roman Examples VIII. . .. . from central / B C The Pantheon. The Pantheon.. H. Rome.. XI. . near Rome.. elevation . Pont du Gard. 64. Amphitheatre.. A ... . half plan details of capital . plan Circular Temple of Baalbec. plan Trajan's Column. Basilica of Maxentius. . long. plan 63.. Temple . section .

.. Cresy. . II. C D.. Roman gladiator's helmets Roman arm chair Roman Ornament III. C D'Agincourt. Chapter House at Wells S. details of cornice . F 66.... Temple of Jupiter at Rome. F. . . Watt.. Pantheon.. Wall fresco . Pompeii chariot Typical Roman tomb . M ... of frieze '... and octastyle form of Temple A. 's Chapel . elevations Gailhabaud. Tetrastyle. > i\ plan Gailhabaud. 65. M Durand. Rome Roman altar Pilaster capitals .. j Pilaster Villa Medici. Arch of Titus.. at Pompeii . keystone.. . Rome . . Roman Examples House of Pansa ? XII.:. .. J Durand. Arch of Septimius Severus Roman Ornament I. Rome Baptistery. panel . C Arch of Trajan. >. J. . . ... j) section. E .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Rome. * . 69.. B D. G H J Gwilt. Forum of Nerva. H K L C... v E G. . of Mars Ultor. Temple 68. C... . D F . [ plans . in span: K L. portion . Watt. Photo. F G . . Roman console... capital Arch of Titus.. Beneventum Arch of Septimius Severus. H J Etruscan candelabrum . A. capital . F G ) H Taylor Tatham. . hexastyle. . Pisa Proportions of mediaeval cathedrals Section of Henry VII.... . .. Rome Figures : Pompeian candelabrum . .. J. Name. Mosaic pavement. Rome.. Jupiter Stator... Roman Ornament Temple of .. ) Taylor C. plan of coffer . . cornice . and j Cresy... F Durand. A B I Arch of Septimius Severus. Rome Bronze candelabra Typical Roman tripod altar Typical Roman baths Rostral column Roman 70. Taylor and [ Temple Rome. H.. George's Chapel. B. A. S. N M drels of main arch Baths of Titus..- XXV Authorities. looking up of Antoninus and Faustina. 67. Meyer... .. Pan- theon. . Rome u section .. Corinthian pilaster capital... C B D. No. key elevation . Windsor Section of King's College Chapel K L . and E Cresy. Principles of Proportion.

E. 72. Choisy. F. Correction of apparent proportions Effect of color on proportions Pennethorne. prevent appearance of sagging Optical illusions caused by convex and . Authorities. concave curves. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Name. when diawn to parallel straight lines in relation H. G A. The Parthenon Inclination of columns Method of drawing entasis of column The Parthenon Optical corrections to : : ViolleMe-Duc. Optical Corrections in Architecture. J EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.XXVI No. Pennethorne. . 71.

. exterior K Constantinople.. Byzantine Examples Sophia. Constantinople. . Constantinople. [ E F. section . plan D .. 87. . interior Photo. Constantinople. j. .. plan of Galla Placidia.. D E F Dehio and Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.. . . .' _ H . S.. D j E F exterior G H y A. .. 82.. A. S... . Rome. W. section Mark. longitudinal section '. 78. .... S. . exterior Mark. Front... .. A c B \ . .. S.. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.... Mark. view S.. construction to find outline of pendentive interior Sergius. . Constantinople.. .".. Constantinople. Rome... . .. view Sergius. Rome. plan A . Gailhabaud. Name. elevation section Sophia. Tomb S.. . .. 85- 86. Sophia. sketch . Comparative Examples of Early Domed Structures. exterior S. Mark.. and S.. B ) Lethaby and Swainson... 83. elevations section of Theotokos.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Dome Method S.. 79- Byzantine Examples Byzantine System of Construction. . .. mosaic floor .. Sophia. . XXV11 Authorities.... plan . S.... II. c Gailhabaud. c. S. Constantinople. ground plan Photo. . B c S. W. . . Maria Maggiore. Constantinople.. Sophia. section . S. . . o plan . J . .. mosaic. The Minerva Medica.. plan . . Venice. .: r .. . plan . plan . Sophia. interior Byzantine Examples IV. Clemente. in Digby Wyatt.. . .. Photo. mosaic frieze cloister S. Constantinople. Ravenna. . Front.... . S. view view 80. 84- Byzantine Examples S. No. Choisy. . Sergius. Von Bezold. Early Christian Ornament continued. Perigueux. Church and E. A B C. III. section S. section . B Isabelle... Constantinople. . Giovanni. Photo. north-east A \ Salzenberg... Cathedral at Athens. . . Perigueux. Vitale. S... Digby Wyatt. . Cattaneo.. parapet and pilaster S.. section Sophia.. .. D'Agincourt. S. S. I. Constantinople. longitudinal 81. . sectional . S. D Gailhabaud. . Gailhabaud.. Giovanni. Venice. Rome. elevations .

. Authorities Byzantine Capitals Venice Byzantine Ornament. Cathedral and Leaning . Gynaeceum. window from the section . S. capital from S. Mark. Thessalonica. Photo. f- Salzenberg. Map The of Europe at the Death of Charles the Great. Sophia.. Demetrius. Ionic capital . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. 91.XXV111 No: 88. Sophia. Texier and Pullan. Bowl and tile capital S.... Sophia. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 90.. 89. S.. Baptistery. bird and basket capital . Demetrius... window from the elevation S. Bird Corinthian capital J ( Salzenberg. f { Lethaby and Swainson.. . Texier and Pullan.. Gynaeceum. Sophia. Name. S. Byzantine Corinthian j capital S. . .

capital and base Cathedral.. Angouleme Cathedral.'. 106. ... German Romanesque Ornament. Photo.. Abbaye-aux-Hommes. . . double capital Limburg Cathedral. Cathedral. Caen Porch of S.. 100. capital S.. plan . S. The Abbaye-aux-Hommes. part elevation .. .. column .. plan Worms . window Worms Cathedral. . towers Worms Cathedral. Cologne. Church of the Apostles. . part . Trophime.... No. . capitals Church of S. part section transverse section . Name The Abbaye-aux-Dames. Pantaleon. . ... D'Ouezy. . . S. elevation part section .. . German Romanesque Examples. . corbel Angouleme Cathedral. capital . 99. K . cornice ... . French Romanesque Ornament.. 103. plan 107.. ...... capital and base G H J Limburg Cathedral. Laach Abbey Church. section through Sharpe. capital Pontorson.. frieze S. doorway . Photo. A.. Cologne 105. .. Cologne... capital Plans of piers 104. exterior transverse section interior Pugin. . ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. archivolt frieze . Caen French Romanesque Examples.. D E F Worms Gereon. 102. B c Gereon. Cologne. Limburg Cathedral. Aries .. . corbel .'. . Ilsenburg Cathedral. . Fleac. . XXIX Authorities. Abbaye-de-Montmajour. Church of the Apostles.... corbel table Vaison. Worms Cathedral . capitals .. capitals .. Trophhne. Photo... dome 101. A B Paul-Trois-Chateau. plan .. section ... .

.. Southwark.. Comparative Diagrams and A B c Domes. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. Name.. trussed rafter roof Trinity roof S. . Perpendicular fan vaulting . . A Chapel. English Gothic Examples II.... ... Chartres in.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs.. Perpendicular stellar vault interior view .. . . . showing progress of Gothic Vaulting.. No. 109. Authorities. mediate ribs . Map of Mediaeval Europe. .-. . Decorated Lierne vault S. Purchase. E F Peterborough.-. s 113. A B c stilted showing and transverse groins D sexpartite vaulting external view Abbaye-aux-Hommes. .. hammer-beam roof D . Milan Evreux Cologne Vienna . p.. vaulting . Waggon .... Mary.. Redcliffe. Thatcher. . M o Q Gloucester. setting out of groined vault A. Bristol Cathedral. . collar. braced roof . G plan . vaulting compartment . - B Brandon. . .. R.. Pulham. . .. H j. Cirencester.. . tie-beam .. .. E English Gothic Examples I.. ... Norman . . W. Stowe Bardolph Church.. . . R.. . N. Amiens Cathedral S.. Saviour. plan . D 1 10. .. .. 108. Comparative Views of Models of Continental Cathedrals. .. groined. . A B ( Viollet-le-Duc. A. C.. with inter- L others.. ... Principles of Gothic Construction. . .. . Roman cross Romanesque vault cross vault Byzantine and Renaissance domes Gothic vault Renaissance cross vault 112. . and f Salisbury. Notes. . Comparative Examples. .. Thirteenth Century. . . . . Mary Magdalen. . ... ... .. Parker. Cathedral. Early English groined vaulting Westminster Abbey. .. diagonal . . u . of Vaults A B C Photos- by D E T.. .. vault . K. .. c Trunch Church..

H J Thomas Morris... . Thatcher. ... ... A B C L> Photos by T. .... E F G H Comparative Views Cathedrals Salisbury of Models of English A B C * i> Lincoln Canterbury Norwich Ripon 117. Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs continued. ... .. .. English Gothic Examples II.. ..... 113.. . double hammer- beam roof .. Brit on... 2.. Carlisle Bristol . ... ' Murray.... No.. . .... .. . continued... . ..... . .. I IV. . .. . Ixworth Church... ... . Storer.. c ... .. Norwich Durham .. XXXI Authorities. . hammer-beam roof Evolution of hammer-beam 114.. aisle roof New Walsingham. Loftie. ... English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Worcester Canterbury 7 Gloucester .. Photos by T. Gloucester 116. Durham Ely Worcester Rochester Oxford .. . Willis.... . A 1 I Builder Cathedral Series... Lichfield English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Ely York Winchester Salisbury Peterborough Lincoln 118.. . . . Middle Temple Hall..... III....... G Brandon.......... ...... E F i.. ... II. ... .... . Thatcher. Thatcher.. Name. ... .... Storer... G H 115 Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals York Chester Peterborough Exeter Winchester Hereford Wells . A B c 1 'Builder Cathedral \ I D E Series..... .. Willis... .... Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals Chichester I... aisle roof Westminster Hall.... .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... Loftie.. . ... D E F Photos by T.. . Britton. ..... J Murray. . III... E F Weale.


Chevening House. .... G ( " Vitruvius Britannicus. Andrew. general plan Palace. Lines... Lambeth ... Comparative Plans of English Domestic Tower of London Oxburgh Hall Kenilworth Castle Hat field House.... view interior .. . Exterior Section Interior Plan 128. No. : Neale. I Bowman and Crowther. timber houses S. [-J. E F ) Gotch and Brown.. 134... Heckington.. cross sections . Earls Barton.. D. capital Wickham. Fan Vaulting English Gothic Examples X. F.. doorway Repton. . . capital S.... XXX111 Authorities.. . ' . . Chichester. D -Dollman. Photo. J K Chiddingstone. J ( Holkham Hall 32. window . Henry VII.. Cambridge... Typical English Parish Church S.. impost Sompting. George's Chapel. 130. . chimney stack section of hall roof C.. Chapel. Kerr. . sections 133. . S. : English Gothic Examples English Gothic Domestic Examples Penshurst Place. plans H.. ..... . plans Longford Castle Stoke Park . Kent. y Parker and Bloxam. . Name. L M.... . . elevation of great hall section of roof . . English Gothic Examples Westminster Abbey : IX....... Photo. . . plan . E F ......... plan and longitudinal section G H.. Saxon Architecture.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. English Gothic Examples Buildings : XI.. . Mary's Hospital. Westminster Abbey.A. Kerr. . capital . Westminster Abbey... . plan elevation section .. 129. window Corhampton. .. tower . .. . K XII. Henry VII. Deershurst. Kerr. Earls Barton. 127. Chapel. Benets. h j 131. . . Windsor. Rickman. N Photo..

n Sketches E F. nebule H J man. . G . . interior and exterior : Photo. Lines. The Evolution of Gothic Spires in England S. Church G . . Oxford Perpendicular. embattled 140. .. zigzag S. Chapter Ho. E F [ .. . Tower of London XIII. A .. James. Comparative Examples showing progress of English Gothic Cathedral Architecture Ely Cathedral. . Lincoln . / D English Gothic Examples XIV. Lines. Mary Magdalen. nave. choir. Lichfield Cathedral. chevron . S. . English Gothic Examples A B c hSharpe. English. Winchester. S. interior and . Rick- billet G Stoneleigh.. . Oxon.. interior and exterior . Wickes. Mary. Raunds.. 135- LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. M : English Gothic Examples XV. Louth. Comparative Examples showing progress of Engh'sh Gothic Cathedral Architecture (continued). . . Amiens and Kheims Constructive principle of the Mediaeval .. Michael. nave.XXXIV No. . nave. c Flying Buttresses. S. . D E F } C. Sharpe.. . .. Authorities. . . S. . . Divinity School. Hunts. . Grantham.. Northants. . Church. . Peterborough Ripon.. Coventry. Oxon. . .. chevron D E F Pr. Bloxam and others. Northants Keystone. Salisbury Cathedral S. : . Peters-at-Gowts.. Southwell Minster Decorated. John. Oxford Detached Flying Buttress. The Evolution of the Gothic Buttress Norman. 139. A B c Caen. John's Chapel. Contest..B E... . . Fountains Abbey . double cone S. . Winchester. . Peter. . . . Wulfran. S. K . A B c . Lincolnshire. Ely.. .. S.. exterior Ely choir.. interior and exterior 138. 136. L Lincoln. . . Peter. billet . Oxon Norman Mouldings. English Gothic Examples XVI.. . North Hinksey Abbaye aux-Dames. Name.rker. Canterbury Westminster.. interior and exterior Iffley G Photo. presbytery 137. beaks head Iffley. . Kettering. flower North Hinksey. Bloxham. S. Warwickshire H 141. .

Flamboyant example 143. . Cley half exterior and interior capital and base .. . Northants Norman . . H j Merton Colle e Chapel. Bowman and Crowther .. G Long Wittenham. A B c . Oxon K L M N o C 2 . .... clerestory windows Great Milton. ClympingCh. . curvilinear tracery . .. . elevation capital . Mary Magdalen. . Exeter Cathedral E. L . . . Rushden. . M N o p College Chapel. Font. elevation . Mary. Coleshill. Merton. English Tabernacle. Colling.. jamb mould . English Gothic Examples Doorways XVIII. . Oxon Perpendicular Sedilia.. English Font.. King's College Chapel . geometrical tracery S. No. . 142. S. G . Bedwin. Dorchester. . Suffolk Decorated Piscina. Comparative Examples showing progress of Gothic Tracery Development Lynchmere.. . arch mould jamb and arch mould capital and base . XXXV Authorities. .. . S. D E F . Mary. New Duston.. Lackford.. bar tracery Minster Lovel. : . . Mary. bar tracery . curvilinear tracery . Leicester Decorated Tabernacle. . Sedilia. Northants Decorated Sedilia. Herts Perpendicular Font. H j . . .. E. shire . grouped lancet lights Warmington.... H j Parker. ' D E F Braddon. . English Sedilia. - A B c J. K. Dinan. D E F Headington. Offley. K Pugin. Suffolk Decorated Font. G Perpendicular Piscina. . . S. Warmington. . Warwickshire E. Cobham. . M 144. Parker. Gt. Oxford. . and base jamb and arch moulds capital . rectilinear tracery. Oxford. and base jamb moulding John. . plate tracery Woodstock . English Gothic Examples XVII. Norman A B c Parker. Wiltshire . I. Sussex Norman Piscina. Kent E. ... . S.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . English Gothic Examples XIX. Name. Comparative Examples of English Gothic : Clare Church. K.. grouped lancet lights . plate tracery Wimborne Minster.. Crowmarsh. Cowling. English Piscina. .

141025 . Pew. Peter. Handborough. Oxon. Geddington Parker. I A. . Pugin. . tablet flower . * Parker... Decorated Haslingfield ) Church . Parker. English Gothic Ornament : Comparative Examples of Gothic Capitals and Carved Foliage " Norman " " " . . Sketch Book. Bloxam. K. parapet " " Perpendicular vine leaf and grapes cornice flower . \ M B c . Steeple Aston. Eagle Upwell S.. K L.. . Colling. . A j Parker. : IV. o.. Parker and Paley. j A. . I Perpendicular capitals... . "Decorated" "Perpendicular 147. spandrels M.. Name. Prince Arthur's Cathedral 146. .. Oxon. . Ch. . Comparative Mouldings of the Periods of Gothic Architecture " Norman" " capitals. c i " and spandrel ornament . B. . Early English Ferrers Higham j. Lectern. Roodloft. J. Perpendicular Ferry Church Stoke . . Parker. N. . ' .. I to 13 Early English . . English Gothic Ornament Gable Crosses . Glazier. H L - Bloxam. E. Wolvercot. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Worcester English Gothic Ornament : I. Oxfordshire Parclose Screen. . English Gothic Examples XX. . [ Northants J. .XXXVI No. typical crocket . parapet o 148. . capitals " capitals Early English " 'jDecorated capitals and A. Norfolk Coll.P 149. cresting rose . Pulpit (External). D K N E F ) R. Authorities. 39 to 54 English Gothic Ornament in Different Periods : II. .. . . H. crocket parapet " Decorated " four-leaved flower ball flower . Magdalene Oxford Pulpit. D. Chantry.261038 ... Parker. F G.. . [ Parker. piers '" . . .. Tudor Tudor flower. -Brandon. and Colling. Colling. bases.. G crocket .. ... . K. . 145... Comparative Selection of Gothic Ornaments Early English dog-tooth ornament. L . . III. .

K. Sanctus Bell Bloxham Church. j- plans of buttress D.... . FRENCH GOTHIC. French Gothic Examples I... No. section section through ... plan Nash.. .. entrance gate.the Grangepans. Decorated dral .... } Arthur Hill. Colling. Perpendicular Mary's Church... English Gothic Ornament IV.. . . 149. : Pendant Perpendicular York Minster All Perpendicular. continued. Alban's Abbey Early English Poppy-heads Paston Church. .. XXXV11 Authorities. plan view from the south-east . : . E. Rothesay Castle. .. 152. sanctuary N. Name. Finials : Early English dral . Paris. plan Doune Castle.. Oxon. .. \ Bulges. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Fergusson.. . ... Cowane's Hospital. George Heriot's Hospital. Cashel. . 153.. . Examples of Irish Architecture.. section through nave . F ) Notre Dame. long... . Arthur Hill. }]... way . Devenish Kilree.. 151... 150... : . Stone Bosses .... . Edmunds bracket: S. . . plan Glamis Castle. .. Lincoln Cathe- Winchester Cathe- Saints.. Cormac's Chapel. ^ f MacGibbon and Ross. .. . ... plan Castle. dral . Warwickshire Examples of Scottish Architecture. Lincoln Cathe- Westminster Abbey . Fergusson. wheel window . S.. Kilkenny . . Drum . Evesham Early English . . plan of crofts. plan . sketch from S. A c . Compton Wynyates. .E. Southwell Minster.. S.. section plan . Beauvais Cathedral. . . Bury St. Decorated . ... K Gailhabaud.E. ground plan view from the . . porch Tower. plan Castle Frazer. Norfolk Winchester Cathedral . P>om a Photo.

capital . Authorities... Paris . .... French Gothic Examples Notre Dame. . Coutances Cathedral.... Paris. II.XXXV111 No.. 154. Paris ... ..... 158. . Chalons sur-Marne Piers in Northern and Southern France . . open parapet stone pulpit .. Chartres. . Paris. 162. Paris.. Chapelle... View House of Jacques Cceur. 156.. foliage . . 161. Rouen . 159.. Notre Dame.. . . cross section interior bay . Rheims Cathedral...... A B C D E . Comparative Plans of English and French Types of Cathedrals.. . . 166... Interior . Bourges 164. ... figure sculpture .. Notre Dame. View of west front III.... . 165. .... . Mont S...... Michel.. \ *'_ Semur.. . : Comparative plans of cathedrals Evreux Oaen. . fleche ... Salisbury Cathedral Amiens 160. 163. /F 155.. capital and crocket Exterior Antwerp Cathedral.. grotesque figure Paris. French Gothic Examples Rouen S. bay . . . . Amiens.. .. exterior .. . Strasbourg Beauvais of Models of Continental Cathedrals. Notre Dame. .. plan Interior . .. Palais de Justice.. French Gothic Ornament. Notre Dame.. ... View of west front of west front . ... ... Amiens Cathedral. Name. . . 157. ... Rouen Chartres Rheims S. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .. . Comparative Views Amiens Rouen Antwerp Notre Dame.. ..

plan . .. Cologne. .. 177. Venice.. elevation . Examples Milan Cathedral.. Gelnhausen. XXXIX Authorities. German Gothic Ornament. Belgian Gothic Examples. E. miserere 175. Venice. Eliz heth... .. Interior . II.. parapet .. Photo. Photo. Exterior Italian Gothic . I.. Vienna Freibourg Cathedral. . German Gothic Examples Cologne Cathedral.. plan . M Photo.. elevation . Maria-dei-Fiori. Boisseree.. plan 171. B I) M oiler. . \ . S. Gudule. 169. Doge's Palace. Moller. 167.. C Norman Shaw. F Ratisbon Cathedral. Milan Cathedral. Venice Italian Gothic Palazzo della Examples Ca d'Oro. . .. .. 174. Photo. exterior section interior . . 168. plan I. section . No. Moller. .. 173. A. Cicognara. Paul. The Doge's Palace. J E G. tomb Milan Cathedral. . Photo.. Exterior. Gailhabaud.. A B C D. Florence. section transverse section Gailhabaud and others. Photo. fa?ade Palazzo Pisani. Vienna. Bruges Hall. 179. capitals . King. section .. doorway Bruges. S.. ... interior elevation - plan . . 178. L F Boisseree. 172. Antwerp . plan .. H Norman Shaw.. section.... Cathedral. . S. fa9ade Siena Cathedral. exterior . . Worms.. Town Town Hall. II. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ) '- corbel capital J gargoyles doorway K.. Marburg.... German Gothic Examples S. S. . . Stephen. plan .. King. G. Stephen. .. . . . 176... . . Brussels. Marburg. Ghent . . 170. long. Name.. piers H Photo. plan long.. section interior . section interior . canopy capitals S.

. Photo. . Burgos Cathedral... angle window Palazzo Scaligeri. window Pisa Cathedral. .. Interior Spanish Gothic Examples. Florence Cathedral.. Verona. . H L J K D G M. Ca d'Oro Palace... de . ) Ducal Palace. . Juan de los ..... Baptistery at Pisa. Toledo S. 191. 190... Raschdorff. pulpit Florence.xl No. plan of pulpit .. Pisa. Photo.. Gerona Toledo Lerida 1 ... Siena Cathedral. et court . . 187... . . Las pier of Huelgas.. candelabra Campo Snnto. Valladolid Spanish Gothic Ornament. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .. Exterior Burgos Cathedral. 184. . c . Maria del Mar. A B c .. Florentine Renaissance Examples I. Reyes... 182. . . Exterior cloisters . Authorities. ..... S. . plan Barcelona Cathedral. ... . . Burgos Cathedral. Photo. The Italian Gothic Ornament... S.. 1 86.. N -Waring. Palazzo Strozzi. . 180. canopy . E F RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. . L Street. plan . . Rohault de Fleury. Photo. . Photo. plan E F ( (Grandjean Famin... A \- Raschdorff.. capitals S. Photo. Venice. portion of pulpit lion and base of column . Venice Exterior . 183.. detail of capital from pulpit . Name. Naples. 88. . capital Cicognara. keystone . 181. main cornice section and elevation of . . . . . ornament from tomb Gonzalo . 189. tomb . . .. campanile 185. Infante's tomb base of Infante's . . Photo. Monreale Cathedral. Gil. .. capital .... balcony sculptured pier plan window of dome elbows of sedilia Miraflores. Venice. Barcelona.. [ I Rohault Fleury... Gregorio. Photo. Norman ") Shaw.

Palazzo Riccardi. Lorenzo.. . continued. . . . Mantua.. niche Banner bracket Piazzo Annunziata.. 196.. . .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Details of main cornice Front fa?ade Elevation of cortile Plan Section and plan through loggia Upper plan .. et j D'Agincourt. . Xli Name... Florentine Renaissance Ornament.. D'Agincoiirt.. J ( 192.. . plan .. 193. . Rome . Cancellaria Palace. D G / ( Grandjean et Famin. .. . long. Photo.. plan . Authorities.. II. Andrea. A. Rome II... corbel Palazzo Strozzi. .. Santa Croce. Rome . main cornice .. . window . section. Roman Renaissance Examples Farnese Palace. . Florence Florentine Renaissance Examples Pazzi Chapel... lamp bracket 195. . . B / ( elevation .. console from tomb Palazzo Vecchio.. Waring and Macquoid.. 198. . Palazzo Giraud. . Pandolfini. 191.. . I... Roman Renaissance Examples . elevation . Mercato Nuovo. . . window pilaster . capital Medici Chapel. section 194.. . B C D E F G. plan . long.. Grandjean Famin. Spirito. . .. plan 197. No. elevation .. Gondi. . . plan . S. capital . .. Duomo of Fiesole. J H .. S. plan Massimi Palace.. bronze fountain Palazzo Guadagni. . plan elevation .. Farnese Palace.... A B porch . Florentine Renaissance Examples Palazzo Riccardi. Grandjean et Famin. I section S. I. .. .


214. elevation of half fa9ade . Paul.. . Scuola di S. . .. . .... xliii Name. . pers ... to ditto ditto . plan 5 j . . section S. Maria della Salute . ... . Venice Palazzo Grimani... .section plan .. .. . . fa9ade . .. section long. fa?ade . . 213. capital M. half fa?ade .. . III. 208. Venetian Renaissance Examples S. capital and pilaster Greci. . .. .. 207. I.. Various Cathedrals. . plan Giorgio dei Greci. plinth . Venetian Renaissance Examples Mark's Library. campanile 215.... London Rome Pantheon. Palace. Mark.. cornices and capital 209... dei Miracoli. doorhead cornice .. Venetian Renaissance Ornament.. S... No. The Basilica at Vicenza . plan Palazzo Vendramini. doorway . section S.. ... facade . . . cornice.. cornices . . .. Venetian Renaissance Examples . .. Marco. elevation Half plan... 210.. cornices Doge's Palace.. . pedestal of flagstaff Equestrian statue of Colleoni.... Palazzo Vendramini. Venice Plans of Comparative S. . . panel and balustrade . fa?ade . Window S.. capitals . . Giorgio Maggiore.. Maria della Salute.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. S. S. long.. Venice II... Maria dei Miracoli. The Pesaro S.. . .. Palazzo Zorzi. Entablature and capital .. Paris Cologne Cathedral S. Peter. ...

. D E F Durand. key sketch .. fa9ade . . Chateau de Bury. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . Chateau De Chambord S. plan . elevation . .. . ... Photo. . D . Paris.. . . Verona. . 217. } . coffered ceiling .... part elevation . . elevation Palazzo Porto Barbarano. . J. .. Carega. . Photo. .. G K.. Waring and Macquoid. Sauvageot and Durand. D c E F - Reinhardt.. . . . ... 223. G / ' . plan .. Renaissance Examples in Genoa .. dome plan Paris. G plan . Palace. Genoa... . Vicenza. ... .. .. 216. . . Renaissance Verona. . .. . Typical cap Doorway 219. Sauvageot.. . .. M 220. doorway . . by Palladio. .. C \ Durand. . H and . . Escalier Francois Premier French Renaissance Examples I. dome plan .. II. J. . . Palazzo del Capitanio. Municipio. The Louvre.. . Palazzo Pompeii. . A B C . 218. H Durand. - Kinross.. A B c f Waring and Macquoid. .. . . E f plan . Name. elevation ... fa9ade . angle cornice key sketch Old Convent. . The Pantheon. plan Villa Capra. . pilaster .. . L Reinhardt. Examples Les Invalides. section long. . section through .. .. Photo. . Genoa. lavabo .. F Genoa and A B Palazzo Gambaro. A B C . . Villa Cambiaso..xliv No.. Sanmicheli's house.. . D E. . Paris. angle of cornice to doorway plan of cornice . plans Ornament in . D E F Palladio. plan . . . block plan 221.. Reinhardt. section .. . .. \ Reinhardt. . .. Chateau de Maisons.. Chambord.. . . . Paris. . . Chateau de Blois. elevation . section . 222.. fa9ade . . Paris French Renaissance. Authorities Renaissance Examples The Basilica at Vicenza. . A B Gailhabaud. Eustache. H J ) j" Kinross. elevation section . .. section through . .. . .. .. F ( Luxembourg . Verona.. elevation . .. . Verona. .

. Photo.. Antwerp and Dutch Ornament.. window Heilbron. G H J Renaissance A.. Renaissance A.. A.. capital Erfurt. cartouche Munich.. Chenonceaux. H J L'Eglise des Capucins. I..... Switzerland.) . B E Pfnor. bench-ends Antwerp.. C D E F VEwerbeck. panel Chateau de Chamborcl. .. capital . capital . . . .. 229... . doorway Gable end Enghien.. . door . dormer .. gable Freiburg. .. dormer window 231.. . C.. . H. B D E F Lambert and Stahl.. Haarlem. U Photo. fountain (Louis XV. G . statue . . .... Cesar Daly. console Versailles..... gable Utrecht.. S Paris.. dormer window Paris. Belgian and Dutch Examples. figures . H } L J.. . doorway II. K R. Antwerp.. lead fountain . .. J 226. . capital Brussels. Zalt Bommel.. staircase .. c D E F. Name. .. . Paris .. L. C .) Versailles. Cologne German Renaissance Examples. ... ornament Musee Plantin.. .. elevation Ober-Ehnheim. E The Town Belgian Hall. J The Pellerhaus. Lemgo Town Solothurn Town Hall.. C. P Q. O.. N. M 'rBerty.. .. pilasters Leyden Town Hall. ... wellhead Weimar. E F G.. Heidelberg Castle The Rathhaus.. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 225... . ........F K. cornice and balustrade T. windows and niche . A. elevation Hall. Photo. style of decoration . elevation 233234- . B Dordrecht. French Renaissance Ornament Keystone Balcony (Louis XV.. C.. Photo.. doorway 232. . 224. French Renaissance Ornament Palace at Fontainebleau. The Pantheon. . Doorway .. G ' Lambert and Stahl. ornament K . Heidelberg Castle.. door and window Palais Royal. Freiburg. arcade Nuremberg.. A B.. 228.. . D Lycee Napoleon. B. Nuremberg German Renaissance Ornament.. J D. Photo. capital Heilbron. . 227. xlv Authorities. pinnacles Antwerp.

Hardwicke Hall. door from cloisters A B. D [ great Henry Shaw. iron pulpit . . The King's House. Norfolk. Rome . Robinson. The Tower Hatfield Photo. Siguenza Cathedral. Moreton Hall. Kirby Hall. the Casa Polentina courtyard . Hatfield House. 239. Cuenza Cathedral. English Renaissance Examples Holland House. E 245. Greenwich The Rotunda. Comparative Plans of Various Buildings.. 248. Burgos. F Kc rr. Europe at the Time of 241. .... .. Photo. E Campbell. Spanish Renaissance Ornament. . Long Gallery . .. Staircase Haddon Hall.. elevation . House . . Nash.. Northamptonshire. Thompson. A B. Cheshire of the old Schools.. Seville Photo. 244.xlvi No. \ P.. Nash. 247. Spanish Renaissance Examples. I. 242. Authorities Town Hall. Knole. south elevation j i 1 it plan . Map of Western Elizabeth. . Prentice. 243. window Avila. .. side of drawing-room Blickling staircase Hall. ( Stockton House. ground floor plans C f Richardson. Courtyard Miranda . N. 249. . N.. iron screen Alcala De Henares. The Hall .. Princess of Lichenstein.. English Renaissance Examples Castle Ashby.. Vicenza The Escurial.. . elevation plan . Name.. Spain Villa of Pope Julius. Nash. . 238. . 237. Blenheim Palace .. 246... ( A B C D. of the House of Photo. Northants Little . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Toledo the Alcazar. 235. Prentice. the II. F. Palladio. Oxford . } A. Kent. Photo. Letarouilly. 236. portion of facade Avila. 240.. . Photo... C D E -A.

M B j Duke's House.. H. .. . Bramshill House... I. plaster ceiling .. . London Photo.. Doorway in Broughton Castle Bay window.. Hinchingbrooke Hall Chapel screen.. . Kent Lead cistern.. . Wren's original plan section through . Bride... D E F H. . . elevation .. London Bookcase... J. . Bradford.. . ... . A B c plan Banqueting House. . . newel Blickling Hall.. H j Aston Hall. Triggs. 255.. Claverton. . Victoria and Albert . S... plan sketch of peristyle . English Renaissance Ornament II. G I Henry Shaw.. western fa$ade . D E F . junr. .. xlvii Authorities. Tanner. plan Whitehall Palace.. A E . Mary Le Bow. Convocation Room. 254. elevation . oriel . English Renaissance Ornament .. A B 1-6 c J-Clayton. York Water-Gate.A. V. stalls. . .. . Stamford Throne and Pulpit.. 7-12 . . .... frieze . Tanner.. head 251. D E . Martin. . . Paul. A B c }J. Whitehall. A Clayton and Gailhabaud dome .. Cambridge Tomb of Lord Burghley. . Gotch. H. transverse section . S. . . . J. ....LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.Richardson. . junr.. . English Renaissance Examples III. .. c . c . No. Museum Tablet. . Pembroke College.. Oxford North Cray Church. C. . . rain .. ... . .. Charterhouse. 252... water L Richardson.. London. Peterhouse College Chapel. Gotch. G H j Cambs. balustrade ... elevation . . I. Norfolk. chimney piece Church. . English Renaissance Examples IV. balustrade Hatfield House. .. Kent... Kent. A. Campbell. ground plan . Campbell. Hants. '.. . . entrance . Somersetshire.. . . plans . 253. . S. . H. London.Tanner. .. elevation . section . wall D K } All Hallow's at (Barking) frieze Henry Shaw~ tablet F House Yarmouth. Name. Richardson. arcade . . Paul. . plans . 250. junr.. section D . S. English Renaissance Examples S.. ....

. typical window Aston.. Martin's Church. English Renaissance Examples Examples by Sir William Chambers..... j-Clayton.. .. with Venetian and arcades pedestals .. plan D VII.... I j Woolfe and Gandon.. A. without pedestals . I Campbell.xlviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. 257. London. . archway S. 260.. .. .. wall tablet Wilton.. VIII. piece Westminster. Name. . No. London.. elevation section . ... window .. London ' Plan Elevation Cross section S. Gate piers Chimney 261. ... Piccadilly. English Renaissance Examples S. . VI. . English Renaissance Examples Castle Howard. .... . elevation section central portion Kedlestone Hall.... C Stephen... Long.. - . . section London. Pedimented gateway IX. with arcades and pedestals . C Horse Guards. elevation cross section long. Somerset House.. London English Renaissance Ornament Doorway . section . Bride. English Renaissance Examples S. . A Venetian Doorway Casino at Doorway window . .. . details ... plan 259...... . monument . .... 256... . . . .. . Photo.... thorities. A... section B j- Clayton. Walbrook. 258. ... ... near Dublin Doorway or portion of Corinthian colonnade with pedestals Superimposed orders. section .. . plan ... . .... . James.. III.. or portion of Ionic colonnade without pedestals Marino.

. 278. Greek Temple. 275. 262... Entrance to the old Temple 279..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Elephanta. Agra. Gwalior. 266.. pagoda . The East door of the double Temple Ellora. xlix Authorities. 265. Sanchi. Garrick (formerly Schiller) Chicago. No.. Palitana. in Orissa... plan . Comparative diagrams of the proportions of the Orders after Sir W. The Hindu Temple . 272. Greek Doric Tuscan . London Photo. ... . compound Stone ornaments 267. pillar Baillur. 277.. . rail Seringham.. .. gateway Indian roof construction A Kanaruc Sanchi. Ajunta. The West Gateway and Gopura Tarputry.. The Great Temple from the N. Fa$ade of rock-cut cave Interior view of rock-cut cave Interior of Dilwana Temple The great Chawmukh Temple The great Sas Bahu Temple Mount Abu. Chambers. The Houses of Parliament. Karli. IN THE UNITED STATES. 274. plan . Mandura. pillar . . compound pillar Bindrabund. Theatre. Indian Examples and Ornament. . Umber. Map of India. . ARCHITECTURE 264. . 273.. Name. 269. of Tagat- Tanjore. 271.E. Composite 263... Interior of rock-cut cave 268. Roman Doric . 270. INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. . 280. 276. Ionic Corinthian Chambers. Vellore. Garwan Hullabid. The "rath" (Temple of Kailos) . .



DIAGRAM TABLE OF THE SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION FOR EACH STYLE. in G. Mouldings. Plan. building. Columns. 1. Reference Books. GEOLOGICAL. Ornament. and decoration. Openings. in. i. their position. B. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL. F. structure. their form and decoration. as applied general to any 5. and shape. Comparative Table. RELIGION. A. GEOGRAPHICAL. . their treatment D. v. n. E. their construction and treatment. 4. CLIMATE. 2. their character and development. Architectural Character. iv. HISTORICAL. vi. Walls. 3. - Roofs. or general distribution of the building. Influences. Examples. c.

nor too a workman step by step to one task. The goodly growth Of brick and stone Our building-pelt was rough. "When just the substituting osier lithe : ***** ! fit fit No For To brittle bulrush. . F. throw out earth A loop hole ? Brave But here's our son excels At hurdle weaving any Scythian fells Oak and devises rafters . PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. 2 H) or rocks or those occupied in hunting or fishing. sound wood for soft withe. just escapes The mystery of hinges.A. It has been truly said that protection from the inclemency of the seasons was the mother of architecture. The work marched Took each. of twigs covered with mud. one time leaping o'er the petty to the prime. and him Nay. According to Vitrtivius. " Study mere shelter." BROWNING. of man to provide for his physical wants. . even the worst just house them Any cave Suffices . must have been connected intimately with the endeavours THE origins of architecture. man in his primitive savage state began to imitate the nests of birds and the lairs of beasts. Exacts an architect. . ! . But that descendants' garb suits well enough . 2 c). . Other writers indicate three types of primitive dwellings the caves (No. ! ! . dreams and shapes His dream into a door post. exacts an age.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. commencing with arbours B . now for him. then huts formed of branches of trees and covered with turf (No. . further loam-and-rough-cast work a stage. although lost in the mists of antiquity. A portico-contriver.


3 the hut (No. cloth. Ammann (A. Northern France. iv. with Remarks on the Early Architecture of Ireland and Scotland. or single upright stones. 4) and the beehive huts found in Wales. " 1870. owing to the fact that the oldest existing monuments of any pretension. Tumuli. consisting of one large flat stone supported by upright stones. were probably prototypes of the Pyramids of Egypt (No. belong to a high state of civilization. 2 G)." 8vo. or circles of stone.PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. as discovered in the lakes of Switzerland. 15). 1892. classified under : Monoliths. a well-known example 63 feet high." 4to. Lake Dwellings. Brittany. 1894. Assyria. 14 feet in diameter. The remains may be be lightly touched upon.) Paris. E. and Ornament of Waring (J. and elsewhere. also in Brittany (No. and are merely mentioned here to show from what simple beginnings the noble art of architecture was evolved. as in Egypt. Viollet-le-Duc (E. and maen. E) and elsewhere.. and will only i. These foregoing primitive or prehistoric remains have little constructive sequence. Remote Ages. a stone). B 2 .).). 2 B). Japan. and were so placed for protection against hostile attacks of all kinds." Folio. also known as menhirs. S. although unfortunately the stages of the evolution cannot be traced.). Persia. 2 F) and India. and the tent (No. 8vo. Dolmens (Daul. That at New Cornwall. Avebury (Wilts). " L' Habitation Humaine Pre(C. Tumuli. 2 A. Gamier and : Stone Monuments. as at Stonehenge (No. 2 j) for those such as shepherds leading a pastoral or nomadic life. etc. Bucknall. and in Ancient Egypt.). 1876. Italy and Ireland consisted of wooden huts supported on piles. a table. also in Ireland. etc.. Customs. "The Habitations of Man in all Ages. B. Lineham (R." Translated from the French by B. Grange (Ireland) resembles somewhat the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. E) for the agriculturist. and weighing 260 tons. although interesting for archaeological reasons. being at Carnac. iii. India. Examples are to be found near Maidstone and other places in England. Structures of the prehistoric period. " The Street of Human Habitations An Account of Man's Dwelling-places. Italy (No. consisting of a series of upright stones arranged in a circle and supporting horizontal slabs. v. the Channel Islands. historique et Historique. have little or no architectural value. 2 D. Another example is at Locmariaker. D. in Prehistoric Times. Cromlechs. ii. or burial mounds. Ireland (No. REFERENCE BOOKS.

Architecture raised may be said to include every building or structure human hands. in which the latter closely spaced. architecture on that of Greece is apparent in many directions. an is developed. / v THE HISTORICAL STYLES. such as Egypt and Assyria. which in their turn In Babylonia. place with the History of Law and of Language. ment of brick construction with the consequent evolution of the arch and vault was due to the absence of more permanent The influence of Egyptian and Assyrian building materials." its Comparative treatment of Historical Archioutline sketch is given of the course which the art has taken up to the present time in Europe. . " Deal worthily \vith the History of Architecture and it is worthy to take FREEMAN. and some form of temple for his god. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. a general this that development. which demanded little labour on his part to convert into shelters against the fury of the elements. and also in those countries. As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature. the developsupported the flat beamed roof. however. he naturally began to build more commodious habitations for himSuch early forms are self. and is here denned as construction with by : the more the latter artistic motive being the value of the result. and attacks from his fellows or wild animals.PART I. 2 H) or grottoes. and massive carried lintels. there prevailed in Egypt a system of architecture which consisted of a massive construction of walls and columns. which have influenced introducing IN tecture. at once into Historic times. The first nature afforded. To pass. short. the greater habitations of man were undoubtedly those that such as caves (No. given under the heading of Prehistoric Architecture.

throughout the entire constructive system of the building.GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. and in the employment of the arch alone. however. Ionic. and the different orders of architecture Doric. The above "orders" are characteristic of Greek architecture. meant certain methods of proportioning and decorating a column. While borrowing this trabeated architecture. the entablature. and covered with transverse beams and rafters. This dualism is a very important fact to remember. that many writers hold that Greek architecture is developed from an early stone type. most of what is now known as Europe (No. however. and the beauty and grace with which they were treated. it eventually ended in the exclusion of the beam altogether. copied in marble or stone. i. that is to say. It should be noted.e. it will be noticed that the column has. however. connected together by semicircular arches. the actual work of support being performed by the piers of the wall behind. By the word " order " . and 63). however. Grecian architecture 5 is considered by many to have had its origin in the wooden hut or cabin formed of posts set in the earth. adopted their architecture. when the permanence and value of stone aided in the growth of the art. Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans who. the ancient inhabitants of Central Italy. by its use in the settlements . in the generality of cases. and the arcuated system it had masked was exposed. which they had probably already learnt to construct from the Etruscans. and in many cases employed Greek artists in the erection of their buildings. 45). 62 and the Triumphal Arches (Nos. and this was the type which was developed in the early Mycenaean period into the pyodomus of the Greek house. As civilization and technical skill.. 38) came into existence. as will be seen. good examples being the Colosseum at Rome (Nos. used constructively. advanced. In the numerous buildings which the Romans erected. as in many of the great basilicas. whole of the then known world. moreover. This timber architecture. and the part it supports. was soon felt. and the artistic and mathematical skill with which they were constructed. such practical people as the Romans could not but discard a feature which was no longer utilitarian. they added the use of the arch. Columns were. As time went on. was naturally at first very simple and rude the influence of the material. illustrate the keen artistic temperament of the Greeks. however. 65 and 66). because. in which the semicircular arches spring As the Romans conquered the directly from their capitals. so this feature of the semicircular arch was introduced in every part. the qualities of refinement in detail and proportion were perceived. and Corinthian (No. The column and arch were used conjointly by the Romans for is some time. so the column as a decorative feature disappeared. become merely a decorative feature.

(i) Classic. led. It was left to the Gothic style to formulate a complete system of arcuated construction. if unchecked.6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and other causes which we shall enumerate separately. was in vogue. the formation of separate European states. for the Gothic system. Roman architecture is a composite transition style. viz. would seem to have been the combination of the round arch and dome that are seen in the great examples of the Byzantine style. in the tenth. in the latter part of the twelfth century. : . the working out of which was marvellously alike in all countries. or the architecture of the beam. and is the basis on which European architecture is founded. fourteenth. Roman architecture was prevalent in which they founded. in which a decorative system was closely welded to the constructive. Its latest works were tinged by the coming change. or showed signs of becoming stereotyped by the mechanical repetition of architectural features. whether of art or literature. aided largely by inventive genius. The past styles of European architecture may be broadly summarized as being divided into two great types. when the later Romanesque. and fifteenth centuries. moreover. perhaps. whose goal. including the Greek. eleventh. to the introduction of the pointed arch. Constructive necessity. hitherto been achieved in previous architecture. both in construction and decoration. and twelfth centuries. so called as being derived from the Roman style. The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century was a fresh factor in the history of architecture. The transition commenced. The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the Gothic or pointed style. ancf (2) Gothic. The early styles. that had been preserved or could be recovered. whether in architecture or in civilization regarded as a whole. and any style may be placed under one or other of these types. both uniting to reflect a more intense expression of its age than had. led to many variations of this semicircular arched style. The condition of Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a great change. and the result was the earnest study of every Roman fragment. or the architecture Each of these types depends on an important conof the arch. during which period were erected those magnificent cathedrals and churches. The gradual breaking up of the Roman Empire. belong to the former. may fairly be said to have culminated. which form the most emphatic record of the religious feeling and character of the Middle Ages. structive principle. which prevailed throughout Europe during the thirteenth. Europe in a more or less debased form up to the tenth century of our era. It was a style. The new force was the belief that the old Romans had been wiser and more experienced than the medievalists.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. 7 For some three centuries this belief held good. and some of the results of this attempt may be traced by the student wise enough to follow up the clues indicated in the concluding pages of the English Renaissance style. whether A architectural expression. he may feel that few of the diverse elements of our complex civilization. In acquainting himself with the buildings therein mentioned. however. an equal success for a reaction was at' hand in favour of mediaeval divers reasons . till by the opening up of Greece to travel and study towards the end of the eighteenth century. the tradition was modified by the admission of Grecian remains to an equal or supreme place. or the State. conscious effort was then made the most earnestly in England to modify the current that had been flowing since the year 1500. beside or even above those of Rome. . art. in the church. at the beginning of the twentieth century. This second phase had not. have failed to find some ideals.

folio Imperial Svo. Encyclopedic d'Architecture et de la Construction.) and Chipiez (C.. Bosc (E. from the Italian by Owen Jones. Bucknall. Lists of Reference Books for special periods throughout the book." Svo. 1902. 1791. Fletcher " 1897. Svo. Viollet-le-Duc.. Svo. Svo." Folio. 1877-1880. Gailhabaud (J. Paris.). Translated by i3?6. History of Ancient Art. Paris.). Milizia (F. Parker 3 "A 4to. 1867-1904. Darmstadt.. Stuttgart. 1847." 1850." 2 vols. " Dictionnaire raisonne d'Archi lecture. Cummings (C.).. " Les Architects par leurs ceuvres. 1850. Handbuch der " 1826. " Manuel d'Archeologie Fran9aise depuis les temps Eulart (C. 8vo. " Royal Institute of British Architects' Transactions." With Detached Essays and Illustrations. 4 vols. "Monuments Anciens et Modernes. 410.). " Parallele des Edifices de tout genre. N.. Architecture Civile. York. Gwilt." 3 vols. 1901. Architektur." 7 3 vols." There is an English translation by B. 1901." Paris. 1900.).. 8vo. 6 vols." 4 vols.Newton. 1859. Dehio (G. 1800. " Viollet-le-Duc (E. 1897.). 1883-1894. " Planat. New Vasari (G." 2 vols. Paris. and styles are given "Architectural Association Sketch Book. etc. i. Abendlandes. C. An edition by J. Gailhabaud (J. ." Comprising a number of volumes upon the History and Practice of Architecture.. Dictionary of Architecture... Merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance. folio. 1884. 3 vols.B. Architecture Religieux. 1848-1892. 2." 5 vols. Dictionary of Architecture and Building. siecle. 1899. Dictionnaire de 1'Architecture.. Paris. "A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance." W.-"History of Art by its Monuments. " Glossary of Terms used in Architecture. Svo. N.' 1853 ct scq.)." 2 vols. Paris. 1863. History of Architecture in all Countries.). " Lives of the most Eminent Painters.. issued by the Architectural Publication Society. 4to. Svo." Svo. A. v. L. Sturgis. 18921893. (J." 3 vols.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Perrot (G. Paris. Durand (J. au XVII.. GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS. " Fergusson (J." 5 vols. " Entretiens sur 1'Architecture. " entitled Lectures on Architecture.). Lives of Celebrated Architects.) and Bezold (G. 1893." Edited by Blashfield. Folio. 410.)." and 410." 2 vols. (B. etc. Brault (E.).).). Vitruvius (Marcus Pollio).). Paris. F." 2 vols. The Influence of Material on Architecture. L' Architecture du V. D'Agincourt (S. 1877-1881." 1 1 vols. Gwilt " (J. 1869-1872.)." " Folio. "Encyclopaedia of Architecture. " 12 vols.). Paris. Histoire de 1'Architecture. "Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Choisy " (A. "The Architecture of.).." Translated Folio." 10 vols.). Sculptors and Architects. Svo.

On referring to the map (No. Egypt was the only nation of the ancient world which had at once easy access to the Northern. not only on . moreover. as will be shown. as well as to the Eastern. .EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. largely determined by its geographical conditions. " Those works where man has Those Pyramids. was of immense advantage. Egypt always commanded an access to both these highways. 3) it will be seen that Egypt consists of a sandy desert with a strip of fertile country on the banks of the Nile. and like endurance i. that fear rivalled nature most. Geographical. The consequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own productions and inlets for those of foreign nations." INFLUENCES. i. for the characteristic features of the land in which any race dwells shape their mode of life and thus influence their intellectual culture. or Arabian Sea for by way of the Red Sea. -The civilization of every country has been. Or winds on mountain steeps. Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast. or Mediterranean Sea. no more decay boast. The possession pf the Nile.

were traditional. It was on the banks of this ancient river that from time immemorial the cities of the Egyptians were naturally placed here. The climate was thus of importance in developing the qualities of the architecture. In this section throughout the volume an endeavour will be made to trace that influence on architectural style which the materials at hand in each/country had in its The natural products of /a country such as development. . I The latter is principally found near Assuan (Syene). are found the chief remains of the Tombs. and stars. and to its durable Bricks qualities is due the fact that there are so many remains. such as the sun. and philosophy preserved to us in the papyri. were also employed. iv. ii. This hard and lasting building material largely influenced the architecture of the country. Temples. while storm. and Pyramids. but also because its waters were the fertilizing agents that made desert sands into fruitful fields. and The religious rites equipped with all the learning of the age. or stone. determine to a large extent its style of art. wood. for though it demanded some protection against heat there was no necessity to provide against I inclement weather. but were generally faced with some harder material. . The priesthood was powerful. and of granite in the south. or MSS. spring and summer. In Egypt there existed an abundance of limestone in the north. . J iii. Egypt has been said to have but two seasons. . Geological.IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. fog. and mysterious. tecture Religion.! of sandstone in the central region. and is called Syenite. mathethe remains of their literature have been matics. The climate is equable and of warm temperature. admitting of simplicity in construction. Climate. but in practice it became polytheistic gods was created by personifying natural phenomena. moon. which accounts to a large extent for the good preservation of the temples. a multiplicity of theistic. as well as the brute creation. A tinge of mystery is one of the great characteristics of the Egyptian archiThe Egyptians tecture as well in its tombs as in its temples. unchangeable. attained to a very high degree of learning in astronomy. and the erection of such Herodotus mentions everlasting monuments as the Pyramids. snow and frost being wholly unknown. possessed of almost unlimited authority. The Egyptians were strong believers in a future state hence their care in the preservation of their dead. and even rain are rare. brick. A close_^ojonectioji_h. written on paper made In theory the religion was monofrom the pith of the papyrus./ only small forests of palm and acacia existing. and as a means of communication. therefore.etween religion and archiis everywhere manifest at this epoch. account of its value as a trade route. . Wood of a kind suitable for building was not available.

The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title " Peraa = . 300. and may be divided down into the following periods 1. During the reign of Rameses II. . The New Empire (Dynasties XVII.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 1738-950. . B. "What availeth thee thy other buildings? Of thy tomb alone thou art sure. the captives and foreigners.C.-XX. prosperous period in which much building was carried This period includes the dynasties of the " Hyskos" or shepherd kings. the tombs of this period : 3. out. are at Abydos. 4.-X. B. Sakkara. Prehistoric Period. The Middle Empire (Dynasties XI. 23000 (?)-47772.C. favoured the execution of monumental works. the subject of the next " division. Gizeh and Abusir. B. B.C. A .). 332.). the earth thou hast nought beside Nought of thee else is remaining. an Egyptian priest who lived about B. Thus a state of cheap labour existed which was eminently favourable to the execution of large and important structures. On v. by which it can be traced back for more than 4. who had largely increased." for Social and Political. Memphis. The capital being at Memphis. and in the first chapter of the book of Exodus the natives are said to have viewed with alarm the growing numbers and power of these strangers.C.C. "great house ") have been arranged in thirty dynasties.were put to enforced labour upon the public works. Nakadeh. A vast population was available employment on public works. This period had Thebes as the capital. the workmen probably receiving no other pay than their food. but more particularly from the Egyptian buildings. extending to B. The Ancient Empire (Dynasties I. the tomb being the permanent abode. and many imposing buildings were erected at Karnac. It is assumed by some that the spare time which occurs during the annual floods enabled the population to be employed on these state buildings. The Pyramids are thought to be a thousand years older than any building which has yet been discovered in Western Asia. It is also possible that the transport of stone required for the great buildings was effected by means of rafts floated down at this season.).C. 2821-1738. and elsewhere. despotic In addition there existed a centralized government which. Egyptian civilization is the most ancient of any of which there is a clear knowledge its history is partly derived from Holy Scripture and from Greek and Roman authors.C. perhaps more than any other. These have been based on the list of Manetho. and compiled a history of Egypt in the Greek language. -XVI. Luxor. vi. that the dwelling-house II was looked upon by them as a mere temporary lodging.000 years B. Historical. 4777-2821. .

12 5. Domination (Dynasties XXI. 640: i. (B. This section of the book deals with the architecture comprised For periods 8 and 9 see pages 653. at the top. 395. Alexander the Great and Ptolemaic Period.C. -XXV. Egypt passed. page 659). Modem Egypt (Turkish Domination). the angle bundles being of greater strength. time.D. of which the primitive roofs were constructed. of Foreign 950-663. 1517 it became a part of the Turkish dominions. 332 by the Grecian general. 1333-1300). 6.D. This formed the which formed the framework of the walls. Mahometanism. In the valley of the Nile. On Alexander's death and the division of his empire. (B. 8. 332-A. Joining these reeds.D.C. The jambs and . one of Alexander's generals. The Roman Period. 323 to B. Egypt passed to Ptolemy. ii. and that of his grandson. iii. the land which is the gift of a great and the seat of the most ancient civilization. 395-640. founded by Rameses I.C. 527. During the twenty-sixth dynasty the country was conquered by the Persians in B. 663This period includes the Persian Domination. 31. 1400-1366). 2. The Late Egyptian Period (Dynasties XXVL--XXX. 659. A.). A^. Medieval Egypt (Mahometan Period). A.C. B. 3O-A.C. who founded a dynasty that ruled from B. 9. r The nineteenth dynasty.C. which bound the The origin of the characteristic heads of the uprights together.C. 1517 to the present Penod B. 640-1517. Egypt was conquered by the Arabs. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. from whom it was wrested in B. Thie evidence of his greatness. pay be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian aft. in A. a primitive architecture of mud or puddled clay and bundles of reeds changed in later times to a style of stone and granite. and became a Roman province. as did nearly the whole of the then known world. B. The Byzantine Period. were laid horizontally other bundles. 332-30.C. 'COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 332. After the wars which ended in the death of Cleopatra. slightly projecting cornice. cornice (No. 638. The primitive structure was composed of bundles of reeds river. is to be seen in the Temples of Thebes and elsewhere. is held to be due to the pressure of the clay.D. in Periods 1-7. who left important monuments (see Saracenic Architecture. on the upright reeds.D. into the hands of the conquering On the spread of Romans. bound together and placed vertically in the ground at intervals.C. The Grace-Roman Period. 10 j).). In A. B. 7.C. Alexander the Great.C. as builders. B.D. the reeds keeping the rammed clay in a projecting position and allowing the curve to be terminated by a flat fillet which gave the level of the terrace. Rameses II.

in only. c. M). granite. 3000-3. is seen a fair and likely prototype of the construction of an Egyptian wall. In fact. however. and this feature is alleged by him to have been introduced at a later stage. is found in the later granite column and capital (No. Proceeding to the internal architectural features of the style. owing to their walls being more easily overturned. Still.C. 10 L). more reasonable to attribute it to a mud origin. He infers the custom to have been derived from the Pyramids. apparently came from the sgraffito" (incised plaster) work on the earlier mud walls. than to slightly tilt the bundles of reeds towards the interior. in imitation of a lotus Such a pier must evidently have been originally employed in wooden architecture and the roof which it supports. forming as it were an arch. provided an admirable field for decoraThe tion and for instruction through the use of hieroglyphics. reeds or lotus stalks bound together near the top and bulging above the bud. while straight-sided houses were upset. an important point remains the batter or slope which is invariably given to the walls. superimposed in layers. The surface decoration executed on the later granite buildings " (No. 2100). and . Viollet-le-Duc's theories as to the origin of this batter do not point to the influence of material. having been promulgated by a royal decree. of which the earliest example appeared in the eighteenth dynasty. 10 M). but their flat surfaces. The surfaces of such walls could not be modelled or carved with projections of high relief. when plastered. Here. lintels 13 of the doors and windows were made of reeds in the humbler dwellings and of palm trunks in those of more pretension. It seems. 10 p). examples in stone of capitals and columns derived from timber and reed originals are At Beni. represents a light wooden construction having the slight slope necessary in the dry Egyptian climate. the form of which is more suitable to a structure of rushes overlaid with mud or puddled clay than to one consisting of large stones. the appearance assumed in the early reed and mud type. This type of column was largely used in later Egyptian times in a more substantial lithic form (No. for nothing would be more natural. a treatment which in any other material scarcely seems to be feasible.Hasan some pillars represent a bundle of four frequent. and crowned with the lotus bud.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. in order to strengthen such buildings. and in conjunction with the hollow-formed capital of the bell type (No. this instance. During the Theban kingdom especially (B. then. a very distinct reminiscence of the primitive reeds tied together at intervals. so as to form a capital. throughout. ligature. although materials changed. the forms of the early reed and clay construction were adhered to and the endeavour of the conservative Egyptian was to reproduce in stone . 10 L. which were found to remain undisturbed during earthquakes.


or in the materials. The Egyptian wali-paintings. 15 Egyptian system of decoration consisted in not contravening the form adopted. both in appearance and reality. one building. which is all comprised within one "order" of columns. As regards the architecture. all the remains having a character of immense solidity. jewellery. hallowed by long use. produce an effect of gloom and solemnity on the spectator. page 30) has produced many probable theories. often built at different times. which never presented a projecting outline. The method of quarrying and of transportation for long distances by land and water. covered with paintings and hieroglyphics. expense.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. The Architectural Character of the temples is striking and characteristic (Nos. The buildings decrease in height from front to back. 4 and 5) are the most extravagant of all ancient buildings in many The relative return in ways. The Pyramids (Nos. and material used in their erection. and which is distinctly. sculptures. and the raising of these blocks of stone into position. 7 and 8). but in clothing it with a kind of drapery more or less rich. is even now uncertain. The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Pyramids. for many of the blocks. contenting itself with enveloping the geometric form as would an embroidered stuff. impressiveness and the higher beauties of the art is small when compared with the amount of labour. or royal tombs of the kings. the immutable form was not thereby affected. where the palaces of the kings are the chief remains. and usually of grand uniformity. The . were clung to and reproduced when the method of building which suggested them had been replaced by other systems. character of the tombs consists in the planning of their mysterious chambers and corridors. perfectly squared. Choisy in his latest work (see Reference Books. which have been unearthed from their temples or tombs. but was perpetuated in spite of novel conditions. a contrast in this respect with Assyria. Egyptian art proceeded on an uninterrupted line or course of tradition. The finishing and fitting of such large masses of granite is remarkable. show that the race had attained to a high degree in art. . Remarkable then as were the arts of Egypt. presenting a disconnected collection of various sized structures. although M. polished and fitted. and when necessity dictated a change in the methods of construction. it is clear that the and that spirit of criticism and logical method were wanting traditional forms. 5. are at least 20 feet long by 6 feet wide. or a diapered covering. the impression given to the mind of the spectator is that these buildings were erected for eternity. which. and the temples. bronze implements and utensils. and thus forming a direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek temple.


are as follows it is 65 feet high by 188 feet long. 5 c). . 4).C. east and west. who found a temple between the paws. or more rarely a woman. and the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long. 4). and Dashur.C. is situated near the great pyramids. it is. The Great Pyramid F. as it has been throughout the ages.c. . The Great Pyramid each way. as in all the pyramids. form one of several groups within the necropolis of the ancient capital city of Memphis.A. 3600). or equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields. : THE PYRAMIDS near Cairo. 760 feet area being about 13 acres. The entrance (No. a ram. Abusir. The other groups are those of Abu-Roash. a hawk. whose date is unknown. 17 EXAMPLES. 4 and 5 c. 3633) the Third Pyramid by Mycerinos (Menkhara) (B. when.e. 3. are the best (B. London. THE SPHINX (No. The original height was 482 feet. by Cheops (Khufu) the Second Pyramid (No. is 47 feet 6 inches above the base. all erected during the fourth dynasty (B. An Egyptian Sphinx (No.Aryan. Zawiyet-el. the face is 13 feet 6 inches wide. twice the extent of S. by 3733-B. The faces of the pyramid are equilateral triangles laid The sides face directly north. on the body of a lion. 3700) Cephron (Khafra) (B. Greatly mutilated. which represents a recumbent lion with the head of a man. c. which is on the northern side. of Gizeh. i. Peter.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. D). and is now reached by means of an earthen embankment. 3633-6. and rank among the oldest monuments of Egyptian architecture. and probably ever will be. with rough masonry added in parts. The passage to which it known examples. its (Nos. 3721). 3666-6. and they make an angle with the ground of 51 degrees 50 minutes. of Cheops is square on plan. c. the governing idea being to secure immortality by the preservation of the mummy. in the centre of an ancient stone quarry.C. the soul would once more return to the body. c . a mystery. The symbol for an insoluble problem. south. including Herodotus. These were built by the kings as their future tombs. 10 o) had the head of a king.. and is a natural rock cut to resemble a Sphinx. It was excavated in 1816 by Captain Caviglia. it is still a marvel. sloping and meeting in a point. Sakkara.C.c. The dimensions of the Great Sphinx. Their construction has been described by many writers. till that time should have passed. and it has since been examined by Mariette and Maspero. according to their belief. Rome. 3998-B.

shipbuilding scenes. There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid. beyond which is a large court where offerings to the deceased took place. and the entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a portcullis. and from which a mummy shaft led through a passage to a tomb the " outer chamber. exterior of this pyramid was originally cased with a sloping face of limestone. A well of great depth. The Mastaba of Thy. and which still exists in the Pyramid of Mycerinos. leading to the chamber containing the sarcophagus with its mummy. connected with a passage leading off that to the King's Chamber." containing statues of the deceased. Inner secret chambers. and was erected to Thy." having its walls decorated with representations of festal and other scenes. but this has now disappeared. and 19 feet high. and having flat roofs. It consists of a small vestibule. on which the casing was placed. ~? The TOMBS. Sakkara. " ii. 5 D).l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. from 50 to 60 tons. was placed the sarcophagus of the king containThe upper part is elaborately coning his embalmed body. and weighing Two air channels. and towards the heart of the pyramid. known as the serdabs. The principal reliefs are in a second tomb chamber. Ancient Empire the Mastabas. They were divided into three parts i. where the King's Chamber is In this chamber. is well preserved and has been restored. in " " The Ka or chamber. fitting into a rebate or recess. which are generally considered the best specimens of their kind. Besides the Pyramids or royal tombs are others for private individuals. : which were placed the offerings to double. were rectangular structures. scenes representing the arts and crafts of the . afterwards re-ascends gives access first slopes downwards. which are valuable from an historical standpoint. These reliefs represent harvest operations. who in his day held the position of royal architect and manager of pyramids. structed with stones one above the other (No. 22 feet 9 inches by 23 feet 9 inches and 12 feet 6 inches high. each about 8 inches by 6 inches. one known as the Queen's Chamber. The masonry of this tomb is carefully jointed and covered with flat reliefs. probably derived (a. with sides sloping at an angle of 75 degrees. iii. 'showing the original stepped surface in tiers of 4 feet.) In the from rude heaps of stones piled up over earlier mummy holes. and members of his family. It dates from the fifth dynasty. led to the outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. and the other below the ground. which is 34 feet 6 inches by 17 feet situated.

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the slaughtering of the marshes in a boat with a surrounding papyrus sailing through thicket.20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The mortuary or sepulchral temples.) During and in many cases accompanied by sepulchral temples. They differ. able group of these rock-cut examples. The texts were mostly taken from various books relating to the ceremonies which were essential for insuring the immortality of the departed. the New Empire. form a remarkThere are 39 in all. 6).. (c. The entrance to the Tomb of Khnemhotep.C. has two sixteen-sided columns. TEMPLES. and IX. and others. which for a time was the necropolis of the Egyptian kings. of chambers connected with passages hewn in the rock. at Beni-Hasan. 3. and in which mysteries and processions formed a great part of the religious services.in Upper Egypt. The structure of all is very similar. and priests penetrated. beyond which is the sepulchral chamber. from the entrance to the sarcophagus chamber. They were arranged made during the twelfth dynasty (B. The walls. such as those of Der-elbahri. 2778-^565). were utilized for offerings and other funereal rights for the dead. and that of Sethos L. Amongst the most important of these are those of Rameses III.) or were rock-cut. sacrificial animals. indicating a derivation from a The Tombs wooden origin. consisting of three corridors cut in the rock leading into an ante-room. IV. the Ramesseum. Medinet-Habou. and the deeply projecting cornice has stone beams carved out of the solid rock. where the granite sarcophagus was placed in a hollow in the floor. were sculptured with hieroglyphics of pictures and texts necessary to the deceased in the future life. usually known as Belzoni's tomb from its discoverer in 1817. has a large number of tombs dating mostly from the New Empire.tombs were rock-cut and structural. known as Tomb No. Thebes. .. and Thy himself period. as at Abydos. In the Middle Empire tombs \vere either of the Pyramidal (b. The purposes for which they were used and their component They were sanctuaries where only the king parts are important. and forming a contrast to the pyramids which formed These tombs consist of a series the graves of the earlier kings. as in the vertical cliffs form. in a row in the rocks as shown (No.. These are slightly and have an entasis. 6). bounding the Nile valley (No. and mostly representing him sailing through the under-world accompanied by the sun god. a period which was particularly remarkable for the progress of the arts of peace. sometimes considered to be a fluted prototype of the Greek Doric order. and were intended only for the reception of the sarcophagi.


and the for they were not places for the meeting of the faithful or the recital of common prayers. Thebes.). In this form they are generally considered to be the prototypes of The more usual type of temple. the Christian church. / ( . COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and led up to the hypostyle hall. On the western bank lay the Necropolis or Tombs of the Kings and Queens. At Luxor." or massive In sloping towers. a plan is here given of the Temple of Khons. approached by a flight of steps. therefore. the Ramesseum. The " mammeisi " were temples (dedicated to the mysterious accouchement of I sis) each consisting of one small chamber with statue and altar as at Elephantine. and in front of these an avenue of sphinxes. from the Greek temple. This courtyard was surrounded by a double colonnade on three sides. and the temple. surrounded by a passage. formed by the different height of the columns (No. was another Temple of Ammon (eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties). including the Great Temple of Ammon. near the Great Temple of Ammon. all surrounded by a high wall. meaning "under the air "). 5). ' I .22 therefore. The priests and king only were admitted beyond the hypostyle hall. The entrance to the temple was between "pylons. The eastern bank had an important group of Temples at Karnac. consisted of chambers for the priests. and no public ritual was celebrated within them. The student is referred to Lockyer's theories as to the orientation of temples with regard to the particular stars. In order that the student may understand the general distribution of the parts of an Egyptian temple. the site of w'hich occupied a large area on the east and west banks of the Nile. with courts. This entrance gave access to the large outer courtyard. and halls. and therefore called "hypaethral" (from two Greek words. Beyond this is the sanctuary. The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was surrounded by a great wall as high as the buildings themselves. on each side of the central gateway (No. was a kind of royal oratory reared by the king in token of his own piety and in order to purchase the favour of the gods. the Greek temples. which may be taken as a fair example of the ordinary type of plan. on the eastern bank of the Nile. . and at the rear is a smaller hall both the last chambers must have been dark or only Mahometan mosque. forming a splendid approach to the temple. and a large number of mortuary temples. and Medinet Habou. on the eastern bank. which was open to the sky in the centre. 5 B). was the capital of Egypt during the New Empire (Dynasties XVII. and also the Temple of Khons (twentieth dynasty). imperfectly lighted. 7). However. which included those of Der-el-bahri. -XX. front of the entrance were placed obelisks. in which light was admitted by means of a clerestory above. at Karnac (No. colonnades.

CO .

and originally was connected with the Temple of Luxor by an avenue of It was not built on an original plan. walls are of fine grained limestone. and completed by Rameses II. is one of the most stupendous creations of . each with its separate gateway and portal. is the grandest. but owes its size. It has six pylons added in successive generations. In common with other temples it has pylons.C. sphinxes. a great court measuring 338 feet by 275 feet. the hall. and the eye is led from the smaller columns of the side avenues. a form of The walls of lighting more fully developed in the Gothic period.200 feet by 360 feet. It was built by Sethos I. the great The hypostyle hall. giving an idea of unlimited size. Paris. every course projecting beyond that immediately below. The impression produced on the spectator by the forest of columns is most aweinspiring. Abydos. to the larger columns of the central avenues lighted by the clerestory. and other halls. disposition \ 80 feet in height as compared with 140 feet at Amiens Cathedral. and the architraves are covered with incised inscriptions. (B. 1366-1333). about 46 feet high and have columns 42 feet 6 inches in height and 9 feet in diameter. Karnac. (B. the column shafts. on which the clerestory light would fall. courts and/ a sanctuary. built by Rameses II. and the reliefs on them are among the finest Egyptian sculptures. \ The Great Temple of Ammon. The seven sanctuaries are each roofed by means of horizontal courses. Hypostyle hall measures 338 feet by 170 /feet. (B.C. the capitals of which are of the lotus blossom type (No. was dedicated to Osiris and other deities of Abydos. still retaining their original colored decorations relating to the gods and personages concerned in the erection of the structure. which gradually vanish into semi-darkness. The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel. a first and second fore-court and two hypostyle halls. and magnificence to the additions of many later kings. 10 L) so as The side avenues are to receive the light from the" clerestory. The Temple of Sethos I. and the undersides afterwards rounded off in the form of a vault by the chisel. which is formed in the difference of height between the central and side avenues. It further differs from others in having a wing at right angles to the main structure in consequence of a hill immediately behind the temple.<J type. 1333-1300).C.. but instead of one sanctuary it has seven arranged side by side.24 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. extending over an area of 1. the Capitals being of the lojus t>u. The . dedicated to six deities and a deified king hence the front of this temple was divided into seven parts. 1333-1300). from the first monarchs of the twelfth dynasty down to the Ptolemaic period. and have columns 69 feet high and nf feet in diameter. The central avenues are about 134 columns in sixteen rows. covering about The roof is supported by the same area as Notre Dame.

On the fourth side of the court is the second pylon. The Temple of Isis. of which the Temple of Edfou. faced with reliefs and inscriptions. but has a great vestibule with twenty-four columns. Dendera (A. During the Graeco. Beyond is the temple proper. It has no pylons. is an interesting example of the Ptolemaic period. with an altar and four seated figures of the deities worshipped. and. The back of this court was formed by the front of the great hypostyle hall. both inside and out. each over solid rock. has on the west side the Birth House. used as lavatory. which is supported by eight pillars. Eight smaller chambers.. the centre and largest one being the sanctuary. 8). having low screen walls between them on either side of the central entrance. the walls having vividly colored reliefs. at the back of which is the imposing facade. (B. The Temple of Hathor. 25 Egyptian architecture. and in the rear is a small hypos tyle hall. probably used to store the temple utensils and furniture. and on the east a colonnaded building used by the priests. all nearly in total darkness. gave access to a great court. The fore-court. a hypostyle hall with eight columns. massive pylon. or enclosing outer walls. the ceiling 65 feet in height. treasury. 119 feet wide and over 100 feet high. Staircases on either side lead to the roof of the temple. covered with of inscriptions. having four Behind this is a long narrow chamber out of which are pillars. On each side of this hall and beyond are chambers. was the work of several generations. formed as a pylon. 150 feet broad and 60 feet high. entered through a massive pylon. store-rooms and behind are two ante-chambers with a sanctuary beyond. 36 feet by 25 feet. the portal of which was the centre intercolumniation of a row of six columns. Behind this is the hypostyle hall. The entire structure has the walls.C. The entrance leads to a vestibule. having six columns with elaborate Hathor-headed capitals. two small vestibules. consisting of courts. is another Ptolemaic example. the narrower spaces between the side columns having low screen walls . 237). and other adjoining chambers. like earlier examples. but was not completed till the reign of Augustus.Roman period many temples were erected. commenced by Ptolemy III. three apartments. a sanctuary. Twelve larger columns with elaborate capitals support .EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. and was entirely excavated out of the It has a fore-court. has its axis at an angle to that of the first pylon and courtyard. and having four seated colossi of Rameses II. first century). This group. fore-court.D. surrounded by a colonnade. a small colonnaded temple dedicated to Hathor-Isis and to the memory of the birth of her son Horus. which is 105 feet broad and 40 feet high. Island of Philse. adjoin this vestibule. including the second pylon. six of which form the fa9ade. A (No. is the best preserved example.

8 w .p i-H O s w c/j rt oo oo Is" 3 w <.a 2 n ^ .

and had a garden formal style. or with the pedestal 153 feet. All these have disappeared. and weighs 180 tons. building was treated with color. having rich floral capitals. and The height is usually tapering sides. and erected at the Paris Exhibition. two. They are monoliths. OBELISKS monumental pillars. John Lateran is the largest in existence. Charles Gamier. 27 the roof over this hall. single upright stones. an illustration of the Egyptian House is given (No. giving access to the rooms. The quarrying and transport of such a mass of stone without the power of a steam-engine was" an engineering feat of are considerable skill. It is of red granite from Syene. although originally erected at Heliopolis (B.e. from which they appear to have had one. brought to London from Alexandria.C. laid out in a a extending over the whole length of the structure. embellished by so-called heads of Hathor. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures which have come down to us. and also to in front. 9). and is 104 feet high. and the four faces were cut with hieroglyphics. and altogether weighs about 600 tons. is 68 feet 6 inches high. 1889. The staircase at the back led to a verandah. In the absence of any authentic remains. 1500). smaller chambers. by M. with fish-ponds. being only built of wood or of sun-dried bricks. with a pyramidal summit. i. The capping was of metal. square on plan with slightly rounded faces. . hall. the upper part of the house being painted a bright yellow. about nine to ten times as great as the diameter. 8 feet square at the base. originally employed in pairs before the principal entrances of temples. Many obelisks were removed from Egypt by the Roman DWELLINGS. conjecturally restored. The whole wooden columns blue. for the groove into which it was fitted is in some cases still visible. beyond which was a smaller hypostyle the roof of which was carried by twelve columns. The house was divided by a corridor in the centre. Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment. That in the centre of the Piazza of S. 9 feet square at the base. The design was founded on an ancient painting.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. Behind this were vestibules. emperors.. and the long external flat roof. 6 feet 2 inches at the top. or three stories. and the sanctuary. another example. and at least twelve are in Rome itself.

free from any pretence of regularity. M). the temple on the island of Philae being a notable The walls. for the style being essentially trabeated. the chief pylons ornamented with incised decorations formed facade. The temples have already been slightly compared A. light being admitted by the clerestories in the earlier examples at Thebes. Window openings are seldom found in temples. 4. the walls. 5). Walls. Plans. even when of granite. solidity. while the approach was through avenue of innumerable sphinxes. and as already noticed The hypostyle they were especially planned for internal effect. in which were executed low reliefs. resemble the growth of English cathedrals as also in the disregard for symmetry in the planning of one part in relation to another. These were all square-headed and covered with c. crowded with pillars. Viollet-leDuc traces this inclination to the employment of mud for the walls Columns which form the leading features of of early buildings. massive lintels. Dendera. treated with bright color (Nos. COMPARATIVE. These were immensely thick. The freedom and picturesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. This may be seen in many of the later temples erected under the Ptolemys. 7). giving them a massive appearance (No. . For the purposes of decoration. a contrast being obtained by the /slender obelisks which an usually stood in front of them. The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter towards the top. 7 and 10 P). and conmysteriously illuminated from above. Edfou (No. the pylons. which have normally a massive blank wall crowned with a characteristic cornice. Openings. qualities obtained by broad masses of unbroken walling. while in the less important they were of brick faced with granite. as at Luxor. hall seemingly unlimited in size. with Greek examples (pages 15 and 22). 10 j. impressive The erection of these temples was in progress during many In this respect they centuries by means of continual additions. or Philae. the arch appears to have been but little used. B. realized the grandest Externally the massive ceptions of Egyptian planning (No. consisting of a large hollow and roll moulding (No. were generally covered with a fine plaster. and grandeur.28 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or over the low dwarf walls between the columns of the front row. Greek external architecture are not found on the exterior of Egyptian buildings. a method peculiar to the Ptolemaic and Roman D. 8). Simplicity. different axes. and other features are placed on instance. Roofs. and in important buildings were of granite. These were composed of massive blocks of stone supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced columns . are the chief characteristics of the style. periods.

The papyrus. was considered by the Egyptians as the sign of their religion. 10 M)."as follows: The lotus bud. In addition.. a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty. E. and as at the tombs at Beni. 10 K). fully-grown lotus flower. seldom over sijL-dia TTlf^ PT -ip hejgbj-. tied round by stalks ~"~(^-) (No.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. The blue. Mouldings. were tions.) painted or sculptured (No. the hollow and bead generally used in conjunction. 2Q (No. F. 10 L). It probably attained its sacred character as the emblem of resurrection because of its habit of allowing the sun to hatch its eggs from a pellet of refuse. 10 G). The capitals_wej^_mostly derived from the_Jptus plant (No. The " palm" capital. 9) as a pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for the enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring up at sunset. F). and the feather ornament (No. spirals (No. including such features as the solar disc or globe and the vulture with outspread wings (No. offered many suggesThe columns. the Isis or Hathor-headed capital. and at certain seasons may have been used for repose. the upper part of the and 10 (No. if protected from The flat roofs of the temples the sun by temporary awnings. much in the same way as the cross became the symbol of Christianity. They may also have been used in the daytime. 10 A. but the bead was also used by itself. Ornament M).) The capital. 10 D. and at intervals appear to be tied by bands (No. invariably crowned j. the roofing is made to represent timber construction (No. and the lotus. It must be remembered that the decoration of the walls of a temple consisted largely in acts of adoration on the part of the monarch to his gods. to whose protection he ascribed all his warlike successes. 10). red. E. the main outline of the palms being (c. made to represent the stalks. a tall. These were few. as a symbol of protection. Columns. supporting the model of a pylon (No. 7 G. while diaper patterns. 5 F). or sacred beetle. 10 c) were largely used.Hasan. In the rockcut temples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form. seem to have been used in the priestly processions. they could be used in dwelling-houses (No. The scarab. is formed of heads of the goddess Isis. : . and walls. B) 10). as at Dendera and Philae. sculptured or The two combined pylons (Nos. chiefly using the primary ones It was first wall to be decorated was prepared as follows (a) chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster or cement. and was an important element in the style. viz. which formed a bell-shaped ornamented with color decoration (No. smooth reed. 6). Being flat. conventionalized. (b. This was symbolical. and yellow. The Egyptians were masters in the use of color. 10 N).

.. which a colored wash was put over the whole. idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation. 10 p)." 8vo.). 1883." 2 vols. 1899." 8vo. "The" Dawn of 'Civilization.. Paris. The Egyptians possessed great power of conventionalizing natural objects such as the lotus plant. rounding slightly the inclosed form towards its boundaries (d) the painter then executed his work in the strong hues of the primary colors. They are instructive as well as decorative. 23 vols. Rider)." Imp. N. 1894." 12 vols. Perrot and Chipiez. " " jeune). or essential." 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1849-1859. " 1881." Ward (T. " History of Ancient Egypt. Cairo. History of Art in Ancient Egypt." 1895. " Life and Work at the Great Smyth (C. " in Egypt.. 1904." Petrie. Edinburgh. thus passed by a process of figures or hieroglyphics . Petrie. and text in 4to. the symbol of fertility and abundance. Maspero (G." (Historical Novel. the papyrus. (See the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace. " Ten Years Digging 2 vols. however. 1897." Archaeological Survey of Egypt " and the " Egypt Ebers (G. le Champollion (J. produced by the overflowing Nile. Nubie. Lepsius (R. 1845. 1 892. " Description de l'gypte" (known as Napoleon's Egypt "). large Erman (A. Haggard (H." Folio. The distinguishing. " The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.. Piazzi). or its class. " The Sacred Beetle." 8vo. and others. 8vo. Petrie (W.). 1879." 8vo." Demy 8vo. Choisy large folio. Paris. large folio. each being copied as the motif for a design. Paris. and from then! is learnt most of what is known of Egyptian history (No. 8vo." Cleopatra. being corrected with a black line by the chief artist (c) the sculptor next incised the outline. (A.) The hieroglyphics were often. "Histoire de 1'Art gyptien. " Life in Ancient Egypt. . incised direct on the granite and then colored. The latter place contains a most complete collection of Egyptian antiquities. being treated by the artists in a way suitable to the material in which they were working.3O after COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.). " Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien.)." 410.) the British Museum give a good idea of the Architecture and decoration of the style.). Paris. Publications of the Exploration Fund. Rawlinson (G. text. "An Egyptian Princess. as may be seen on the sculptures at the British Museum. Pyramid. Prisse d'Avennes (E.). which will give the student a better knowledge of the style than can be gleaned merely from books. "Mosqueedu Sultan Hassan au Caire. 1902. Egyptian Decorative Art. 1883. folio. 5.).).. Herz(M. The Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace and the Egyptian Rooms at . F. the palm. 1809-1822. and i vol. 1867. (b) The were then drawn on with a red line by an artist.). folio. F." 3 vols.Svo.). Berlin." 6 vols. 1865. feature of the natural object.. Monuments de l'gypte et de la "L'art debatir chezles Egyptians.

10. .

i. and was highly culti- vated. where the . and in this respect can be compared with Egypt (No.<r\ \JO tffit \ BflCTRlfr II. n) it will be seen that the principal ancient cities of Western Asia were situated in the valley of the twin-rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Learned and wise. WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHI TECTURE. The earliest known buildings appear to have been erected at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country. Geographical." WORDSWORTH. hath perished utterly. On referring to the map (No. and has been styled the cradle and tomb of nations and empires. 3). Nor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh That would lament her. The district was one of the earliest seats of civilization. i. INFLUENCES. The plain of Mesopotamia. was irrigated by numerous canals between the above-mentioned rivers. supporting an immense population round Nineveh and Babylon. being celebrated for its great fertility. " Babylon. once the seat of a high civilization.

gardens. as opposed to Ahriman. Social and Political. the rainy season. the man-headed bulls. and appear to belong to the class of beneficent genii or to that of the great deities of the Chaldaean pantheon. being obtained from bitumen springs found in the district. could be made into The bricks. wards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to Nineveh. Numbers of omen tablets have survived. with alabaster or limestone slabs. do not seem to have been necessary. In Assyria. The unhealthy exhalations from the vast swamps in Chaldaea. seems to have been used. rendered the construction of elevated platforms for the towns and palaces not Moreover. iv. the floods during only desirable. the Judging F. was worshipped with fire as his symbol. The people were worshippers of the heavenly bodies. internally and externally. but almost essential. while " kiln-burnt and sometimes glazed or vitrified bricks of different colors were used as a facing. further demanded the need for such structures. Temples. made of calcareous earth. applied in a heated state. with a climate ranging from the extremes of heat and cold. general body of the walls was "constructed of the ordinary sundried bricks. the walls were also faced. As a cementing material. Ormuzd. which thus became the usual building material. v. such as the sun and the moon. Persia is for the most part a high tableland and has been described as a country of sunshine. Mesopotamia is alluvial. probably had a mythical meaning. on which were carved the bas-reliefs or inscriptions. D . as at Is. where stone was not scarce. and of the powers of nature. Climate. and even images. Religion. which are so important from an historical point of view. when torrents fell for weeks at a time. and bear witness to the extreme superstition which existed. iii. on the Euphrates. was used in the latest periods. Geological. placed at the entrances of temples and palaces. as sacrifices and the worship of fire and sun appear to have been conducted in the open air. but in both cases it developed from the sea inland. containing no stone and bearing no trees. and deserts.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.A. the god of light and of good. bitumen or pitch. while in Egypt it spread southwards from Memphis to Philse. The whole district of Chaldaea or Lower ii. being formed of the thick mud or clay The deposited by the two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Mortar. from their history. the god of darkness and evil. soil. On the other hand. and thus the essential stimulus was wanting for the rise and development of religious art. 33 Pyramids and other early structures were near the delta of the In Western Asia the march of civilization spread northNile. such as the wind and thunder. and the swarms of aggressive and venomous insects infesting the entire region during the long summer.

C. asserted her independence and became the great power of Western Asia. and Xerxes (B.34 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Assyrians conquered and occupied Egypt in B. were formed on bone. .C.C. in the cuneiform inscriptions was Eannadu. The Persian astronomer-poet. Assyria being handed over to the Medes. sacking the ancient city of Thebes in B. who reigned B. who were employed in raising the enormous mounds mentioned hereIt has been calculated by-Rawlinson that the erection of after. 4500.465) are important as being . gleaned certain facts which considerably assist in forming the The earliest Babylonian king mentioned divisions of the periods. with a triangular ended instrument of wood. The destruction of Nineveh took place in B. under Cyrus. the northern part of the early Babylonian empire. and by the translation of these inscriptions much knowledge of the social condition has been acquired. Libraries of these strange MSS. following the course of the great river Tigris. Historical. 609. Babylon then took the leading place until it was finally conquered by the Persians. and the great Assyrian kingdom was then divided among its conquerors. the upon which the buildplat orm or mound of Koyunjik great of ings of Nineveh stood would require the united exertions 10. and battles the conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners. the sculptor thus explaining the political events of the period in a lasting manner. The Assyrian sculptures give in a very /ninute way the social conditions of the period. a combination of forces which he defeated. while still moist. 672.C. in his writings. The cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters which form the inscriptions consist of groups of strokes placed in different positions. a large scale. The reigns of Darius (B. but cruel people.000 men for twelve years. 1700 Assyria. From the study of Assyrian history can be vi. Of the Assyrian kings. 485. 539. 666 but the Egyptians finally shook themselves free from the Assyrian yoke. .C.C. or metal. In B. a hardy race from the mountainous district north of the Persian Gulf. and show us the" costumes of the time and the military character of the period. then in alliance with the Philistines. who erected the great palace at Khorsabad was the first Assyrian king who came in contact with the Egyptian army. for'the long inscriptions and series of pictures with which the palace walls were covered form an illustrated history of the battles and sieges of succeeding monarchs. in B. warlike. the most celebrated was Sargon he (B. Omar Khayyam.C. 521-485. and the empire he founded was gradually extended northwards. 722-705). indicates the national love of beauty and the influence exerted by environment and climate. after which the palaces would have to be built.C. These characters were impressed on clay tablets or cylinders. in their Assyrians were a sturdy.C.

Arches. In the seventh century A. rested on thick and . caused the development of the use of the column amongst the Persians. It will be perceived how the salient characteristics of the architecture may be explained by the nature of the materials at hand.. the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great. owing to the lack of these materials in suitable forms. Towards the close of the tenth century. applied to important openings (No. which is at the present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule. 12) and also to vaults. which study and comparison will confirm. possessed an abundance of clay. but one formed by corbelling or projecting horizontal courses. that the arch was earliest discovered and most invariably employed by those builders who found themselves condemned by the geological formation of their country to the employment of the smallest units. the Arabs overran the country and settled there Bagdad becoming a new capital of great magnificence. similar in principle to the mats and hangings spread over floors 'or -walls as a covering. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. The banks where wood which temples and palaces were forms were at first faced with built. was a repetition of its neighbour. however. for the Assyrians either cased their walls with alabaster or with a skin of glazed brickwork of many colors. therefore. The buildings thus constructed could only be decorated by attached ornament.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. or in the later Assyrian period with stone slabs from the mountains that separate Assyria from Media. in general.C. being probably accidentally hit upon through the use of small units for as the Chaldaeans were unable to support walls over openings upon beams of stone or timber. and the dazzling impression left by the marvellous buildings of Memphis and Thebes. B. The country. It is a general law. D. they had to devise some other means for doing so. The conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. each unit. These immense plat- sun-dried bricks. for the walls being of brick. which. the Turks. 525. 333. 35 those in which some of the most interesting palaces were erected The country remained under the rule of at Susa and Persepolis. a barbarous people pouring in from the east. The true arch however The arch was was also practised. being compressed in flat square moulds and dried in the sun. settled in the country. when it became a possession of the Greeks. 2. of the Tigris and Euphrates presented only alluvial suitable for building was rare. and rarely of special shape.C. in the absence of piers. In some cases it was not a true arch. was the material of which were formed the huge platforms upon plains. D 2 . B. and subsequently with kiln-burnt bricks.

a style of decoration which . through which small openings gave a sufficient illumination. for the want of suitable stone rendered any such arrangement impossible. for the effect of the towering masses of Koran as the palaces. and 13 D. G. The portal. with representations of battles and hunting scenes (No. applied to wood. : is covered with enamelled bricks. stone (No. if the power of a Merlin could bring them back to our view " Every part of the building. At Khorsabad an ornamentation of semi-cylinders in juxtaposition was employed externally. In Chaldaea. or to form imposing entrances of colored and glazed brickwork in elaborate fasades. 12 B). F. can only be imagined. such as are found in the hypostyle halls of Egypt and Persia. of sculptured slabs. probably covered the apartment (No. Assyria undoubtedly gave many of her architectural forms to Persia. however. who later borrowed much from Egypt and Asiatic Greece. or in Greek temples and Latin basilicas. and approached from the plains by broad stairways. upon which elegant flowers and sentences taken from the Koran are traced in white. isolated supports.36 solid walls . be applied with general accuracy to the palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis. 12 B. is natural and inoffensive. 13 A. Their ground is blue. G). held a space of extreme importance in the style. c. E). H). led to an audience-chamber paved with carved slabs of alabaster. becomes inappropriate when applied to . The Chaldaeans and Assyrians scarcely ever used stone constructively except as the/envelope for a brick wall but on the other hand as stone was abundant in the rocky country of Persia. This apartment had a dado. planted on the great platforms. 13 F. H." The palaces would differ principally from the description of this mosque owing to the rules of the to the prohibition in sculpture and decoration of the copying of natural objects (page 654). The cupola is blue decorated with shields and arabesques. without exception. the Persians used it for walls and columns at Susa and Persepolis. Texier's description of the great mosque at Ispahan might. were not used. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . and was surmounted by a frieze containing figures of men and animals in glazed and brightly colored brickwork a beamed roof of cedar. be entirely left to the imagination. and whether used for the formation of vaulted drains under the immense platforms. and demonstrate very clearly that a form which. it is believed. 12 feet high. The appearance of the monuments must. flanked by colossal winged bulls (Nos. The bracket and scroll capitals of the columns at Persepolis and Susa retain much of the form of their wooden prototypes. One can hardly imagine the effect produced by such a building on an European accustomed to the dull uniformity of our colorless buildings.

These temples were several stories in height. between the second and third century B. D). 4000 (?)- 1290). where it was introduced by the Bactrian Greeks.WESTERN is ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. 538-333). EXAMPLES.C. It was only. which served as a shrine and observatory from which astrological studies could be made (No. The third or Persian period (B. The copying of timber forms in stone has also been traced in Egypt in India. 1290-538).C.) (c. In Lycia many rock-cut tombs present flat and sloping roofs. 41 F).C. . however. Birs-Nimroud was dedicated to the seven heavenly " In Chaldaea every city had its " ziggurat (holy mountain). Colonel Rawlinson has shown by 'his investigations that the of Temple spheres. Glossary) upon which is placed a chest or sarcophagus crowned with a roof of pointed-arch form. and in Greece somewhat earlier than in Lycia. 37 a last reminiscence of the timber stockading which had originally served to keep up the tempered earth before the regular use of sun-dried bricks. into three tolerably Western Asiatic Architecture can be divided distinct periods (a. . An example of one of these at the British Museum has a double podium (cf. 3. in which unhewn timbers were copied and the last stage shows an Ionic facade certainly developed from these carpentry forms (No. the principal remains being the temple Birs-Nimroud near Babylon.) The second or Assyrian period (B. constructed in . THE FIRST OR BABYLONIAN PERIOD was of a temple-biiilding epoch. (b. be admitted that a material from which a style is evolved continues for a period to have its influence even when another material is substituted. the mortises and framing.C. . and the influence of this tradition is better seen in the tombs of Lycia than in any other remains. in the seventh century B.. In Asia Minor many of the buildings present stone forms borrowed from a timber type. being copied from a wooden form. surmounted by a richly decorated temple chamber. It may. therefore. including the pins. the incongruities of such forms applied to stone structures were by degrees abandoned.) : The first or Babylonian (Chaldaean) period (B. and features suitable to the new material were evolved. 12 A. and the temple at Khorsabad. c.C. in the infancy of stone architecture that timber forms were adhered to for as soon as habit gave familiarity with the new material.


may be referred to here. and with its various courts. and were rendered imposing by no fewer than ten human-headed winged bulls. with the private apartments of the prince and and (c. Turkey.) the Harem.) the Khan or service chambers. These portals formed probably the most impressive creations of Assyrian Architecture. in all containing 10 courts. (a. and each of different colored glazed bricks.C. whose sides were so placed. chambers. : . and forming the principal court of the palace. The great entrance portals on the south-east facade led into the great court already mentioned. examples of which are now preserved in the British Museum. which seems to have been sometimes treated with color. There was also a temple observatory on the western side of the platform. The Palace of Sargon. countries both remarkable for their dulness and sameness of aspect. 12 F. The attempts of the Babylonians to build a tower which should " reach to heaven " (Gen. arranged round family an immense courtyard. THE SECOND OR ASSYRIAN PERIOD was a palace -biiUding epoch. . . and Khorsabad. As in all Assyrian palaces. 4). The angles of these temples were made to face the cardinal points. Conjectural restorations have been made by various authorities (No. and has been the most completely studied by means of systematic excavations. it was raised upon a terrace or platform of brickwork faced with stone. It was erected about nine miles north. 539. including the palace proper. 19 feet in height (No. having an area of about 2| acres. in contrast to the Egyptian pyramids. and corridors is supposed to have occupied an area of 25 acres. 39 receding terraces. G. A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. from which it was reached by means of broad stairways and sloping planes or ramps. chiefly by Place.C. and it is a fact worth noting that in Western Asia and Egypt. The principal remains are the palaces at Nineveh (or Koyunjik). corresponding to the divisions of any palatial residence of modern Persia. the men's apartments. and terminated with the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus. above which was a continuous frieze of colored and glazed brickwork. In the principal apartments a sculptured dado of alabaster about 10 feet high. is the best example of the general type. man should have attempted his highest flights of audacity in the way of artificial elevations. lined the lower portions of the walls. Nimroud. xi. ajid the reception rooms for visitors.north-east of the ancient city of Nineveh. The palace contained three distinct groups of apartments. 46 feet above the plain.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. B.) The Seraglio. Khorsabad (B. 12 B). viz. or India. H). 722-705). and no less than 60 rooms or passages his (&.

receiving ambassadors. and the Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal. The excavations B. of which only one is still in situ. Nineveh. The Hall of the Hundred Columns.500 feet long by 1. Susa and Persepolis. and. 12 F). has important remains of palaces.40 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1. Some authorities hold that the long and narrow rooms were roofed with beams of poplar or palm. THE THIRD OR PERSIAN PERIOD. In the neighbourhood of their new cities. in which were forty. 225 feet square. The columns. representing the king surrounded by the arms of subject states. 885-860. which was used largely in the drains and water channels of the great platforms and in the city gates (No. as a consequence. The method of roofing is still much in dispute. as later the Romans assimilated that of the Greeks. one of the important capitals of Persia. at Susa. are still extant. The . was reached by a wide stairway on the western side. it would appear that domed roofs both spherical and elliptical were also employed. proceeded to adapt that of the conquered Assyrians. were erected on a great platform. which are wanting in the earlier periods. and that the large halls would have a central portion open to the sky. while his son Xerxes built the Propylsea. 705-681.C. have revealed a large amount of information concerning Assyrian Palaces. of the Palace of Sennacherib. B. resting upon the summits of the walls. and many of the sculptures with which the walls were lined are now in the British Museum. was probably used as an audience and throne-hall. also played an important part in the construction of the palaces themselves. partly cut out of the solid rock and It was from 20 to 50 feet above the plain and partly built up. tombs and temples. rities hold that the arch. with Other authoporticos around. many architectural features. of four different levels. The bas-reliefs are on a magnificent scale. similar to that of a Roman atrium. had capitals of curious vertical Persepolis. From a bas-relief found by Layard.four stone doorways and windows. the Hypostyle Hall and a famous palace.000 feet wide. from the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great.C. which would indicate that the architect had to provide solid abutments for arched vaults which supported a heavy roof. 10 feet 8 inches thick. specially in view of the thickness of the walls. It was surrounded by a brick wall. Persians having no architecture of their own. rows of warriors and other subjects. has inteThese resting remains of no less than eight different buildings. The most important buildings erected by Darius are his Palace and the Hall of the Hundred Columns. and Passagardae. Nimroud. good stone was to be found. Persepolis.

probably used as a throne room. Jewish Architecture.WESTERN types (No. are now in the Louvre. has a rock cut fa9ade. their architectural Kings vi. being raised on the platforms mentioned above. Assyrian. 13 A. 2 Chronicles portraying entrance pylons. courts.) is interesting.. 13 G). and forming one of four rock-hewn sepulchres of the Akhaemenian kings. and give a good idea of the glazed and . Greek and Roman sources. from which splendid examples of colored and glazed brickwork have been excavated. about 7 feet high. G) and the shafts are fluted with fifty-two flutes. Plan. 485). 41 Ionic-like scrolls (No. The only great attempt at a monumental structure was the Temple at Jerusalem. 18). near Persepolis. c). cedar woodwork. The Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes (B. 13 ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. Susa has important remains in the palaces of Xerxes and Artaxerxes. Paris. c. consisting principally of tombs in the valleys near Jerusalem. A. especially the frieze of lions and the frieze of archers in which the figures. about 5 feet high. vii. A special character was given to the temples of the early. 67 feet in height. It originally had seventy-two black marble columns.C. and the palaces of the later period. In this fa9ade the columns are of the double-bull type with cornice over. with his arm uplifted towards an image of the god Ormuzd. the angles of the Assyrian ziggurats were so placed. above which are two rows of figures supporting a prayer platform. or formed of a pair of unicorns or bulls the bases are bell-shaped (No. upon which stood a statue of the king. by raising them on terraces or platforms some 30 feet to 50 feet in height (No. biblical description (i iii..C. The Temple was afterwards added to by Herod (B. Naksh-i-Rustam. 12 G). while Assyrian palaces were designed so as to be effective internally and externally. Egyptian temples were designed mainly for internal effect. The Tomb The Hebrews apparently borrowed forms from Egyptian. and by grouping the buildings round quadrangles. occupied an area larger than the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac. 1012). (Page 659.. This was commenced by Solomon (B.) 4. Of these only seventeen colored work of the Persians. arranged in a somewhat novel manner supporting a flat roof. metal work. or of the double-bull or double-horse now exist. and having no enclosing walls. and the isolated brazen columns Jachin and Boaz. . and the site is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar.C. Remains are unimportant. or any Gothic cathedral except Milan. of Darius. COMPARATIVE. Whereas the sides of the Egyptian pyramids face the cardinal points of the compass. and the iv. reproducing the Palace of f)arius. A. and have capitals either of brackets and volutes.


13). c. The slabs of alabaster with which the walls of the palaces were faced reveal much of the social history of the people. The use of the arch. In Persia. The roofing appears to have been effected by means of timber beams reaching from one column to the next. These were primarily of wood. F. In Assyria. Columns. The capitals were characteristic. and many of the slabs are now in the British Museum (No. the Persians. D. Walls. immense columns. Mouldings. was practised by the Assyrians. and with the constructive use of stone and granite by the Egyptians. Strabo (xvi. As in the case of Egypt. E. forming a contrast with the solid marble work of the Greeks. 5) also mentions expressly that all the houses of Babylon were vaulted. somewhat similar to that in use in the Egyptian temples. in Western Asia . which were of cased brickwork. and broad stairways which alone have survived the ravages of time. where stone roofs had to be supported. Place at Khorsabad (No. formed of very tough but plastic clay and debris. as is proved by the discoveries of Sir Henry Layard at Nimroud. 43 The Assyrians in the early period used stone only B. the columns being of wood having perished. both circular and pointed. 13 A. but in the later at Persepolis. being of the "double-bull. It is believed that the Assyrian architects counted chiefly on the doorways. where semi-circular arches spring from the backs of winged bulls with human heads. I2F. which were of great size.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. 12 B). 12 B). the walls which were thin have disappeared. as a facing to their brick walls. the massive walls. period built them of the natural stone which had been wanting in Chaldsea. leaving the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and window openings. The lighting to the temples is conjectural. and kept in condition by being occasionally rolled. Perrot and Chipiez. and openings may also have been formed in the upper parts of the walls. but in many cases the roof of considerable thickness was flat. and resting on the backs of the "double-bull" capitals (No." " " sufficient " . however. and the Ionic scroll occurs in some examples. on their return from Egypt. c). are of opinion that Assyrian builders made use of domes in addition to barrel vaults. because of the discovery of a bas-relief at Koyunjik in which groups of buildings roofed with spherical or elliptical domes are shown. only remain. to give their buildings a supply of light and air. and of M. Roofs. but to have been effected by means of a "clerestory" it appears (No. Some authorities consider that the halls of the palaces were covered with brick tunnel vaults. They were not so massive as in Egypt." (No. however. i. Openings. as in modern eastern houses. " double-horse or " double-griffen type double-unicorn. G. H).

are represented buildings with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form in embryo. and Judaea. 1853." 2 vols. et Coste (P. REFERENCE BOOKS. now in the British Museum. Paris. "Sarchedon" (Historical Novel). Paris. while the volutes of the capital were treated with plain sinkings.." 5 vols. Chaldea. which are thus of extreme interest in enabling the evolution of architectural forms from the earlier periods to be traced. Monuments of Nineveh. F. " Nineveh and its Palaces. Ragozin Texier folio. shields. Whyte-Melville. and gate fittings is also From the decorative treatment of Assyrian architecture notable. et la (A most interesting account Mesopotamie. Flandin (E." " 6 vols. 1849. while the repousse pattern work on bronze bowls. hollow and ogee mouldings may be noticed in the bases." 5 vols. Phrygia. and the honeysuckle (No. A).). much . 12 j) and guilloche ornaments..) 1844-1854. Paris. large folio. Persia.. the colored decorations. Ornament. (Z. Paris. Dieulafoy (M.). and " their history.)-" Voyage en Perse. Further.. it may be said. 1884-1889." 2 vols. colored surfaces took their place. 1884-1892.). Layard (A.) L'Armenie. 1888. 1867-1870." 8vo. " Ninive et L'Assyrie. "L'Art Antique de folio. " Perrot and Chipiez. large of the people (C.. H. 13 B.44 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. that Greece took from Assyria the idea of the sculptured friezes. At Persepolis the bead. Place (Victor). A him visit to will afford the Assyrian galleries and basement of the British Museum interest and information to the student and will impress with the dignity and importance of the style. la Perse. 5. folio. The Assyrian sculptures in alabaster exhibit G." " 3 vols. la Perse. the latter being seen in a pavement slab from the palace at Nineveh (Koyunjik). and on the sculptured slabs (No." 2 vols. In the next chapter it will be seen that Greece adopted much of her decorative art from the preceding styles of Egypt and Western Asia. Layard. the use of mouldings does not appear to have advanced to any In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured slabs and great extent... can be traced much of the peculiar and characteristic detail used by the Greeks. already mentioned at Nimroud and Nineveh. folio. 8vo. H). considerable technical skill and refinement. History of Art in Chaldasa and Assyria. 8vo. 1842-1852.

INFLUENCES. the mountainous character of the country. though no more . and together with the tempting proximity of a whole multitude of islands. great " AnH downward thence to ! ! ! BYRON. in the mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus. colonists. LORD HOUGHTON. Geological. and one which favours purity of line and refinement in detail. The wildernesses there begin To blossom with the Grecian rose. This material is found in great abundance in various parts of Greece. of the sea in fostering national activity should not be forgotten an influence to which Great Britain owes her present position. a few miles . was calculated to isolate the inhabitants into small groups.14. the most monumental building material in existence.the Phoenician merchants in early times carried on commerce with the country. By means of these havens . The influence i. Geographical. Till when new worlds for man to win The And The Atlantic riven waves disclose. e.g. possessed of many natural harbours. 14) shows a country surrounded on three sides by the sea. GREEK ARCHITECTURE. latest days heritage of beauty fell . their humanising spell. " Fair Greece sad relic of departed worth " Immortal. with scarcely a road until Roman times. who might be expected to make good ii. Grecian forms and Grecian lays Prolonged. though fallen. In Greece the principal mineral product was marble. and convenient for the development of trade." i. A reference to the map of Greece (No. Again. was instrumental in producing a hardy and adventurous people..

numerous the gods were personifications. yEsculapius. Hercules... and other primitive forms of religion. and a small bright "cella" took the place of the mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians (page 20). fetishism. Climate. In the in the islands of Paros and Naxo's. are as follows Greek. Juno.. Ceres. Also (The of song and music. however. feasting./ ishes. The principal deities of the Greeks with their Roman names also rich in silver. j . and founder of cities. while marble itself was often treated in the same way. women officiated. retiring afterwards into private life. it appears also to have been coated with this marble cement. and iron. and traditions. refinement of line and smoothness of surface where crude bricks were used. therefore eloquent with winged feet Beauty Victory Diana. and . / . It should be borne in mind that Greek cults were always local. Religion. power P ower P eace and P ros Sea Wine. Bacchus. Demeter Artemis TT-. but were not an exclusive class. ) . factors probably answerable for the porticos which were important features of the temples. Greece enjoyed a position intermediate between the rigorous surroundings of the Northern nations and the relaxing condiHence the Greek character combined the tions of Eastern life. major and minor).. traces of ancestor-worship. t ( Hestia Heracles Athena . as at Paestum and elsewhere. Mercur y Venus. The Greek religion was in the main a worship of natural phenomena (nature-worship. copper. I Poseidon Dionysos ^> - - Minerva. they were in many cases coated with a where stone was fine cement formed of marble dust and lime employed. Victoria. the cement being susceptible of a higher polish than the uncemented surface. The priests had to perform their appointed rites. iii. of which There are. The country was from Athens. Hearth (sacred fire) Strength. Earth. Vesta. The god who pun. heals and helps. : Roman. ceremonies. revelry Neptune. iv. Chief of the gods and supreme ruler Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage son of Zeus and father ot ] Zeus Hera Jupiter (Jove). and often served only for a Both men and period. agriculture ( iermes 1 Aphrodite Nike Hunting (goddess of the chase) Herald or messenger of the gods. god sun. of the the ^ Apollo. activity of the North with the passivity of the East in a way that conduced to the growth of a unique civilization. each town or district having its own divinities.46 effort to obtain COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The climate of Greece /s remarkable for the hot sun and the heavy rains.

The poems of Homer. the old Pelasgic population).C. the incidents related have a substratum of truth. and gave them that love for music. ^Eolians (i. who established themselves at In classical times Sparta and elsewhere in the Peloponnese. The Hesiodic poems. the drama. and the tale probably arose out of the early conflicts of the Greeks in north-west Asia. for the public ceremonies and in many cases the administration of justice were carried on in the the open air. 650). It thus came about that the colonies were often peopled with citizens of a more energetic and go-ahead character than those of the mother country and it will therefore be found that The Greeks. and elsewhere. as is evident from the remains of it found at different points round the ^Egean sea. undertaken not only to establish trade. in Crete. It fell before the iron weapons and greater courage of invaders from North. and the fine arts. circ. and that this connection with the East had some influence upon their architecture. were great colonists. viz. As regards the people themselves. it is clear that the national games and religious festivals united them in reverence for their religion.. emigration. For the . 500 years after the fall of Troy that the new Hellenic civilization was evinced in the construction of the Temple of Corinth (B. and Dorians.' Social and Political. are in their colonies of Asia Minor. and especially to the coast of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. and that emulation in manly sports and contests for which they were distinguished. especially in the Ionic style. The war against Troy affords proof of an early connection of the inhabitants of Greece with Asia. Dorian Sparta and Ionian (Pelasgian) Athens are the two It was not till some principal factors in the drama of Greece. hardy mountaineers called Dorians. Tiryns. Their civilization belonged to the bronze age.GREEK ARCHITECTURE.e. depict the gloomy prospects and sordid life of the Boeotian peasantry at a time when art was almost in abeyance..C. was a government measure dating from about B. 47 The early inhabitants were known v. to the ancients under the name of Pelasgi. descendants of the Achaeans).. one of the earliest Doric temples known. the Achaeans or Homeric Greeks. at Mycenae. The Achaeans in their turn succumbed to a fresh influx of invaders from the North. but also to reduce the superfluous population. the land was peopled by lonians (i. B.C. vi. give a picture of Greek life about the twelfth century B. 700. Whether or no the war with many Troy be an actual fact. viz.C. . apparently a Pelasgic bard who sang for Achaean masters.e. at Hissarlik in the Troad. of the important buildings of Greek architecture.. 750. as already indicated. It should be remembered that the people led an open-air life. and to provide an outlet for party strife. Historical.

Persian wars.C. and the effect of these was most important.C. The had hitherto been considered a half-barbarian state. " Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit Intulit agresti Latio. Thucydides. National exaltation caused by the defeats of the Persians is largely responsible for the fact that all the " important temples now found in Greece were built in the fifty " which succeeded the battles of Salamis and Plataea. for Hellenic civilization was thus introduced far and wide throughout Asia. having captured Sardis. Cyrus.C. where he founded and gave his name to the famous city of Alexandria. 499-493 which led to the .C.C. who founded a dynasty (page 12). In B. On his death at Babylon in B. 323. . aristocratic. centuries B.C. 146 Greece became a Roman The isolation and mutual animosity of the Greek province. 334 Alexander set out on his great expedition. and in six years he subdued the Persian Empire. having besieged and taken Tyre en route and received the submission of Egypt. lasted from B. In Greece itself the formation of leagues. The years wonderfully rapid growth of Athens excited the jealousy of the slower Spartans. or democratic and The Persians under most of their colonies had been founded. It was the revolt of these lonians in B.C. Egypt falling to the share of Ptolemy. overthrew the kingdom of Lydia whereupon the Greeks of Asia Minor became subject to Persia. En revanche.48 fourth and fifth COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 444-429) marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. and the . cities of Greece had by this time settled down in their several forms of government tyrannic. The rule of Pericles (B. communities afforded all too good an opportunity for the intrusion of the better-centralized and more united power of Rome. as the Achaean and ^Etolian. B.C. and the Peloponnesian war. and others.C. The Peloponnesian war left Sparta the chief power in Greece but her arbitrary and high-handed conduct roused other states against her. 480). which followed. there are the more or less critical The histories of Herodotus." et artes . and attempted gradually increased until in B. supremacy passed successively to Thebes and Macedonia. Xenophon. latter . but thanks to the ability of Philip King of Macedonia and of his son Alexander the Great. 490 the second invasion by Xerxes terminated in the naval victory of Salamis (B. the empire he had created was split up among his Generals. 431 to 404. where arts not arms were concerned. The first great Persian invasion resulted in the and victory of the Greeks at the battle of Marathon. it rose to a leading position in Greece. between cities was but the Roman interference had commenced. His conquests extended to Northern India.

20. Greek still culture owed to the preceding Oriental the change effected by the Greeks has so profoundly influenced the development of European progress that Greece must be regarded as the veritable source of literary " Whate'er As a recent writer and artistic Much as civilizations. and the character was largely influenced by the use of finely-dressed marble. 49 ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. to inclined blocks over openings. often unworked. as they were then better able to withstand a cross-strain. a method of design which called for a Mortar certain simplicity of treatment characteristic of the style. This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs = a beam). which had to support a cross pressure. The Hellenic Period which followed the Mycenaean is dealt with specially here because it is notable for the development of the trabeated style which the Greeks approved and developed. Greek. and a wider intercolumniation could also be obtained. / \ Trabeated and Arcuated. were placed with the planes of their beds vertically. as mentioned on page 53. Arcuated. half is hers. Cyclopean or Primitive period." Greek architecture stands alone in being accepted as beyond criticism. hold of beauty. inspiration. puts it.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. and as being an obligatory study for students of otherwise very different principles. 2. Gothic. Roman. Stone or marble lintels being difficult to obtain of any great length. and which is recognised as the special Grecian type. Trabeated. made. the columns or supporting members had to be placed comparatively close together.A. Etruscans. Further. is very different from the later or Hellenic period. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity the weights acting only vertically. consists of rough walling of large blocks of stone. was unnecessary because it would have been of no use for distributing the pressure between the stone or marble blocks of which the walls and columns were constructed. In this period the Greeks often had recourse to the corbel system. The character of the early or Mycenaean period. according to the pressures they had to bear thus the architraves. 28). F. cramps. E . and. and consequently needing but vertical resistances. and even to the true arch. The following diagram emphasizes the main facts': we Greeks. for Choisy found . that the stones were laid on their natural bed or otherwise. as the beds of these were rubbed to a very fine surface and united with iron . also known as the Pelasgic. careful study of the materials at hand was in the temples at ^Egina and Paestum (Nos.


According to Pennethorne a further correction is pointed out in an inscription from the Temple of Priene (No. chap. and of 4-39 inches on the flanks. vi. The faces of the architrave (No. close spacing of the angle columns has been already referred to. principle. and the mouldings more refined. and in the later periods the proportions of the columns were more slender. E 2 . in order to correct optical illusions. and the letters at the lower part decreased so that they might all appear of one size when seen from the point of sight. and would meet if produced at a distance of a mile above ground. 710.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. simplicity and unity. halls. in the Parthenon the axes of the outer columns lean inwards 2*65 inches. The shafts usually have an entasis which. where according to Vitruvius. because of the excellence of their proportions. as has been discovered by the late Mr. c) were also given an inward inclination. the letters at the top of the inscription were increased in size.. in the case of the Parthenon column. and The long lines of the architrave. For instance. The vertical features were made to incline inwards in order to correct the tendency which such features have of appearing to fall outwards at the top. would appear to sag or drop in the middle of their length.. Bk. 2. Sculpture and carving of the highest class completed the effectiveness of their most important buildings. if built straight in reality. Thus. 51 The general architectural character of the early works of the Hellenic period is heavy and severe. A). the influence of the Mycenaean period being apparent but a gradual change towards refinement and beauty took place. Unity of effect in the larger temples was obtained by the colonnade surrounding the shrine-cell. pediments and other features. 71. and these were influenced very largely by the hard. decreasing in size from the entrance pylons. 71. which rendered possible the delicate adjustment and refined treatment characteristic of this period.6) they would appear thinner than those seen against the darker background formed by the cella wall. and chambers. and the employment of one constructive . and is shown on No. stylobate. especially in the Parthenon. amounts to about three-quarters of an inch in a height of 34 feet. 71. fine-grained marble employed. Greek buildings have the qualities of harmony. forming a contrast with the number of courts. which. comprised in a typical Egyptian temple. Penrose in many temples. Many refinements in design were practised in the best period of Greek art. Parthenon the stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 2-61 inches on the east and west fronts. in the were formed with slight convex lines. and these were increased in thickness as it was found The that seen against the sky owing to irradiation (No. their truthful and apparent construction.


the exquisite symmetry of Sophocles. as do the mouldings and decorations applied (No. an Ageladas. but the characteristics are well expressed in the following lines ." THOMSON. . including base and capital. the clear-cut beauty of the Ionic. Form'd to repel the still or stormy waste Of rolling ages. the manly Doric rose Th' Ionic. .GREEK ARCHITECTURE. and a Praxiteles. Cyprus. . a Pheidias. " Her airy pillar heaved luxuriant last. that the marble piles. EXAMPLES. or middle member. The Mycense-an Period has already been defined as extending to shortly after the war with Troy. in poetry the rugged grandeur of ^Eschylus. Delphi. Ionic and Corinthian being used by them. The Greeks developed the so-called " Orders of Architecture. Addington Symonds well observed that Art is commonly evolved through three stages: (i) The ardent and this gives strength and inspired embodiment of a great idea grandeur (2) the original inspiration tempered by increasing knowledge and a clearer appreciation of limits the result being symmetry (3) ebbing inspiration. though in the Islands (e.. 38). there is the solid strength of the Doric capital. and the cornice or uppermost part.C. or part The latter is divided into the architrave or lowest supported. dating . The proportions of these parts vary in the different orders. details being elaborated. To these. Crete. and in sculpture. The origin and evolution of the different parts of the three Greek orders are dealt with later under their respective headings. the Romans added the Tuscan and Composite. and Delos). with decent matron grace. portion the frieze. The whole so measured. it lasted on till the eighth century B. . and novelties introduced to make up for its loss this occasions a brilliant but somewhat disproportioned style. In architecture. thus completing the " five orders of architecture. The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. and the florid detail of the Corinthian. and elsewhere still exhibit traces of their original coloring. . 3.g. The late J. and some of the remains which have been lately excavated at Athens." An " order " in Greek and Roman architecture consists of the column or support. : unadorn'd. then. in later times. And nobly plain. light as fabrics look That from the wand aerial rise. First. and the brilliant innovations of Euripides. so lessen' d oft" By fine proportion. but remains of a pre-Mycensean period called Min6an." the Doric. This progress can be traced in all departments of Greek life. and the entablature. 53 Color and gilding were applied very largely by the Greeks both to their buildings and sculpture.

sanctuary on Mount Ocha in Eubcea. wall of Acropolis at Athens.. It " consists of a long entrance passage or dromos. and tombs. Orchomenos.Dr. the precise shape being found by Prof. Tiryns. and Athens. and the ancient shrine of Apollo on Mount Cynthus (Delos). back to about B. way places. Adler in Phrygia. Arthur Evans. perhaps prehistoric.. Examples at Argos.54 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 15 A. of which the Minoan Palace at Knossos in Crete is an The architectural remains of these periods include example. and an arched gateway at A water-channel or drain at Athens. " tholos " or beehive-tombs at Mycenae. Sometimes horizontal courses were employed projecting one beyond the other till the apex was reached. accurately worked so as to fit together. a Cyclopean arch at Cnidus. producing either a triangular opening as is found above the doorways of the tholos-tombs (No.. masses of rock roughly quarried and piled on each other. but with clay mortar. without cramp-irons. Mycenae. is partly arcuated and partly roofed with advancing corbels. 15 A. At Mycenae the tholoi are confined to the lower city as opposed to the shaft-graves of the upper city.e. the interstices between the larger being filled with smaller blocks. The largest and " best preserved is the so-called " Treasury of Atreus (No. or a dome-shaped roof as in the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. i. The walls are of three kinds of masonry: (i) "Cyclopean" i. Thus all three styles " occur in structures of " Mycenaean age.C. Arches..e. i). town-walls. and also in the vaulted passages at the theatre of Sicyon.e. ii. although in out-of-theThe first is as in Caria. and the gallery at Tiryns." 2oJfeetJ>road by Stadium The . viz. Inclined Blocks.. Examples at Mycenae in the entrances and towers. carefully hewn rectangular blocks arranged in regular courses. 3000. The barrel. Sometimes inclined blocks forming triangular headed openings were employed as in the early. and the entrance passage in "tholos" or beehive-tombs. 15). (3) Polyzonal. an arch with a key-stone : : dropped) in Acarnania. palaces. have been discovered by. they survived for centuries. at Olympia and other places. and Cnidus. many sided blocks Examples at Mycenae. Knossos in Crete. but the/ joints between stones in the same course are not always vertical. the tunnel leading to the (partially CEniades. (2) Rectangular. or an apparent arch as at CEniades in Acarnania.vault ("kamara") occurs in subterranean funeral chambers in Macedonia. which crosses the town from east to west. B). E). and Amyclae were originally modelled on underground huts for the living (Vitruv. In addition various characteristic features were used Corbels. i. seemingly the parent of the other two but the common assumption that polygonal is later than rectangular masonry cannot be proved with regard to the Pelasgic period. A few examples of Greek arcuated work are extant. Assos.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE. belong to the second stage in the evolution of the dwelling-house. 5 D). IQO . = tectural activity Sicily. and the death of Alexander. i. Delphi. A similar tomb at Orchomenos in Bceotia has a magnificently ornamented ceiling in its sepulchral chamber. between the defeat of the Persians. B. 700 and the Roman occupation B. A model of the Acropolis at Athens in the British Museum will give a good general idea of the disposition of the important buildings placed Other great centres of archithereon. the complete series being (a) natural cave (No. ii 5 55 feetkmg. viz. The Hellenic Period contains all the principal temples and monuments which were erected between the years B.C. Psestum and Asia Minor. about 50 feet broad by 50 feet rn^7ali3~a~small square tomb-chamber adjoining. as also the plan No. 2 E). 146. while another at Menidi in Attica has no less than five superposed lintels to support the mass of earth above it These tombs (cf. B. The masterpieces of Greek architecture. were all erected in the short space of about 150 years. 480. Many of the Greek cities were upon or in the immediate an vicinity of a hill which was known as the Acropolis (Greek upper city). .. were Olympia.. and formed a citadel upon which the principal temples or treasure-houses were erected for safety. hut (No. section of Great Pyramid. Q 100 200 30O 400 500 . 17. in South Italy. a large vaulted chamber. however.C. 323. No. The famous Gate of Lions on the Acropolis at ... Mycenae also belongs to this period (No.C.C. 2 H) (b) artificial cave below ground (c) artificial cave above ground. 15 E).e.

B. with special regard to external effect. lighting by a clerestory concealed in the roof which is favoured by Mr. Peter. 54. and 31). 25 B). In the larger temples were internal colonnades of columns placed over each other to support the roof (Nos. " Diet. and consisted generally placed of a "naos" or cell. 25 A).. 27.). and 31 A). .56 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 28. 21." that is to say. the whole generally raised on a stylobate of three steps. 30. London. 16 A. Their points of difference with Egyptian examples have been (Pages 15. and frequently planned so that the sun might enter and light up the statue opposite. 18 H. behind the portico of columns. Both alike were developed out of the smokehole of the primitive hut the whole development being ably traced in an article on " domus" in Daremberg et Saglio. terminated the simple span roof (Nos. | . The door was almost always placed in the centre of the end wall. 26. 28). The general absence of windows in the temples. can be seen practically in Sir Arthur Blomfield's restoration of S. with flanking colonnades. usually oblong in plan/ in which was placed the statue of the god or goddess a treasury or chamber beyond and a front and rear portico. but it appears to have been used in the larger temples as in that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens (No. Fergusson (No. has given rise The method of to many theories as to how light was admitted. 20. near Miletus. there was an opening in the roof which admitted air and light to the The use of an hypaethral central portion of the naos or cell. . These roofs were constructed of timber and covered with marble slabs the ends of the overlapped joints being provided with ante-fixae at the eaves (Nos. 20 H. The temple was occasionally " hypaethral. Eaton Square. that at Agrigentum being the only exception (No. 28 A. Pantheon. des Antiquites. Rome (Nos. j. Many authorities hold that light was obtained solely through . xiv. 1 8 j) (see Vitruvius). 23. being merely a glorified dwelling-house. They were in a "temenos" or sacred enclosure. The Temples formed the most important class of buildings erected during this period. They were built with already referred to. 20. and a general description applicable to all is therefore given." An extant hypaethral opening is that of the . 16 D. The temple was the house of the local god. opening has been often refuted. 55). 28 o). On the two end fagades above the columns a triangularshaped pediment. as mentioned in Strabo (lib. 21. 23. and 44 N). and some hold that the opening in the centre of an ordinary house must have had some counterpart in that of the divinity. and were ornamented sculpture of the highest class in order to form fitting shrines for the deities in whose honour they were erected. usually but not always filled with sculpture. 23. and in the Ionic Temple of Apollo-/ Didymaeus. Another theory by Herr Bdtticher is also shown (No.


Octagonal. Temple temple. Temple of Rhamnus(No. The Tholos at Epidauros cell). 28 M). Artificial illumination by means of lamps may also have been employed. ii. vi. 18 F and 21 D). The Propylcea. Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum (No. Di-style in antis at both ends. Temple of Apollo at Bassae (No. T. v. B. and Temple of Nike-Apteros (No. Doric Temple at Eleusis (No. Sicily (No. Doric Temple at Selinus. others that the transparent Parian marble roofing slabs would admit sufficient light. xii. 18 K). a favourite form afterwards adopted by the Romans. c). Greek ex. Pseudo-peripteral (having columns attached to cella walls. Ex.. Ex. 28 K. Paestum (No. Sicily (No. Temple of Neptune. by the disposition of their columns. Ex. Peripteral hexa. and also to show the evolution from the simple shrine-cell of the smaller The different methods of spacing the columns one examples.58 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Amphi-prostyle tetrastyle (front and rear porticos of four columns). Di-style in antis at one end (the simplest form. Ex. from the other i. i8A). R. v. See page ix. 12). Roman example is the Great Temple at Baalbec (No. portico). the doorways. 18 H. 23 H). Athens (Nos 18 M. the Ex. Philipeion at Olympia. tetrastyle (a front Prostyle portico of four columns). Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. Athens (Nos. Peripteral octastyle (as last. 27 c). 30 F). Ex Erechtheion. In order to keep the descriptions of classic temples together. but with eight columns to each Ex. 18 iii. L). 31 B). Teleskrion at x. Pseudo -dipteral octastyle (as last. near Miletus. 28 A. xiii. and Temple of at Ephesus (No. Dipteral octastyle (double rows of columns surrounding Exs. The different kinds of temples are classified. Dipteral decastyle (as ix.style (a temple surrounded by columns. vii. Tower of the Winds Athens (No. the Parthenon Athens (Nos. B). Ex./U. 18 N). Ionic Temple on the Ilissus (No. Ex. of Jupiter Olympius. Great Doric Temple of Selinus. s. xi. but with ten columns at ends). 18 L). and a sheet of plans (No. 53 E). Ex. mention is made here that the Romans employed the circular . 18 iv. 39. The Theseion porticos at each end having six). Athens (No. Diana A Eleusis. 18 j). (No. 18) is given in order to indicate the general distribution of parts. 18 E). is shown in No. having two columns between antae). viii. Peripteral circular (a ring of columns surrounding a circular Ex. 18 N). having ranges of eight at each end). with the inner range left out). D). Athens (No. Irregular planning.

supported by (c. the oldest. and the explanation of the wooden types used decoratively in the later stone architecture. which were certainly fluted when in position. Viollet-le-Duc.g. 6) of special interest. They themselves suggest no origin of the Capital. are here stated. moreover.) of Vesta. and decline to consider the derivation from the examples at Beni-Hasan in Egypt.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. the earliest of the Greek orders. Monopteral (in which the roof was columns only. 47). and circular temples as follows (a. (No." discuss the question of the wooden origin of the Greek Doric column and its entablature. in their monumental work on " Art in Primitive Greece. Illustrations showing these reconstructions are given in No. which will be referred to in detail now with their principal examples. Tivoli (No. the theories put forward by several authorities. 16. 57 E). to order. e. was unable to conceive how the Greek Doric capital could have been derived from a timber form. They make various interesting suggestions.) Peripteral.. and endeavour to show its derivation from the wooden-built prodomus or porch of the Mycenaean palace (No. the derivation " of the " guttae from constructive wooden pegs. The Doric by many (No. . and he considered the triglyphs in the frieze. without walls). The varieties of temples described were erected in either the Doric. however. Perrot and Chipiez. held a decided opinion that the orders He of Greek architecture involved an original stone treatment. and also planned smaller 18 c). is traced an Egyptian prototype as exemplified at Beni-Hasan is but as the origin of this. : 54.) Pseudo -peripteral (the cella wall having attached columns). Temple Temple (b. Ionic. and which would be vry difficult to flute across the grain of the wood but as original stone uprights. or Corinthian style. THE DORIC ORDER. not as the petrified ends of wooden beams which could not be seen on four sides of a building. and the restoration they give of the timber architecture of Mycenaean palaces. and therefore treated in this respect in the same manner as the columns. plainest. He likewise observed that " the form given to the entablature of the Doric order can be adapted with some unimportant variations to a structure in stone as well as of wood. in neither case involving . form a consistent and attractive theory a theory. fluted to express their function of vertical support. and most sturdy. 16). Rome of Vesta. form as in the 59 Pantheon (Nos. which is yearly gaining ground and is to many minds convincing.


H. The circular "sEaft diminishing at the top t$ from f to f of this diameter is divided as a rule in 20 shallow flutes or channels separated by sharp arrfses. a from 4 to 6^ g stylpbate usually of three steps is. rj A). Occasionally the flutes number 12 (Assos). H. but stands directly ori.. had they been familiar with the recentlydiscovered examples of Pelasgic or "Mycenaean" construction.) That the greater the age of the known and approximately dated examples. sive (e. Statham. that a wooden original suggested a stone structure in the composition of the Doric order indeed.) That the characteristic original forms been wooden moulding under the abacus of the Doric column is an essentially stone form. . echinus and annulets." and asserts that in the case of the inclination of the soffit of the cornice this barbarous theory is at once disproved by two facts. No. he would rather suppose the converse. (page 67). The column. column as seen from the front. times "the diameter at the base in height. in a recent work on architecture. The shaft has normally an outward curvature of profile calledjhe lo counieiacl the hollow -appearance "6T "entagjgl' (No. the effect is lifeless but the happy mean may be seen ." He was not prepared to admit. The division into twenty flutes seems to have been selected in order that a projection or arris might come under each of the angles of the square abacus above. 6l the necessity of falsifying the form or the structure. Mr.. Garbett goes so far as to call the wooden theory an " insolent libel. the inclination being observed on the fronts equally with the sides of the building.g. while the reverse would probably have been the case had the and (ii. and its angle being wholly independent of that of the roof. The similarities between these proto-historic buildings and the later Greek styles of architecture are too numerous to be acci" " dental. Basilica at Paestum) where it is omitted altogether (e. and adds that its adherents have to explain these facts (i. In early works this is often too obtrustraight sided columns. however. It will be found that no other number of flutes between twelve and twenty-eight will enable this to be done. then. have modified their views. A later writer. The column is surmounted by The distinctive capital formed of abacus. including the cap. thus following out one of the Greek constructive principles of placing projections over projections. 19 B).GREEK ARCHITECTURE. and at the same time a flute in the centre of the . which has no base. : . back or sides. and Pelasgic or Mycenaean palaces undoubtedly had columns and entablatures of wood. These opponents of the wooden theory might. or 24 '(Psestum. . Corinth) a in the Parthenon.g. 18 (Greek Temple at Pompeii). and one which it would not be at all easy to work in wood. 16 (Sunium). rejects the wooden theory as far as the Doric column and capital are concerned. the thicker the columns are.


sometimes filled with sculpture of the highest quality (page 72). . . the wooden beam. page 66) B.C. which is somewhat similar in outline to a human hand supporting a book. The principal examples are found in Greece.} The architrave is derived from its prototype. 31 c. 6th cent. The triglyphs are placed at equal distances apart. The profile of the echinus varies according to the date of erection.C. and South called the : Italy. The soffit is inclined upwards and parallel with the slope of the roof. . 700 Heraion.) The cornice consists of an upper or crowning part ing of cymatium and birdsbeak mouldings beneath which is a vertical face known as the corona. and underneath this at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs is a narrow band called the regula. whereas in the Ionic and Corinthian orders the usual number is three. and in consequence the intercolumniation of the two outer columns in each front is less by about half a triglyph in width than that of the others.C. D. and the Parthenon (No. Date. abacus is 63 a square slab under which is a large convex moulding echinus. is supported by columns. the earlier examples. having six guttae. Separating this from the frieze is a flat moulding called the tenia. their soffits being ornamented with eighteen guttae in three TOWS of six each. 19 E) the curve approaches a straight line (approximately hyperbolic Annulets or horizontal fillets varying from three to five section). Architect. Beneath the triglyphs are guttae or small conical drops. Island of Paros B. usually about one quarter of the height of order. and come immediately over the centre of each column and intercolumniation. Olynipia (No. consist(c. which recall the feet of sloping rafters. Immediately below is the trachelion or necking. however. 19 A. having beneath it the hypotrachelion formed of three groves in the older or archaic examples and one in the later. being fuller in outline (approximately parabolic section). Temple of Poseidon. and only one vertical face. .) The frieze has triglyphs.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Libon. ornamented with and metopes or square spaces between them. B). (b. whereas in the later examples such as the Theseion (No. three channels. one over each triglyph and metope. Corinth B. At the angles. 472-469 Temple of Zeus. and has three main divisions (a. Olvmpia (page 67) . DORIC EXAMPLES The The The The IN GREECE. and its underside has flat projecting blocks called mutuies. in number are placed beneath the echinus of the capital in order to form a stop or contrast to the long lines of the arrises between the flutes. B C. because the two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge. It has considerable depth. such as the Temples at Paestum (No. 19 D). this is not so. Sicily. 650 Temple of Athena. The entablature.


.0) w w H F.A.

C. The Temple of Demeter (Ceres). L. (No. Sicily (No. B. DORIC EXAMPLES IN GREECE B. Agrigentum r The l emple of Poseidon (Neptune). Date. 4th cent. 470-450 19 C.C.C. 27 A.C. Theron. which with the capitals measured 17 feet in height. Italy . 550 550 550 500 (No. Syractise.C. . . (Temple of Hera).B. A.C.C. The Temple of Concord. . l8L). . 19 A). 31 c. Rhamnus. 28 M. Sicily. Athens (No. B. 437-432 Mnesicles. 19 B). IN SICILY (No. 19 F).66 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. B. Olympia (B. B.C. 300. K. 430 of Apollo Epicurius (" The Ally"). The peristyle columns. DORIC EXAMPLES The Great Temple. N. Epidaiiros (No.c B. 700) 41 E). . 19 n. The Temple of Apollo. Polycleitos the younger. Basses. Agrigentiun The Temple ofJuno. varied much in diameter and are both monolithic and built in drums." Pastum (No 28 D. Athens B. H) (page 72). B. Island of Delos (No. . . Ictinus and Philon. on the . S. 28 F. 19 E. E. .C.C. 6th cent. 40 44 G. Pastum. (continued)^ Architect. D. Sicily The Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Olympitis. c. 17. The Tliolos. 16 A. The Temple . Architect. measuring 168 feet by 64 feet 6 inches. 25. . The Temple of Poseidon. 22.C. Sunium 17. 5th cent. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (No. Ictinus. It is generally held that the original columns were of wood replaced by stone columns as they decayed (see page 59. B. is very long in proportion to its width and has on either side a range of eight columns. 21./44O B. of the Mysteries. (?) Date. 18 N.C. M. 480 Agrigentum (Girgenti). B. G. o) (page 75). The Theseion (so called) or Temple of 465 Hephaestos.C. is believed to be the most ancient of all Greek Temples hitherto discovered.C. It stands on a stylobate of two steps.C. The Temple of Ceres. 24. N. 26) (page 93).C. B.C. . 38 A) (page 67). Sicily B. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius) on the Island of sJLgina. B. Sicily B. . B. the alternate ones being connected to the cella wall by means of short transverse walls. H) (page 67). 454-438 Ictinus and Callicrates.C. Eleusis. 20) (page 67). The Temple of Egeita. 23. Athens (Nos. The cella (Nos. C D. . B. B. 18 K) The Temples of Themis and Nemesis (No. D. F. The Temple of Athena.C. Selinus. l8 H. AND SOUTH ITALY. The Propyl&a (Entrance Gateway). 610-509 550 The Temple kncnvn as the "Basilica. B. (Nos. 1 8 A). or the Hall B. The Parthenon. Pastuni (No. E). . 628-410 Temples {several} at Selinus. The Heraion D. 435-310.

The temple is peripteral octastyle on plan. was called the " Hecatompedon.C. measuring 100 attic in length. 62 feet 6 inches wide. 19 D. c). Olympia (B. A general description is given on No. the principal doorway. led into the cella. 465) (Nos. and it appears to have been used as the Hieratic treasury. Theseion (? B. On the east. The Parthenon (B. 23. i. (No. equal those of the Parthenon in height. of which there are thirteen to the sides. and being too steep to ascend with comfort. To the west of the cella was the Parthenon proper (i. 16. 17. 21. Three columns were placed at the western end. 67 Pausanias mentions that in the 2nd origin of the Doric Order). 470 450). and having sixteen flutes. 19 c). still retain some of their The metopes and portions of the frieze are original coloring. being dedicated to Athena Parthenos (the virgin Athena). 20. Near the western end of the cella was the famous statue of Athena.C. was divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of ten Doric columns. and. generally believed to be the Temple of Hephaestos. was erected in the time of Pericles.e. as may be ssen by the marks of their basis on the marble paving. intermediate steps were provided at the centre of the -east and west ends (No. This chamber is a peculiarity differentiating the temple from most others. on the Island of ^Egina is an interesting and wellOn preserved example of an early peripteral hexastyle temple. 23 F). 454 438) (Nos. sculptured pediments by Paeonias and Alcamenes. It is placed on a stylobate of three steps. is now on plan with thirteen columns on each flank. The cella and the Parthenon were F 2 . century A. 3 feet 8 inches in diameter. 22. and its roof was supported by four feet Ionic columns (No." The cella. the dimensions on the top step being 102 feet by 228 feet. 23 A. The columns.D. a relation of breadth to length of about 4. two of the columns in the opisthodomos were of oak. but although both pediments were ornamented with sculpture none of this now remains..e. hexastyle The so-called 38 A). The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius). > v shown on No. Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects and Phidias was the superintending sculptor.C. Each of the steps measures about i foot 8 inches high and 2 feet 4 inches wide. The Temple of Zeus. 21. with seventeen columns on the flanks. virgin's chamber). which. 472 469) is peripteral hexastyle on plan. 18 F. both It is peripteral date and name are a matter of doubt. from which the temple took its name. so making the aisle continuous round three sides of the cella. the interior are two rows of five columns which help to support the roof. mentioned hereafter. It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway corresponding to the eastern one. although the best preserved Doric example in Greece.C. but are much The building was especially famous for its greater in diameter. especially at the eastern end. to 9. (B. 24). The existing lacunaria.GREEK ARCHITECTURE.


and in order to render them secure. The face. and support an internal . The triangular enclosed portions (tympana) were filled with sculpture of the most perfect The eastern pediment represents the birth of Athena and type. two are still standing they are 6 feet 3 inches in diameter at the base and 4 feet 7 inches under the echinus. an ambulatory 9 feet wide on the sides and Both the pronaos and opisthodomos 1 1 feet in the front and rear. columns supported an upper row of smaller Doric columns carrying the roof timbers and forming the side aisles in two heights (an arrangement still to be seen in the Temple of Poseidon (Neptune) at Paestum). helmet. probably selected from those presented by Alexander the Great in B. lofty metal grilles extending from the floor to the roof were fixed between the columns. being one of the most marvellous works of Phidias.C. . segis and shield. representing Athena fully armed with spear. and was ornamented on its eastern and western fronts with bronze shields. having six columns about 5! feet in diameter feet high. and cornice. The former is three slabs in thickness. 23 K). chryselephantine and ivory) statue. The pediments or low gables which terminated the roof at each end had at their lower angles an acroterion and a carved lion's head. supporting a winged " " It wa*s a victory in her right hand (No. and was constructed on a wooden core. the central and 33 intercolumniation having gates for means of access. were enriched by the antefixae placed at the bottom of the rows of marble tiles which covered the roof. Only thirtyforming the peristyle and resting on the stylobate. encircling the building. and precious stones were inserted for the eyes. and accessories were of solid gold. 34 feet 3 inches high. about 40 feet in height. hands and feet were of ivory. including the (gold The gold plates pedestal. as already described (page 59). having on the outside. but the drapery. The apex (59 feet above the stylobate) was also ornamented by a large sculptured acroterion of the anthernion ornament (No. 16 A). The manner of lighting the interiors of Greek temples has already been referred to (page 56). 69 enclosed by walls about four feet thick. armour.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. They were both used as treasure stores. forming a prostyle portico on an upper stylobate of two steps. 334. The peristyle ceiling was " lacunaria " and marble beams. The most prominent external features are the fluted marble columns. some of richly ornamented with which at the western end are still in situ. (measuring about 60 feet by 12 feet) were planned in a somewhat unusual manner. The entablature frieze 1 1 feet high with the usual divisions of architrave. of which it was partly composed were detachable and could be removed in case of national dangers. with dedicatory The flanks of the building inscriptions between in bronze letters. Near the western end of the cella stood the famous statue of Athena Partherios. and the theories there set forth apply especially to the Parthenon.



The Temple of Apollo EpicuriuS (The Ally or Helper). sacrianimals. o. The western frieze. on the western. in very slight relief (if inches). Athens was restored to the Turks and the building suffered considerable injury at their hands.72 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. procession/of Athenian cavalry. being taken across the east and west ends above the six columns to pronaos and opisthodomos. until in 1801. excepting the three central figures. \vas converted into a " Earth As the proudly wears the Parthenon best gem upon her zone. numbering fourteen on each Those on the front and thirty-two on each side.C. when it In 1687 during the capture of Athens by the Venetians. many of the principal sculptures were removed to the British Museum. eastern fa9ade represent contests between the gods and giants. terminating with a great central group at the eastern Out of a total end over the principal entrance to the temple." Emerson. youths. 29 N. was an exceptional design in which all the three Grecian orders of architecture were employed. " " fourth year to the Acropolis in order to present the peplos or robe to the goddess Athena. It is a peripteral Doric. From chariots. men with olive branches. of which Ictinus was architect. Bassse. 430) (Nos. length of 525 feet only 335 feet are in existence. magistrates and gods. 23 F). scenes from the siege of Troy. musicians. and on the northern. a Latin church. dedicated to the " Divine Wisdom. and shows the preparations of the Athenian knights. H. the western the contest of Athena and Poseidon for the possession The celebrated Panathenaic frieze was carved along of Athens. through the instrumentality of Lord Flgin. under the Prankish Dukes of Athens. the top of the outside of the cella wall. position southern and eastern sides is in the British Museum. P). with the exception of eight fragments of the eastern frieze in the Louvre. 28 F. the Parthenon was converted into a Christian Church. ficial . In 1688. the remainder. between Greeks and Amazons. The sculptured metopes. about 4 feet 4 inches square. In the 6th century. are in high relief. between centaurs (man-headed horses) and Lapithae. Ionic and Corinthian . until 1460. maidens with sacrificial vessels. is in its original the greater portion of that belonging to the northern. 1458 it was again an orthodox Greek church mosque. on the southern." when an apse was* formed at its eastern end. From 1206 1458 it was. and is carefully sculptured so as to be effective by reflected light It represents the Panathenaic procession every (No. being in the Athens museum. It is 3 feet 4 inches high. it was much damaged by a shell which fell into a portion of the building used as a powder magazine. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (B. 27. G.


GREEK EXAMPLES. '"'3 ^^ w " i i iMiurnn i? NECKIMG A5 DRAWN BY TL.D6NALD50N . m^-H mi m m mp 50 i i i riOHS 10 20 5O 4ofEC RBnON S!SMIittCam^M1tlM. IX.

internal rows of columns were avoided. and is generally referred to as the earliest example known (No. boldly moulded bases (No. of great size. light being admitted by an openOwing to the narrowness of the cella. and have The sculptured frieze. southern end of the cella forming the sanctuary of the earlier building. and nally by flat pilasters. the order being built up of small pieces. Owing to its immense size. has a very picturesque appearance. represents the battles of the Centaurs and Lapithae. but by the intervening screen wall to which they are attached. The roof was covered with Parian marble slabs. and ranks as second in size among Grecian examples. which being covered with a beautiful pink lichen of the district. 29 N. having seven half columns These half columns are side. which in features like the echinus. The Temple of Zeus Olympius. 27 B. which was orientated. with angle volutes. D. but instead of these a range of five fluted Ionic half-columns on each side forming the ends of short cross walls connected to the cella walls. 75 hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on each flank.C. o). on the front and fourteen on each pseudo-peripteral septastyle in plan. p). N. as is also the use of attached half columns. and the Athenians and Amazons. but the cella north of the more ancient sanctuary was probably hypaethral or had openings in order to admit top-light to the celebrated frieze above the internal half-columns (No. an unusual arrangein drums. 27 G. all built up The principal fa9ade faces north.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The ceiling of the peristyle was very richly treated in marble panels or lacunaria. H. Agrigentum (B. of which Theron was the architect. The building is constructed of a hard grey limestone. is believed to have been lighted by windows high in the wall. being 13 feet in diameter. E). j). o. the illustrations being from restorations by Professor Cockerell. ment. The building was never completed. measuring 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet. 480) (No. and less than 2 inches in thickness. The two columns furthest from the entrance on each side are joined to walls placed diagonally with those of the cella. . The architrave is supported not only by the half columns. 28 M. abacus and architrave. and are represented interIt is The triple cella is of immense size. The lighting of the interior is conjectural. These have a new and original treatment of the capital. The single column at the southern end was of the Corinthian order. and those to the pronaos and opisthodomos had marble beams in addition. and apparently due to its erection on the site of an earlier The statue of Apollo was placed to one side at the temple. is of exceptional design. about 2 feet in height and 100 feet in length. is a departure from Greek principles. ing in the eastern wall. structural truth (usually so important in Greek buildings) had to be sacrificed.


GREEK ARCHITECTURE. have (No. about two-thirds the diameter in height. 29. on the front and back of the column. 40 H) usually consisting of a torus and scotia. It consists of (a) an architrave usually formed as a triple fascia. and the flutes number forty in the shafts in the Archaic Temple at Ephesus (No. having twenty-four flutes separated by fillets. connected at their sides by what is known as the cushion. where it will be seen it can also be formed by twisting a A further string round an inverted cone or common whelk shell. and forty -four at Naxos. and on the front and back an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart. with no (c) mutules. 29 K) and at Naukratis. The spiral is also found in early Mycenaean jewellery and domestic articles as early as B. The volutes were either formed by hand or by various geometrical processes easily acquired. and Cyprus. The capital consists of a pair of volutes or spirals. making plinth. but often ornamented by continuous sculpture (Nos. The principal examples of the Ionic order are found in Greece and Asia Minor. The Doric order provided a setting for sculptor's work. and not sharp edges as in the Doric order. Neandra. but to what influence these modifications should be attributed is not at present clear. like so many other decorative motifs. o. The earlier examples. The Ionic order (No. 29 c) a cornice. 38 c) is especially remarkable for its scroll or volute capital. N. but is usually about one-fifth of the whole order. 41 B). sometimes plain and sometimes ornamented. one of which is shown on No. exhibit volutes of a distinctly vegetable type with a palmette interposed. including the capital and base. The entablature varies in height. 27. This. but no square In the later examples a lower torus was added. and a bead moulding under. 41 G. and early Ionic capitals at Delos and Athens form a link between these and later types. The columns have shafts usually about nine times the lower diameter in height. Egyptians undergoing sundry modifications on its way from Egypt by way of Assyria to Asia Minor. The . development was to make the angle capital with volutes facing the two fa9ades by joining the two adjacent volutes at an angle approximating 45 (No. 41 P). probably representing superimposed beams. is an instance of all the volutes being thus placed. .C. and having above it the corona and cyma-recta moulding. 27. a band of (b) a frieze. however. but usually with dentil ornament reminiscent of squared timbers. The earliest extant Ionic capitals at Lesbos. sometimes plain. P). what is known as the Attic base. and these origins might be sufficient to account for its adoption in a later period. seems to have been derived from the lotus bud of the shallow flutes separated by arrises. 77 THE IONIC ORDER. 800. There is a moulded base (No. The Temple at Bassae (Nos.


420-393 . Ictinus. B. Architect. 437-32 430 Mnesicles. 79 Ionic incorporated it with the order itself. 550 484 438 Callicrates.C.C.C. B. IONIC EXAMPLES. B. B.C. B. B. Date.C.C. usually in the form of carved enrichments on its main lines.GREEK ARCHITECTURE.


G . In 1836. the Pandroseion being probably included within the precincts to the west of the temple proper. Schaubert. and was erected on the site of an older temple burnt by the Persians in B. unusual and irregular planning. 30 G and 42 G). from which it is approached by a wide flight of steps on the north. the tomb of Cecrops. the sacred olive tree that Athena called forth in her contest with Poseidon. but resting on a solid marble wall about 8 feet above the level of the F. The northern portico gave access to the western cella it is on a level 10 feet lower than the eastern one. 420-393) (Nos. Athens (B. F). are arranged in a manner unknown in other Greek buildings. and other curiosiIt is an interesting example of ties and spoils from the Persians. 30 D. and Hansen. whence the lower level of the western cella was only 23 feet. on the destruction of the battery. The marble balustrade mentioned above was 3 feet 2 inches high." The eastern portion was appropriated to the shrine of Athena Polias (guardian of the city). They are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter. the western portion to those of Erechtheus and Poseidon. slabs (four are in the British Museum). The Erechtheion. with carved consoles and architrave enrichments. is in high relief. It has six sculptured draped female figures.C. There are three porticos of different designs an eastern Ionic hexastyle portico. The columns are two diameters apart (systyle). north of the Parthenon. the interior.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The temple was regarded with special veneration by the Athenians. is still a matter of conjecture." as it had only a small entrance on its eastern side. is situated on the Acropolis. and 30). of which Mnesicles was the architect. the northern one being now in the British Museum.C. viz. reached by means of steps (No. F. the olive wood Xoanon (primitive statue) of Athena Polias. 18 M. The eastern portico probably formed the principal entrance. It has no side colonnades. The southern or Caryatid portico (as it is called) was probably not an entrance. It projects westward of the main building. as it contained the memorials of the religion of the State. hence it " is called apteral. and a southern Caryatid portico. due to its sloping site and the fact The distribution of that it consisted of three distinct shrines. 29 E. enriched with very fine sculpture dating from B. a northern Ionic tetrastyle portico. pediment is 8l sculptured frieze. but a raised "tribune. 425-400. 7 feet 9 inches high (Nos. G. 17.C. 480.A. which measures 61 feet 3 inches by 31 feet 6 inches. 18 inches high. similarly spaced to the columns of the northern portico. The doorway in this portico is of the finest workmanship (No. and its columns. the salt well produced by the trident of Poseidon. 37). three diameters apart (diastyle). The Temple was removed by the Turks in 1684 and built into a battery on the Acropolis. The originally consisting of fourteen : : . the golden lamp of Callimachus. and 25 feet high. the materials were recovered and reconstructed by the architects Ross.

L. The abacus is enriched with the egg and tongue ornament. It was transformed into a church in the time of Justinian. during the Greek revolution. The capital has a plaited torus moulding between the volutes once inlaid with colored stones or glass. All the figures face southwards. and after the Turkish annexation it . M.) The exterior. 44 F).disposition of the/three porticos. 41. The shafts of the columns have an entasis. being replaced in the building by a terra-cotta copy. the walls were partially rebuilt in their present state. and in 1845 the Caryatid In 1852 a storm damaged the building. unlike in character. a method of showing up the sculptured figures which in other temples was frequently The pediments appear to have been gained by the use of color. only three of the Caryatides remaining in position.of the columns are carved with the which is also applied to the antae (No. and carried round the entire building under the architrave. the three western leaning on their right (outer) legs. with water-leaf and egg-and-tongue and portions of the rest of the building were destroyed. The order of the eastern portico rich. thus correcting the same optical illusion as in the Parthenon and other temple fa9ades. and bronze embellishments were formerly affixed to other parts of the capital. (The second Caryatid from the west is in the British Museum. with the usual triple division of architrave. terrace and supporting an unusual entablature on which rests the marble coffered roof. In 1827. to which the sculptured figures of white marble were attached by metal cramps. The main building is crowned with very similar although less enrichments. is so as The angle columns in each portico have the volutes arranged to show on both faces.82 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. angle antae and three windows. The skyline was enriched by the acroterion ornaments of the pediments and the antefixae of the marble roofing The frieze to the porticos and main building was formed slabs. (palmette) ornament. overthrowing the upper half of the western wall and engaged Roman columns. and the upper torus of the bases have plaited enrichments. the north portico and coffered ceiling an entablature 5 feet high. height. The Erechtheion ijas passed through various vicissitudes. The west wall was provided in Roman times with four Ionic half-columns. constructed in marble from Mount Pentellicus. The spiral of the volute appears to have been finished by hand and is enriched with intermediate fillets. o). and the three eastern on their left. and cornice. In 1838. . N. of black Eleusinian marble. The north portico is an example of a very rich treatment of the lonjc order. portico was re-erected. The " anthemion " neckings . owes much of its character to the sloping site and unusual and irregular . frieze. while the cushions (sides) have hollows and projections carved with the bead and reel ornament (No. and treatment.was converted into a harem. devoid of sculpture.


having double ranges of twenty columns on each flank. owing to its size. j. thus making the thirty-six columns with sculptured drums mentioned by Pliny. The later temple. Pliny mentioned that the temple had one hundred columns. The building rested on a lower stylobate of four steps. two being placed in antis to the pronaos and posticum." The building is dipteral decastyle on plan.C. and there now exists inside and outside precious groves of laurel bushes. In addition to the cella. Conjecturally restored by the late Dr. there were a pronaos. The Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. was erected in B. having beyond it an hypaethral.C. The Temple of Artemis (No. but was again burnt in B. Ephesus (B. in order to reach the upper platform. K) erected from the designs of Ctesiphon (B. of Ephesus. times. 400. was burnt in B. was by the architects Paeonius of Ephesus. placed between the first and second rows of columns. near Miletus (B. by the aid of Pliny's description. The oldest archaic temple (No. 330 in the time of Alexander the Great. on either side and a lion and sphinx. 356. The cella is believed to have had super-imposed columns to carry the roof. opisthodomos and staircases leading to the roof.C. 31 A. The site of the temple was discovered by/tne architect Wood in 1869 74> an d many of the remains. and the sculpture on the above-mentioned square sub-pedestals and thirty-six circular drums. B).C.C. having at each end an additional flight of steps. which are shown on a lower level so that Behind these their top surface is level with the upper platform. The new temple " In after is referred to by Strabo. which were probably suggested by the archaic temple. Murray. but he does not mention the sixteen front and rear columns with square sculptured pedestals. thirty-six of which were sculptured on the lower drum. but which on account of its vastness remains without a roof. 29 H. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. It was either restored or rebuilt by the architects Paeonius and Demetrius. sphinx are in the archaic room of the British Museum.84 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) This archaic temple was destroyed by the Persians under Darius. 496. 335320). which were dedicatory (Ten of these seated figures and the lion and offerings to Apollo. on the suppression of the Ionic revolt in B. at each end are eight of the columns with sculptured drums. the inhabitants of Miletus built a temple which is the largest of all. occupied the site of two previous temples. the cella being It has a very deep pronaos. treasury. 330) temples are now in the British Museum. and Daphne of There was an archaic temple having seated figures Miletus. (Diana). the plan is dipteral octastyle. The building externally must have been one of the most impressive among Greek temples.C. are distinctive of this building. . both of the archaic and later posticum.C. who says. 550). on the night of Alexander's birth.

33 of Apollo at F. a worker in Corinthian bronze. B. The cella walls were ornamented with Ionic pilaster's. supporting the angles of the abacus. and the small central volutes supporting a foliated ornament. which is more ornate than the The column.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The distinctive capital is much deeper than the Ionic. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER. including the capital. 38 E. is sometimes referred to as the reputed author of the capital. Olympius.) refers to a portico which was called Corinthian. Rayet and Thomas discovered the foundations of a shrine. 43 A. the name may have been derived from the fact. at Miletus. The Corinthian Order still (Nos. . chap. and as the earlier examples appear to have been of this metal. or having their edges chamfered off Monument of Lysicrates (No. the acanthus leaves being unusually placed and the central volutes undeveloped. ranging with the These pilasters were crowned with capitals of peristyle level. being about one to one-and-one-sixth diameters in height. At the western end of the cella. and is placed on a stylobate in the same manner as the other orders. or it may have been borrowed from the bell-shaped capitals of the Egyptians. 85 ante-chamber with stone staircases on either side. At the eastern (entrance) end on either side of the doorway were half columns having Corinthian capitals. 38 E). The abacus is moulded and curved on plan on each face. Athens as in the G). and the bases are of very varied design. Didymaeus. Temple of Jupiter Athens (No. 43 A). The peristyle columns of the Ionic order are fluted. being octagonal with carved panels on each face. c). from which spring the volutes (also known as caulicoli and helices by different authorities). It may have been derived from the Ionic. the base and shaft of which resemble those of is generally about ten times the diameter in height. such as the Erechtheion example. and the Stoa or Portico. from the bronze It consists normally of a deep bell on capitals of the pillars. Ionic. and between those of the upper row eight caulicoli (caulis=a stalk) surmounted by a curled leaf or calyx. iii. 33 F. Messrs. six feet wide and three feet deep. varied design. which were carved two tiers of eight acanthus leaves. was little used by the Greeks. Callimachus of Corinth. with the addition of the Assyrian spiral. resting on a continuous podium. The origin of the capital is still unknown. for Pliny (xxxiv. the Ionic. the mouldings at the angles either being brought to a point as in the Temple (No. having between them a sculptured band of griffins and lyres. where bands of sculpture occur beneath the scrolls.


(No. E) (page 88). L. Between the columns are circular wall panels. 174 The Olympieion (or Temple ofZeics-Olympius. The Tholos. Date.). 335-34). 18 j. L. Epidauros. Athens (B.C. Eleusis. as in the Tower of the Winds. is a type of structure which was erected to support a tripod as a prize for athletic exercises or musical performances in the Grecian festivals. 100-35 28 K. j) H. 335-34 Athens (Nos. 4th cent. 338 (Internal order of half columns). but the interior was apparently never intended for use. 38 E) (see below). 43 c. and a moulded abacus square on plan. and sacred tripods glow With wreaths of palms. Poeonius. 40 j.C. supports a circular structure of 6 feet internal diameter. The Temrle of Apollo Didymaeus. 87 Another type of capital has one row of acanthus leaves with palm leaves over." (Translation by Pitt. B. the prizes of the day. Architect. 28 j. Miletus. 334-320 (Two attached internal (or Branchidae). The entablature. B.) podium or base of Piraeus stone. Athens (Nos. Athens (No. B. Arms on the ground. (Internal order) B. of the structure is 34 feet. The Philipeion. Polycleitos the younger. 32. bears a general resemblance to the Ionic. 27 (page 72).C. Cossutius (com- j pleted by Hadrian).C. 18 K). (Nos. Olympia. which is__usually about one-fifth of the JieighJLof the_ entire order. 430 internal column). 32. Ictinus. of Ephesus and Daphne. ornamented with sculptured scrolls. 28 j. of | columns) (page 84). and is 13 feet in height to the top of the cornice.D. as there The total height was no provision for the admission of light. 43 B. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Miletus B.C. The Vestibule.C. and terminating in a floral ornament which formerly supported the bronze tripod. The basement is slightly rusticated. frieze and the mouldings of the latter having additional enrichments. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. 43 A) (page 90). to bind the Victor's brow. ^cormce.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The Temple of Apollo Epicurius. verse. They are referred to in Virgils' ^Eneid (V. 43 B). D._ CORINTHIAN EXAMPLES. (single Bassie G. (No. 140) in the following lines : " In view amid the spacious circle lay The splendid gifts.C. B. B. The circular colonnade has six Corinthian . A. having the usual triple division of architrave. by means of sinkings at the joints. and having Corinthian columns supporting an entablature crowned rusticated The by a marble dome. 9 feet 6 inches square. 117 Athens (No. The Tower of the Wind's.C.

feet 7 inches high. and the latter being sculptured to represent the myth of Dionysos and the Tyrrhenian pirates. and the upper part is provided with small fluted Doric columns resting on a circular band of stone. The Tower of the Winds. as in Greek temples. without volutes. having on their upper surfaces cavities in which the original tripod feet were placed. 100-35) (Nos. 44 D). as shown on No. to the external porticos are fluted. The channel just above the foliated flutings of the shaft probably had a bronze collar. They have no base and the capitals are of a plain unusual type. Athens (B.) . it also stylobate of three steps. probably used as a The interior has a height of 40 feet reservoir for the water-clock. the upper part of each originally being sculptured in bas-relief. where they could /not be seen they were Miletus. 28 K. the former bearing an inscription. 42 A. also known as the Horologium of Andronikos Cyrrhestes. 38 E. The architrave and frieze are in one block of marble. forming a sort of frilling. and are complete in themselves. D. and from the upper part branch out three scrolls (Nos. foliated and moulded stalk or helix in conjunction with acanthus leaves branching in three directions. each of its eight sides facing the more important points of the compass.88 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The outside of the cupola is beautifully sculptured to imitate a covering of laurel leaves. although the Greeks were accustomed to these sinkings under their Doric capitals.) a sun-dial externally The building rests on a acted as a weathercock. left L. From the south side projects a circular chamber. The cornice is crowned with a peculiar honeysuckle scroll. having between them an eight-petalled flower resembling an Egyptian lotus. then a single row of very beautiful acanthus leaves. and probably an imitation of ante-fixae terminating the joint tiles. was erected by him for measuring time by means of (a. the same date in the cella of the Temple of ^. Between the columns are panels. 9 inches. and is octagonal. It measures 22 feet 4 inches internally. flutings of the columns are peculiar in that they terminate The capitals. the upper ends of which are generally supposed to have The central portion is carried up as a supported dolphins. The wall of the octagonal structure is quite plain for a . having a lower row of sixteen small lotus leaves. used instead of a cyma-recta moulding. the upper row of leaves resembling those of the palm. . at The On the inside.C. The Corinthian columns.pollo-Didymaeus. and a clepsydra or water-clock internally (&. projecting rather more than half These rest on a secondary base encircling the whole building. i foot 7 inches at the top in the form of leaves. 1 1 columns their diameter. 13 feet 6 inches high. E). The foliage is different from the later type in unfinished. 43 B. and on the north-east and north-west sides are porticos having Corinthian columns. bear some resemblance to those of the half-columns of about high.



height of 29 feet, with the exception of the incised lines forming the sun-dial, above which on each face are sculptured figures, boldly executed to represent the eight principal winds (Nos. 43 The roof is formed of twenty-four equal sized blocks of D, E).

marble, and was surmounted by a bronze Triton (see Vitruvius, I., chapter vi.). The Olympieion (Temple of Jupiter Olympius), Athens (No. 1 8 j), stands on the site of an earlier Doric temple commenced

by Pisistratus, in B.C. 530. It was commenced by Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria in B.C. 174, Cossutius/ a Roman architect, being employed hence it is often designated Roman architecture. It remained incompleted, and in B.C. 80 Sulla transported some of the columns to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as related by Pliny. The building was completed by Hadrian in A.D. 117, but only fifteen columns of the original one hundred and four forming the peristyle are standing. It was dipteral-octastyle on plan, having twenty columns on the flanks, and occupied an area of 354 feet by 154 feet (equalling the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac), and was placed in the centre of a magnificent peribolus or enclosure, measuring 680 feet by 424 feet, part of the retaining wall of which still remains at the south-east corner. It is described by Vitruvius as hypaethral, but it was unfinished in his time. The peristyle columns were 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, and had a height of 56 feet a proportion of about one to nine. The capitals (No. 43 A) are very fine specimens of the Corinthian order, and appear to date from both periods mentioned above.

The Greek

near the

place in

was generally hollowed out of the slope of and was unroofed, the performances taking the day time. In plan (No. 34) it was usually rather

more than a

semicircle, being

about two- thirds of a complete

consisted of tiers of marble seats, rising one above the other, often cut out of the solid rock. Those spectators who sat at the extremities of the two wings thus faced towards the orchestra, but away from the stage. The Greektheatre, which was constructed more for choral than dramatic performances, had a circular "orchestra" or dancing place (corresponding to the stalls and pit of a modern theatre) in which the chorus chanted and danced. The orchestra was the " germ " of the Greek theatre. The stage was known as the logeion or " speaking place," its back-wall being the skene ( = booth or tent for changing in), the latter name being preserved in the modern word " scene." The actors being few, the stage consisted of a long and narrow platform, with permanent background. To what height above the level of

The auditorium






the orchestra this platform was raised is a question that has been much debated in recent years. The most probable view seems to be the following: (i.) In pre-.'Eschylean drama, before regular theatres were made, an actor mounted on a table, probably the table-altar of the god Dionysos, and held a dialogue with the dancers or chorus. The rude table-stage illustrated on some vases from South Italy may represent a local retention of this primidirect evidence is tive custom. (2.) In the fifth century B.C. no available but a low wooden stage is practically certain, connected by means of a ladder with the orchestra. (3/) The fourth century is At the earliest period in which there is monumental evidence. Megalopolis a platform of wood from 3 feet 3 inches to 4 feet 6 inches high appears probable, with a stone colonnade behind it. At Epidauros there was a wooden floor supported by a wall 12 feet high. Vitruvius tells us, the Greek (4.) In Hellenistic and Roman times, stage was 10 to 12 feet high, and this statement is borne out by many extant examples. The Theatre of Dionysos, Athens,

(No. 17), completed B.C. 340, in which thirty thousand spectators could be accommodated, is the prototype of all Greek theatres, and was the one in which the plays of the great Athenian dramatists were produced. The Theatre, Epidauros, was constructed by the architect Polycleitos, and is the most beautiful as well as the best preserved example extant. The circle of the orchestra is complete, and is about 66 feet across, the entire theatre being 378 feet in diameter. Thirty-two rows of seats forming the lower division are separated by a broad passage (diazoma) from twenty rows above.


flights of steps diverge as radii

from bottom to top.

lately carried out by Dr. Arthur Evans at in Crete (page 54), and those by the Italians at Phaestos, in the same island, have revealed palaces more remote in date than the Mycenaean period, to which is given the name " Minoan." The

The excavations


excavations of the Palace of King Minos, Knossos, show the remains of a remarkable structure laid out on a plan afterwards used in the Roman palaces and camps. This building is believed Underneath to date from about B.C. 2000, and was unfortified. the upper palace were found the remains of an earlier one, which About five acres of this is believed to date from about B.C. 3000. remarkable structure have been uncovered. The apartments, round a central oblong courtyard '(about 180 feet by 90 feet), are constructed in several stories, which are reached by staircases. Some remarkable wall frescoes and colored plaster ceilings, an olive press with huge oil jars, and the remains of a system of drainage, with terra-cotta drain pipes, were discovered.



At Tiryns, situated by the sea coast to the south-west of Athens, and at Mycenae, remains have been discovered of recent years by Drs. Schliemann and Dorpfeld which are of the greatest interest in showing the general arrangement of other palaces (No. 15 F). At Mycenae, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the megaron, or From this megaron, surprincipal men's apartment, is reached. rounded by a roof and open to the sky in the centre, were reached The women's other chambers, whose uses are not defined. chambers are considered by some authorities to be planned so as
to afford the greatest seclusion, while others, notably Prof. Ernest Gardner, hold that little or no attempt was made at seclusion, and bring strong evidence to bear from literary authorities,

The plans of domestic buildings principally from Homer. appear to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general arrangement of the palaces as is seen in the remains at Athens, Delos, and Priene, dating from the Hellenic period. They appear to have been of one story only, and grouped around an internal
courtyard or peristyle. Vitruvius (Book VI., chapter x.) refers to their general arrangement, when he says there was no atrium but a peristylium with a portico on three sides, and chambers grouped around. It is generally held that the Graeco-Roman houses of Pompeii may be taken as typical examples (No. 65 A, B), and these may be referred to on page 162.

Propylaea were erected as entrance gateways to many of the principal cities of Greece, and those at Athens, Epidauros, Sunium, Eleusis, and Priene are the best known. The Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), were erected under Pericles by the architect Mnesicles in B.C. 437. It is at the west end of the
Acropolis (No. 17), being reached by a long flight of steps from the plain beneath. It has front and rear hexastyle Doric porticos at different levels, giving access to a great covered hall, having a wide central passage bounded by two rows of Ionic columns, and having at its eastern end a wall in which are five doorways of different heights. On either side of the western entrance portico are projecting wings having three smaller Doric columns, that to the north being used as a picture gallery, while that to the south was never completed. The general external appearance is well shown in the restored view (No. i).


The most important from an architectural point of view are in Asia Minor. The Harpy Tomb, Xanthos, in Lycia



(B.C. 550) is an early or archaic example, with sculptured reliefs, from which the tomb is named, and is now in the British Museum. (B.C. fifth century), Xanthos, is generally considered to have been erected as a trophy monument. Important fragments discovered by Sir Charles Fellows, and the model in the British Museum, indicate a building consisting of a central chamber or cella surrounded by a colonnade of fourteen Ionic columns, the whole elevated on a basement standing on two The sculptured figures of nereids or marine nymphs, from steps. which the building takes its name, originally stood between the

The Nereid Monument

columns and had under them marine
has important sculptured


This monument

and pediments. The Mausoleum, Halicarnassos (No. 35), was the most famous tomb. It was erected to the King Mausolos (B.C. 353) by his widow Artemisia, and consisted of a square plinth supporting a tomb-chamber, which was surrounded by Ionic columns and surmounted by a pyramidal roof with a marble quadriga and group of statuary at its apex (see page 108). The architects were Satyros and Pythios, and Scopas was the
friezes, acroteria

Portions of the frieze, the statue of superintendent sculptor. Mausolos and Artemisia, with the horses and chariots of the quadriga, and other fragments are in the British Museum.

The Lion Tomb, Cnidus (No. 36), also consists of a square basement surrounded by a Doric colonnade of engaged columns surmounted by a stepped roof, and crowned with a lion, now in the British Museum. The interior was circular and roofed with a dome in projecting horizontal courses. The Sarcophagus from a Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36 E, G), is an interesting and beautiful example of a smaller type, as is also the Tomb of the Weepers (B.C. fourth century) (No. 36 H), found at Sidon (now in the Museum at Constantinople), which is executed in the form of a miniature Ionic temple, The having sculptured female figures between the columns. so-called Alexander Sarcophagus (B.C. fourth century), found near Sidon, and now in the Constantinople Museum, is the
and best preserved of all. It is so-called which are of marble, represent battle and hunting scenes in which Alexander was engaged, and is especially remarkable for the colored work which is still preserved on the There are also important examples of rock-cut tombs sculpture. at Cyrene (North Africa) and Asia Minor (No. 41 F), and reference has also been made to the Lycian Tombs (page 37), of which the two brought to London by Sir Charles Fellows, in 1842, are


its sides,

in the design of which the Greeks excelled. It consisted of a flat stone placed upright in the ground like a modern tombstone and crowned with the

now in the British Museum. The Stele was a class of tombstone



Il5 ToMBcf MAU50L05

PJINCE ? (folk











IT 15




























of AN













(Nos. 42 H, 43

design, the lower portion having panels in bas-relief F, and 44 E). Many of these can be seen in the


The agora, or open meeting-places for the transaction of public business, were large open spaces surrounded by stoae or open colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such, as temples, basilicas, stadion (racecourse), and the palaestrae or

Stose or Colonnades were formed for the protection of pilgrims
to the various shrines, as connections between public monuments, or as shelters adjoining open spaces, and were an important class

of structure.

The most important of these were the StoaPcecile, Echo Colonnade, about 300 feet by 30 feet, at Olympia two


one two stories in height acting as shelters for the patients who came to be healed at the shrine of ^Esculapius and the remarkable example near the three examples at Delphi Propylaea at Delos, known as the "Sanctuary of the Bulls"




(No. 42).

The Stadion was the foot racecourse found in cities where games were celebrated, and it came eventually to be used for It was usually straight at one end, other athletic performances.
the starting-place, and semicircular at the other, and was always 600 Greek feet in length, although the foot varied, and was sometimes planned with the semicircular end on the side of a hill, so that the seats could be cut out of the sloping sides, as at Olympia, Thebes, and Epidauros, or else constructed on the flat, as at The Stadion at Athens, now Delphi, Athens, and Ephesus.

commenced in B.C. 331, and finished by Herodes Atticus, and accommodates between 40,000 and 50,000 The Hippodrome was a similar type of building used for people.
completely restored, was
horse racing.

The Palaestra or gymnasia, as at Olympia and Ephesus, were the prototypes of the Roman thermae, and comprised exercise courts, tanks for bathers, exedrae or recesses for lectures, with seats for spectators.


These were simple, well A. Plans (Nos. 18, 20 E, and 27 c). judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical, exceptions to the latter being the Erechtheion (No. 18 M), and the Propylaea (No. 18 N), Plans involving at Athens, and probably the private houses.












probably also


framed into deep coffers, as were the marble lacunaria of the peristyles (No. 21 B, c, E). E. Columns. As the temples were usually one story high, the columns with their entablature comprise the entire height of the building, except in some interiors, as the Parthenon (Nos. 23, 25), the Temple of Neptune, Paestum (No. 28 B), and elsewhere, where a second range of columns was introduced into the cella to support the roof. The orders having been fully dealt with /on pages 59, 77, 85, are merely summarized as follows The Doric (No. 19) is the oldest and plainest of the orders, the finest examples being the Parthenon and the Theseion (page 67). The Ionic (No. 29) was more ornate, and is best seen at the Erechtheion (page 81), and the Temple on the Ilissus (page 79). The Corinthian was little used by the Greeks, the best known examples being the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Nos. 32, 38 A), and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius (No. 43 A), upon which the Romans founded their own special type. Caryatides (No. 42 G) and Canephora (No. 42 F), or carved female figures which were sometimes used in the place of columns, as at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 30), and are of Asiatic origin. F. Mouldings. Refer to illustrations of Greek mouldings compared with Roman given on Nos. 39 and 40. Mouldings are the means by which an architect draws lines upon his building, and a true knowledge of the effect of contour is best obtained from actual work rather than from drawings, the examples at the British Museum being available for this purpose.

principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was refineof contour due to the influence of an almost continuous sunshine, a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble


ment and delicacy


which they were formed. These mouldings had their sections probably drawn by hand, but approach very closely to various conic sections, such as parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. As a general rule the lines of the enrichment or carving on any Greek moulding correspond to the profile of that moulding. This is a rule which was rarely departed from, and therefore, is worthy of notice, for the profile of the moulding is thus emphasized by the expression in an enriched form of its own

The examples given from full-size sections taken at the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and elsewhere, may be studied on No. 40. The following classified list gives the most important mouldings When (a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). enriched it is carved with the honeysucke ornament, whose outline corresponds with the section (No. 39 j).












xma A














/.. "









When enriched it is carved with the bead and reel or with beads. especially (?'. N). is the deep hollow occurring in bases. and was largely used as an ornamentation on Anta Caps (No. Ornament (Nos. (e.) The ovolo (egg-like). 39 j). The sculpture employed Was of the highest order. : (i. 39 A). and 44 E. When enriched L). 39 p). The leaf was used principally in the Corinthian capital (Nos. This is usually without enrichment. face of the (j. 41. 39 G). cyma-recta mouldings (No.) Sculpture appertaining to buildings. 17 A). The leaf from which these were derived grows wild in the south of Europe. and has never been excelled. B. the Temple : . flat in section. 40 G). giving a sharp crisp shadow. (Nos. V-shaped in section. the deep vertical upper portion of the cornice. The fillet. G. c). in two varieties. The torus is really a magnified bead moulding. palmette ov honeysuckle ornament. as in the Erechtheion (No.) and approaches a circle in section. When (/?. F). including friezes (as at the Parthenon.) (No. which in fact gave the name to the moulding (No.) The cavetto is a simple hollow (No. or egg and tongue ornament (No. 33 B). and the Romans the latter of these varieties. was a favourite decoration of the Greeks. 44 j) and scroll play an important part in Greek ornamentation. 33 F. It was frequently painted " with a Greek "fret ornament. 44 D).) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) (No. and is also found in the crowning finial of the Choragic Monument which accompanies the leaf and acts as a V-shaped in section with sharp edges. and 44). 39 c). The bird's-beak moulding occurs frequently. and is (g. 39 N). and giving a deep shadow is very suitable for the English climate (No.) That with pointed and narrow lobes.106 (b. 43 F. and round the necks of columns. 43. 33 H). The cyma reversa. It is also frequently employed as an ornamentation to the tops of stele-heads and ante-fixae (Nos. 41 N). H. or with bundles of leaves tied with bands (No. stalk is usually The anthemion. water-lily and tongue (No. 42 H. 39 The acanthus leaf G. 33 H. 42.) The corona (No.) " enriched it is carved with the guilloche or " plat ornament. known as the "acanthus mollis" (No. it is carved with the (c. 44 A. (/. That with broad blunt tips.) The scotia generally not enriched (No. The beid serves much the same purpose as the fillet. 39 E). and known as the "acanthus " spinosis (ii. a small plain face to separate other mouldings (d. 43 A. It may be divided into (a. scroll The of Lysicrates (No. viz. The Greeks usually preferred the former with deeply drilledeyes. When enriched it is carved with the egg and dart.) in the Doric order.


" Paris. "^Architecture Grecque. Leipzig." 8vo. "Die Baukunst der Griechen. 1870-1871. Olympia.) Free-sianding statuary. " Das Griechische Theater.). 1899. Athens. 1 (J. R. "Epidaure restauration et description des principaux monuments du Sanctuaire d'Asclepios. Paris." Folio." Folio. von). Society). 1889. Antiquities of Attica" (Dilettanti " Boetticher (C. In many instances the stonework. W. which appears to have been almost universal. " Michaelis (A. Color was largely used on buildings.). as in the Temples at Paestum and in Sicily. 6 vols.) and Spiers (R.) and Lechat (H. 1892. 4 vols. and Vitruvius mentions that well-polished stucco would like reflect a mirror." 4to. " Fragments de 1' Architecture Antique. Fergusson (J. Berlin.). The Erechtheion at Athens. Bassae). les Mauch . were covered with carefully-prepared cement to receive wall paintings or color decoration." Folio. Berlin. 1874.). 1875. Paris.) Sculptured reliefs as seen on stele-heads (No. Anderson (W. Dorpfeld ( W. order. of yEgina. 896." Handbook of Greek Sculpture. 1902. 1895. and in some . Boston. " Die Architectonischen Ordnungen der Griechen (J. " The Antiquities of Ionia" (Dilettanti Society).)et Monceaux(P. le culte et les fetes. as already mentioned (page 53). Chipiez (C). " Histoire critique des Ordres Grecs." Sur folio.).. D'Espouy (H. Laloux (V. " Investigations at Assos (1881-83). monuments. Cockerell (C. ." Folio. and the Caryatides. 1876. " The Temples at ^Egina and Bassae. 1'historie Laloux(V.).'' Folio. 44 M) mention might also be made of the series of magnificent figure sculptures to the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon in Asia Minor. Paris. consisting (two-horse chariots). the acroteria at the base and summit. T. 1831. 5. and Rome. Berlin. Boetticher. and many traces are left.'' Folio. of groups. 1769-1881.). especially in buildings of the Doric This cement casing was also capable of a high polish. 42 H). Clarke (J." The Architecture of Greece A Sketch of its Historic Development.). 1888.108 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.).)." 8vo. A. the Heraion. single figures." Folio." 8vo. Invvood (H. brickwork. 8vo.Die Tektonik der Hellenen. Frazer (J. Durm 1898. Pausanias's Description of Greece. of which the great frieze or " Gigantomachia" is now in the Berlin Museum. (b.J. 42 G. as at the Erechtheion (Nos. 1860." " 8vo. Darmstadt. " Die Akropolis von Athen. 30 G. and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius. 896. the tympana of the pediments.). the sculptured metopes in the Doric frieze. REFERENCE BOOKS. instances marble." Folio. und Roemer. 1 Gardner (E.) and others. bigas (c. " The Parthenon. G. u La restauration d' Olympic." 8vo. Phene).). "The Unedited 1817. Defrasse (A. Folio. Der Parthenon. 1902. Paris. M. or quadrigas (four-h^rse chariots (page 94).).. 1883." 8vo.


" Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens.) (N.) and Pullan (R." Folio. 1902.lio COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1890." The Orders and Revett .." 3 vols. Svo. " "Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings. (J. 1836. Cnidus." "Antiquities of " The Fall of visit Wilkins (W. restauration et Pergame description des monuments de 1'Acropole. History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus. The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture. 1894. "An Investigation of the/ 7 Principles of Athenian Architecture" (Hellenic Society). Penrose (F.). S. Magna Gratia. Athens" Folio. Greek and Pompeian Decorative Work.). Large the Greek Court at the Crystal Palace for the splendid model of the Parthenon facade.. Svo. Ross (L. "The History of Art in Primitive Greece. of Architecture.). J.)." . ' Stuart 1832. T." Folio.).) et Haussouillier (B. Verrall (J. (Historical Novel). Folio. Berlin. and also the British Museum for actual fragments of the sculptures from the Temples. folio. Svo." Folio." 2 vols. Paris. "History of Greek Sculpture. 410." Waldstein (C). Antiquities of Athens. Newton (C." "A : : la Restaurations des Monuments Antiques. Spiers (R. "The Sculptures of the Parthenon. P." 2 vols. " Pontremoli (E. S. " Didymes Fouilles de 1895 et 1896.). publiees par 1'Academie de France a Rome. 1890. 1877-1890.)." Folio. " Pennethorne (Sir J.)." Folio." Paris. Perrot (G. 5 vols. Watt Boston. Smith (Sir William). 1903. 1862-1863. i88B. and Branchidse. H. Schaubert (E. C." 1901." 2 vols. 1762- and Svo.. Murray (A.)." Church (A.). continued.). Svo. " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities." Svo. The student should . 1900. 3 vols. 1897. P. 1807. REFERENCE BOOKS Middleton Svo. folio.) et Collignon (M. 1903. 1878.). Murray (A.). 1902. Pontremoli (E.). Harrison.. "The " Argive Herasum. C.). (J.).. and Hansen (C. "Die Akropolis von Athen Tempel der Nike Apteros. Paris.).) and Chipiez (C.

held uncrowded nations in its womb . i. is not nearly so much broken up into bays. INFLUENCES. neither are there so many islands studded its coasts. as the shore line of Greece. although the peninsula is long and narrow. although many parts of Italy are mountainous the great chain of the Apennines running from one end of the peninsula to the other yet the whole land is not divided up into little valleys in the same way as the greater part of Greece. amphitheatre's amazing height Here fills my eye with terror and delight." That on And i. And here the proud triumphal arclies rise. The map (No. Where the old Romans deathless acts displayed. along The Greek and Italian nations may therefore with fair accuracy . Here pillars rough with sculpture pierce the skies. 45) will show that the sea coast of Italy. Again.I/I THE ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. its public shows unpeopled Rome. or natural harbours. Geographical. * : Immortal glories in my mind revive Wht-n Rome's exalted beauties I descry An Magnificent in piles of ruin lie.

iv. gave the Roman a material which contributed largely to the durability of their architecture. from that of Greece. Roman architecture. Officialism therefore naturally stamped its character on the temple architecture. Lava and volcanic origin from Mount Albano. was the favourite material although in Syria. dwelt in the peninsula. in conjunction with brick and stone casing or banding. being less jealous of their separate independence. 1 be compared as follows like the (a. a process that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. but concrete. and may almost be described as the leader of the Pantheon of deities embraced by the tolerant and wide-spreading Roman rule. . pages 230. as it spread itself over the whole of the then known world. The north has the climate of the temperate region of continental Europe central Italy is more genial and sunny while the south is almost tropical. size. derived from volcanic eruptions. In early times three chief nations In the central portion (or Etruria) lived . and in Egypt the quarries supplied stones of enormous . The walls were generally formed of concrete and were faced in a decorative way with brick. the worship of the gods came eventually to be kept up only as a matter of state policy. strength and durability. brick were largely used even for the more important buildings. The geological formation of Italy differs ii. Social and Political. A list of the chief Roman deities is given on page 46. for it has extraordinary properties of hardness. 405. 476). alabasters.112 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Pozzolana. nor did they send out colonists faring people of the same description to all parts of the then known world. a hard limestone from Tivoli Tiifa. and material is marble. porphyries. notably at Palmyra and Baalbec. (b. or marbles of all kinds. which were used locally. earth) found in thick strata in the district. The position of Italy enabled her to act as the intermediary in spreading over the continent of Europe the arts of civilization. The heathen religion of ancient Rome being looked upon as part of the constitution of the state. and the small towns. and excellent sand and The existence of Pozzolana (a clean sandy gravel were plentiful. . In Rome the following materials were at hand '. The emperor then received divine honours. iii.) The Romans never became a seaGreeks. terra-cotta. stone. stone.) There were few rival cities in Italy at this period (a condition : which was altered in after times. Geological. . v. 234. a stone of Besides these. Climate. a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed and Peperino. was influenced naturally by the materials found in the various parts where it planted itself. where the chief and almost the only building In Italy marble. when mixed into concrete with lime. . hewn from countless Oriental quarries by whole armies of workmen. Religion.Travertine. the Roman power could be built up by a gradual absorption of small states.

C. under Scipio. when brought to a conclusion. in turn gradually it acknowledged the Roman power. With F. but was defeated in B. 146. and maintained himself in Italy until recalled by a counter attack of the Romans. and the Italians had further split up into separate nations among themselves. being first subdued. About B. made the Rhine and the English Channel its northern boundaries. conquering several Etruscan cities. who continued for some time to hold the northern part of Italy. 55 Caesar crossed into Britain. aided by a senator and popular assembly. 218-201) was the most severe struggle in w hich the Romans had engaged. which B. till in the conquests of Spam and Syria. B. the Roman empire extended from the Atlantic ocean to the Euphrates. r generally taken at B. King of Epirus. and who In the south the Greeks 119). But long before history begins the Greeks and Italians had separated into distinct nations.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.C. Pyrrhus.C.C. The common form of government in ancient Italy resembled that of Greece. and under Augustus " Empire originated. the latter becoming a province in B. 343 began the but is The second Punic war (B. which was effected in about sixty years. Historical. 750. 264-241) against Carthage. of 113 Magna Graecia. Teutons and others. became a Roman province in Africa. Then came the wars with peoples outside Italy. who appear to have authentic history begins. Greece formed a stepping stone to Western Asia.C. 59. Nero. 133 also became a province. Roman conquest of Italy. the great Carthaginian general. 149-146) ended in the total destruction of Carthage.C. but about 500 it Caesar in B. which were included in the name Aryan together in leagues. defeated all the Roman armies. I . 27 the of Augustus. resulted in Sicily becoming the first Roman province. consisting of towns or districts joined firstly " people. The first Punic war (B. The foundation in Rome is of uncertain date. with its territory. Rome. for Hannibal.C. while Caesar's campaigns in Gaul in B. which induced the importation of Greek artists and works of art.C. the Etruscans.C. The "Building Acts of and Trajan had considerable influence on the development vi. probably an been settled in Italy before were great builders (page had planted many colonies. In B." The remainder of Italy (exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes of the same Aryan race as the Greeks. 390. The third Punic war (B. The government of Rome was effected by chosen kings. and resulted in the dominion of a city over cities. At the same time were effected the conquest of Macedonia and Greece. became Republican. and the common forefathers of both must have stayed together after they had separated from the forefathers of the Celts.C.C. at the hands of the Gauls. which.A. entering Italy from Spain. The Republic engaged in many wars.C. upon Carthage itself.

under the previous On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia. Following Augustus came a line of emperors. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.D. 65-8). consisting of Marcus Antonius.C. and joined to it the Arch. A. Ovid (B. 44. 62 and 63) at Rome is a good example of this union in which the gigrs_ between the arches on the different stories are strengthened by the semi-attached columns which act the part of buttresses thus becoming part of the wall.C. history like that succeeding the The A. were all contemporaries. Emperors soon chosen were sooner murdered.C. The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the ^world's Persian wars in Greece. 306-337) did something for its revival. and the beginning of the nineteenth century in Europe. The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated_styje of the Greeks. . The Triumvirate. 41. and eventually rendered the empire a political necessity owing to the difficulty of governing so many provinces. Horace (-B. and the chaos that gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. 17). 17). Architecture then fell into complete decay until the vigorous efforts of Constantine (A. the Elizabethan age in England. A turbulent populace. The arch thus used in a tentative manner along with the . Christianity. poets Virgil (B. dominated the government.D. 27. and eventually defeated them. without a rival.C. but was murdered in B. Italy went out of cultivation and depended on imported corn. and the huge armies required to keep in check the barbarian tribes on every frontier.D. 2.D.114 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. in which what seems a new spring in national and individual life calls out an idealizing retrospect of the past. Trajan (98-117). 59 A. Then followed a period of great confusion lasting 13 years. were opposed to Brutus On the defeat ot and Cassius. 70-19). The Colosseum (Nos. Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar's nephew) was made emperor B. the VaTIIt7~alid7!he Dome. Hadrian (117-138) under whom the empire expanded to its greatest extent Septimius Severus (193-211). Caius Octavius (great nephew to Caesar) and Marcus ^Emilius Lepidus. Caracalla (211-217) and Diocletian (284-305) were the most active in architectural matters. and this union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest developments. Julius Caesar remained system. which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans.C. 43 and Livy the historian (B. which in large measure was also due to a new force. This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at home. 54-69). 7 Antony at Aktion. of whom Nero (A. which had been growing up and which received official recognition under this emperor (page 176). Vespasian (69-79).D. and no longer carrying the entablature unaided.C. and governed till his death.

urged them to make a more economical use of materials. the concrete backing being studded I 2 . was perfectly simple for only rough labour. Greek buildings (see page 102) were normally only one story in height.. adapting it with rare sagacity to their new needs. : (b) faced concrete for walls. and Fora. usually attached and superimposed. are all monuments of Roman greatness. The orders. 62 A). The Thermae or Baths. Bridges. Aqueducts.. These materials. . 115 classical column eventually came to be used alone. mixture formed of lime and lumps of tufa.C. and from the first century B. they inaugurated the use of concrete. i. subjects liable to statute labour. this was a building faced. in the buildings of the Republic. which were erected in the Middle Ages. and The various kinds utilizing it in the most important projects. peperino. The practical spirit of the Romans. Amphitheatres. broken bricks. and spreading it to form the walls. . and concrete unfaced or As stated. which was the oldest kind. with large Blocks of stone. was required" for mixing the materials of which the concrete was made. was finally utilized in a pointed form in the construction of those magnificent vaulted Gothic cathedrals. . or even the Roman armies while the legal punishment of condemnation to work on public buildings was largely enforced. was used extensively for various building purposes. used especially in Italy. Temples. both plentiful and cheap. under the direction of the central authority. their true constructive significance (No. The structures could be erected by hands quite unused to the art of building thus the Romans employed the slaves of the district. and instead of composing the walls of their monuments of squared-blocks of stone. stone with or without mortar joints. and gave a of building The Greek method unconnected with mortar. buildings of several stones were erected by them.e. i. however.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. a material consisting of small fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or mortar. marble or pummice stone. showing great constructive and engineering ability combined with a power to use the materials at hand with the best possible results. Basilicas. and through the basilica. Tombs. The latter was of four varieties : Concrete faced with " opus incertum" (No. rectangular blocks of frequently secured with dowels or cramps. were chiefly decorative features ceasing to have. but owing to the varying needs of the Romans. and (a) Unfacfd concrete was usually used for foundations. The Romans by their extended use of concrete founded a new constructional system and employed it in the most diverse situations. not being special to any country. of walling may be divided into two classes opus quadratum. The craftsmanship required. was employed similarity to all Roman buildings. 46 B). were used with success in every part of the Empire.


} The cross vault. left the remainder of the sides . The semicircular or waggon-headed vault resting on two of the covered rectangle was used in apartments whose walls were sufficiently thick. so much so. the style of the their turn centres as the whence radiated the architectural manners and customs of Rome. which were easily roofed. 46 D).) The cross-vault was utilized for covering a square apartment. When used over corridors and long apartments the pressure being exerted on points of division (Nos. (b. (b. Although. triangular on plan and usually about i-J. 117 ii. Concrete faced with brick (testae). It will thus be understood that vaults of concrete had a very important effect on the forms of Roman buildings. the vault had been previously used by the Assyrians. yet the Romans generalized vaulting as a structural system dating from the first century of the present era.C. The kinds of vault employed were as follows (a. Romans tended to become everywhere uniform and generally above the influence of local conditions for through the colonies and legionary camps the new methods penetrated to the extremities of the empire. iii. with irregular shaped pieces of stone. Concrete faced with " opus reticulatum " (No. the vaults being of any form. as pointed out.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. by which they covered the largest areas even now in existence. ideas as well Vaulting. The walling was faced with bricks. 58 and 60). The effect was far reaching and gave freedom in the planning of complex structures.) The dome (hemispherical and semidomes). power. to the end of the Western Empire.C. wealth and iv. the early Greeks. Concrete with "opus mixtum" consisting of a wall of concrete having in addition to the ordinary brick facing bands of tufa blocks at intervals. They made it^imple and practical by the employment of concrete. the time that concrete displaced the ashlar masonry and allowed of unskilled labour. : (c.) The semicircular or waggon-headed vault. the pressure being taken by the four. mainly used in the first and second centuries B. so called from its resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) the joints being laid in diagonal lines. The majestic simplicity of their edifices give them a severe grandeur expressing the Roman ideals of conquest. Thus from of the Greeks. angles. and the Etruscans. which became in .inches thick (No. and they were employed universally. and cities could be improvised. and easily constructed on rough centres or temporary supports till the concrete was set. 46 c).) (a. used from the first century B. that every Roman ruin is filled with their debris.

vaults and domes of enormous size were constructed. window openings. or inverted porcelain cup. like the brick facing to walls. 54 and 55). The Roman concrete vault was quite devoid of external thrust and covered its space with the rigidity of a metal lid. Cements and . and it would have been impossible to vault the enormous spans if the vaulting had been composed of brick or of masonry as in mediaeval times. it was divided into square bays generally three in number and covered with groined vaults.) half-cylinders of similar diameter. The construction of the Pantheon tional (page 134). If the oblong compartment or side walls had to be pierced by large openings. therefore. a longitudinal half-cylinder. Roman architecture had the character. if 'formed of radiating voussoirs of brick or stone. The great coherence of concrete formed of " Pozzolana" (see page 112) and lime was important by its use. The decoration of Roman buildings had little connection with the architecture proper. of a body clothed in many instances with rich materials forming a rational and appropriate finish to the structure. and the by three (c. The use of buttresses had not been systematized. 46 K). which. for a Roman edifice built of concrete could receive a decorative lining of any or every kind of marble. Besides the use of many colored marbles other means of decorating wall surfaces are briefly stated here. without the principle. which is frequently as much as 6 feet thick. of the diameter of the hall. and only tail a few inches into the mass of concrete vault. as in the Baths of Caracalla and Basilica of Constantine. intersected were very wide. having no necessary connection with the general structure. especially at the "groins. 46). brick arches or ribs probably used as temporary centres are embedded in the concrete vaults at various points. Most of these were cast in one solid mass with no lateral thrust on the walls. that is to say. Semi-domes were employed for exedrse and other recesses (No. As Prof. and had an important effect on the general forms of Roman architecture.Il8 walls free for hall COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the Roman use of concrete for vaults was more striking and daring than for walls. Hemispherical domes or cupolas (cupa cup) (Nos. thus having the form. of the arch. were used for covering circular structures as in the Pantheon. would possibly have pushed . out the walls. such decoration being an independent sheathing giving a richness to the walls both internal and external. dome appears to be excep- In many cases (No." but these are sometimes superficial. Middleton has pointed out. and differing essentially from Greek architecture.

Mosaics were also much used for ornamenting walls. 750. vaults and floors. These were either semicircular. city walls. Marble. The abundant use of statues. or great drain of Rome. or glass to form patterns. and (d. The architectural remains consist chiefly of tombs. who were great builders. and from their buildings it is known that they were aware of the value of the true or radiating arch for constructive purposes. porphyry and jasper as linings to the walls have been already referred to. (&. to decorate the walls and vaults only. led to the adoption of niches for their reception within the buildings.C. glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures. many ot them brought from Greece. and used it extensively in their buildings. alabaster. as thickness of the walls. 47). and they occasionally had columns supporting a pediment." of tesserae of marble. porphyry. The style dates from about B. (No. EXAMPLES." made of paving bricks in herring-bone (c. B. Mural paintings were executed on the prepared stucco. and the final coat was polished. or rectangular. (c.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. " Cloaca Maxima" (c.) Caustic : painting. and for the cyclopean masonry. They were usually attached by iron or bronze cramps to the walls upon a thick cement backing. marble. crowned with a semi-dome. " Opus Spicatum." formed of squared (a. or mortar of any kind. and whose methods of construction had a marked effect on that of the Romans. gateways character (as is at Perugia). and their similar to the early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and Mycenae (page 54).) "Opussectile" or "Opusscutulatum. The walls are remarkable for their great solidity of construction. and not Gilded bronze was employed as a roofing material to important employed at the Pantheon (page 134).) Fresco painting. 578) . IIQ stuccoes (" Opus albarium ") were frequently used for the coverings of walls both internal and external. c.) : fashion. They are divided by Middleton into " " Opus tesselatum. where huge masses of stone are The piled up without the use of cement. and may be classified as follows (a. Etruscan Architecture.) Varnish painting. bridges and aqueducts." or vermiculatum. thus forming a frame.) tesserae of stone. The were mostly used the floors. (&. or glass cut into" shapes to form the pattern of which the " Opus Alexandrinum was a very rich variety.) Tempera painting. 3. In dealing with Roman Architecture mention must be made of the Etruscans or early inhabitants of central Italy.

between The principal remains are found not only B. which will indicate its probable appearance in the heyday of ancient Rome. and Romanum A . has a semicircular arch of ii feet span. colonnades and public buildings. Trevesin Germany. were the most important. corresponding to the Place of a French country town. as at Nimes and Aries in France. and was nearly square on plan. or a rendezvous for political demonstrators. The principal examples of Roman architecture were chiefly erected during 400 years. and is Its cella was divided into three generally taken as being typical. constructed to drain the valleys of Rome. There are no remains of Etruscan temples. Tarragona and Segovia in Spain. and as indicated on page 114. and the Crystal Palace. but Vitruvius gives a description of them. viz. Baalbecand places in England (page 280)^^ FORA. 48). The models in the Walker Art Gallery. give a good idea of the appearance of this important centre of architectural history. chambers containing statues of Jupiter. and was adorned with pillars of victory and memorial statues of great men. The forum was usually surrounded by porticos. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the Greek and Etruscan styles. was a composite style derived by the unipn of the North Africa. and shops. the market place of English country towns. who brought some of the marble Corinthian columns from the Temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (page 90). iii) and Juno. Timgad in Algeria. which in after years during the Empire took place in the amphitheatres. The Forum Romanum was in early times also used as a hippodrome and for contests.120 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.. 83 and rebuilt by Sulla. 509). and many places in North Africa. Augustus Vespasian and Nerva. The others include those of Julius Caesar. in three rings of voussoirs. with widely spaced columns and wooden architraves. which was the largest of all. Rome possessed several Fora. Roman Architecture followed the Etruscan. Constantine in most important Etruscan example (dedicated B. The Forum around it were some of the most important historical buildings. It was burnt in/B. The Forum corresponded with the Agora in a Greek was an open space used as a meeting place and market. Minerva (Livy VII.c. but throughout Europe to wherever the Roman occupation extended. and other Palmyra in Syria.C. restoration is given (No. 100 and A.C. senate house. and a plan of these is given " " was the oldest.D. and grouped (No. in Italy. basilicas (halls of justice). such as temples. each 2 feet 6 inches high.. 300. and to the Royal Exchange or probably Trafalgar Square in the Metropolis. city. This and the Forum of Trajan. Liverpool. 47).

18 give some of the types used.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Antioch. The Roman temples were the result of the amalgamation of the Etruscan and Greek types. 13 f^ y 20 BASILICA JULIA v/ 21 COLUMN Of PHOCAS ZZARCHOfSEPTIMIUSSEVERUS 23R03TKA 2* T. and Asia Minor may also be best mentioned here. The plans shown on No. & PILASTER CTANMC 5 TEMPLE Of MINER\ft 1 \^ 3 TEMPLE RESTORED AFTER YAEI0US /tUTHOEITIES 6 TEMPLE 8 TEMPLE 9 TEMPLE 11 Of PEACE 7 SITE Of THE BASILICA AMELIA \/ Of ANTONINUS * MUSTINA Of ROMULUS . Steps were provided at the principal end. ' TRAJANS COLUMN 2 BASILO ULPW Of VENUS GENETRIX 4T.Of MARS ULTOR (5 COLS. and others are referred to later on (Nos. 1 8 G. . 50) (page 167). 49. for they resembled in many respects Greek examples. ' ' IN'DICATEJ EXISTING REMAINS INDICATES RESTORATIONS 47- TEMPLES. "the order of columns being attached to the flank walls and arranged as a prostyle portico towards the front only. Bosra and elsewhere in Syria. between projecting wing walls. Of CONSTANTIKt 10 BASILICA *^ TEMPLE Of VENUS * R0ME *^ TME COLOSSEUM ARCH Of CON5TANTINE 14 ARCH Of TITUS 15 HOUSE Of THE VESTAL VIRGINS^ 16 TEMPLE Of VESTA </ 17 ARCH Of AUGUSTUS 18 TEMPLE Of DIVWJUUU3 19 TEMPLE Of CASTOR & POLLUX (3 COLS. and had no side colonnades as was usuar in Cjreek exkiilpltib. 53 and 57). streets at Palmyra and Damascus. The size of the cella was frequently Note. Of VESPASIAN (3 COLUMNS STANDING) 26 TEMPLE Of CONCORD. the Roman examples were very much shorter. Whereas Greek peripteral temples were normally twice as long as their width. . but their prostyle arrangement and the use of the podium was derived from Etruscan temples. 52. which often supported groups of statuary. The orders are described under the Comparative table (page 167). and were continued along the flanks and back of the temple as a podium or continuous pedestal (Nos. 49. 50. The characteristic temple is known as pseudo-peripteral (page 58). Of SATURN (8 COLUMNS STANDING) 25 T. LEfT) 12 V . The remarkable colonnaded 121 Pompeii also possessed an important Forum.


colu-nns remaining. The l^emple of Diana (No. 47 1 4 and 49 L. and the Temples at Spalato. A. but these may have been of coffering in stone as in the colonnades. Eight B. Pseudo-peripteral Now the prostyle-hexastyle.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. B. 50 E. church of S.D.C. plan. N). The Temple of Vespasian (No. Pseudo-ptripteial te- the trastyle. M. 14 prostyle-hexa^tyle. Three with front portico. 94 A. double Peculiar Corinthian.D. . Three columns and Pseudo peripteral Unusual twice as api'asterremaining(page 125). IOO A typical Roman temple plan. (See page 125. or vaulted as in the TempleTof Venus and Rome at Rome (No.) (Nos. c). Lorenzo. The Temple of Also known .C. 174 remaining. Circular and polygonal temples were also used by the Romans. Peripteral octastyle 19 (Nos. 43 A). on the flanks.D. 52 E). 47 67 A and 68). the Temple of Diana at Nimes (No. The Temple of Jupiter Olympius At Nimes. and The Temple of Vemis and Rome and 50 A. B. The Alaiscn SOH. Now church of The (the Temple or Avenger) (No. S. i8j. c. The Temple of Concord (No.D. Jupiter Stator A.47 Q5 ). Ionic. Three columns remaining. orientation as in Greek examples. Carrce (Nos. Castor as and Pollux. which in most cases were isolated and visible from all sides whereas the Roman temples were specially intended to be seen from the forum or open space upon which they usually faced.D. being probably derived from Etruscan examples. which was used as a museum for Greek statuary and as a treasure As the architraves were supported by the enclosing walls store. being usually the whole width of the temple. Corinthian. 123 increased. 42-2 Corinthian. 6 Corinthian. B. temple (page 125). 56). B. 51). 11 ' . 117-138 (See page 125. K. A. G). (Nos.D. Temple of Antoninus and I. 50). A. Date. Maria Egiziaca.) x F. The abolition of the encircling colonnade and the continuous stylobate of steps resulted in a certain loss of unity in comparison with Greek examples. 52 and 67 Mars Ultor G). Pro-tyle-hexastyle. A. of open_timber-work as in the basilicas. 1 8 G. 47 . having cella wide as long. Corinthian.) K. At Rome. columns At Athens. Virilis Remarks. The Temple of Forluna (No. RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES. 284 Ionic Pseudo-peripteral pro- style-htxastylc. j. (See page 90. 47-). J. L. Nothing definite is known as to the ceilings. Corinthian. The Temple of Saturn ^Nos. D). 27-A.C. 123-135 A. B. . 141 The 68 Faiistina (Nos.D. 49.C. the front being therefore made important by the deep No consideration was given to portico and flight of steps. temples could also be built on a larger scale than in the Greek style.


K. Nimes (A. the thrust of which is counteracted by smaller continuous vaults over the side passages.D. and is the best preserved Roman temple in existence. and raised on a podium about 12 feet high provided with a front flight of steps only. 123-135) (No. entered through columns on the imposing gateways. RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES At Spalato. D. stood in the Forum of Augustus. occupying in all an area of about 540 by 340 feet. Baalbec was a hexagonal cortile entered (A. F. This temple was raised on a platform and stood in a large enclosure. Nimes (No. 50 H. but there are only three columns and a pilaster remaining. being pseudo-peripteral prostyle hexastyle. B.) (See page 130. It is of the typical form. 131-161 (See below. The Temple of sEsculaphts 59)- 125 (continued). a court 380 feet square with recessed porticos. 18 G. D. The Great Temple. A. in a precinct surrounded by an It was one of the enclosing wall 100 feet high.C. 52. A short description is given on No. but only six columns now remain. A.D. each provided with an apse placed back to back. 53). (See page 1 6 1. The Maison Carree. The Temple of Venus and Rome (A. 50). 42-2) (No. had a peculiar plan consisting of two cellas. The interior walls have detached Corinthian columns. supporting a cornice from which springs a stone-ribbed barrel vault. was probably a nymphaeum connected with some thermae. was erected during the reign of Hadrian. the capital of the latter being shown in No. (No. 67 G. It was 11 pseudo-dipteral decastyle (No. 300 Remarks. 117-138) (Nos. 50 E.D. G). and the cella walls were of extra thickness to take the thrust of the vault. the peristyle having twenty flanks.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. At Palmyra.) At Baalbec. A D. The Great Temple (No. was It stood in dipteral decastyle. with Corinthian columns supporting a rich entablature.D. probably Corinthian. the apses having semi-domes. 53). and 51). 131-161) (No. Rome (B. c. probably a prototype of the vaulting of many southern French Romanesque churches. The Temple of Mars Ultor. and that by Palladio is given on No. and a pronaos at each end. 47 ). surrounded by a colonnade of nearly 200 columns of red and grey Egyptian granite and red porphyry. 52). and the cella was crowned with a hemispherical coffered The plan on No. largest Roman temples. the usually accepted restoration of this building.D. Internally there were niches for statues. in front of which by a dodecastyle Corinthian portico . The Temple ofjiipiter (No. having attached bronze leaves. Date. The Great Temple of the STDI. 273 A. 47" gives vault. j. 53).) 273 Peripteral ocvastyle. having columns 58 feet in height. 50 A. The so-called Temple of Diana.





) At Tivoli (near Rome). (See below. 57. fire The Pantheon. and resting on a podium 10 feet Among the remains lately found are some fragments of the high. 14. The Temple of Vesta. 33. is peripteral octastyle with a vaulted sanctuary at the west end.D. c. approached by a flight of steps. 205. 67 H). of S. was founded in B. The Temple of'Vesta (Nos. having 3 feet 2 inches in diameter. F). known to belong to two distinct periods. The buildingsWere constructed with large blocks of stone without cement.C. 53. 47). Rome (Nos.I4. 59). 284. from which sprung the Between the columns were two tiers of niches. and The roof was probably steps. The Temple of Mater Matuta. with the* is approached by a flight of marble of wood covered with bronze tiles. At Rome. but other authorities do not think this possible. Rome. At Spalato. M.27-A. 55. B. finally by Septimius Severus in A.D. A. These surround a cella 28 feet in It is built of Parian diameter. B. 37 A. 273. B.) (No. 56. 161. The interior was ornamented with half-Corinthian columns having returned entablature. . pieces.I3O in antis. At Baalbec. 273). The Temple of Vesta (No.) (See page 134. ana the columns were built up in three A further short description is given on No.D.work of a Greek artist. 47). The Temple of Jttpiter (in Diocletian's Palace) A. 33. formerly known as Temple of Vesta.D. formerly known as the Temple of Vesta. 57). but was the Forum Romanum) frequently destroyed by and repeatedly rebuilt. The Circular Temple (No. 60 D. E. 55.D.) the The Temple of Mater Matuta. 715. and rest on a podium 6 feet high. is situated in the Forum Boarium. known as the Rotunda. (See below. Dawkins and Wood restore this temple as^ if vaulted.) (See below. 34 feet circular peripteral.C. (See page 136.) The Pantheon (Nos. 120-124. A. and is twenty Corinthian columns.C.D. and therefore nearly eleven diameters high. The V-shaped section of the It is now the Church leaves indicates the . Rome. CIRCULAR AND POLYGONAL EXAMPLES. (Seepages 136.D. 57 E) is now. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Chedanne in 1892. 7 inches in height and exception of the podium. (in (No. owing to the investigations of M.D. 54. columns having fillets for fitting metal screens between the shafts. 54. del Sole. coffered vault. iSc. 56. 205. The circular portion. According to Middleton it was circular peripteral with eighteen columns surrounding a cella. 27-A. The Temple of Jupiter. marble. A. occupies the site . which is of tufa. Baalbec (A.


in front of the recesses in the interior. with a layer of tiles every three feet in height. 14. in A. Maria Rotonda) is a circular structure having an internal diameter of 142 feet 6 inches. was a decastyle portico. B. and have eight great recesses. the second tier have their floor on the same level as the cornice over the inner order. formed in three heights. and the upper portion is fluted (No. The present Rotunda was erected by the Emperor Hadrian. are believed to be part of the original design of Hadrian's architect. on the site of the more ancient " nymphaeum. 1 10 feet wide by 60 feet deep in the centre. of an older uncovered piazza. are placed on the front line of these recesses. forming a frontispiece to a three-cell temple of the Etruscan type." or place for plants. the level of its floor being 8 feet below the present level. 55). of white marble and panelling of giallo antico. third. The dome or cupola is a hemisphere. entablature. The Rotunda (now the Church of S. mouldings are regulated or foreshortened so as below is worthy of notice. flowers. and staircases by which to ascend to the various parts of the edifice.C. ft The columns. built by Agrippa during the reign Of AugUStUS. sixth and eighth columns having two others behind them.D. The eight piers have niches entered from the exterior of the building. and was made to face the north instead of the south. and pavonazetto. are 20 feet in thickness. and the columns. above which are relieving arches. with capitals. which is also its internal height. 27-A. The lower third of these columns is cabled. In front of the Rotunda is the Corinthian octastyle portico. As rebuilt this portico was made octastyle instead of decastyle. but in 1747 this marble panelling was removed and the present stucco decoration inserted. the first." the x portico to the Etruscan temple being taken down and re-erected at the higher level. of concrete (opus incertum). In front of this " nymphaeum. and running water. and the third tier are level with and entered from the second cornice of the exterior. The walls. and pediments of the projecting altars are later additions. one of which forms the entrance three of the remaining seven are semicircular Two columns exedrae. having its inner surface The manner in which the sinkings or coffered in five ranges. 120-124. . The attic or upper story was originally ornamented with porphyry or marble pilasters. six of which are in the British Museum.D. At the back of the portico are niches.132 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the other four being rectangular on plan. to- be seen from ." and facing towards the south. of which the lower are semicircular on plan. The marble facing to the walls between. serpentine. used as a " nymphaeum. 42 feet 6 inches high. and are 19 feet high to the springing of their hemispherical heads.

o SB be -~ O 2 * H ^ _ "5 CO .

K). although was found by Chedanne to be built of brickwork laid in almost horizontal courses up to the fourth range of coffers. The cella. Tivoli (B. . and 4 feet 3 inches at the top. The Roman building. 27-A. had two windows. as shown in the drawings made by Palladio in the i6th century. has columns of slender proportions in order to give it the required height whereas the Tivoli example. the upper portion being faced with stucco decorated with pilasters. but it is held that a series of arches may have been formed in this portion. and the capitals. j. The columns are nearly gf diameters high. 57 H. 46 feet 6 inches high. 23 feet 1 1 inches in diameter internally. 5 feet in diameter at the base. and a pediment having an inclination of about 23 degrees. placed on the edge of a rocky prominence. At the present time the walls are faced in brick with "opus reticulatum. of which the foliage is derived from the acanthus mollis. doors and fanlight. in 655. the idea being that the worship of " One Jupiter should take place in a building open to the sky. The dome. D). The lighting is effected solely by one circular unglazed opening. and also near the central opening at the summit. appearance of the vault of the heavens in the temple of all the gods. since removed. heaven is by far the noblest conception great eye opening upon for lighting a building to be found in Europe. The octastyle portico has monolith Corinthian columns. 14) (Nos. resting on a podium. and replaced with sheets of lead.134 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which has Each of the three divisions of the portico ceiling appears to have been segmental and formed of bronze plates. and a doorway approached by a flight of steps. This method of lighting produces an effect which is solemn and impressive and there may have been a symbolic meaning . are one diameter in height. in thus imitating the originally its lower portion formed in steps." divided by the two cornices.D. The reason for the difference in design between the Temple of Mater Matuta.C. 27 feet in diameter. described by Middleton to be of concrete. 18 c. and this example are instructive. The Temple of Vesta. Rome." The circular portion was originally faced with marble up to the lower string cornice. surrounded by a peristyle of eighteen Corinthian columns. 54 c. so as to relieve from pressure the recessed openings below. The intermediate portion was not examined. still remain (No. having a cella 24 feet in diameter. is another circular peripteral example. 37 A). placed in a low flat situation. The old Roman bronze door frame. formed in the crown of the dome. and . and still retaining its circular bronze cornice (No. originally plated in gold. but these were removed to Constantinople by Constans II. 23 feet 6 inches high. was covered with bronze gilded plates. These support an entablature 1 1 feet high. The dome.


at one end. and bear witness to the importance of law and justice in their These buildings are also interesting as a link between eyes. Internally it has superimposed Ionic and Corinthian orders. the circle. The Temple of Jupiter. Classic and Christian architecture. (A. In front of the apse was the altar. is a further development of the Pantheon. as explained later on page 181. and occupy the positions resulting from the division of a circle into seven equal The entrance is placed centrally on the seventh division of parts. that in the centre. flight of steps. The Christian baptisteries erected in the following centuries were adapted from such circular temples as these just described.D. Externally it is octagonal. Baalbec (A. and . the entrance corresponding to a fourth. and galleries were The entrance was at the side or usually placed over these. (in Diocletian's Palace) 284) (No. six of which are well advanced from the cella wall. Two or four rows of columns' ran through the entire length.136 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the tribunal at the other on a raised dais. resulting in three or five aisles. with four circular recesses and three square. 43 feet 8 inches in diameter. advanced slightly in front of tKe face of the wall. The building was generally covered with a wooden roof. 59). thus provided with a lofty basement. Ranged round the apse were seats for the assessors. and crowned with a remarkable domical vault constructed in tiers of brick arches. the cella between the six columns above mentioned. These. surrounded by a low peristyle of Corinthian columns. which was elevated above the rest. generally placed in a semicircular apse. Spalato The Circular Temple.D. has a circular cella raised on a podium and approached by a It is surrounded by eight Corinthian columns. 60 D. Between these are placed eight Corinthian columns with Composite ones superimposed. F). 273) (No. whose length was two or three times the width. E. which was sometimes partly cut off from the main body of the building by columns. BASILICAS. The whole is raised on a podium. erected as halls of justice and as exchanges for merchants. which are therefore extremely interesting with respect to architec- tural evolution. The usual plan was a rectangle. externally presenting a pyramidal form. but the interior of the cella is circular. where sacrifice was performed before commencing any important business. The cella wall has Corinthian pilasters. comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans. between which are semicircular niches for The line of the entablature is curved inwards towards statuary. being occupied by the Praetor or Questor. has columns of a sturdier proportion. and has a column on either side.



_ roofed type. about 120 feet. The building is similar as regards plan and design to the Tepidarium of the Thermae (No. and Treves. Farno. c. with white marble Corinthian capitals. Trajan's (the Ulpian) Basilica. and Trajan's famous Column (page 156) stood in an open court between them. crowned at a height of 1 20 feet by an immense groined vault in three compartments. and at Silchester in England. exhibiting the deep coffering executed in brick work.entablature apses. the Basilica Julia (No. The vaults to the northern aisle still remain. The columns on the ground story separating the nave and aisles were of red granite from Syene.D. in comparison with the interior. springing from walls placed at right angles to the nave. although the column which was placed to carry it has been removed. and an internal length The total internal height was excluding the apses of 385 feet. may be mentioned. 59). one to the north and one to the west of the central nave. These walls had communicating openings formed in them.C. D). 47). in which the thrust and weight of an intersecting vault are collected and brought down on piers built to receive them. Rome (A. . each 76 feet in span. attached to the face of these piers. Light was introduced in the upper part of the nave over the by means of lunettes. from which sprung the groined vaults. and supported pieces of . consists of a central nave 265 feet long by 83 feet wide between the piers. or semicircular windows in the wall formed by the intersecting vaulting. aisle vaults . the exterior seems to have been of small pretensions. formerly erroneously known as the Temple of Peace. 47*. believed to be the oldest. 46 i. thus showing the extraordinary tenacity of Roman concrete. At each end were semicircular reached by flights of steps. each 23 feet 9 inches wide. and a portion of the main vault of concrete formed of pozzolana is still in position. Galleries were formed over the side aisles. having sacrificial altars in front of them. supported that of the nave. reached by steps as shown on the plan. Entered from Trajan's Forum. 98) (Nos. E). 312) (Nos. To the north and south are aisles roofed with three great semicircular vaults. and aided by the weight of the aisle Monolithic columns were vaults. of which Apollodorus of Damascus was the architect^ was a fine example of the wooden .D. There were two apses. Rome (A. 47% 58 A. 47) and the basilicas at Pompeii. Adjoining the Basilica were the Greek and Latin libraries. 58 B. The Basilica of Maxentius or Constantine.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. it had a central nave 87 feet wide with double aisles. 184). and the Basilica Amelia (No. and is in many respects a prototype of a Gothic structure. Other basilicas at Rome were the Basilica Porcia (B.


the processes of bathing resembling the modern Turkish bath. A as a stadium. and a Frigidarium (cool room. made in the sixteenth century. 141 THERMS. laid out This surrounded the central block and was recesses for the philosophers. large reservoir frequently occupied one This side. being probably derived from the Greek gymnasia. poets and statesmen. It was frequently large open space. This was planned for the baths proper. and other necessary apartments. usually a circular domed apartment). The Thermae supplied the place of the modern daily papers for the dissemination of news and gossip.Arts. In general arrangement they usually consisted of three main in Pompeii parts (a. pomades or ointments. The Sphgeristerium (place for the games and small theatre occasionally formed part of the (b.) An outer ring of apartments.) : A great central block. when they were better preserved. Laconium or Sudatorium (the hottest room. but in later days they were opened free as a bribe to the populace by Emperors in search of popularity. These consisted of lecture (c. Unctuarium (rooms for oils. .ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. aliptae shampooing with the "strigillus" or scraper. or great public baths are quite as characteristic of Roman civilization as the amphitheatres. The principal existing remains are found at Rome and The Thermae a ruined state. The external apartments were frequently let off as shops or utilized for the accommodation of the numerous slaves A who formed part of the establishment. or for lounging. usually containing a cold swimming bath "piscina") were the most important apartments added to which there were the Apodyteria (rooms for undressing). with raised seats for also used for various athletic exercises (such as wrestling. Tepidarium and Calidarium in succession. where the " " anointed the bathers and performed the rubbing down. boxing). and from the restorations of French students sent to Rome as prize winners of the Ecole des Beaux. reservoir supplied the Frigidarium. open colonnades. The Tepjdarium (warm room for bathers to rest in). oiling and sanding the . being supplied by a special aqueduct from a distance. races. and portions were planted with trees and ornamented with statues. usually containing a warm water bath). The whole block was frequently raised on a high platform. body). Calidarium (hot room.) of ball). libraries. Palladio. but much can be learned from the published drawings of the Italian architect. rooms for the hearing of discourses. and also answered in a measure the purposes of a modern club as a rendezvous of social life. central structure. A small charge of a quadrans (| farthing) was sometimes made. exedrae or spectators.

. produced vistas through the various halls and saloons. around which. Calidarium (with sudatio). The entrance to the establishment was in the centre of the north-eastern facade. being laid out on. of Caracalla. It was 170 feet by 82 feet. probably used as shops. 108 feet above the floor. in ruins. measured 750 feet by 380 feet. which was exposed to cold winds. formed in three compartments. loss of scale was prevented. Frigidarium (with piscina). Apodyteria (dressing rooms). for private "slipper" baths.150 feet (over one-fifth of a mile) each way. were communicating corridors leading chambers used as the hypocaust. Rome (A. vaulted stores. used entirely for bathing. i. and led to the large open enclosure laid out for wrestling and other games. were a feature of the south-western front. and supported on eight portions of entablature resting on granite columns. and the vastness of the building was emphasized. while providing for the practical requirements of the bathers. air ducts. The central building.^ixial-linS. to various parts of the establishment. which. were grouped the various halls for dramatic representations and lectures. for underneath which were the furnaces and other rooms service of the baths. placed in front of the massive piers.000 square feet. but large columned openings. and the upper on the platform level. in the segmental projections and elsewhere. 38 feet high and 5 feet 4 inches in diameter. are the most the remains. The planning of this and similar buildings is very instructive to architectural students and worthy of careful study. measuring 1. 212-235) ( Nos 4 6 F - > H. Internally the Tepidarium. restorations have been made which the relative positions of the Tepidarium.D. and other apartments. constituted the controlling feature of the plan to which the other apartments were subordinated. not including the segmental projection on three of the sides. but greater than either the British Museum or the London Courts. and furnaces for heating the water and hot this platform Under of small Along the road front was a colonnade having behind it a row chambers in two stories. K and 59 A). Moreover. around which the subsidiary apartments were grouped. Sphaeristeria (for gymnastics). by the system of exedrae and screens of columns.e. This Law Although now show . giving access to the gardens. the lower at the street level. Only four doorways were formed on the north-east side.142 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the The Thermae G. about equal to Westminster Palace (including Westminster Hall). and therefore covered an area of 285. accommodating 1. important of all size and magnificence.600 bathers. roofed with an immense semicircular intersecting concrete vault. forming the principal hall. and give a splendid idea of their The entire site including gardens was raised on an artificial platform 20 feet high.


144 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. largely from Greece or executed in Rome by Greek artists. and their connection . porphyry. great apartment was lighted by clerestory windows. S. The Calidarium was roofed with a dome similar to that of the Pantheon. . and decoratively to form with their entablatures and pediments frames for the superimposed niches in the walls. to the sky. and at the excavation of the Thermae during the Renaissance period much of it found its way into the Vatican and other museums in Rome. and the upper parts with enriched and modelled stucco bright with color the great columns on which rested the vault springers were either of granite. The unbounded license of the public baths. perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a different color. Finally. The Frigidarium was probably open many tons of T iron were found below . drawing in his lectures of the Frigidarium restored. additional interest was given to the interiors by the perpetual streams of running water. The general adornment and color treatment of the interior must have been of great richness. or covered with bold figures. or more wisely left as impressive masses of plain brickwork. indicating a further secession from Greek principles. Sumptuous internal magnificence was aimed at in all the great Thermae. falling into capacious marble basins and producing a delicious cooling effect in the hot sultry weather. but with five bays instead of three. decorations in black and white. either planned in geometrical patterns or with figures of athletes the lower parts of the walls were sheathed with many colored marbles. admitting light over the roofs of adjoining halls by means of the intersecting vault. although as the surface of the bath. and in marked contrast to the exterior. giallo antico. the pavings were patterned with mosaic cubes of bright colors. giving an excellent idea of its probable original appearance. which was constructed on a similar system to that described for the Basilica of Maxentius (page 139). is of similar dimensions to the Tepidarium of Caracalla's Thermae. Liverpool. some suppose it to have been covered with a roof of iron joists Viollet-le-duc has a (probably cased with bronze) and concrete. The surface of the great vaults was also richly ornamented by means of coffering. alabaster or other rare marbles from the ^Egean islands. high in the walls. George's Hall. issuing from the mouths of sculptured lions in marble or brightly polished silver. and in the principal European cities. 'The exteriors appear to have been treated very plainly in stucco. In these magnificent halls thus sumptuously decorated some of This was brought the finest sculpture of antiquity was displayed. or colored glass mosaic. Various colored marble columns were used constructively to support the upper balconies and the peristyle roofs.

69 B). 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter. 266).D. 46 F. 46 M generally regarded as a nymphaeum attached to the Baths of Gallenius (A. is of Minerva Medica. 46 L). Rome (A. and in the walls from the hypocaust or furnace in the basement (No. j. 46 j). were on the foundations of Nero's Golden House. It is particularly interesting in that the rudiments of the pendentive (see glossary) system are to be seen in the manner of setting the dome on its decagonal base. These baths were heated by means of hot air in flues under the floors. Vitale at Ravenna (No. and the three examples at Pompeii indicate their general characteristics and manner of use. springing from eight monolithic columns of Egyptian granite. caused by the destruction of the aqueducts by the Huns and the gradual decrease of the Roman population. Buttresses were placed at points as required. The so-called A. degli Angeli. They have completely disappeared.C.D. published in Cameron's "Baths of the Romans. The Thermae of Diocletian. This Tepidarium was converted by Michael Angelo. In the fifth century the large Roman Thermae fell into disuse and decay. and in 1740 a projecting choir was formed on one side by Vanvitelli. having Composite and Corinthian capitals of white marble each supporting a portion of highly ornamental entablature. Typical Roman baths are shown on No. The dome is formed of concrete ribbed with tiles. into the Church of S. H). who held that bathing might be used for cleanliness. 90 feet high. 1561. 80 feet in diameter. with semicircular niches to nine of the sides. The absence of a hypocaust or of flue tiles in the walls prevent it from being considered as a Calidarium. the tenth being the entrance. in A. 27) (No. G." 1772. built The Thermae of Agrippa. but an idea can be obtained from the measured drawings of Palladio. B). from which it will be seen that the general distribution resembled the Baths of The Tepidarium is 200 feet long by 80 feet wide and Caracalla. which is an advance on the construction of the Temple and 83 now F. 80) (No. It is a decagonal on plan. but not for pleasure. L . were the earliest example. The Balneum or small private bath was much used. M. 83 c. Rome of transept. in order to give the necessary light and air to the plants. Rome (A. admitting of the use of thinner walls.A.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Above are ten windows of large size at the base of the dome. had a plan. bearing a remarkable similarity to S. 60 K. shown in a restored condition in No. (B. and is covered with quadripartite vaulting of tufa concrete. caused them to be proscribed by the Early Christians. 302) (No. who thus converted the nave of the church into a kind The Thermae of Titus.D. 69 G.D. Rome (Nos. D). 145 with amusements generally. a system afterwards carried still further by the Byzantines.


23-13). and has at the summit two tiers of corbel stones. of Herodes Atticus. of the semicircular auditorium. instead of being rather more than a semicircle as in the Greek theatres. Rome (B. Staircases for access to the various levels were placed on either side of the stage. of the arcading. and which in its original circular plan in Greek theatres was occupied by the The stage thus becoming all important. stage. held 7. 314 feet long by 116 feet high. but where the site did not allow of this they were. the It is held to have been roofed with seats having a marble casing. The Theatre of Marcellus. THEATRES AND AMPHITHEATRES. which is 203 feet wide by 45 feet deep.000 people. seating 6.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 161). Athens (No. but this. which in recent years have been excavated. with wide passages and staircases ccmmunicating with the external At the ground level. the fa9ade of which was ornamented with the Tuscan order and the Ionic order superimposed. is ornamented by blind arcading. and a step towards Gothic principles of conThe pendentives are of the rudest kind. cedar. were entirely masked by the original decoration. constructed tier connecting corridors. 34 B). South France (No. It originally had a portico attached to it. and consisted of tiers of seats one above the other. The Theatre (A. pierced with holes. L 2 . and became connected more completely with the auditorium. 147 54). in which the people might sudden showers. siderably and treated with great richness. The theatres at Taormina. is also Pompeii had two important theatres. probably only applied to the stage. at Fiesole. and Aspendus. was raised conchorus. are other examples. In diameter it is upon tier of retreat in case of 340 feet between the inclosing walls. in Asia Minor. however. separating the porticos on each story. near Florence. was here restricted to a semicircle. 17) a fine example. was a semicircular area which was occupied by the Senators. and probably struction.C. Theatres were still constructed on the slope of a hill.D. auditorium of sloping seats from the stage. The Theatre at Orange. It is partly hewn out of the Acropolis rock and partly constructed. The design of Greek theatres was adapted to suit Roman requirements. through which the velarium poles were placed. Pantheon (No. by means of the new art of vaulting. on the east coast of Sicily. and inclosed by return walls at The great wall at the back of this right angles to the back wall. The auditorium. two stories high. is the only The remains consist existing example of a theatre in that city.000 spectators. and is an example where the auditorium is constructed and not hollowed out of the side of a hill.


D. concrete being used where least weight. 70. Rome shall fall. the third separated from the second by a wall. 149 The amphitheatres are characteristic Roman buildirigs. those lining of 9 inches of brickwork. faced with travertine stone. 64). 62 and 63)." . the vaults running downwards to the centre from the high inclosing walls consequently no building is more durable or more difficult to destroy a feeling well expressed by the line . which were considered to be a good training for a nation of warriors.D. The supports have been of the building. calculated at one-sixth of the whole area The constructive principle consists of wedge-shaped_piejs radiating inwards. the two lower forming the grand tiers. Access to the various seats is from the eighty entrances by means of staircases placed between the radiating walls and by The radiating walls were corridors. The dens for the wild beasts were immediately under the lowest tiers of seats. rise up from the arena. (The Colosseum). placed at intervals as shown. by means of which the various tiers of seats are reached. consisting of a vast ellipse feet. surrounded by a wall The seats. and travertine stone where the heaviest pressures had to be supported (No. : " \Vhen falls the Colosseum. The auditorium has four ranges of seats. 82. tufa stone where more weight. The masonry was laid without mortar. The Flavian Amphitheatre. These are good exponents of the character and life of the Romans. The system is one of concrete vaults resting on walls of the same material. Rome (Nos. and the construction is strong and solid. having externally eighty openings on each on the ground floor forming entrances. and consequently opened on to the arena. making 7 jfeet in total thickness. the water drains for flooding the arena still existing in many examples. Joeing of an engineering character. 62 B). being found in every important settlement. is the most important example. than for the tame mimicry of the stage. The arena proper is an oval 287 feet by 180 feet. in solid stone. 15 feet high. as at Verona (No. and having an internal 620 feet by 513 story. 4 feet thick. having underneath them corridors and staircases.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. and the top range under the peristyle forming the later addition. Palace gives a good idea of the general distribution of its parts. In plan it is a type of all the examples. and in addition to their normal purposes were used for naval exhibitions. commenced by Vespasian in A. who had greater love for mortal combats. The modern Spanish bull rings to some degree give an idea of the arrangement and uses of Roman amphitheatres. 2 feet 3 inches thick. cleverly constructed. and completed (with the exception of the upper story) by Domitian in The model in the Crystal A.



Aries. Domitian. all the stone seats being intact. lines of the unbroken entablatures entirely surround the building. it is the most perfect example of a Roman Circus existing. external fa9ade is The divided into four stories. The purely decorative use of the Classic orders of architecture which being superimposed are in strong contrast to The grand sweeping which the Grecian method of single orders. CIRCI. connected by eighty arches and supporting the weight of the structure. and remains of a roughly made example at Dorchester. Nimes. viz. 64). The three lower ones have their walls pierced with arches. which The Tuscan all have the same lower diameter are unusual column is about 9^ diameters high and the Ionic and Corinthian about 8| diameters. and Sallust. Other well-known examples are the Amphitheatres at Pompeii. At Rome there were several important examples. The plan of a Roman Circus was an adaptation of a Greek stadium. Pola in Istria. tiers of orders. Surrounding this were rows of marble seats supported by raking vaults and an . also known as the Circus of Romulus. divided and united : by three ii. while the Greek stadium was principally used for foot races and athletic sports. Corinthian pilasters. Hadrian. The Colosseum was used as a stone quarry by the builders ol later times. in Dorset. The thick piers behind the orders. many Renaissance buildings (page The Amphitheatre. but. Ionic. points worthy of notice are The multiplicity of its parts. and Corinthian The upper story has orders. It consisted of a long open circular-ended arena with a "spina" along its axis. The proportions of the attached columns on the fa9ade. materials being taken from it for the construction of iv. was used for chariot or horse races. is in splendid preservation.. the two latter being on pedestals. and the height to the top of this order is 157 feet. In criticizing the general architectural character of this wonderful building (No. 60 c) near Rome. The Circus Maxentius (No. El Djem near Carthage. was built by Maxentius in A. : (No. and are ornamented with half columns of the Tuscan. Capua. Nero. 63). Flaminius.D. Between the pilasters are the corbels used to support the masts of the velarium. 311. three tiers of apparently i.152 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. countless arcades encircling the exterior. Although only part of it now remains. iii. among which were the Circus Maximus and those of Maxentius. Verona 456). although only four bays of the external wall are still standing. however.

and basAn attic or surmounting mass of reliefs relating to campaigns. and above the attic were originally a quadriga. Marble Arch.) The single-arched type. The Arch of Septimius Severus. The central keystones project considerably in order to support the main architrave.D. commemorates the capture of Jerusalem in A. Rome (A. London. 47). of which the gives a general idea. 204) (No. The Arch of the Goldsmiths. and Hadrian at Athens. Augustus at Rimini D). not of arched construction. 47.D. 114) Sergii at Pola. Augustus at Susa (Piedmont) Augustus at Aosta (Piedmont). 69 A. to victories. 47. at Ancona (A. is an example. built to commemorate Parthian victories. The archway has its soffit ornamented with deep coffers.D. having a dedicatory inscription.D. the opening being spanned by an entablature. has and statues.D. and the spoils taken from the Temple at Jerusalem on the other. 204) (Nos. 27). and 70).) The three-arched type. Trajan at Beneventum (A. is (A. 81) (Nos. Other well-known examples of this type are the Arches of Trajan (No. The Arch of Constantine.D. c). These rest on an impost. A description is given on each of the illustrations Nos. 1 13). and have Corinthian or Composite columns on either side. on the one side. (b. emperors or generals in honour of their consisted either of a single arch or of a central arch with a smaller one on either side. " At one end were the " carceres or stalls for horses and chariots. and were adorned with architectural enrichments.D. statuary. 66 detached Composite columns resting on pedestals. The inner jambs have reliefs of the emperor in a triumphal car. On each side of the arch are semi-engaged columns of the Composite order. Rome 57.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Arch of Titus. 57 and 65. 153 external wall of concrete faced with "opus mixtum" (page 117). London. 7). and at the semicircular end was the " porta triumphalis. horses. 67 B. being the earliest known examples. Rome (A. being crowned by victory. 65. 49).C. and are richly carved. 70. was built in honour of Constantine's victory over Maxentius. (a. in the centre of which is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus. 49. of which the central arch at Hyde Park Corner. . Rome (A. as shown in No. columns supporting an entablature. These were erected They stonework was placed above. the (A. 70 (B. and is one It has detached Corinthian of the best proportioned examples. with a central entrance for processions and two side entrances." TRIUMPHAL ARCHES AND PILLARS OF VICTORY. which returns round each column.D. 312) (No. and three-quarter columns occur at the angles.


X H Pu W .

numbering over 2.D. Rostra. were sometimes erected to record the triumphs of victorious generals. L). Besides these. and having a doorway on the fourth. the Porte des Mars. stands on a pedestal inches square. The Arch at Orange is one of the finest examples of this type It has semi-attached Corinthian columns between outside Italy. Trajan's Column (No. 161 to the memory of Antoninus Pius and that erected to Marcus Aurelius in memory of his victories over the Germans (A. The column design of Trajan's Column. and in such cases might serve the purposes of defence. In contrast with. a type of memorial which. and a recital of the deeds which led to their erection was carved upon them. and bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples. or memorial columns. and carved on a spiral band over 800 feet long and about 3 feet 6 inches deep. 69 H). tombs were numerous. in particular that of Regolini Galassi at Cervetri. and stood in an open court with galleries around at different levels. in the time of the emperors. ornamented with sculptured trophies on three sides. 167-179) were founded on the Museum. from which the bas-reliefs on its shaft could be viewed. Arches were also erected to form entrances to towns or bridges. were used in their ornamentation (No. There is a full-sized cast in the Victoria and Albert The column. . Autun. besides animals. was erected 'in connection with his Basilica (page 139). were erected to celebrate naval victories. 58 B.D. or prows of ships captured after a naval victory. in the Forum Boarium. . was numerous. the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. and 18 feet high. Andre. lighted by The sculptures. a four-way arch built as a shelter at the junction of four roads." wind aloft up the rough steep of the Roman Doric order. and also the arches at Palmyra and in North Africa. Its total height is 147 feet. Rostral columns. through various toils. small openings. Rome. are among the best known.156 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Pillars of victory.those of the Greeks. were probably intended to represent the unwinding of a scroll of parchment illustrating incidents of Trajan's war with the Dacians. mention might be made of the Arch of Janus. built in the reign of Septimius Severus. Spalato (Palace of Diocletian). hero to the skies. "The And The sculptures lead. The column is 12 feet in diameter at the base and is provided with an internal spiral staircase of marble. Rheims. Of this 7 type of gateway the Porta Nigra.500 human figures. and the Porta Aurea. 60 j. Treve^ the Porte S. feet 1 6 8 erected in A. TOMBS.

but it is known. 135) was one of the It is now the most important of these monumental tombs. square or circular.C. to have had a square basement surrounded with a portico of columns and supporting a circular mass. having a peristyle of marble columns. probably surmounted by a conical roof. . and have rows of niches in the walls resembling pigeon-holes hence the name. Each niche was reserved for a vase containing the ashes of the deceased. with the name inscribed thereon. in which. and crowned with a colossal statue of Augustus. as indicated on No. was used as a theatre. Little is now left. from which an eagle was set free. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress. Rome (B. what remained of it. (on the Via Appia). and consists of a square basement about 300 feet each way and 75 feet high. the frieze of which is carved with ox-skulls and festoons. was erected for himself and his heirs. as other examples. surmounted by a conical marble It was built of concrete.. and others. Rome (A. Tacitus. symbolizing the escaping soul of the dead emperor. resting on a quadrangular structure and crowned with a pyramidal roof. Castle of S. containing the mortuary chambers. supporting an immense circular tower 230 feet in diameter and 140 feet high. Angelo. There are five varieties of Roman tombs.D. the practice of cremation became less usual the richer classes embalmed their dead and placed them in massive and costly sarcophagi instead of the smaller . 220 feet in diameter. 157 The Romans either buried or cremated their dead. 52 : These were placed in subterranean vaults (a. The bodies of the emperors during the first three centuries were usually burnt on magnificent pyres. as in the Tomb of the Gens Cornelia. dome. receptacle for ashes.) Rome. The tomb-chamber was in the interior. both sarcophagi (No. 28). and the whole was faced with travertine and crowned by an entablature.C. some of which in addition had " loculi " or recesses for corpses. or caves. (b. from descriptions of Strabo. These may be survivals of the prehistoric tumulus of earth with its base strengthened by a ring of stones. consisted of tower-shaped blocks. In the second century A. Sarcophagi were also placed in these tomb-chambers. and in the eighteenth century. supporting a circular mass 94 feet in diameter.D. Monumental tombs The Tomb of Cecilia Metella. which are now known as catacombs. The Mausoleum of -Hadnan. the whole being capped by a mound of earth laid out in terraces and planted with Cyprus and evergreen trees. Rome (B. has a podium 100 feet square. 60). 69 M) and urns being sometimes found in the same tomb chamber.) Columbaria. The Mausoleum of Augustus.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

although more of an engineering than architectural character. some structural. and Algeria and Cyrene in Africa possess many examples. as at Rome and in the Street of Tombs. at The Tomb Mylassa. as in the Tomb of the Pancratii. and the upper chamber contained portraits or statues of deities and served as mortuary chapels. the vault and walls being decorated with figure paintings. and is now used as a military barrack.) Eastern tombs. 52) will show its general characteristics. Pompeii : " Those ancient roads With tombs high verged. erected along the sides of roads leading from cities.) Smaller tombs. towards the centre of the mass. and Petra in Syria Caria in Asia Minor. The Igel Monument. which is formed of concrete marble. near Treves. In addition to the foregoing. were also adopted. were often (d. Above is a circular story with fluted Corinthian columns. 52 H). often with a prostyle portico. Remi. so many storms of war. Jerusalem (e. Germany. in Provence (B. some rock-cut. and the walls and vaults were ornamented with colored reliefs in stucco. On the whole. but with a walled-up colonnade. memorial structures or cenotaphs were occasionally erected. So many pomps. and . near Tunis (No." DYER.C. as isolated monuments. probably Egyptian ideas. somewhat resembles that at Mylassa. The Tomb at Dugga. which slope upwards from the ground level. being converted in the middle ages into a fortress by the Popes. 62-12).158 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The districts of Palmyra. and has an internal tomb-chamber. supporting an entablature and conical stone roof. latter. first century) consists of a high pedestal ornamented with basreliefs and supporting a story of engaged Corinthian angle columns with arched openings between.in Asia Minor.C. (No. is one of the most interesting examples of the The illustration (No. is of similar design. due to the introduction of (c. The Monument of S. as in the Pyramid of Cestius faced with white (B. aqueducts. formed by The . These often have subterranean tomb-chambers for sarcophagi with niches for cinerary urns. 52 G). so many wondeiing realms. were formed the sepulchral chamber and converging passages. AQUEDUCTS.) Pyramid tombs. Above the ground the tomb resembled a small temple. the solemn paths of ! Fame ' . the structure has been much altered since its construction. Deserve they not regard Such crowds have roll'd o'er whose broad flints . fulfilling a utilitarian purpose only.

or concrete faced with brick.D. 60 It forms part of an B and 61). The Aqua Marcia (B. It is in France (B. and the others vary in width. The principle of all the examples is similar. Throughout the Empire remains are to be seen showing the importance put by the Romans upon an adequate water supply Rome had to be especially well supplied owing to their cities. and in approaching the Eternal City in the days of its glory. aqueduct twenty-five miles long. Owing. still The " Anio Novus (A. ig)(Nos. bringing water from the neigh- bourhood about 900 feet long. miles in length. conveying the water from the high ground. and is formed of three tiers of arches crossing a valley 180 feet above the River Gard. the ruined aqueducts are striking features. to the city reservoirs. entered the city on arches above those sixty-two of the A. as will be seen on . Many of them follow a circuitous course in order to prevent the slope of the channel being too steep when the source of the water was high above the required level of distribuIn the time of Augustus Caesar there were nine tion in Rome. 38).C.C. A smooth channel (specus) lined with a hard cement. these enormous arched waterways must have impressed the beholder. The Pont-du-Gard. on immense arches above ground. to say nothing of the domestic supply for its large population. of these aqueducts supplying Rome with water. The Romans were acquainted with the simple hydraulic law that water will rise to its own level in pipes. 144) and the Aqua Claudia " (A. however. a system which even in modern times has been followed in the Croton Aqueduct which supplies New York City.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. to the inferiority of the local service and the large quantity required for the reservoirs. of Uzes. above or below ground (Vitruvius recommends a fall of 6 inches to every 100 feet).) gives interesting information on the subject. which is added to from other sources by Middleton.. having almost level water channels.D. On the uppermost tier there are thirtyfive arches having 14 feet span. and the upper rooms " of their houses were supplied by " rising mains in the same way as modern buildings. it was found to be more economical by the use of slave labour to construct aqueducts of stone. chapter vii. near Nimes. great thermae and public fountains. is carried on arches. their size 159 and proportion striking features of the Roman landscape. across valleys. often in several tiers and sometimes of immense height (say 100 feet). The masonry is laid dry without mortar and. On the two lower tiers the central arch is the widest. is the finest existing example. 38) Aqua Claudia. to the fact that pipes had then to be made of weak and costly lead or bronze (cheap and strong cast-iron pipes not being in use). Vitruvius (Book VIII. supply water to Rome. In any views of the Campagna near Rome. supporting the water-channel.

(a. in 1863. but there is to show their enormous extent and imposing character. These. 47). The Bridge five arches. Irregular spaces. Other aqueducts exist at Tarragona and Segovia. the Peristylium. No. or banqueting hall the Lararium. some of the arch voussoirs of the intermediate tier projected to carry the temporary centering. The Palaces of the Roman Emperors. commenced by Napoleon III. The principal approach was from the Forum Romanum. commenced by Augustus (A. disguising the producing . and afterwards continued by the Italian Government. on the west side of the Arch of Titus (No. have revealed remains of a group of magnificent palaces. whose uses cannot now be ascertained. The roadway was generally kept level The simplicity. and the giant remains attributed to him will probably impress the student of architecture most when visiting the site. 3). . were remodelled by Septimius Severus. or hall for administering justice. at Rimini is the best preserved in Italy and has There are examples of two types of Roman bridges in Spain which are equally impressive. Excavations on the Palatine Hill. (b.D. spanning the rocky valley of the Tagus. the Triclinium. chief characteristics of Roman bridges were solidity and a view to their withstanding the ravages of time and the elements. Spalato and elsewhere. The magnificent vistas.) sweepT of the bridge at Toledo. BRIDGES. with throughout. as exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Cordova and The single-arched type. of which the romantic Alcantara. caused by additions being made from time to time. Nero and Domitian. a square garden surrounded by a colonnade. is the best example. or apartment for statues of the household gods and the Nymphaeum. were rendered symmetrical by the use of hemicycles and other devices. Caligula. PALACES. by a road which enough branched off from the Via Sacra.l6o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . The disposition of the buildings was governed by axial lines .) The many-arched type. Besides these there were many minor chambers of service. and having additions by Tiberius. : chief apartments in these palaces were The Tablinum or Throne-room the Basilica. Of the Roman palaces the ruins only remain. 61.

F. Elizabethan gallery. east and west sides was a gateway flanked by octagonal towers. with a front portico in antis. formed an entrance to a here were placed suite of nine chambers overlooking the sea the private apartments and baths of the emperor. and in the centre of each of the north. Spalato. that of Jupiter (see under circular temples. On each of the facades. perhaps.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 59) another famous example. directly on capitals without the intervention an early example of a principle carried to its logical conbeing clusion in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. page 555). A circular vestibule. The architectural character is somewhat debased in style. pp. being visible above the inclosing walls land and sea. the " " "iron on the west. slaves and soldiers of internally. different angles of the buildings in relation to frequently used by modern architects.A. and the " brazen on the east. served as a connecting gallery. were the cells that lodged the The octagonal temple. M . 300). These gateways formed entrances to porticoed avenues 36 feet wide. and in the northern gateway arches rest of an entablature. between the towers. which formed the greater part of the mediaeval town of Spalato. country house. The original plan of the palace was approximately a rectangle. ending these main avenues. halls of the palace proper. Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area. The two northern portions were probably for the guests and principal officers of the household while the whole of the southern portion was devoted to the palace. however. No. is The Palace of Diocletian. as a transitional example. and has thus been called a It may be described as a royal city in a house. 238). which divided the inclosed area into four parts. There was a square tower at each angle. and was probably filled with works The columns to the of art (cf. broken and curved pediments with decadent detail being employed. . on the southern sea front. upper portion were detached and rested on carved corbels. were impressive features of the in distant views by group. thus losing its constructive significance. and the more lofty the imperial retinue. 136) and ^Esculapius (page 125) and the baths. which. including two temples. between which and those at the angles were subsidiary towers. the finest being This the portico. entablature of the peristyle is formed as an arch. were rich entrance gateways. as a chateau by the sea. being thus almost equal in extent to the Escurial in Spain (page 537. a . on three sides. (A.D. 130. the "golden" on the north. or better. occupying an area of 9^ acres. feature also seen in the golden gateway. 524 feet by 24 feet. a method in Dalmatia (No. each assigned to a particular purpose. gave the palace the character of a Roman camp. l6l each other. The for the palace has a value. meeting in the centre.

the remains which have been excavated are believed to differ but slightly from the later Greek 'dwellings. and a peristyle beyond. storied tenement. It was surrounded by streets on three sides. The House of Pansa (No. and the inns former days. consisted of shops." for receiving the rain-water from these roofs. or many- . as are Eastern houses to this day.) or private house insitla. bakeries. are interesting examples. and there seems every reason to believe that Roman They each possessed an dwellings were evolved from them. The streets of Pompeii were narrow (many only 8. which served as the public of in France and England The Pompeian houses waiting-room for retainers and clients. The dwellings of the Greeks have already been touched upon (page 92). A prothyrum. THE DWELLINGS OF THE ROMANS. 65. with a " lean-to or sloping roof supported by brackets round all four sides. with a roadway 13 feet 6 inches and paths 5 feet wide. brick or masonry buildings must have been largely erected. or 15 feet). probably used by servants or guests. and the House of Livia.) classified under (a. forming the more public portion of the building. or House/of the Vestal Virgins (No. or entrance passage. while round were grouped the front rooms. The houses had plain fronts to the street. the Atrium Vestae. A. The excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have thrown considerable light on this important subject. one story in height. forming the centre of the family apartments. 47). and from which the more The atrium was open private portions of the house were shut off. B) may be taken as a good type of domus or ordinary private house. besides the house proper. was sunk in the centre of the pavement.l62 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the widest being 23 feet 6 inches. but as a decree was passed in the time of Augustus limiting the height of houses in Rome to 75 feet. 79 overwhelmed the city. the light being strong in the sunny climate of Italy. which in A. The rooms wereji^hted by orjenings giving on to internal courts already mentioned. The openings were small. and as Pompeii was a Graeco-Roman city. " to the sky in the centre. led direct from the street entrance to the atrium. and. atrium. Such upper stones were probably of wood. or "water cistern. but are_ mostly stairs and traces of upper floors exist. or country house and The domus. 12. or as semi-public . The impluvium. These Pompeian houses owe their preservation to an eruption of Vesuvius.D. The villa. the frontage_on_ either side of the entrance passage beingL-4^fc-oft asjshl2pr~~The absence oF windows on the fronts is explained by some as being due to a lack of glass. and three smaller houses.) . the garden occupying the fourth. in which case openings towards the street would have rendered privacy impossible. These may be (&. burying it in ashes to a depth of 10 feet. The (c. At Rome.

for conversation. Hadrian's Villa. as Piranesi. 69 E). The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace. the oacus. Canina. or tenement of many stories. designed by the late Sir Digby Wyatt. been made by many authorities. e. is an exceedingly good reproduction of an ordinary Pompeian house. 68 G. or recesses. or inner court. The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle. Examples of flat. Days of Pompeii. 163 rooms. often the garden of the house and around were grouped the cubiculae or bedrooms. or reception room. Roman villas exist in England seems The the insula. the Tragic Poet. The dining-rooms were fitted with three couches each for three people to recline upon. and fountains. walls. with entablatures in to be imagined." or narrow passages. the triclinium. Pictures were sometimes framed with architectural features consisting of slender shafts. each receiving sufficient light through the door openings. or tablinum.) libraries. are other well-known examples of Pompeian houses which have their floors. and the alae. either in black and white (No. The peristyle was the centre of the private part of the house. as nine was the recognized number for a . a gymnasium. which have origin. to which the name " Pompeian is now applied. Roman feast. the darkest colors of the decorative scheme being placed nearer the ground. 69 K) or of colored marbles. with " fauces. and Sallust. The walls and floors were richly decorated with mosaics and paintings.g. occupying an area of about seven square miles. with different aspects. suggestive of a metallic perspective. and it usually had a small shrine or altar (Nos. and which were furnished with domestic implements such as candelabra (Nos. An open saloon. " The Last Lytton's great novel. theatres. 68. resembled a palace in its extent. The Houses of the Faun. led to the peristyle. Besides the imperial apartments it was surrounded by terraces. near Tivoli. The roofs were covered with tiles or bright colored terra-cotta. furthest from the entrance. Diomede. to have resembled modern M 2 .ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. peristyles." will be found of interest to the student as a description of the habits and life of the Romans. forming an important element in the decorative scheme. (see page 280). Vettius. had pro- bably painted and gilded timbers. The ceilings. 69). corresponding to the hall of Elizabethan times. and thermae. or dining-room (summer and winter). and others. The walls were either painted to imitate marble or executed in fresco. the decorations being copies of original paintings at Pompeii. The floors of these houses were of patterned mosaic. Restorations have palaestra. and vaults decorated in a " characteristic style.

shells. the limits of whose style have not been yet successfully toward Gothic architecture. and exhibit much variety. while variety of grouping and some picturesqueness was attempted in the Propylaea and Erechtheion (Nos. often decorated with bronze statuettes. 26. to The public fountains were many hundreds. either as (salientes). No mixture of constructive principles occurs in the buildings of the Greeks. Unity was attained in the selfcontained temples. mainly in the courts and gardens of the houses. and by vaults and domes large areas and complicated plans could be roofed (Nos. such as the aqueducts and bridges. In some the water issued in jets from fishes. giving boldness and variety and leading to the system of intersecting expanded. 30). of and vastness impression magnificence. of utilitarian works. Private fountains existed in great numbers. wall niches lined with glass and mosaics a nymph. on a large scale. sometimes supported by a figure of In others. Designs convey an beauty. FOUNTAINS. exceedingly /numerous. ment and Designs have Plans. COMPARATIVE. of design. 18. They were of colored marbles and porphyries. and there is a dignity and grandeur of effect irrespective of the smallness of scale. ROMAN. and are characteristic of a powerful and energetic race. as have been found at Pompeii. vault. A. and dome were the keynotes to the whole system of the style. amounting large basing of water (locus) or as spouting jets or the two combined and ornamented with marble columns and statues. By the use of the arch. Plans.164 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Romans were pre-eminently great constructors. structive skill was acquired by the building. 4. proportion being of the first importance. and the soothing effect in a hot and low-lying city of the clear water sparkling in the sun. GREEK. and knew how to use the This conmaterials at hand. were provided with lions' heads. from which issued the water. Fountains. or other objects. and constituted a step ness of planning as resulted from the arcuated Roman style. rich material. Purity and severity of outline caused by the simple method of post and beam. refineA. . both public and private. did not lend itself to such variety and bold- The arch. have always been one of the most striking features of both ancient and modern Rome on account of their graceful designs. wide openings were rendered possible. 58 and 59).

such as brick. and 44 c. brick or hard rock and quarry debris. Where coarse stone used it was frequently covered with stucco. Such walls are thus often coarse in character. The employment of marble directly shaped the development of the style. illumination being obtained from doorways or hypaethral openings (Nos. orientated. 26. An example of a vaulted building is the Treasury of Atreus. and often crowned with a cornice supported by consoles. where the beds of the stones are horizontal throughout. it may be said that the Romans inaugurated the employment of large masses of irregular materials. bond courses for strength being introduced. One-sixteenth of an inch was rubbed off the buildings on These materials were not special to any country. and needed but vertical Walls. Great haste was necessary in the execution to complete sufficiently for use. 37 c.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. the adherence of the blocks not being necessary. usually faced the east. Of minor importance. as in the fine example of the north doorway at the Erechtheion. Windows.. D H). D). resistance. mean. placed without regard to orientation. without mortar. headed or These were imbeing square- portant features. By the extended use of concrete. Constantine. rectangular and semicircular on plan is a special Roman feature (Nos. allowing of refinement of treatment. and 27 B. Doorways are squareheaded. 50 B. reduced into fragments and bound together was by mortar. and concrete. Openings. 30. afterwards filled up with brickwork. the columnar treatment giving the necessary light and shade. Jointing was not reckoned as a means of effect. . i. were not used in Temples. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity. 21. principally The the latter (No. with brick or marble facing. The was employed at extremities and angles of cella walls. 28.e. supported at the springing line. rubble. 38 F and 67 F). 54 B). Arches sometimes had centering. 20 c. The Greek Temples were B. all of which sufficed for the most important projects. Openings. 27 L. and coarse materials. 23 A. for the weights only acted vertically. were never perfectly completion. 62 A). common in the third and fourth centuries A. semicircle divided vertically by two mullion piers was a favourite type of window. and perfection of finish in construction.D. vaults. as shown on plate No. Constructed of large blocks of marble. Walls. from the Basilica of circular. B. Even for transmitting the pressure between the blocks only metal cramps were used. at Mycenae. Constructed of small. The Roman Temples were B. each bed overlapping the one below till the crown is reached (page 54). and doubtless many buildings finished. Athens' (No. GREEK. this polishing being performed by slaves. by which the concentration of weights on piers was effected. The use of recesses The use of the true arch is avoided. PJ pilaster was the Roman development of the Greek Anta (Nos. The Anta (Nos. 46 E). (No. ROMAN. but consisted of fragments of stone. thus producing the segmental arch. except on rare occasions.


The acroteria or blocks of stone resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment. as at the Colosseum (No. largely used 38 A) was their The Doric Order (No. 31). having carved enrichments. Columns. 62 A). Paul. as for example the Pantheon. 16. and in many cases finished with richly carved antefixae (Nos. The Romans introduced pedestals on which they placed the column A to secure greater height. j). was of by the Greeks. 23 and 25). Coffered ceilings in framed timber probably roofed over the large span of the cella. little 38 B). 55). used in The orders were connection with the arch. to interiors of 23. Roof coverings were either of terracotta. as at Baalbec. the richest examples being at the Parthenon (No. used by the Romans. I6 7 Extreme care was bestowed upon the elaborately constructed. According to Vitruvius flat terrace roofs were employed. were richly coffered. 19 c and 20 H. plain and 262 simple S. E. reduced to rules by Vitruvius. 23) and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius (No. 54. The Doric Order (No. GREEK. D. the fluting being carried out when the columns were in position. as in some of the larger halls of the Thermae. Covent Garden. manner. as at the Pantheon (N os. 20). Orders often superimposed. Roofs. as amongst the Etruscans. roofs of the temples. and highly-finished. Greek use of pedestals appears to be that of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus (No. Timber framing also appears to have been employed. canon of proportions. 28 E. D. 21). 16 A.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. and were covered with large slabs of marble with coverpieces which at the eaves were Roofs. 27). ROMAN. The noble vaults and domes described on page 117 constituted the important development. The ceilings of the peristyles were coffered in stone with square or rectangular panels (No. as in the Colosseum at Rome. being lost their structural used in a and gradually importance. 20. or of bronze in the more important buildings. and according to Horace. splendid wooden coffered ceilings were employed in the houses of the rich. Columns. The orders were structural necessities wherever used. is a good modern example by Inigo Jones. The Tuscan Order has unfluted column entablature (No. not suited to most important buildings being being their ideas . decorative Orders never superimposed except Temples (Nos. The column and beam are the keynotes of Greek architecture. was not employed by the Greeks. was gradually evolved for all the orders. which it is believed were constructed of T-iron and concrete. These were of timber framing (Nos. The Tuscan Order. a B). or in the Triumphal Arches. The only B and 31 D). The ceilings internally were of various geometric patterns. which is merely a simplified form of the Doric. and supporting statuary or ornaments were characteristic features (Nos. such as octagons and squares in combination.


adding a dentil course. placed over are tri- glyph and metope much sometimes omitted.C. The architrave does not overhang the face of the column. 38 F) was the favourite of the Romans. The Corinthian Order (No. ment The mutules. usually placed over the triglyph only." which as the are blunt-ended and flat in section. 430. 27 and 29). that in the cella the of the Temple of Apollo Epicarius at Bassas. and the shaft is usually fluted. where the end triglyph appears at the extremity of the frieze (No. and the triglyphs are over the central axes of the columns. The distinctive capital has the scrolls showing on two sides only. The architrave overhangs the face of the column (Nos. which Ionic differed had angle volutes. in that sculpture. are but slightly inclined. 38 Monument of Lysicrates E). It appears to have been principally used in small such as the buildings only.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The order was practically not introduced till the later age. known earliest viz. The Ionic Order (No. and modified the cornice. The mutules. whose outline varies 169 ROMAN. probably derived from the painted work The architrave of the Greeks. beneath which is the echinus (No. The channels in the triglyph are rounded off at the top. 68) and Vespasian at Rome. splendour and magnificence. and the frieze is freacanthus quently carved with the . choragic (No. 67 A. as such. inclined. 16 A). The channels in the triglyph have square angles at the top. or from the olive leaf. but engaged columns occur in the Theatre of Marcellus. GREEK. 38 D) from the Greek chiefly as regards the typical capital. The proportions of the columns proceed from extreme sturdiness in the in different early examples to great refinein the late ones. The Temple of Hercules at Cora is the only temple in the style. Winds in at Athens. and the octagonal Tower or of the size. It was erected of this order. usually The entablature is of a richer (Nos. as those of Castor and Pollux (Nos. dates from B. except at the angles. although example. of of character and in derived from the leaves known " acanthus mollis. The entablature is very much enriched by ornamentation. and the examples remaining are thought by some to indicate the decline of Greek art. 38 c) was used with great refinement by the Greeks. thus showing the face of the scrolls on each side. even at the angle. The capital is rich. The Romans added a base. gave way to mere carving. The Corinthian Order (No.. numerous and enriched has naturalistic the acanthus leaves sur" " often being rounding the bell internally buildings greater The Temple mouldings. although an example of angle volutes is found in a special case at Bassas The Order (No. and was used in the largest temples.' as in the Temple of Castor and Pollux. 40 D). the capital having a plain square abacus. 16 and 38 A). 38 B). description. used without a base. 38 E) was little used by the Greeks. varied the abacus and echinus. but is in a line vertical with it (No. In this order as approved by Palladio and others the triglyphs in the frieze were over the central axes of the columns. The columns were less sturdy and the flutes were examples.


and which. underneath. which are usually parts of circles in profile. 43 and 44). even The upper capital Triumphal Arches. Greek consoles used only as vertical brackets to doorways as in the Erechtheion doorway (No. as the corona itself. (Nos. and have between them sunk and sculptured coffers. though often covered with delicately carved enrichments. having pointed shaped section. whether executed in isolated groups or in works within the boundaries of an architectural framing.. a certain rich picturesqueness of surface is produced in cornices and dressings. never lose the idea of grace of outline which the decoration seems but to enhance. of less depth. Ornament (Nos. but a treatment somewhat similar is seen in the capitals of the Erechtheion where the necking under the Ionic scrolls are carved with the Anthemion ornament (Nos. they were often undercut so as to produce a fretted effect.) The Acanthus leaves surrounding the "bell" were of the prickly acanthus (acanthus 171 ROMAN. which approach conic sections in profile. modillions (consoles. The sculpture of the Greeks has never been surpassed. portion of the Ionic was combined with the lower part of the Corinthian. but great vulIn the case garity of sentiment. 29 E The Composite Order was invented by the Romans. 68 and did not excel either in sculpture or painting. of marble. In other details the order follows the Corinthian. and occupy the whole depth of the moulding. c. although the execution of the carving to the mouldings themselves is often of inferior workmanship. and F. but with additional ornamentation. Roman dentils are close together. 37). carving cut upon their mouldings.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Executed in a finegrained marble. In later times both vaults and floors of importance mosaic. 69). in cornices (No. (See page go. but Greek artists were employed. the metopes and the friezes. and have a fillet Greek dentils are far apart. every member being carved. The Composite Order was never used by the Greeks. 39 and F. for wall facings and The ornamental sculpture used in the tympana of the pediments. GREEK. . 68) and vertically in keystones to arches (No. Ostentation replaces and in the latest examples. H). being used principally in the enriched with carving. 33 leaves F. Roman consoles used horizontally G. refinement. Shafts were fluted or plain. brackets or corbels) being intro- The scroll or with figure ornaments. or rather as a Greek design mainly carried out by Romans. and the carefully prepared cement used as a covering to stone or were executed in many examples show floors. Jupiter Olympius at Athens may be considered a Roman building. Mouldings The Romans on relied for effect the graceful contour of their The Greeks (Nos. spinosus) type (No.Ornament The Romans the Parthenon. relied on the rich mouldings. of V- duced and giving an apparent support to the corona. Mouldings 40). 41. The mouldings under the corona are much is Shafts of columns were fluted. 39 and 40). rich and good effects were . 41). and Greek examples were prized and copied. as at (Nos. 67. 67). 42. cornice is also considerably enriched.


1887. E." " La Villa Imperiale de Tibur. Naples. brick.). Folio. It is generally admitted that the exteriors of the 173 ROMAN.). A.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Paris. or honeysuckle 42 H. " Jackson (T." Folio. arc de triomphe et Folio." 1772." Blouet (G. " Les Edifices Circulates.) " Dalmatia." 4to. theatre." Folio. in marbles. are supposed to have originated connoisseurs they Temples were treated with color.) and Gandy (J. The arabesques which adorned the walls of the Baths of Titus (No. de Vespasian. The Acanthus scroll with continuous stem and spirals adorned with rosettes or grotesques. influenced largely the fresco decoration of the Renaissance period.). Description of the Baths of the Romans. 67 F). is specially characteristic (No. part of the Propylaea being known as the Painted Loggia. Adam Cameron Paris. Dennis (G.).)." Folio. Ancient Lanciani (R. G. 1878." 8vo." 6 vols." Monuments antiques a Orange. the Quarnero." 2 vols.). have already been referred to in the analysis of Greek architecture (page 108). " Dipinti Murali Scelte di Pompei. Isabelle (C. 39 of much J. which must have aided in the Polygnotus and general effect. " Gli Edifizj di Roma Antica. " L'Art de Batir chez les Romains. other great artists were employed for decorative painting upon the temples and other buildings. ings could be safely executed. 1876.). Paris. REFERENCE BOOKS. 44 A.). 1888.. " Le Forum Remain et les Forums de Jules Caesar. 4to. W. Light 8vo. D'Amelio (P. "Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. 3 vols. Paris. et de Traja. " Durm (J. Anderson (W. 1856. GREEK. if from the actual lands skulls and gar- decoration on altars at which the beasts them- hung for selves A finely had been slain. 1819-32." Pompeiana. E. (R. 8vo. P. d'Auguste. as the Romans were produced. " Restauration des Thermes Caracalla a Rome. N). 1873. Phene). 1848-56. 1902.) and Spiers (R. of Recent Discoveries. Canina (L. 1855. Caristie (A. The ox-heads connected with garlands. " The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. 1828. Paris." 1764. must have been grand in style and decorative in effect. which sought out and imported from all countries.)." Folio." Large 8vo. so frequently carved on Roman friezes. . Choisy (A. Darmstadt.)." Paris. and Istria. 5. was the characteristic motif and was Greek surface ornament. 1885. de Nerva. F. worked marble cement was frequently used as a covering and stone columns. " The Architecture of Greece and Rome: A Sketch of its Historic Development.)." Rome in the Gell (Sir Gusman. as at Pompeii. 43 F. also employed on cyma- recta mouldings. (Nos. 69 A). and formed a ground on which paintto walls judged from the provincial imitations of Pompeii.). Boston. "Die Baukunst der Etrusker und Roemer (" Handbuch der Architektur"). J. Dutert (F. " (C. The Anlhcmion. The early frescoes were probably in the style of the vase painters of that period. while the later.).


"Roman : 2 vols. measured and Vignola (G. Small Le Case e i Monumenti di Pompeii. " Arte Pompeiana Monumenti Scelti.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 1875. published in 1902. J." Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt. delineated." Transactions vol. Berlin. F. Classic Architecture. " (E. folio. B. large folio. 1901." Rome. Circ.A. 1892.. and other editions. Niccolini (F. p. Its Life and Art.)." Forming about 30 or 40 large folio volumes." (J. 1899." Folio. P. See also the author's monograph. Life in the Days of Cicero. 1877. Mauch (J. 1 der 829. each containing a magnificent series of engravings of Buildings and Antiquities in Ancient Rome and its Environs. da). 4to. Wood Novel." Folio. the Colosseum. Palladio. Middleton : Continued. Pantheon and other The British and the Victoria and Albert Museums should buildings. R.." M. and student should visit the Crystal Palace for the Pompeian House and models of the Roman Forum. H. " Antichita Romane.). H. " Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. Mitchell (C. "Temple of Jupiter Olympius.) and Cresy Rome. (Andrea)." Paris. of Palmyra and Baalbec." Folio. "Description des Bains de Titus. 23-79). Kelsey. 8vo." (Historical For Classic Orders." The Architecture of. The best English translations are those by Leoni (1715) and Ware (1738). 1826. Taylor (G. Paris. The Ruins Church (A. Vitruvius (Marcus). Cinque English and French translations.).) " (R. 1854-189-. Naples. 175 REFERENCE BOOKS Mau (A. Piranesi (G. 1887. : 8vo." Niccolini (F. "The Orders 1901." 1827. C). Various Ordini d' Architettura." " 2 vols.). Architectural Antiquities of 1821-1822.). of Architecture: Greek. L.) Folio and 4to.). folio. be visited for actual fragments." translated by W." Descrizone della Villa Adriana. " 1748-1791. F.D. 4.).). 1786. Pliny.). "Pompeii New York. Chambers Civil Architecture. with Life and Work of Palladio. Folio." Folio." Venice." Several vols. . B. and F. "The Remains of Ancient Rome.). Paulin (E." N ormand Italian. Penrose (F. "Die Architektonischen Ordnungen Folio. 1827. von). 8.'' Spiers (R. Griechen und Roemer. Historic Naturalis " (A.). " Thermes de Diocletian. Imp. Vulliamy (H). 1570. Palladio Naples. Roman.B. Nibby (A. "Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture.).)." I Quattro Libri dell' architettura di A. The . (N. see "The Decorative Part of (Sir W. 1826." The 1818. Tatham (C." (C) Folio. "Etchings of Grecian and Roman Architectural " Ponce Ornament.).I.

known as the " Apostate. had to grow up at the capital. Geographical. to become universal. The position of Rome as the centre of a world. A. sect.D. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan. which then became the established religion of the Roman Empire. subdued by Justinian in A." and Christianity. were now able to hold their services openly and Christians. 323 he himself professed Christianity.).wide empire was an important factor (see page in). Religion. was the Councils of the Church for the settlement of disputes about heresies. both in regard to construction and decoration. Ravenna. 537. 325.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. however eastern its birthplace. The quarry of the ruins of Roman buildings influenced the architectural treatment of the style.D. called by Constantine. 360-363. and in A." TENNYSON. In A." . which formed their burial-places. i. INFLUENCES. Geological. all breeze through the garden swept. was the connecting link of the early Christian and Byzantine styles (see page 193).D. iii. Climate. iv. The who up to that period were an unpopular dissenting and had worshipped in the Catacombs. according to Christianity equal rights with all other religions. ii. See Roman Architecture (page i~ . " A A fuller light illumined all. under Julian. which spread so rapidly that in a very short period it was diffused throughout the whole civilized world.D. freely. History presents no phenomenon so striking as the rise of Christianity.D. " All roads lead to Rome. i. A temporary reaction took place in A. as columns and other architectural features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into the design of the new basilican churches of the Christians. The Council first of several of Nice.

which. when the old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside. and in consequence are called Romance languages. and for the next two centuries architecture was practically at a standstill in Europe. On changing the capital of the v. employed the imperial army of Constantinople and acted as the defender of Rome. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced about A. king of the Huns.D. from 493-552. Histoncal. A. 337. 590 to 604) the Latin language and Early Christian architecture. Gaul.D. A.D. Social and Political. possible the development of Romano-German which facilitated the growth of new states and nationalities. The series of emperors in the West came to an end in A. in which Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna. these movements being caused by the incursions of the defeat Huns into Germany. The the battle of Chalons. 476. or from A.D.D.D. ceased to exist. Spain. The division of the Roman Empire first took place in A. 376. During the reign of Gregory the Great (A. and Romanesque architecture was gradually evolved. 493-526. the new king of Italy.D. making common cause with the people against the Lombards and others.A. Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy. 451. 324 Constantine practically reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in A. The Early Christian period is generally taken vi. as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great. N . a period of peace and prosperity. control made civilization. reigning between the years A. Theodosius the Great. Zeno reigning at Constantinople over the Eastern and Western Empires. 379-395. 300 to 604. the latest phase of Roman art.D. was the capital of the Gothic dynasty.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. recognizing the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at ConThe emancipation of the West from direct imperial stantinople. F. 364. aided in consolidating Christianity in Europe. The West Goths sacked Rome under of Attila. gave a fresh impulse to the Christian Church and laid the foundations of the power of the Bishops of Rome.D. empire from Rome to Byzantium in A. I From the Roman or common speech several of the chief languages of modern Europe commenced to arise. the old Roman political system coming to an end. at 177 Gregory the Great (590-604). and Northern Africa. and the empire was nominally again reunited. reunited the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. and Teutonic settlements took place within the empire about this time. when besieged by the Lombards Rome. 410.D. Valentian being Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East.D. Odoacer. Kings of separate states were then elected in Italy. at Alaric in A.

and were crowned with the entablature which supported the main wall. or--^^m^JtijJ]s_oi_justice. or in some cases by the omission of the base mouldings (No. covered by a wooden roof. on which rested the wooden roof (No. 79). EXAMPLES. The plans of the basilicas. and were constructed with columns of different orders and sizes which were made to an uniform height by the addition of new pieces of stone. 3. it adopt places of worship which could be Many of the Roman Temples. 73 A and 74). and . being connected by semicircular arches (Nos. 81. which a new manner in architecture. were copied by the early Christians for their places of worship. Each age feels its way towards the expression of its own ideals. and were often situated over the entrances to their former hiding-places or crypts. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. the early buildings can hardly have the value for study. and formed of columns and other features from Pagan buildings. or double bases. is the special type of the style as opposed to the vaulted types of the Byzantine style (Nos. which were readily constructed. 84 and 85). . were utilized for the new faith. On this account. now rendered useless for their original purpose. -One style was evolved from another so gradually that it is impossible to say exactly where the one ended and the next began. 80. and in addition new churches built on the model of the old Roman basilicas. is certain to possess. arising from new structural necessities. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. in which a circular dome was placed over a square space by means of the pendentive (No. although extremely interesting from an archaeological point of view. Little money being at the them to These are known as basilican churches. The architectural character is impressive and dignified due to the increase in the apparent size of the basilicas by the long perspective of the columns. 77). but as the arch came more into general use these columns were spaced further apart. 75 B). in the architect's mind at least. and the comparative lowness of the interiors in proportion to their length. This gradual growth characterizes progress in other departments as well as Architecture. 72. The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced. modifying the art of the past to meet command of the Early Christians.178 2. was necessary for fresh conditions. were erected. BASILICAN CHURCHES. The basilican church with three or five aisles.

1 * w S o 6tT -M c J tf w ^- SI z <: s '? S o. 1 < ffl > H N 2 .

72). The altar in front of the apse. called the in a modified form in the pagan basilicas. PaulJ(No. Galleries for the use of women were sometimes placed over the but where none existed aisles. S. Rome. or from the class-room where philosophers taught. until in subsequent ages the seat was moved to the side. The presbyters. In the centre of the atrium narthex was the place for penitents. An atrium or forecourt. becoming the bishop's throne. ([Occasionally two aisles occur on each side of the nave. such aisles being usually half the width of the nave. at the entrances of their churches. A. and provided with an " ambo " or pulpit on either side. of which the nave was the long arm. owing to the increase of . The apse became the sanctuary which remained circular-ended in Northern Europe. converting the plan into a Latin cross. as at S. Clemente.l8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. where at first the community were in the habit of assembling. or holy-water basin. thus became stepping-stones from the Classic of pre-Christian times to the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages. 75 c). " and was inclosed by low screen walls. or " cancelli (from which the word chancel is derived). A A ' Epistle were read (No. from which the gospel and . The bishop took the place formerly occupied by the " pratprf1*! " qnestor" (page 136).ritual. however. 73 B). Peter (No. choir became necessary. formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican The covered portion next the church 'called the churches. the water from which was used for washing before entering the church a custom which still survives in an altered form amongst Catholics. however. or members of the council of the early Church. lighted by a clerestory of small windows. " bema. that this cruciform ground plan was derived from the buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the age of Constantine. 72. contains the original internal arrangement of the churches of the fifth century. ^although rebuilt in the eleventh century. occupied seats on either side of the bishop formerly occupied by the assessors. The nave. 58) was for Christian worship is seen from the plan of S. Some authorities. formerly used by the Romans .D. being an open space surrounded by arcades. Agnese and S. Some consider. Lorenzo the sexes sat apart on opposite sides of the nave." or "presbytery. 1084 (Nos. was occasionally introduced." which existed transept. believe the early Christian churches to have been evolved from the Roman dwelling-house. had an aisle on either side. How suitable the Roman basilica type (No. who dip their fingers into a stoop. as and in the Basilicas of S. which may be said to commence with these Basilican churches. 75 E) S. John Lateran. which. was a fountain or well.


75 E). The pavements were formed out of the abundant store of old columns and other marbles existing in Rome. There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome. 538-549. the repetition of the long rows of columns being grand in the extreme. mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. the arch of triumph. 75 A." or of Nero. near Venice. and the fine mosaics.and S." 55 feet wide.D. or sacrifices to their gods. and S. K)." ) which was placed frequently in a broad band (No. 74 and 76). and they are interesting for the impost blocks to the capitals supporting the pier arches. A. supported on marble columns. was for the celebration of Christian rites. The interiors of these basilicas are impressive and severe.D. Peter in the circus " It had a "transept. which is frequently richly treated with a central figure of Christ seared in glory and set in relief against a golden background. At Torcello. r82i. slices of columns being used as centres surrounded by bands of geometric inlay twisted with intricate designs (No. Maria Maggiore (Nos. are important threeaisled Basilican churches carried out by Byzantine artists on Roman models. A. or canopy. The interiors of these buildings owe their rich effect to the use of glass mosaic (" opus Grecanicum. c)." The ceilifigs of timber were also formed in compartments and were richly gilded (Nos. 78 G. Nuovo. gave access from the body of the church. 74. S.D. as the chancel was at the west end of the church. B. and thus faced east.l82 for the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 493-525. was erected over it. and at one S. and a baldachino. 75 D and 76).D. 74) above the nave arcading and to the semi-dome of the apse (No. Paolo fuori le (Nos.D.D. now used pouring out of libations. bema. The priest stood behind the altar. L). and Five arches. John Lateran (A. as in the interior view of S. and at the sanctuary end was a semicircular apse on a raised floor. Peter (A. 72). built by Theodoric the Goth. The old Basilican Church of S. In later times the altar was frequently placed against the east wall of the apse (No. 78 B. There are also important examples at Ravenna. " Below was all mosaic choicely planned. Apollinare in Classe. the foundations of the original A. against the centre of the wall of which was the Pope's seat. built mura 380 by Theodosius but re-erected in A. . With cycles of the human tale. 330) was erected near the site of the martyrdom of S. a city well situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople. the centre called 113 feet high (No. Apollinare time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. 330) has been altered so much in modern times as to have lost its early character.

1*3 CO h O u U ^ D K .

the inner walls could be replaced by columns in the lower half. K. . Ravenna. 75 H. being The Rotondo. founded at the end of the fourth century. . and the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns two stories in height. giving a good idea of the Early Christian arrangements. being 210 feet in diameter. and is similar to the practice of Gothic architects. 75 j." The form was derived from the Roman circular temples and tombs. as the Roman circular. usually adjoining the atrium or fore-court. is 80 feet in diameter. BAPTISTERIES are another description of building met with in Early Christian They were originally used only for the sacrament hence the name " Baptistery. and it was as a rule a detached building. all taken from older buildings. between Naples and Salerno. bishop's throne. who. In adopting the Roman tombs as models for these buildings. The Baptistery. j). This building is domed and covered with a wooden roof. To way were now used generally used in to support the walls carrying the the addition baptisteries (No. as at Ravenna and Florence. In the case of this building. however. H. still exist. the early Christians modified them to some extent. architects always allowed the stone vault to show externally. and 77). and with roof supported on two circular rings of columns. in the mediaeval period. the outer range supporting arches. is an octagonal structure with two arcades in the interior one above the other. G. Stefano is baptistery. has S.184 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Baptistery of Constantine. Rome (A. L) is octagonal. and the inner a horizontal architrave. Rome Baptistery. There was generally one baptistery in each city. Nocera. resulting in such a building as these early domes. and appears to be the first instance of the use of both. of baptism . for the internal architecture. surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse. though not a a good example of a circular plan of similar type (Nos. 75 F. already described (page 136). (No. 470). the vault is merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external wooden roof. The two central columns are an addition to support the roof timbers. The dome.D. covered the stone vaults of their churches with timber roofs (No 109). until the end of the sixth century of our era the baptistery but after this period appears to have been a distinct building the font came to be placed in the vestibule of the church. as in the Pantheon. columns which a decorative in Roman examples were cover a large area with one roof was difficult. Indeed. constructed of hollow tiles. but by of an aisle in one story round a moderate-sized circular tomb. with two rings of columns.


cc PQ .

instead of the usual circular form. Tomb of Galla j. and roofs formed of stone slabs were usual. and has a raised lantern at the crossing. F. the angles being Roman The Syrian type appears soon A filled with niches. The roof consists of one slab of stone. and the interior is remarkable. and is one of the few examples which the pendentives and dome are portions of one hemi-sphere (No. G) is two stories in height. as it is cruciform in plan. Ravenna (No. hollowed out in the form of a flat dome. Salonica possesses important examples. Piers were used instead of columns. Sergius. the lower story being a decagon. 330) was erected by Constantine as a tomb for his daughter. Syria has a number of interesting monuments erected between the third and eighth centuries.D. due largely to the abundance of hard stone. 73 c. 130). and S. Jerusalem. standing on the decagonal basement. notably the domical Church of S. as in the Churches at Bozrah and Ezra. and altars with the open books of the Apostles. Constanza. to have broken away from influence. originThe ashes ally used to place this immense covering in position. 79 E. the absence of brick. TOMBS. 45 feet in diameter externally. It The K). G). 530) (No. but was converted into a church in It has a dome. pierced with four windows. as at Ancyra. (A. exceptional. 35 feet in diameter.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. and the octagonal Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the site of the Temple of Solomon. Ravenna (A. F. favourite plan was a circle placed in a square. It is 35 feet by 30 feet internally. and containing a cruciform chromatic decoration in mosaics. and round the edge of this block are stone handles. pairs of coupled granite columns. D. 79 H). but with arcades instead of horizontal architraves. and in Egypt and Algiers are many examples of basilican and circular buildings of the Early Christian period. Constantinople (No. Such are considered to be prototypes of later Byzantine churches of the type of S. Ravenna crypt. supported on twelve 1256. 73 H. E. Each of the arms of the cross contains a sarcophagus. Vitale. and Hierapolis. as it retains all its ancient polyis domed by a in (A. . S. 83 c. the Church of the Ascension. 420) (No. and the distance from Rome. 35 feet in diameter. D). fine 187 mosaics representing the Baptism of Christ. Traces remain of an external arcade round the upper portion. also at Jerusalem. notably those by Constantine the Church of the Nativity.D. In Asia Minor. George. The Tomb of Theodoric.D. It resembles the Temple at Spalato (p. Pergamus. of the founder were placed in an urn on the top of the covering. Rome Placidia. is portion of a sphere. Bethlehem.


and due to the Knights Templars (page 219). 72. Plan. London. but they were few in number. 1 attached to the chief Basilica or cathedral. 73 A. used as a baptistery. that they might pray apart from the people (No. circular churches were built to stand alone.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. but in addition the halls. was generally These were still constructed according to the methods. Florence (No. Doors. as the Temple Church. the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church and formed a western apse. should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments which had been left by the pagan Roman. except where French influence made itself felt. windows. was usually domed and Columns t 1 In later Romanesque and Gothic periods. were treated as follows in the different European countries : In Italy. . 93). The early Christians adopted the Basilican model for their churches (Nos. They are often of different (Nos. but were direct copies of the Roman basilica. 73 and 75). the use of the lintel being dis- Walls. It was natural that the early Christian builders. being mostly from earlier Roman buildings which had fallen into ruins &k were purposely destroyed. 77 and 78). In Germany. . the decoration of a visible framework being of a later date. themselves founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs. and a straight lined nave was added for the use of the people. These roofs were ceiled in some ornamental manner (No. Roofs. In France. not being good craftsmen themselves. being built as copies of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. and sometimes externally on the west facades for decorative purposes. and then added choirs for the priests. Mosaic was used internally. A. dwelling-houses. brick. baths. 75 B. Miniato. The Germans also built circular churches. the baptistery always stands alone. Circular churches were erected. these early baptisteries. Wooden roofs (No. F) those to the nave being in the clerestory high in the nave wall above the aisle roof. An isolated circular church. and the apse pensed with. where the churches were not derived from a combination of a circular eastern church with a western rectangular nave. Openings. A rich and grandiose T effect w as often obtained at the expense of fitness in the details of the design. the circular church originated the apsidal choir of the Gothic period. 83 E). as in France. or stone.. rubble or concrete walling being used. a feature which was developed in Gothic architecture (Nos. simple forms of construction such as King and Queen post trusses being employed. 75 B). and when it was or necessary to enlarge them. Middleton states that all the fine marble columns E. 72 and 78 G. design and size. 78 D. 189 COMPARATIVE. faced with plaster. as at Westminster. 74). as at S. G). c. 4. Roman The window openings were small (No. the circular building was retained as the sanctuary Thus from choir. K). lined with mosaic (Nos. and even the pagan temples were used for places of worship. B. covered the central D. The side aisles in the churches were occasionally vaulted. nave. In England. and niches were generally spanned by a semicircular arch. the Gothic builders generally preferred a square east end.


and no attempt was made at neatness of joint or regularity of bedding. Folio. Mouldings. became more conventional in form. rendered exceedingly impressive. Enrichments incised upon mouldings were in low relief. which were worked into designs by connecting bands of geometrical inlay on a field of white marble (Nos." " 2 vols. J. and episcopal chairs. " Les 1860. Eglises de la Terre-Sainte. execution is coarse and large. C. characterizes the groups. Paolo fuori le mura." Folio. Vogue. fitting well the The method of position they occupy. Historical Novels 1J 13 LUI ICdl l>(L/Vt. Clemente at Rome (No. is Ornament. ) Paris. 1866. though rich in general effect. as in the fittings of the church of S. The technique of the craftsman gradually declined. 1865-67. porphyry columns. 72). 1899 Hubsch (H. and was at a low ebb during this period. was ornamented with appropriate subjects long friezes of figures line the wall above the nave arcades (Nos. 72. 1904. and an earnest and solemn expression. of triumph. The introduction of much color giving much richness to the interiors. the subject generally being Christ surrounded by angels and saints. was lined with mosaic. Vogue (Marquis de). Baldwin). of the period. " Monuments de 1'Architecture Chretienne depuis Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne. 1 55 Syrie Centrale. as has been mentioned. was of a finer and more delicate description. Brown (Prof. " Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms." Munich. These are coarse variations of Roman types. and the acanthus ornamentation. "From Schola to Cathedral. 72." 8vo. The . in the igi churches of Rome have been taken from ancient Roman buildings. a feature The domed apse (No. 1884." 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. Paris. 1886. and the wall spaces between the clerestory windows often had mosaics representing subjects taken from Christian history or doctrine. F. separating the nave from the bema. New The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. .). 1843. although still copied from the antique." Kingsley (Charles). The interiors are. The arch are treated in strong colors on a gold backdesign is bold and simple. and the carving is of the rudest kind.). except those in S. 74 and 76)." II /X1T /~* \ LL C* T\ " Sancta Paula.lO ) . These pavements were formed largely of slices from the old Roman figures The ground. 78).) 1900. The glass mosaic used to decorate the ambones. Butler (A. J. screens. 78). Hypatia. C. Butler (H. C.). 5. by the aid of these mosaics. American Archaeological Expedition to Syria. both in form and draperies.). Bunsen (C." Paris." Perry (W. Folio. G. " York.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. In addition to the richness of the wall surfaces formed of colored mosaics the pavements of colored marbles in geometric patterns added much to the rich effect of the interiors.

of the colored marble used in Santa Sophia. gave it power and influence. Constantinople possessed no good building stone or even material for making good bricks. The absence of tides and the depth of its harbour. and the other churches and mosques in Constantinople. especially over the corn trade carried on with the western merchants on the northern shores of the Euxine. and that the architect was influenced by the kind of column likely to be at once obtainable. like the other Rome in Italy. standing on two promontories at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. Geographical. ii. an inlet known as the " Golden Horn. i. . . the monolith columns being worked by convicts in groups of sizes such as the quarry could produce. from early times. occupies an important commercial site. Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by Constantine). standing at the interthe water highsection of the two great highways of commerce road from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. fair The i. It was called " New Rome" by the Turks of Asia. The quarries were situated in different parts of the empire.writer on the subject. and overhead A lively vine of green sea agate spread. "So a church as this had Venice none: walls were of discoloured Jasper stone Wherein was Christos carved . It and." four miles in length. rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden. INFLUENCES. but. is Thessalian green (Verde Antico). for Constantinople was a marble working centre from which sculptured marbles were exported to all parts of the Roman world. Brindley. and the land high-road from Asia into Europe a position which. a . occupies the finest site in Europe. Geological. Most of the marble used in the new capital was brought from different quarries round the Eastern Mediterranean. it rests on seven hills. Mr." CHAUCER.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. as far as possible the materials upon the spot had to be employed. is of opinion that quite seventy-five per cent.

D. Rome. and Christianity the state that came to pass between east and west was followed by a separation of churches This was due to the " Filioque controversy " as to whether also. which. chosen Emperor of the West in A.D. 493 Theodoric the Great took the city. also in Greece. The Byzantine style was carried on until Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks in A. The political division . vi. Byzantium is said to have been founded in the seventh century B. A. removed the capital from Rome to Byzantium in A. Social and Political. By the election of Charlemagne.C.D. After his death rival emperors troubled the state. rivalled Rome in importance. 324.D. During the reign of Justinian (A. as at Ravenna and Venice. iii. Constantine first made (page 176).D. the Romans on settling there altered their method of building to suit the novel conditions due to climate and their contact with Oriental arts.D.D.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. Religion. 193 Owing to Constantinople being hotter than to its being further east. Constantine. The eastern emperors lost all power in Italy by endeavouring to force upon the west their policy of preventing the worship and use of images. 1453. Ravenna became important owing to the Emperor Honorius was transferring his residence there from Rome in A. and disputes in the church were rife the Council of Nice in A.A. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern Empire.. 539-752 it was the seat of the Exarch of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperors. Russia. 402. Historical. and the western the former. accounting for the style of some of the buildings. F. maintaining the latter. and was a Greek colony as early as the fourth century B. v. the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son or from the Father only the Eastern church which still claims to be the orthodox church. These and other points of difference in ritual have vitally affected eastern church architecture up to the present day. After the fall of the religion iv. 438. Western Empire the town was taken by Odoacer. when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. and it created an archiepiscopal see in A. Climate. whose system of government was an expansion of the despotic methods introduced by Diocletian.D. remaining the residence From of the Gothic kings till 539. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium but also those which were erected under its influence. the position of the latter city being unrivalled as a great commercial centre on the trading highway between east and west. and in A. the Roman empire was finally divided. The iconoclastic movement during the eighth and ninth centuries was in force and ended in the admission of painted figures in the decoration of churches.D. 325 being the first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. fSyzantine architecture is that which was developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome to that city. but all sculptured statues were excluded.C. 800. o . and elsewhere.

The change from the old Roman forms was of course gradual. Sophia (A. The dome. S. is the prevailing motif or idea of Byzantine architecture. tombs and baptisteries. Byzantine art and influences were carried westward by traders. and the vaults with colored mosaics on a golden back-ground. giving great richness and variety to the facades. by the use of bands and relieving arches of an ornamental character. as in the Roman period. in his "Art de Batir chez les Byzantins. and elsewhere. but sometimes obliquely. sometimes in the chevron or herring-bone pattern. S.194 2. Domes were now placed over square apartments. Sophia and the churches of Nicaea and Thessalonica show the perfection to which this was carried out. and the decoration of S. but the manner in which the bricks of the casing were arranged contributed greatly to the decoration of the exterior. Vitale. and M. and are found at S. Externally an attempt was made to render the rough brick exteriors of Roman times more pleasing. and had been a traditional feature in the old architecture of the East. Mark. and remains the greatest achievement in the style the interior being perhaps the most satisfactory of all domed examples." constructed after the size of the marble shafts had been assured. Choisy. sometimes in the form of the meander fret. already referred to. 79. as may be seen in the churches of Thessalonica. They were not always laid horizontally. In fact no church was founded during this period in which mosaic was not intended to be employed. Perigueux. and in many other forms of similar design. Venice. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. which developed the vault in Western of the The and Northern Europe (page 224). yet as already stated the Basilican type is characteristic of the former and the vaulted church with pendentives of the latter. Ravenna. their bases " being brought to a circle by means of pendentives" (Nos." traces the influence of this tradition of domical construction on Greek architecture to show how from this fusion the later imperial architecture became possible. general architectural character depends on the development dome. A shell. with the Romanesque style. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Front. Although no line can be stated as separating distinctively the Early Christian and Byzantine styles. 0/532-537) was erected. and under Justinian. largely directing the architecture of these districts. but in the course of 200 years the East asserted itself. The core of the wall was generally of concrete. induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal This is in contrast plans for churches. . the Church of S. The walls of this shell were finally sheeted internally " Byzantine building consists generally of a brick carcass or with marble.

the "greater number of their vaults rose into space without " any kind of support (i. presenting a direct contrast to the mediaeval buildings of Europe. especially in domical vaulting. The architecture of the Byzantines was thus developed by the use of brick in the fullest manner. but were. arid in the church of S. to teach the column to . the time when the architect permitted the forms of the vaults and arches to appear as architectural features in the facades. 86. As Freeman says: "The problem was to bring the arch and column into union -in other words. but really supporting the galleries. of which there are seven distinct for the purpose. Vitale. 83 D). these features were as a rule placed over a circular apartment. and the semicircular arches made to rest directly on coiumns designed The capitals. its columns and capitals being not merely ornamental. the regular entablatures of the Romans were abandoned. In the Byzantine system of vaulting the vault surfaces gave the conditions of the problem. by the use of large flat bricks.' a feature which was still further embellished in the Renaissance Period by the employment of a circular peristyle or colonnade. the voussoirs of which were always square. From.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. and the groins or angles of intersections were of secondary importance. : o 2 .S. where it is formed with urns and amphorae placed side by side and grouted with mortar. types. as in so-called Gothic architecture.. 80 A) so closely correspond with the section as in the Byzantine. The Classic orders were dispensed with.e. four being in S. not derived from a Roman but from an Asiatic source. as at S. Windows were now formed in the lower portion of the dome. Choisy remarking that. and not set in receding planes. 836. 82. me). appropriate to their new purpose of receiving the springers of arches. porous stones. the columns and entablatures could be and were removed without causing the ruin of the building. were used sometimes the domes were constructed of pottery. In vaulting. M. Sophia is seen the fully-developed Byzantine style for whereas in the older buildings of Rome. without centering). thus in no style does the elevation visible externally (No. and there is an absence of preparatory and auxiliary work. in. The grouping of the smaller domes round the larger central one was very effective externally (No. Sophia the true Greek expression of truth in construction was reverted to. for the dome on pendentives was invented and perfected entirely in the East. which is quite a distinct system. Sophia. . Byzantine art is the Greek spirit working on Asiatic lines. 88 and 89). assume a novel form (Nos. Ravenna (No. 84. and one of the most remarkable peculiarities of Byzantine churches was that the tunnel vault and the dome had no additional outer covering. 195 whereas in Roman architecture 80. 79). which in the later period was hoisted upon a high circular drum. especially pumice.


for the walls were formed with a brick facing and concrete core a method also employed for vaults.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. before even the foundations were prepared. and bronze annulets surround the shafts under the capital and above the base. Swainson and Lethaby say." This was done by shaping the block of marble which formed the capital so that a simple transition from the square block to the circular shaft of the column was formed. everything else being completed as a brick " The building was thus made of vast masses of thin carcass. was the material preferred in the construction of walls. such walls were the most suitable for the recepBricks being so much used. or decorated with frescoes. capitals.' less decided. further. since the monolithic shafts had to be set up contrary to the direction of the quarry bed and also the lead seating from being forced out by the superincumbent weight. for the columns decided the height and points of support of the building. who were only required to prepare the bases. Further. the body of the structure was proceeded with as a brickwork shell without further dependence on the masons. Sophia exhibit a remarkable and beautiful structural expedient. by reserving the application of the marble until the structure was dry and solid. tion of these kinds of ornamentation. and " ' bricks. more or . . it is not that the Byzantines took great pains in their surprising . This independence of the different parts of the structure was a leading idea in Byzantine construction. but the . and lent itself to all the caprices of the architect for as interiors were always lined with marble and mosaics. the walls were sheeted with their marble covering. and when this had settled down and dried. The building procedure was developed somethe general form of the building being what as follows : thing necessary was to collect was necessary to have a certain knowledge where such might be quarried or otherwise obtained. and cornices. with mortar joints of equal thickness". by which the necking is entirely suppressed. 197 support the arch.' These shafts once assured.he first it monolithic marble shafts. and the pavement laid down. The form of these varied a great deal. bridges. manufacture when it is remembered that they employed them in their military as well as in their ecclesiastical and domestic architecture. the numerous round shafts of S. the vaults overlaid with mosaic. Brick. it was possible to bring together unyielding marble and brickwork with large mortar joints that must have settled down very considerably. and is obviously necessary when the quantity of mortar is so great that the bricks become secondary in height to the joints. and aqueducts. as Messrs. the bricklayers not having to wait for the masons and. moreover. In this way the carcass was completed at once. The science of construction acquired by the Romans descended to the Byzantines. These prevent the shafts from splitting a likely result.

unity of surface was always maintained. sand. tiles or bricks. cornices and modillions. being a rectangle of . all the mosaics which still adorn the domes and apses being of colored glass enamel rendered opaque by oxide of tin. Sergius and Bacchus. with bandings of stone. such as rare marbles. ordinary shape was like the Roman. and they were always laid upon a thick bed of mortar. which were subordinate to the decorative treatment. and the shafts of columns when of this material were built of circular bricks. composed of lime. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. EXAMPLES. and the mode of ornamentation by means of colored marbles was carried to a greater extent than ever before. and it remains as hard as that in the best buildings of Rome. and the gold of the background being carried into the Although figures. is (A. which was worked on rounded angles. the importation and sale of newly quarried columns and other decorative materials. did not in the least decrease. as a complete lining to a rough carcass. The universal use of brickwork made the Byzantines pay great attention to their mortar. architectural lines being replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. SS. nearly square in plan.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 527). The use of natural stones in mosaics and inlaid pavements had been abolished. columns of the richest marbles were taken from old buildings. as Moulds were used for the pieces forming already mentioned. One surface melts into another as the mosaic is continued from arch and pendentive upwards to the dome. The quarries opened by the Romans continued to be used. an inch and a half in depth. and the workmen employed in them were governed by imperial decrees issued specially for their guidance. Flat splays enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation were introduced. The Theodosian code in fact encouraged this branch of trade and industry. In the former. and crushed pottery. Constantinople erected by Justinian. 3. Byzantine examples consist mainly of churches and baptisteries. and mosaic and marbles were used. The extensive use of rich marbles and mosaics caused a flat treatment. cornices. the majority are founded on the circular and polygonal plans of the Roman and Early Christian periods. The interiors were beautified by richly colored marble pavements in opus sectile or opus Alexandrinum (page 1199. The simple exteriors of brickwork. with an absence of mouldings. and the art of enamelling had arrived at perfection.D. in a broad way. although a certain number follow the Basilican type. an invention which was introduced in the Early Christian -period.


on the two sides where there are no semi-domes. 79. architects were Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. The (b. 415. but was being partially restored by the Sultan at the time of the authors' visit in January. The dome. G). the upper forming a gallery to the church. SS. The domical method of construction governs the plan. 81). and supporting a dome 107 feet in diameter (cf.e. Sergius and Bacchus would resemble S. crowned with semi-domes. erected by Constantine.) The wooden-roofed basilica. having no wooden roof. Sophia. (a. . but in itself only 47 feet in height above its base (i. E.. 1 80 feet above the pavement. These aisles bring the main building approximately to a square. connected above by semicircular arches. 1896. 532-537. and forms a grand apartment over 200 feet long by 30 feet wide it is in two stories. i. picturesquely situated on the shores of the Bosphorus. forming continuations of the four great piers already mentioned. S. A. Paul. The square central space is crowned with a dome. Sophia in plan if it were cut in two and a dome on pendentives placed over an intervening square. 109 feet by 92 feet over and has an interior arrangement very similar to S. all. 360. 83). A. and is of a peculiar melon-like form caused by the formation of ridges and furrows from base to summit. 25 feet wide by 70 feet long. is visible externally. London).e. Outside this central area are aisles over 50 feet wide. formed The area thus a great oval-ended nave 265 feet by 107 feet. was built by order of Justinian.D. excluding the apse and narthex. To the north and south. measures 250 feet by 237 feet. . in two stories.200 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the whole doubled in size. and is inclosed in a square instead of an octagon (No. is in a ruinous condition.D. This church. which is subservient to it. 80. to the west of the main building.and mosaics are. bounded : by four massive piers.) The church erected by Theodosius. Vitale (No. The beautiful frescoes . pierced with double arches on the ground and upper These piers take the thrust of the main arches and dome story. however. was set apart for catechumens and penitents. but it has four niches only.D. The Plan consists of a central space 107 feet square. 52 feet in diameter and 66 feet high. East and west are great semicircular spaces. on the site of two successive churches of the s"ame name. irreparably damaged in consequence of the penetration of rain through the roof. 79. north and south. are massive buttresses. The narthex. Further west is the outer narthex and atrium. in their turn covered with semi-domes. is which. and out of these are formed smaller exedrae. with marble columns and brick pillars. F. less than a semi-dome). S. the upper story being for women. in A. 25 feet square. Constantinople (Hagia Sophia = " Divine Wisdom") (Nos.


Celtic black. Although many angels. covered with semi. Laconian green. the height gradually decreasing from 179 feet at the centre. and six smaller columns on the upper story. The construction of the dome is explained on No. The columns of many-colored marbles are used constructively to support the galleries which rest on a variety of groined vaults. described it. as " as if suspended by a Procopius. or.winged seraphim. brought from the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec. Gabriel. The lower stories of the aisles (north and south of the central space) are supported by four columns of dark green marble from the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus. of these are now concealed by matting covered with plaster. Moulded bronze rings encircle the column shafts at their junction with the capitals and bases. The capitals are mostly of the pyramidal or cubiform type. of which forty are below and sixty-seven above. and elsewhere." The impression is that of one great central domed space with semicircular domed ends. The total number of columns in the church is 107 (the same number as the diameter of the church in feet). which rests. Lybian blue. and Israfil. fixed by means of metal cramps the floors are laid with colored mosaics of various patterns. The two semi-domes. east and west. yet the four pendentives exhibit the six. Internally.domes. the actual effect of the whole is one of extreme intricacy. as has been stated. 80. and saints on a glittering golden ground. The walls and piers are lined with beautifully-colored marbles (Phrygian white.2O2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or . like a canopy over the centre. chain from heaven. with little apparent support. the rest of the building being of brickwork. whom Mahometans acknowledge under the. names of the four Archangels. still are replaced by quotations from the Koran. in varied patterns. abut against the great arches which support the central dome and act as buttresses The smaller exedrae are also to it on the east and west sides. while scale is obtained by the careful gradation of the various parts from the two-storied arcades to the aisles and lofty dome. Raphael. . white marble with black veins from the Bosphorus. Each oi the four small exedrse has two large columns of dark red porphyry below. and the vaults and domes are enriched with glass mosaics of the apostles. and Thessalian marble). The great piers supporting the dome are of stones. although the general scheme is very simple. The pendentives carrying the central dome have a projection of 25 feet and a height of over 60 feet. and when the light is favourable the figure of Christ can still be seen in the vaults of the apse. an eye-witness. with small Ionic angle volutes and delicately incised carving. Michael. the upper stories having six columns of the same material.


but subsequently much altered. reached from the exterior by four gently sloping ascents. Constantinople. and on a column to the south exedra on entering is the date 534. 740. as also the two great spandrel walls between them. finally about A.204 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. deeply recessed from their face. originally constructed by Constantine and several times destroyed and rebuilt. The lighting is partly effected by forty small windows piercing Additional light is introduced through the dome at its base. resting on wooden battens placed The immense buttresses immediately on the brick vaults. Constantinople. . It has a dome which is believed to be the earliest example. Sophia is the masterpiece of Byzantine architecture asS but/ the Parthenon is of Greek. and a central dome over the church itself. north and south. under The bases of the domes the great arches which support the dome. make imposing external features. pierced by windows. . in which large semicircular headed openings are divided into six by columns in two heights.D. Constantinople. of its proportions. and provided with windows lighting the central area. It has a central area crowned with a dome resting on a drum 26 feet in diameter. of the smaller exedrae are also provided with windows. S. is a small but perfect example." or women's gallery. The plainness of the exterior causes the building to depend for effect entirely on the massiveness of its form and the general symmetry S. Many of the windows are small and spanned by semicircular arches others are more elaborate. resting on a high drum pierced with windows to light the interior. dating originally from the fourth century. twelve windows in each of the spandrel walls. The Theotokos Church. and from the interior by stone staircases. . is an interesting example. filled with glass. having a double narthex crowned with three domes. ornamented with fourth. The vaulting of the domes and semi-domes is visible. dating from the ninth to the twelfth century. especially in respect of the abutting semicircular domes. and has semicircular windows on three sides and an apse on the It has an inner and outer narthex. pierced with openings about 7 inches square. Externally the walls are faced with brick and stone in alternate courses. being covered with lead i-inch thick. A variation of the dosseret block is in general used on the lines of the Classical abacus. Some bear the monogram of Justinian. is interesting as preserving the Basilican plan of nave and two aisles with Eastern apse and Western atrium. as in those to the " Gynseceum. the lighting area being filled with lattice work of marble 3 inches thick. Irene. The Church of the Chora. one at each corner of the building. or the Pantheon of Roman neither in plan nor treatment does it seem to have been largely imitated. already referred to.



9*1 .

it large mosaic decorations. F).2O8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and containing E. Mark (No. 85. 85). 84 A and 86) is richly veneered with colored marbles casing the lower part of the walls above. tine influences are seen. S. 86) (see below). the depth of the gallery being that of the pier." supposed by some that the fagade of this church served as a model for that of S. is : . set off by a broad background of gold.D. Venice (Nos. Mosaic. built The church page 261). is a lining of richly colored glass mosaic. between A. and is deriyed It from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. hence It is is now known as the " mosaic mosque. and a great depot of the traffic between the East and West. carrying round the In many particulars Byzangallery usual in Eastern churches. octagon have columns placed on a half circle. was erected. 83 A. B) is octagonal on plan. Constantinople. 1063-1071. D). It is to be noted that the other seven arches of the inner designed. thus differing in construction from Roman examples. The dome is composed of earthen pots. worthy of note that the square piers. 84 c) is in the form of a Greek cross. Venice was by situation one of the connecting links between the Byzantine and Franconian empires. 526~547)/(No. The apsidal chancel opens from the inner octagon.D. covered by a dome in the centre (42 feet in diameter). Mark. by Charlemagne. 84. was the second type of Byzantine plan. . 83 c. 83 derived from this church (see S. 84. Venice (Nos. The vestibules fill out the western arm of the cross to a square on plan. whose prototype was the Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome (No. is the real and essential decoration of the church. The interior (Nos. which carry the dome. Venice (No. at Aix-la-Chapelle (No. to make way for the Mosque of Sultan Mahomet II. of equal arms. to which all architectural detail is subordinated. Mark. and extending in one great surface over vault and dome. The Church of the Holy Apostles. but rebuilt by Justinian. 85 and 86). by a square bay cutting through the outer The relation of the chancel to the octagon is successfully aisle. which is evident in Venetian architecture.. Ravenna (A. Mark. Vitale. the columns and marble mosaics to the exterior being added between 1100-1350. in fact. the gallery are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels arcade connects the piers on either side. an inner octagon of 50 feet being inclosed by an outer one of no feet. founded by Constantine the Great. is his tomb. 1463. and protected by a wooden roof. in which are worked figures of saints mingled with scenes from their lives. for the most part. The plan of S. and destroyed in A. and one over each arm of the cross.D. and is interesting as being the prototype of S.

A. .X F.

87). Mosaic panels also serve to enrich with color the spandrels of the arches. by means of the long perspective of columns. K. and other parts. In Greece the buildings are small but exquisitely executed. and has been the accepted style of the Greek church to the effects of S. in Macedonia. near Athens. towards which the eye The church is drawn. due to the use of bulbous-shaped domes and unusual of and Novgorod. forming a rich and beautiful portal. Sophia. and other churches at Athens the Church of Daphni. by the grouping of domes round a principal central one. At Thessalonica (Salonica). A. The Mark have been present day. COMPARATIVE. 4. /variable. the Church of the Kapnikarea.D. 84). The narthex was placed within the main walls. In Armenia teristics. The leading idea in an Early Christian basilica is horizontal. polished marble. 79 j. and the Monastery ofS. but also on the most subtle. are also interesting examples with local characsuch as the Church of S. inexpressible color produced by transparent alabaster. which have a decided Eastern aspect. details. It must be remembered that this and the external domes are a later casing upon the original exterior of the usual Byzantine type (No. Demetrius (A. 500550) an example of a five-aisled basilica with transepts (not . The Byzantine style spread over Greece. who says that they depend not only upon the most delicate sculpture in every part. and S. which direct the eye towards the apsidal termination. enriched with of many-colored marbles The shafts brought from Alexandria and the ruined cities of the East. On each side extend short arms. and lustrous gold. 85) has five entrances. and In galleries. as may be seen in the little Metropole Cathedral (No. Russia. Byzantine churches are all distinguished by a great central square space covered with a dome. forming a Greek cross. Kieff. TreUzond. George (A. 5. which with the narthex and side galleries make the plan nearly square (Nos. external fagade (No. described by Ruskin. Luke of Stiris. on the north of the Gulf of Corinth. 400) is an early example of a domed church.2IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Russia among the best known examples all are the Cathedrals of Moscow. supported by means of pendentives. 84 A). shown in No. showing externally).D. . 80. The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine church and an Early Christian basilican church are as follows : tine leading thought in a Byzanis vertical. Plans.


or in the drum. 79 j). in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder. 80 A and The universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches. perhaps the only example in Europe being that over the tomb of Galla Placidia(No. c. . to represent the the portion four arches. Doors and windows are semicircular headed (No. SOB. stone. rendered the use of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed quite inadmissible. are a great feature in the style. j. 87). The churches depend largely for light on the ring " of windows at the base of the dome.212 B. resting on the vaults without any wood roofing (No. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and then scooping out the interior above the crown of these semicircles is the dome. a series of domes formed in brick. In early examples the pendentives were part of one sphere. 73 H. however. marble . grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch beneath the dome. 89 but segmental and horse. each at right angles to the last. and on Such windows. although the fa$ade was sometimes various colors. and the interSuch domes are rare. but rises independently from their summits (Nos. and in the bright climate very much smaller openTracery was. openings grouped in the gable ends (No. 86). or concrete. hence a flat casing and mosaic being applied to the walls treatment and absence of mouldings prevailed. Portions of the windows are occasionally filled with thin slabs of translucent marble (No. 83 D). practically non-existent as a northern architect would understand it." or circular base on which the dome is sometimes raised (No. . The method of roofing these buildings was by D. Internally. A good idea of this type is obtained by halving an orange. Hollow earthenware was used in order to reduce the thrust on the supporting walls (No. K). love of magnificence was developed. In S. in Openings. The Byzantines introduced the dome placed over a square or octagonal plan by means of pendentives (No. relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick. the oriental all These were often constructed of brick. vening triangles are the pendentives.shoe/ arched openings are sometimes seen. In the later type the dome is not part of the same sphere as the pendentives. sequence. 89 G). The early domes were very flat. already described (page 187). Sophia the vaults are covered with sheets of lead. Externally the buildings were left comparatively plain. Roofs. with frequently no further external covering. The windows are small and grouped together (Nos. in c). Walls. cutting off four slices. a quarter of an inch thick. G. fastened to wood laths. and the consequent exclusion of painted glass. in conings sufficed to admit the necessary light. 80 A). 80 B). a type not found in Roman architecture. H).


A special character of the carving was due to the use of the drill instead of the chisel (No. . the walls being lined with costly marbles with the veining carefully arranged so as to form patterns. which was Further. due to the origin of the craftsmen. 88) between the leaves. groups of saints and representations of the peacock (the emblem of immortal life). mainly executed in low relief. Externally. with occasional stone banded courses. and the gold surfaces being continued as a background to the figures. probably derived from the Classic dentils. arch. and aided in supporting the springing of" the arch. sometimes called a "dosseret" (No. 89 c) or Corinthian types (Nos. but were always subordinate to support galleries. 89. E). which not being so numerous in the East as in the neighbourhood of Rome. G. Capitals sometimes took a form derived from the Roman Ionic (No. a convex shape The surfaces of these capitals were form being best adapted. The scheme of ornamentation was elaborate in the extreme. Mouldings. Ornament. In the earlier buildings. ancient structures. 88). an altered larger in area than the shaft of the column. the simple treatment of the elevations in flat expanses of brickwork. unity of surface is always maintained. over which was placed a deep abacus block. the supply was sooner exhausted and thus there was an incentive to design fresh ones. these were taken from E. Columns. the decorative lining of marble and mosaic in panels was sometimes framed in billet mouldings. The acanthus leaf. Columns were used and often only introduced Romanesque churches (page 227). constructively. deeply channelled. and of V-shaped section. and flat splays enriched by incised ornamentation were used. This represented the disused Classic architrave. the whole forming a striking contrast to the less permanent painted frescoes usually adopted in the Western features. Several other types are shown in No. and pendentive up to the dome.214 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 89 D. the massive piers alone supporting the superstructure. and architectural lines were replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. Internally. and effect was frequently obtained by sinking portions of the surfaces. These were unimportant. One surface melts into another as the mosaic sheet creeps from wall. and the vaults and upper part of walls with glass mosaic having symbolic figures. their place being taken by broad flat expanses of wall surfaces. 88 and 89 D). Greek rather than Roman technique was followed in the The carving was carving. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. of capital was required to support the arch. Mosaic thus was used in a broad way as a complete lining to a rough structure. or consisted in the lower portion of a cube block with rounded corners. F. carved with incised foliage of sharp outline. is . having drilled eyes (No.


" Scott (Sir W. 1886." 8vo.) and Barnsley (S. 1864.). 8vo. erected by Oldrid Scott. 1899. R. " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Knight (H. Church of Sancta Sophia.. van). "L'Art de Batir chez les Byzantins. Schultz (R. W. published by Signer Ongania.). Lethaby (W." A large and beautiful monograph in several Venice. A good general idea of the exterior of a church in this style is to be gained from the Greek Church in the Moscow Road. N. as also the new Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster by the late John F.)." Folio. The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as compared with Classical. Didron (A. P." 2 vols. 5. the pattern being cut into it without breaking its outline.. " Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel. The mosaics and casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum should also be inspected. Italy.2l6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Byzantine Constantinople. G. folio. 4to and folio. (A." Byzantine Architecture." Folio.). 2 vols." Salzenburg (W. Bentley. 1883. H. "The Monastery of St. 1881..). Berlin. vols. REFERENCE BOOKS. for the surface always remained flat. and this is accounted for by the fact that Constantinople was a Greek city. 1854-1855." 8vo.) L. drilled at the several springings of the teeth with deep holes.) "Count Robert of Paris. Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine ornamentation. Choisy 1842-1843. adopted from the Greek variety. Constantinople. Venice.) and Pullan (R. 1901. folio and 4to.).) and Swainson (H..). is that the pattern is incised instead of seeming to be applied. " Saint Mark's. . Paris. but became more conventional. Luke of Stiris in Phocis. and in clos6 contact with the East." Folio. "Christian Iconography. Texier (C. and Oriental methods. with acute-pointed leaves. 1894." (Historical Novel. " Milligen (A." 2 vols. Bayswater. Note.

in those countries which had been directly under Geographical.a/? . a general outline sketch is given. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. The style of the carried which grew up on the decay known as Romanesque.COLOGNE/ ROUEN EMPIRE V CflLIPHflTE - OF THE ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. Roman empire. the rule of Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country. The influence of Byzantine art brought through Ravenna and Venice also influenced the Italian Romanesque in Lombardy and Europe generally. i. The position of each country will be slightly touched upon under its own heading. was on throughout practically the whole of the Western empire that is.i i. IN INFLUENCES. 1 . and is Rome.

The papacy had been rising to great power and civil it rivalled or controlled such Pragmatic Sanction (A. Religion. Local styles were favoured by the variations of climate north and south of the Alps. with the encouragement and aid of Charlemagne. and was manifested in magnificent edifices. iv. Tours. 554) had already conferred authority on the Bishops over the provincial and municipal governments. The nlonastic communities.D. Religious enthusiasm and zeal prevailed. and. and may be studied with advantage. Climate. architecture was practised largely by the clergy and came to be regarded as a sacred science. Among the chief monastic orders were the following in the (i. : The own different countries looked to Rome until each developed its . All the painting. The Christian Church. the loss of the Holy Places resulted in the long warfare known as the Crusades (1096-1270) between the Christians of the West and the Mahometans of the East. and the erection of a church was often the foundation of a city. and pupils of monks afterwards became the designers of many of the great Gothic Cathedrals. which was the civilizing and educating agency of the period. with which now often rested the nomination of public functionaries and judges.2l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) The Benedictine order. Until the middle of the twelfth century science. by whose decree architecture. Jessop's "Daily Life of an Monastique. As East and West drifted apart their architecture developed on opposite lines. so that when the Turks overran Palestine. as referred to in each country. as stated by Albert Lenoir in " 1'Architecture Dr. directed with skill. was striving to extend its boundaries in Northern Europe. (For a description of the typical plan of a monastery see page 276)." English Monastery" is interesting as showing the life led by the monks. and Rheims. attached to certain monasteries discharged to some extent the functions of universities. letters. The feudal rank of bishops and abbots made them in some sense Schools military chiefs. occasionally taking the field in person. Geological. as those at S. and the aid thus rendered by monastic institutions to architecture was therefore important. founded in the South of Italy sixth century by S. Benedict. art and enlightenment generally were the monopoly of religious bodies. In these early times a rough use of the material at hand characterizes the style in each country. Down to the thirteenth century. but architecture of Western Europe due to Eastern influence is classed as Byzantine. ii. style. Gall. came into existence. iii. thus increasing the power of the Church. influence. and will be referred to under the same. The government as existed. mosaic and all branches of art were taught. and in creed warfare.

1119. a feature which was adopted in many English Cathedrals.D. as at Lincoln (No. or steps. in Switzerland. 2IQ England belonged to this order. and Montrieux. London. 1098. speech was interdicted. each being self-contained and with its own garden. The plan was especially notable for double transepts. on the opposite side of the cloister. 909. Roche. eastern arm of the cross. and (7. Fountains.) The military orders included the Knights Templars The churches of the Templars were circular Hospitallers. In England the most important were Furness. Carlisle. . By the rules of the order.D. in (5. ments at Florence and the Certosa near Pavia. 117 F) and Salisbury (No. as also was the frequently no aisles. and Bristol.) The Augustinian order differed little from the Benedictine. 1105. 118 B) and Westminster Abbey (No.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE older monasteries in IN EUROPE. near Grenoble.D. The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having on one side a church of cruciform plan with aisles. A. Two churches were preferred. the Charterhouse. Such a regime explains In Italy the establishthe extreme severity of their architecture.) The Premonstratensian order was instituted at Premontre. In plan the typical feature was the great rectangular cells cloister. The refectory was usually parallel to the nave. Villefranche de Rouergue. the typical church was divided into three parts transversely by screens.D. others being Vauvert. and Castle Acre Priory in England is an example. and in England. one for the monks and the other for the people. walls. the celebrated Abbey at Cluny being the headquarters. opened. Picardy. plan. The manuscript plan existing in the Library of the monastery of S. The dormitory was generally placed on another side with a staircase in connection with the church for night services. Gall. surrounded by an arcade on which the monks' (6.) The Cluniac order was founded in A. Bruno. 127) being the chief establishments. The influence of the Cistercian foundation extended to various countries of Europe. Carthusian order was founded by S. transepts. eat and drink in solitude. and Kirkstall Abbeys. in A. (No.) The 1080. is interesting as showing what was considered a typical plan of the buildings of this order (page 261). Cistercian order in The Burgundy. and the Carthusian must work. the transept forming a part of one side of the cloisters. Canterbury was founded in A. at Citeaux. 117 (3. and Oxford Cathedrals were founded by this order. There were The transepts were short. about the chief French establishment being the Grande Chartreuse. (4. In It was introduced into England in A. were the most important. (2.) E). Clermont in Auvergne.D. and the choir extended westward of the There was an absence of towers and painted glass.

799 the Roman Empire in vi.D. were founded Their churches were large. Austin Friars (or Hermits). Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled during this period. London. aisles. plain. the West practically passed from the hands of the Romans. 1209. The clergy the scholars of the period directed the building of the churches. on a change of ownership. and those at Cambridge. v. Dominic about A. and first came England in A. in A. and caused important changes in the social and political organization of states. as in the Temple Church. and skill in craftsmanship was at the lowest ebb. by most distinguished members. 1229.) England The (/. or black Friars) were founded (#. in A. was growing up. bound to the land and passing with it. 1216. Social and Political. 1217. being designed for preaching purposes. or the holding of land on condition of military service.220 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. while the influence of the freemasons produced important results. and Northampton.) (<?.D. and without at a later period. The growth of the able.) in A.D.D. Friars of the Holy Trinity. instituted in Bologna.D. anjd later held a high place in Christian art. Charlemagne.) The Dominicans (preaching by S. (c. rapidly towns as civilization advanced is noticewhich they acquired.) The Friars. instituted in A. amounting almost gave them importance.D. whose election is a convenient date to mark the end of the Roman Empire as such. They came in A. plan. and the privileges to independence. It is supposed they were erected in imitation of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.) They first came to England The Carmelites (or white Friars). They came to England about A. in A. 1170. were driven out from Mount Carmel by the Saracens. (&.D.D. of which there were several orders. to (d. by the election of the first FVankish King. and were distinguished for intellectual capacity.D. Christianity and civilization gradually extended from southern to western Europe. Historical. The system of feudal tenure. In the year A. 1098. (9. 1197. still the poorer freemen gradually came to be serfs. Crutched (or crouched) Friars. While through its operation the class of actual slaves died out.) The Jesuits were established to in order to crush the Reformation. (8.D. Fra Angelico freing the best known member of the order. 1538. 1169.) Franciscans (mendicant or grey Friars) were founded Francis of Assisi. Roger Bacon being one of the The S. Little Maplestead. Till the time of Charlemagne very little .

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Sweden. As helping towards the appreciation of the character of Romanesque architecture. Germany. and most of them disused which happens in due course to every great nation or calamity group of peoples and further suppose that the civilization is represented by a man. of the wants he began to understand. and projection of the transepts and choir. some intact. devoid of physical force. and which were being carried out. in a rough and ready way. others injured or a partially destroyed. of an ancient of the uses building. and with many a contortion.D. traditional forms being firstly transformed in general design and detail. and Spain. but after the millennium had passed. all unguarded. The term Romanesque may be said to include all those phases of Western European architecture which were more or less based on Roman art. Before the year A. 2. 1000.D. were becoming powerful and tending to set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. 814. from the departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the pointed arch in the thirteenth century. and then new features civilization to created. in various parts of Europe. imagine an ancient civilization of vast extent. and many a yawn. while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the towers. In his midst were ruins of vast edifices. some still standing among heaps of stones hewn and carved. but the change was slow. but who slowly. Denmark. What happened ? As time went on he gathered up the smaller fragments and arranged them perhaps upon the foundations. still intact. of sculptured capitals and friezes. the nations of Europe had at this time come into France. The general architectural character is sober and dignified. In northern Europe. hut he in a great measure restored the arts Western Europe before his death in A. of monoliths of and marble. buildings sprang up in all parts. threw off the sleep of ages and awakened to a sense of the treasure he possessed. 221 and was done.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE building IN EUROPE. of the means to the ends he would attain. with many local peculiarities. and England had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the end of the eleventh century. while his own shelter afforded . Nearly all existence . and as he gradually acquired a knowledge to which he might apply this and that fragment. him little protection either from heat or cold. which will be noticed under each country. little building was carried out. and Norway were distinct kingdoms. and recognisable only by the multitude of its monuments. he insensibly porphyry . dormant. when it was popularly supposed that the world would come to an end. which now had become only a title.


Europe. Mark. however.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE JN EUROPE. Further. in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the chief centre of the growing traffic from the East. and exercised considerable influence on architecture. These buildings partake. the period of the tenth to the twelfth centuries is remarkable for the tentative employment of a new constructive principle and a new use of material. the development from Roman to Gothic art was . Perigueux. was to lead to the next glorious period of architecture the thirteenth century in which elasticity of structure was joined to the principle of equilibrium. It is worthy of note also that the use of the pointed arch occurred in the South of France sooner than in the North. the quarry of the ruins of ancient buildings largely influenced the work done. who invaded this portion of France from 719-732. This explains the birth of Romanesque. By this new employment of materials. and it is considered by some. and the highway by which artistic and other products of the Levant were dispersed through France and the North of after . moreover. because the materials in use up to that time had not demanded it. Front. This was a method not before attempted. naturally. of the elements of the fully developed Byzantine style. 84). in the South. especially in the Western and Northern Provinces. and S. in the same way in which S. Front. was the result of the close connection of these centres with the trade and commerce of the East (No. a new style was evolved. In the course of time. to have been derived from contact with the Saracens. In France (page 246). being the seat of the Exarch or representative of the Byzantine Emperor in the western part of his dominions. In Italy (page 228) there were various early Christian edifices erected at Ravenna from the fifth to the seventh centuries. the development of monasteries in the eleventh century gave a great impulse to civilization and agriculture. with certain exceptions. 223 produced a new art founded on the old. in conjunction with the aisleless nave. ) many tentative experiments. both in construction and decorative treatment. con nected with mortar beds of considerable thickness. the old traditional basilican plan was preferred and adhered to during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. for Ravenna was the principal city in Italy during this period. notably S. Venice. and the second was the employment of dressed stonework in comparatively small pieces. for on the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Provence was. but with apparently little foundation. for. The first was( the principle of equilibrium which succeeded that of inert \ stability as used by the Romans. but the dome raised on pendentives became the common kind of vaulting. putting aside spasmodic efforts. for the earlier buildings of the period were often built from the remains of ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity. the whole current of architecture was turned to a constructive system which should answer to its needs. Similarly. and which.

) France. 112 D ). soon developed from it the magnificent Gothic system of the perfected architecture of . cleared to a great extent of the extraneous elements with which it had been so long encrusted. thus the diagonal rose to a greater height than the rib. this domical form was not used. when it began to be superseded by the "groin-rib" type of vaulting. The Roman system of plain cross vaulting (No % in A). and especially that of the diagonal rib. does not appear to have been employed by the Romanesque architects." This method introduced a new principle in vaulting. the vaulting ribs were usually portions of circular curves of similar curvature starting from the same level. If the vaulting surfaces were semi-cylindrical the diagonal groin was of necessity a semi-ellipse. having the longest span. 112 B.224 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the difference in height between the ribs being equalized by stilting the diagonal and the transverse 5 latter (No. by the intersection of the two vaulting surfaces meeting at right angles. the" vaulting of the naves of the Romanesque churches in follows : . ' the thirteenth century. whence the true spirit of Roman construction emerged. . but at this period the lay architects of the North. accomplished through the ordeal of the destructive. / Romanesque Vaulting. which had previously been settled without design. in B and 112 c). D ). yet purifying dissolution of the Dark Ages. In. 3 transverse and longitudinal ribs (No. The panelling was then filled in on the top of these ribs. where the vaults were generally constructed with level ridges. seizing on the Proven9al principle of the Pointed arch. especially in Germany and (fl. known as " severies. (&. designing the profile of the the form of the vaulting surfaces to groin ribs and leaving themselves to them whereas in Roman architecture the adapt vaulting surface was first settled. in E. who surmounted the difficulty arismg from the difference of span of the diagonal and transverse ribs as . as mentioned above. D G) or else by forming the diagonal rib as a and transverse ribs becoming segment of a circle. 112." or " in-filling. and in consequence the structure was highly domical. necessary for the Romanesque architects to find the profile of the ribs. Up to the end of the twelfth century the Provengal architects had led the way. On the Continent. as shown in No. however. 4 as used in Europe up to the twelfth century.. and the profile of the groins It was therefore followed as a matter of course. in which a framework of ribs supported vaulting surfaces of thinner stone. viz. but the use of ordinates.) In England. In vaulting an oblong compartment the difference between the heights of the diagonal and wall ribs was still greater and produced an awkward waving line of the groins on plan (Nos. the 2longitudinal semicircular (No.

each main bay corresponding with two square compartments of the side aisles (Nos. The earlier examples have choirs without aisles.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. oblong accommodating the heights be found that all of ribs of different spans. as The transepts were the at S. HID 3. E and 105). 94 and 95). and Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen. Pavia (Nos. which was usually twice the width of the aisles. Paris (No. COMPARATIVE. which was then known as " sexpartite 100 c. especially in oblong compartments.A. Pavia (No. 105 G). and in England. and of great prominence in the design. Mayence and Spires. and underneath. 93) and S. being continued round in later examples. 105 B and 112 F). the type of the Early Christian Church took place. these difficulties of It will also Germany. 94). The choir was raised considerably by means of steps. with the churches are often of great beauty and have capitals and other features elaborately carved. supported on piers. Q . Florence (No. Miniato. as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (Nos. was formed a vaulted crypt as at S. During the following centuries this principle of rib design became more "complex by the multiplication of the frame-work of ribs described under Gothic vaulting (page 272). B. 225 compartments was surmounted by including two of them in one square bay of vaulting. In some instances the intermediate pier was carried up as a . Transepts were usually added. took the Roman basilica as a model for the new churches. . Michele. EXAMPLES 4. 112 E.same breadth as the nave. and 112 D). Michele. in which the saints and martyrs were buried. were surmounted by the introduction of the pointed arch (No. (refer to each country). Charlemagne gathered around him artists and skilled workmen. F). The towers are special features. as at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (No. however.vaulting shaft and formed the vaulting compartment into " six parts on plan. which were accordingly strengthened (No. as at Canterbury the difficulty of spanning . The weight (six part) vaulting (Nos. In church architecture further developments from A. the church partaking more and more of a well-defined cross on plan. the latter. and calling architecture out of its sleep. of the vaulting in this case was therefore supported by alternate piers. Plans. as at Worms (No. and the chancel prolonged further east than in the basilicas. and Notre Dame. 157). 94 A. 10^ cloisters in connection The F. 105 c). in France.

D. The arches followed the same method. The door and window openings are very c. Roman work and precedent. resting on rudely projecting from the wall. 94 and 100). In early examples rib mouldings were not used in the vaulting. 98 B. formed capitals. in the case where the thrust of a vaulted roof had to be met (Nos. or rectangular recesses. t . 112 G) were usual. being built in concentric A continuous abacus often occurs over rings (No. The characteristic rose (or wheel) window occurred over the principal door of the church in the west front. or trellis work form. When " squinch arches gonal dome. having on the exterior. . 94 and 105). and the profile of the jamb is carried round the orders. often raised. flutings being used (Nos. as at Palermo. The form of arch universally employed was semicircular 5 (No. Intersecting barrel vaults (No. Roofs. The in later times. or by a row of semicircular arches resting on a corbel table Semicircular arxphes. these columns.e. with c). 94 F. The shafts of . "Walls. were at first plain. spiral. 138) also in Southern Italian examples. treatments. about noo A. or the whole shaft is sometimes covered In early examples forms of the with sculptured ornaments. and are placed at the west and east ends and the crossing of nave and transepts. Other peculiarities are referred to in the comparative table of each country. all constructive art in Europe. was " in receding in planes.E. 94 A). 107 L). The principle upon which the jambs were formed characteristic. octagonal. but the central nave was still often covered with a plain wooden roof. as at IfHey Church. Walls were in general coarsely built. H. Openings. connected at the top by horizontal mouldings. especially over the side aisles in the eleventh century. j). or circular. i. buttresses formed as pilaster strips of slight projection. Oxon (No. and afterwards moulded in a simple manner (No. but it was left for the Gothic architects of the thirteenth century to place them above the aisle roof and weight them with pinnacles. inthian or Ionic capitals occur as in the third column from the crossing was crowned by an " octa- . stilted (No. The principal doorways are usually placed in the transepts.226 and 105 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of course. having windows to each. 94). 112 D G).. Columns. also occur. although technical skill was at a very low ebb during this period. buttresses" under the aisle roof. well-marked stories.the columns have a variety of . was due to the desire of fire-proofing the building. general employment of vaulting." which semicircular portion of the arch in southern examples. four of the sides were carried on The Romanesque architects used " flying (Nos. known as were placed circular columns or shafts. but when introduced. They are either square. of vertical. and the difficulty in constructing these in oblong bays led to the use of pointed arches D. influenced B.

139). as in S. H. Tower of London (No. be referred to in English Romanesque (Norman) architecture The The abacus over the capital (Nos. 135). with lower corners rounded off and no carving. 98 j. 107 and 146) is always distinctive in form it is higher.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Tower of London (No. as will F. Q 2 . (No. Ornament. John's Chapel. The above are the principal characteristics of the style Local influences of taste. 227 where and the right in S. 135). 107 D. at the 'angles of which flowers or animals were occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part. K. required great technical by Byzantine mosaic. climate. 146 and 148 B. 98. 139). often but rudely carved (No. skill. capital in later times was often of a cushion (cubiform) shape. Classic influence is apparent. j. and 146) is hollows. an adaptation of the old Classical form. or is sometimes richly carved and scolloped (Nos. which . or Attic base. and is moulded with alternate fillets and The base to the column (Nos. Also see Nos. c). 103 D. These were often carved elaborately. Mouldings. The carving and ornaments were derived from G. but projects less than in the Classical style. 103. geography as a whole. M. and geological formations were instrumental in producing the different characteristics of each country. E. M. L. and the lower circular moulding often overhangs the plinth. generally resting on a square plinth. John's Chapel. the interiors fresco is more commonly used than mosaic. many types of the vegetable and animal kingdom and treated In in a conventional way. Early stained glass was influenced Note.

" I. with the Empire and became independent. asked by the Pope (Stephen II. The comparative table of the three together given on page 242. local volcanic stone (tufa or peperino). thereby inaugurating the temporal power of the papacy. Paros and the other Greek isles. " In Middle Rome there was in stone working The Church of Mary painted royally of it were some two or three The chapels In each of them her tabernacle was And a wide window of six feet in glass Coloured with ail 1 . page 112.). commanding the passage of the Arno. INFLUENCES. iv. her works in red and gold. . Charlemagne. a few miles off. Tuscany possessed greater mineral wealth than any other part of Italy. they began to make their power felt in civil government. invited by Pope Adrian I. The ordinary building materials of Rome were bricks. It was during this period that. and to Naples on Pisa was by position a maritime power. i. Peter. advanced into Italy in 773.. Geographical. and the disputes with the emperors began. or Tivoli. and building stone was abundant. Pippin. (772-779). and Travertine stone from Marble was obtained from Carrara. The boundaries of Central Italy extended Florence and Pisa on the north and west. Florence lay on the great route from south to north. which the Pope accepted in the name Thus in 755 Central Italy severed its connection of S. (See Roman architecture. and. ii. and south. iti. while the south. CENTRAL ITALY. 1 The style is divided into three is central. after defeating He gave the the Lombards.) Religion. to Climate.ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. Geological. entered Rome for the first time in 774. king of the Franks. . defended the latter from the Lombards and gave him the lands they had seized and also the chief city of the Exarchate (Ravenna). north. although the Popes had only small temporal dominions.


the wars against the infidels. principal aim is perfection construction of vaulting. Lucca was an important ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. -ruled that the clergy should not marry. Historical. 2. and Pisa. 1025. The Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in 1284. influence was strong. -and its architecture was influenced by that of Pisa. movement.230 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Genoa. and from this period connection with Byzantium was broken off. Ravenna.D. than for developing a bold and novel construction into a style. owing to insufficient protection from Constantinople. and Amalfi sent merchant fleets to the ports of the Holy Land for the Eastern Fair at Jerusalem. the daughter arts of painting and sculpture being in a state of inaction/ 7 The growth of an v. when. owing to the destruction of Fiesole. The rise of Florence dates from 1125. complete districts. and thus were brought in contact with Eastern art. was rent by the feuds of the two parties. city at this period. Constructive boldness not sought after. were important factors in the rise of Naples. Such treatment caused the introduction of many new constructive ideas. ' ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. being developed. took place in the eleventh century. which latter city in particular possesses a distinct style of its own. in which architecture was most prominent. At the commencement of the eleventh century. Dukedom of Spoleto and other concessions to Adrian. decisions which resulted in the struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines (page 405). where vaulting was now greater beauty in detail. the increase of ' city moved there. being also a It republic. Gregory VII. which led to their decline. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. In Italy. thus adding to his temporal power. in New departure being the ancient Basilican Italians made from The type. especially in several as Venice. the rival of Venice and Genoa. and took the lead in. and in the following century its growing commerce it caused to rival Pisa. 1030. Pisa and Amain and other cities for self-defence. less ^Q&THERN EUROPEAN ^ ROMANESQUE. was the great commercial and naval power in the Mediterranean. Pisa. the former supporting the-power of the Popes and the latter that of the Emperors. an artistic commerce and the independent views caused by education. especially in Tuscany. which influenced the whole design as in Normandy and the Rhine The the have always possessed a capacity for provinces. defeating the Saracens in A. and that no temporal prince should bestow any ecclesiastical benefice. ideas rarely found. Pisa. the inhabitants of this latter industrial population. vi. Social and Political. and 1089 at Tunis. The Byzantine .

(twelfth century resembles these Rome. fa$ade 1204). Pistoia churches.D. a fine impression (No. is circular. and has Gothic additions of the fourteenth century. 129 feet in diameter. During its erection the foundations gave way. It was not completed till A. ornamented with eight stories of arcades (No. erected in the During this period a series of towers were also The origin of these is not clear. The Campanile (Bell Tower). if there were another internal hemispherical cupola. Lucca (A. London (No. with rows of columns and flat ceiling recalling the Early Christian Basilican church.).D. is a circular structure 52 feet in diameter.D. 91 and 92). thus causing the tower to lean about 1 1 feet from the vertical. S. which. designed by Dioti Salvi in A. 1188. with encircling aisle in two stories.D. supported on small detached shafts. Pisa (Nos. one above the other. has a space only 30 feet in diameter. The Baptistery. 91). 1063-1092) is a fine example of the style (Nos.D. 70 G and 91).D. interest of its building depends for its artistic effect upon the beauty and ornamental features rather than the promise of logical development mto a new style which a northern example possesses. connected by semicircular The which is an open arcade in two heights. built in stripes of red and white marble. Thus.e. Martino. 3. Paul. through which penetrates a conical dome 60 feet in diameter over the central space. which also have small open arcades. it is surrounded externally on the lower story by half columns. in Dalmatia. and supported on four piers and eight columns. producing an elliptical dome of later date. A. In the Romanesque period. ornament the fa9ades. 1153.ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. EXAMPLES. that of Rome was still composed of Classic columns and other features taken from ancient buildings. Donate (ninth century) at Zara. This Baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the church of S. in consequence of which it is not easy to ascertain what the original external design really was. 253 B). it would resemble the constructive scheme of S. ' 231 \ . bear considerable similarity to the architecture of Pisa.. Pisa (A. facade 1288). however. 1060-1070. Built of marble. . Pisa Cathedral (A. but the transepts with segmerital apse at each end were an advance on the Basilican Over the crossing or intersection of nave and plan. 91). the reason being that Lucca belonged arches. Michele. 1278. above to that city when most Cathedral of its churches were erected. while the architecture of the rest of Europe was slowly developing towards the Gothic style. 1172).D. the interior. is transepts Externally. i. blind arcades. as the custom of imperial city. from 600-1200. The structure is crowned by an outer hemispherical dome. Lucca (A. and S.

. Milan. while in summer the heat is often excessive. green. blue and red.232 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Religion. (A. and is an evident departure from the basilican type of long unbroken ranges of columns or arcades. the great emperor. The Cloisters of S. 1241) (No. Milan is near enough to the Alps to experience cold in winter. i. ITALY. Very notable is the open timber roof with its decoration. but they may be regarded as prototypes of the mediaeval towers and spires. Bishop of Milan (374-398). on account of its favourable situation in the centre of that state. and of S. Geological. i. The city is surrounded by rich plains. Paul beyond the walls. Theodosius. a climate of extremes. NORTH i. had been forced to do penance on account of a massacre in Thessalonica. the vault arches inclosing the arcades in groups of five or more openings. Ravenna and Venice. 98 B) are of extreme interest. and banding in black and white marble of the exterior and interior. of this material. see page Rome Rome 242. Miniato. and the vine. This is an instance closing the doors of the Church against him. At the end of the fourth century.D. bell ringing was not then in existence. adds to the general prosperity of the district.D. (A. 1234). in bright coloring of gold. North Italy has a climate resembling that of Central Europe. INFLUENCES.John Lateran. and forming an evidence of the patient skill of the craftsman.is open to the nave. as trade connecting links with the Eastern Empire. 93). Florence (No. reflect the culture and architectural forms derived therefrom. Brick is plains of Lombardy. For the Comparative table of Italian Romanesque. . The length of the church is divided into three main compartments. under which is a crypt. and the cultivation of the mulberry (for the silkworm). always had a high degree of prosperity. Ambrose. The special feature of the cloisters consists of the small twisted columns inlaid with glass mosaic in patterns of great beauty. They are formed in square bays. ii. recently restored. S. S.e. and its proximity to several of the Alpine passes. The marble panelling. iv. and the local architecture the great building material of the shows the influence iii. the capital of Lombardy. and the raised eastern portion. This division of the church by piers seems a prelude to the idea of vaulting in compartments. Geographical. Climate. is a leading example of the Central Italian style. . were carried to a further extent in the Gothic period.


ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 2. flat. the members of which were orn. the old Roman population eventually caused barbarian influence to wane. The devastating wars in the North Italian the in led to the gradual rise of the Venetian state. S. Wide. In Italy. Venice from the first kept up a close alliance with Constantinople. 96) aisles. . and severe facades are typical. of the Basiall and were nearly vaulted and roofed. Milan being as much German as Italian. and beauty and delicacy of detail were preferred to the invention of fresh architectural forms produced by a new system of construction. mented with bright coloring. which resuited in the production of carving restricted to NORTH ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. but an oligarchy which a Duke. The eleventh and twelfth centuries were the great building epochs in Lombardy. and a porch resting on lions are often the chief relief. At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly sculptured with figures existed. Detail much affected by Classic remains and traditions. including Dalmatia. hunting and dent. top of The character gables and apses. especially after the eleventh century. Arcades in several stories were employed as an ornament to the faades (No. and ornament of great refinement. The churches were mostly roofed with plain open-timbered roofs. CENTRAL ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. by whose study the Pisani were influenced. the walls between the side chapels forming buttresses. 91). form of government being republican. and Istria. page 408). by which time commercial relations had extended to the Black Sea and the coast of the Mediterranean. is less refined owing to the use of stone and brick rather than marble. and in these a grotesque element is Arcades prominent. The Basilican type was closely adhered to. which differed in some points of ritual. vi. by means of which both the naval importance and commerce of the little state continually increased. or Doge. Milan Cathedral. such as side altars not being used (cf. The barbarians who occupied the valleys of the Rhine and Po pursued a similar development in spite of the intervening Alps. without marking in any wav the difference of nave and A rose window (No. the clerestory is omitted. Croatia. but until this had come to pass little building was done. covering the whole church. Ambrose's fame and influence maintained the Ambrosian rite. power the Church had acquired. was invested with supreme authority plains first gradually grew up. cities Italy itself consisted of a number of separate which were independent commonwealths. Side aisles are often in two stories. Marble facing was carried to such an extent as to form a style in that material. other scenes reflecting the life of the northern invaders are frequent. v. Details show a breaking away from Classic preceIn sculpture.234 of the great COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Social and Political. Historical. The churches were lican type.



91 and 95). Antonio. 96). are . and the projecting porch to the main doorway. as in countries as possible. as in England. with side aisles in two stories.D. being similar in purpose to the civic towers of Belgium (page 390). and have no projecting buttresses. S. when a wooden roof was placed over a circular vault. This arcading. as the ends of the rafters exerted little thrust hence this portion was arcaded. a constructive meaning. They were not joined structurally with the church to which they belonged. Milan 140). Zenone. but were placed at some little distance. being treated as plainly and with only sufficient windows to . 3. came to be employed. arcaded corbels. 1 shadow in an appropriate position (Nos. Pavia (A. the external walls did not need to be continued solid above the springing of the vault. Mark. so that it even entirely covered the western facade. was employed as a decorative feature on window transoms and other positions. and resting on the backs of crouching lions (No. 1 188). which are characteristic of the work in this district also the great western rose (wheel) window. 237 EXAMPLES. under the slope of the gable. a great warehouse on the Grand Canal.D. In these cases they were erected as symbols of power. is interesting. The Campanili. with columns supporting arches.ITALIAN (NORTH) ROMANESQUE. the arches being connected with the extrados of the vault. 104 and 105 B). The origin of the arcaded galleries in many of the more important churches of the period (Nos. or commemorative monuments. are good examples. the battlemented parapet. Piacenza (A. 1139) (No. and Germany. having. as a decorative feature. Michele. S. and in many cases are rather civic monuments than integral portions of the churches near which they are situated. originally. The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan. Verona (A. is an important example. These campanili occur in most of the North Italian towns. and S. giving a deep . or bell towers. In plan they are always square. used in the Eastern trade. are well-known examples at Venice.D. and piers of clustered section. The latter (Nos. 94 and 95) is vaulted in square bays.D. S. as illustrating how such architectural features have had. and the Fondaco dei Turchi. primarily of use for defence at the top of the building. and sometimes connected with the main building by cloisters (No. Similarly in the later Gothic periods in England. without breaks. carrying semicircular arches which are often stilted. Ambrogio. in every possible part of the building. (A. north of the Alps. in which are found the characteristic cubiform capital. France. 96). from being used merely in this position. Thus. 98 G). Venice. 1122). .important features of the period. as that of S.


and being of triangular form. Their civilization was. and its history is a record of the successive influences of the powers to whom these countries belonged. But for cubits five or six. the fa9ades were ornamented with intricate geometrical patterns. for palms grow in the open air. Verona. is And amber i. admit . and there are celebrated orange and lemon groves near Palermo. the buildings having flat roofs and other Eastern its iii. For comparative table of Italian Romanesque. which is typical (No. Neither red nor white bricks . and has yet to be fully explored for traces of its architectural development. i. In A. such as grain and cotton. On the southeastern coast of Italy the towns have the general characteristics of Oriental cities. how ever. Geological. Social and Political. ~:icl overran the whole island. 827 the Mahometans landed in Sicily. architectural character. Historical. and hastened the downfall of the Mahometan From 1061-1090 the Normans. which ii. see page 242. Zenone. and the third to North Africa. INFLUENCES. owing to Mahometan influence. while the mountains afforded an abundant supply of a calcareous and shelly limestone. or sloping way the windows increase in number from one in the lowest story to five or more in the uppermost story. Sanguinary struggles amongst certain sects led to the insurrecon of several cities." SICILY. 96). which is thus practically an open loggia. Being situated the Mediter- ranean sea. and the latter part of the gradually tenth century was the most prosperous period of their sway. Southern Italy has always maintained a close connection with Sicily. centrally in Geographical. v. which were invented because the Mahometan religion forbade the representation of the human figure (page 654). Sicily presents one side to Greece. 239 light to the internal staircase. iv. " Therein be neither stones nor sticks. The Mahometans introduced into Sicily valuable commercial products. SOUTHERN ITALY AND There most goodly sardonyx. In Sicily. under Robert and /nasty. as is the Campanile of S. laid in rows.D. another to Italy. The climate of South Italy and Sicily is almost sub-tropical. considerably aided by the previous Byzantine influences. features. influenced Climate. and the whole is generally crowned with a pyramidal shaped roof. Religion. vi.ITALIAN (SOUTHERN) ROMANESQUE. The deposits of sulphur contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the island. r .

c/ Q W ffi H CJ .

Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles. the decoration being style. as in the Church of the Martorana at Palermo. 97) has typical examples. particularly in the decorative parts of churches. 1 1 30. well carved capitals of Byzantine form. R . and a descendant of the latter was crowned at Palermo. and not in recessed planes as in northern work. No. Byzantine influence is shown in the plans of certain churches. but civil wars as to the right of succession led to the island passing in 1268 to Louis of Anjou. and her fleet defeated the Arabs and Greeks. Mahometan influence is evident. about 12 feet high. Palermo (1132) (in the Royal Palace). 3. crowning lantern. where a square space is covered by a dome supported on Four freestanding columns. and rich cloisters. supporting pointed arches. is bordered inlaid patterns in colored porphyries.ITALIAN (SOUTH) ROMANESQUE. of slabs of white marble. In plan it resembles a Roman basilica. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. are decorated in color in the Mahometan The interior is solemn and grand. A by F. but are hardly ever vaulted. illustrates mixed Byzantine and Mahometan influences. and rich mosaics and colored marbles were employed as a facing internally. EXAMPLES. Dark and light stone was used in courses externally. 2. Architecture developed considerably under the Norman rule by the erection of cathedrals. and a school of mosaic was maintained in the Royal Palace during this period. with apses at the eastern end of nave and aisles^ the choir being raised above the nave. conquered the island. as mentioned above.A. on the high ground to the south-west of Palermo. dado. 97). and by great richness in the material employed. The low. representing scenes from biblical history. and from the latter to the Nvrman in the eleventh century is traceable. are notable. The walls are ornamented with mosaics in color. The architectural features of the interiors. surrounded by arabesque borders. The Capella Palatina. the early bronze -^ors. During this period Sicily prospered. intricate in design. 24! Roger de Hauteville. Monreale Cathedral (begun 1174. The churches have either wooden roofs. The open timber roofs. which are square in section. of which Monreale Cathedral (No. or a Byzantine dome. The change from the Byzantine to the Mahometan dominion. oblong. The nave columns have. were subordinate to the mosaic decorations which clothe the walls. marked by severity.

for Monreale Cathedral. The Northern fa9ades are flatter. including the aisles. anri sometimes have a large circular window to light the nave. resting on isolated columns. is unrivalled for richness of the effect of the mosaics. above which is the characteristic wheel-window. NORTH. Projecting porches were preferred to recessed doorways. In the North A. Nicolo. Towers. when occurring. Verona (No. that at Novara being connected to the cathedral by an atrium. that at Otranto being noteworthy for the numerous points of support employed to carry the choir. Bari (1197). and are bold open-arched structures. The flat blind arcades of the northern style were developed by the Pisan (Central) architects in their galleried facades.242 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the . with arcading following the rake. more especially in Central Italy in the North the churches are mostly vaulted. was carried up to a flat gable. is a good and typical example of the churches of Southern Italy which are small in comparison with was the model The entrance front is always contemporaries. which. The crypts are a special feature. B. Zenone. are marked features. which may be due to some extent to the Greek descent of the inhabitants of this part of Italy. are detached. as at Piacenza and S. the open arcades of the apses seen in conjunction with the usual arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossing. The detail of these buildings is always refined and graceful. oblong in plan. AND SOUTH. being straight shafts without buttresses or spires. Milan. A number of circular examples were built mainly as baptisteries. modifications being introduced on the lines of German work in the South. i two . COMPARATIVE. with the columns resting on lions' backs. as at Monreale Cathedral (No. their northern 7 4. 96). Ambrogio. I the South this feature is highly elaborated with wheel tracery. . and though of small size. There is a fine atrium at S. S. reached by steps from the nave. and other arcades carried across in bands. Plans The plans of most of the churches were substantially same as the basilicas. and placed on huge semi-grotesque lions. . the low lanterns at the crossing. The choir was occasionally raised to admit of a crypt beneath. Walls. supporting a projecting roof. can be traced to German influence. CENTRAL. often of stories. distinguished by a projecting porch. constitute the charm of the style. having a symbolic character. S. It has a richly treated ceiling of stalactite forms. 97). The west front. Giovanni degli Eremiti (1132) and the Martorana Church (1113-1143) are other examples at Palermo which show the blending of Saracenic and Byzantine ideas.


often F. In consequence of the bright climate the c. Richness and possessing good outline. (No. elaboration were attempted in the doorways (No. Ornament and animals (No. 98 H). above which the plain walls are pierced. bronze doors are a feature. vigorous hunting scenes. and. the timber roofs of the basilican In the style often effectively decorated with color were used. The wheel windows (No. In Central Italy greater elegance is displayed. Southern work is far superior in detail. while the roof is of the simple basilican type. Flat bands are characteristic of the Northern Strings were formed by small arches. Roughly carved grotesques of men E. great richness in timber ceilings was attained. as at Toscanella. more often than not unmarked on the exterior. j). Buttressing was obtained by means of the division walls between an outer range In of chapels. and the use of color G. 98 c). are similar in treatment to Byzantine ivories. 98 j M. especially in the North. and incidents of daily life are found in Northern sculpture.244 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. flat bands. groined vaults of small span were common and divided into compartments by the Gothic period. 98 A). Central Italy. and opaque decoration was Window tracery was not developed. but timber roofs are the rule in Palermo and Monreale (No. are met with. connected horizontally by small arches. 98 was the main object in the design of the interiors. show typical capitals. attention being chiefly bestowed upon their decoration. springing from corbels (No. as in the rich carving of the Palermo examples. but coupled and grouped shafts were seldom properly developed in relation to the vaulting ribs. Columns. as at Monreale Cathedral. preferred to translucent. . barrel vaults. decorated by flat pilaster strips. Mouldings. owing to Mahometan influence. In Southern examples. No. Flank walls are occasionally the churches at Palermo. Where round-arched cross/ vaulting. as at Pistoia. F). rude Corinthian columns carry a round-arched arcade. 96) just described are only rudimentary in pattern. style. domes rather than vaults were attempted. The rows of apostles on the lintels of the doorways. connecting one Rude imitations of old Classical detail pilaster strip to another. were not employed. Roofs. a practice which was continued in E. openings are small (No. by the small arched openings of the clerestory. 98). Openings. 94 H. 97). southern examples. where vaulting was more in use. grace. Piers with half shafts were employed rather than columns. The nave roofs of Italian churches continued to be constructed Plain of wood with flat ceilings till the thirteenth century. and elegance. Elaborate decoration in mosaic exists as in the Palermo churches and elsewhere (No. and Classic models were copied. or simple D.

Dresden." 3 vols. 1867. I." Pisa. Sicile. Architecture Antique de la Knight. 1866. 1860. 1896. G. to Illustrate the Saracenic and Folio." 1838. 1865-1882. " Italy.) italien. " Die der Lombardei vom bis 14 Folio. de)." 410." 2 vols. W. folio and 4to. 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. Folio.ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. 1830." Dartein (F. Studi sui Monument! della Italia meridioni dal IV al 6 XIII Secolo.. large folio.. 1871-1877." 7 2 vols. " Theophano.). 8vo." Translated from the Italian..)." 2 vols.). . Napoli. " Etude sur Paris. "Monuments de Bauvverke in Moyen Age. Architecture Lombarde. " Palermo. H. in Sicily.).). 1846-1854. 2 vols. 1827. J. . 1859. 1' Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth (R." (Historical Novel).' e " Salazaro (D. D. B. 410.)." Paris.) et Zanth (C. Gravina (D. Norman Remains Pise au Normans folio in Sicily. "Harrison (F. folio. " II Duomo di Monreale. Griiner (L. Terra-Cotta Architecture of North W." and Chamberlin (G.. 1892." Folio. Delhi (A. " Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy. Centuries. Jahrhunderts." 4to. "Norman Antiquities of Palermo and Environs. and Osten Paris.." Normans " Knight (H." Street (G.).). 245 5.). folio. Rohault de Fleury.) 1829.). Hittorff (J. L. E.- Cattaneo " Cresy and Taylor. Darmstadt. Boston. (F. 1874. " Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in UnterSchulz (H.

) the south. France is practically on the high road i. Attention was then concentrated upon . Geological. Aries. . The soft. How reverend is the face of this tall pile. and the relative position of each district influenced the various prevailing types of architecture. caused a reaction from the decorative character of the later Romanesque. Auvergne walling was executed in a curious inlay of colored . used throughout N. In this district the most interesting event was the rise of the Cistercians (page 219). terror on the aching sight. Geographical. France is exceedingly rich in building materials. material. between the south and north of Europe.) the north resembles that of the south of England (b." CONGREVE. Trophime.ormandy. i. the severity of whose rules as to church building. with a landscape almost African in its aspect.FRENCH ROMANESQUE.W. climates (a. fine-grained stone of Caen. is sub-tropical. of which most of the towns are built.) the west on the Atlantic coasts is warmer. Venice and the East introduced to the district of Perigueux a version of the Byzantine style in stone. iv. In the volcanic district of was also exported to England. as in the fa9ades of S. and of S. Christianity. owing to the Gulf Stream and warm S. ii. Gilles. winds (c. when introduced. I-n France there are three iii. By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable Looking And It strikes an awe tranquillity. Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads To bear aloft its arched and ponderous roof. especially stone. When Rome was a great power it was by way of Provence and the Rhone valley that civilization spread hence the strong The trade with classical element which is there prevalent. INFLUENCES. Religion. Lyons contributing martyrs to the cause. . on the Mediterranean. took a strong hold in the Rhone Valley. Climate.

especially along the Loire Valley. in In the north. forming a link to the marvellous structures the next three centuries. the 347 of producing grand and severe effects. usually with flat external buttresses in the north or internal buttresses in the south. and the change to the pointed style was promoted. Roman style is remarkable for its rich decorative facades cloisters. which seem to have aojuiivd a The southern and graceful fresh significance. The conquest of England in 1066 marked the transference of the most vigorous of the Normans to England. which was different in the north and south (page 223). where matter is lost in the emotions expressed. The plain thick walls. Historical. On the death of Charlemagne. 100 B).FRENCH ROMANESQUE. and heavily roofed with of ponderous arching. often by (No. half barrel vaults. Northern France was invaded by the Northmen. The were close set with pier and pillar. The development of vaulting. 2. naves were covered by groined vaults. and seem to revive the great halls of the Roman Thermae. the buildings of Provence being a new version of old features. are impressive. v. Paris being made the capital of the kingdom. In the north the style is the promising commencement of a new epoch. naves were covered with barrel vaults. _as at N6ti Dame du Port. Hugh Capet ascended the Prankish throne towards the close of the tenth century. in France was the cause of continual invasions and wars in the two countries. hence architectural progress was impossible until a more settled state of society vi. made much progress. until the complete fusion of races in both was marked by the loss of the English possessions in France. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. . from whom Normandy was named. In Aquitania and Anjou the vast interiors in one span. emphasized the richness of the west fronts of the churches in both districts. by the effort to solve the problems of vaulting. Normandy becoming an English province until the time of King The hold.over-two-storied whose thrust was resisted aisles thus suppressing the clerestory. and their ruler Rollo was the ancestor of the Norman kings of England. interiors having the first tentative essays of a new system. which they retained on their possessions John. was established. Social and Political. Lawlessness and bloodshed were rife throughout the century. supported by the massive walls of the recessed chapels. . In the_ south. At this period the greater part of the means country was held by independent lords. however. and the authority of the king extended little beyond Paris and Orleans. Clermont-Ferrand.

The cloisters. 102). indicating an eastern influence.d Burgundy. in many of which pointed tunnel-vaults were used. forming a Latin cross on plan. all showing Classical influence." infilling or 3. and for this reason it may be divided into southern and northern provinces. Provence has numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. but they have latterly The parts Attached to the church is a magnificent been made semicircular. but the southern one was destroyed in 1568. S. the buildings having a local character imparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different colored lavas. The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces of Aquitania. 1050-1100) is an imitation of S. exhibit great richness of effect and beauty of detail. Trophime. Toulouse. elongated upwards and supported on pointed arches. 84 B) shows the Venice (page 208). Front acted as a prototype of churches with cupolas in France. roundarched tunnel-vaults. influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest in the where they more particularly occur. surmounted by a circular ring of columns. S. in which different peculiarities are traceable. and Orange. Anjou an. carrying a conical dome. EXAMPLES. the groined ribs being constructed independently and supporting the " severies. Pmgueux (A. Aquitania has two distinct styles. arches supporting the domes as pointed. Front. 84). The portals of S. Gilles. The nave is covered with four stone domes. The illustration (No. 1120) (No. consisting of columns. but has a long aisleless nave with transepts provided with lateral chapels an cT an apsidal choir with four chapels. Cahors Cathedral (A. campanile in stone. and the Auvergne frequently Church at Issoire. the 'first having. and the second having domes spheroidal in shape. consisting of a square shaft. Auvergne. Clermont-Ferrand. Angouleme Cathedral (No. It is a Greek cross on plan. used in couples in the depth . Provence. as at Notre Dame. is due to a large trade with Byzantium. Irene at Constantinople (page 204). G) is of the second type. the geological influence is apparent. is an example of the first type. F. and the Church at 5. an example of the second type. as at Nimes.D. the main dividing line being the Loire.248 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Aries (No. and closely resembles S. Aries. 100 E. as at Notre Dame dn Port. square compartments and covered with sexpartite vaulting. Avignon.D. and other places in the Rhone Valley. that over the crossing being carried above the roof and having a stone lantern.^ 5. being a volcanic district. France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style. Sernin. Mark. Both transepts were originally crowned with towers.

the former having a groined vault instead of the longitudinal barrel-vault. which was covered with a great barrel-vault. and that at Vienne are other interesting examples. no attempt at tracery and carrying semicircular arches. with double side aisles to the main body of the church. (A.Cathedral ( i OQO. this was superseded is later by The west end two square schemes to pinnacles. and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. The great Abbey -Church of Cluny (1089-1131) was the most famous in this province and was the longest in 1< ranee. which are left entirely open. expiation of having married Matilda in spite of their close relationship. Poitiers. specially capitals sculptured with sharp and distinctive foliage (No. 103 D. noo). s A utun . These examples are of the vaulted basilican type. owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. which was being developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. ) Abbey Church is an interesting example in which arches the nave from pier to pier support transverse vaults. of the wall. The vaulting illustrates the difficulties of spanning oblong Two bays arch. and the provinces of Normandy Toiirnus and Brittany. It had originally an eastern apse.D.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. 101). this fa 9 ade being a prototype of the Gothic follow. and the aisles probably had groined vaulting. 1101-1119) resembled Angouleme Cathedral nave and general arrangement. but the characteristic chevet (No. with Paris as the radiating centre. Anjou has many examples rich in decorative treatment. commenced A. 249 interesting. spanning under which windows were formed in the nave walls. which ultimately led to the introduction of the pointed arch. are The columns have deep filling being made.D. The city of Caen possesses a number of examples illustrating the difficulties of vaulting.1 1 3 2 is an example of the aisleless churches which are found in various parts of France. Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. founded on the Romanesque church of Spires (Germany). The Church at Vezelay (A.faave been destroyed. The pointed arch was employed in the arcade of the nave. The North of France comprises the provinces of Central France. in 100-101). The plan seems to have been is the best known example. Caen (Nos. Etienne). 1066 by William the Conqueror. in its aisleless Burgundy was specially rich in monastic establishments which influenced the architectural treatment of the churches. as The Abbey of Fontevrault Notre Dame la Grande.D. :ompartments without the aid of the pointed towers crowned by octagonal spires flanked by with angle . many~ot "whicfi. E) and support semicircular arches.

inclosing the outer range of chapels.D. 100 c. Trinite). Towers are detached. 4. and were left entirely open. the Church of S. and wall ribs is nearly equal. Michel (since restored). was erected Abbe Suger. as glazing or tracery were not required by the climate. resembling Italian Gampanili. 1084). Denis. COMPARATIVE. usually having double columns with magnificent capitals. which developed the pier plans. F). the rise of the transverse-. near Paris. were introduced between A. and the vaulting ribs were provided with individual shafts. Plans. were preferred. The Abbey of S.D. with window lights in pairs or groups. and the Abbey Church of Mont The Abbaye-aux-Dames (La in by the great and the choir and west front still remain as left by him. which thus being approximately square. however. of the nave are comprised under one vaulting compartment. although a fourteenth century nave Has been wedged between them. Caen (A.D. S. In the north. as at Vienne cathedral. in 1144. Flying buttresses. A. are notable examples. when each compartment. Buttresses are often mere strips of slight projection (No. D.25O COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. This resulted in a system known as sexpartite vaulting (page 225) (Nos. 99). because the difference between the width of the nave and the distance longitudinally between the piers could be easily surmounted by pointed arches of different radius manipulated so as to equalize the height of the ribs. which are often models of simplicity and richness. Caen (A. 99 and'ioi . Walls were of rubble with facing stones. Elaboration was reserved for doorways in the arcaded lower portion of the fa9ades. In the setting out of the bays important changes were introduced. which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen. Cloisters were treated with the utmost elaboration^and jricjmess.which receive the round arches of the narrow bays. building abbot. the increasing demand for vaulted interiors modified the planning. B. was superseded immediately on the introduction of the pointed arch. 1150-1200. and the fa9ades were arranged in stories. internal buttresses. diagonal. 1083) (No. admitting of high clerestories with windows Th lighting the nave. but on the introduction of the pointed arch each oblong bay of the nave formed a vaulting compartment corresponding in length to each aisle bay. In the south. thus in early plans the naves were vaulted in square bays comprising two aisle bays longitudinally (No. "Walls. Massiveness is the characteristic of all the early work. 100). towers are mostly square with pyramidal roofs (Nos. 112 E. 99). Round churches are rare in this district. Nicholas. which. what) ever its shape. could be vaulted without reference to the neighbouring one.

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Painted glass was not favoured in southern examples. to the nave. 100). with nook shafts plainly fluted. j).groin ribs (introduced in the twelfth century). up Roman examples or B. buttressed and having upon their faces half round shafts carried to the vaulting ribs (No.254 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The pointed section was sometimes used. clear-glazed openings being employed to set off the opaque color decoration of the walls. In the latter. Roofs. which supported the covering independent of the vault. 103 G. the elegance due to classic tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration cut upon the structural features of the Norman work. doubtless to lessen the thrust upon the walls. small. Stained glass favouring The diaper large openings was gradually developed in the north. In the south. or draperies that originally occupied the . Capitals are cubical blocks. F. circular or octagonal. Openings. the early treatment was a tunnel vault by half tunnels oyer the aisles. and in order that the roofing slabs of stone might be carried direct upon the extrados of the vault. Columns. In the south. c. or cut with zigzags. Mouldings. were employed. 103). work so common in the spandrels of arches. and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from the abacus of their huge' capitals (No. recessed D. narrow openings with wide splays to admit light sufficed. 103 M-P). grotesque heads. and reminiscent of Roman times. often in two stories. imitated from the Corinthian order. In the south. clerestories of increased height were obtained by means of the intersecting nave vaults (No. E). thus not admitting of a clerestory. supported by plain form the cornices of the walls (No. Corbel tables. G. The earlier vaulted churches have no clerestory. either plain or carved with copies of acanthus leaves from old in planes. E. In nave arcades. arched jambs are formed in recessed planes (No: 102). Imposing western entrances are characteristic of this period. in northern work is supposed to have arisen from the imitation. The vault in the southern examples frequently supports the roofing slabs direct. in carving. either square piers. were used. whose thrust was taken by buttress arches concealed in the aisle roofs a step towards the later flying buttresses. (1130) are generally referred to as having the earliest pointed vaults in France. with . The carrying up of the vaulting shafts emphasizes the division of the nave into bays. more especially in the direction of filling in the vault spandrels of the clerestory with arrangements of three and five The ante-chapels at the Church at Vezelay light openings. while in the north a commencement in grouping was made. blocks (No. 103 D. or columns. Ornament. of the color pattern work. In the north. while in the northern examples above the stone vault were constructed wooden roofs.

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A.I.). and F." Verneilh (F. Journal. 1882. Spiers Churches of Charente. de). 1851. Figure sculpture was more frequently employed southern buildings (No. folio.. M. (D.. F. Le Puy.B.A .).). The West Fronts of the churches of the Charente District in Aquitania were elaborately treated with carved ornament reprepositions. "The Domed Churches 1896. " Rational 8vo. Paris. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1885-1887. " Architecture Romane du Midi de la France. siecles. 1900.)" Richard the Fearless" (Historical Novel). 8vo. Thiollier (N. Pugin W. dans Tancien diocese du Puy. Ramee (D." R. 1828. " romane Paris. L'architecture religieuse a 1'epoque Folio. (R.. Paris.FRENCH ROMANESQUE.." 2 vols. Sharpe (Edmund). " Histoire de 1 Architecture. (A.) and Le Keux. McGibbon 8vo. of Perigord and La Charente." 410. 1895. (C.*' . "The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera. Yonge M." by G. " L' Architecture Normande aux Xle et XI le Ruprich-Robert (V. "Saint Front of Perigueux and the Domed Phene). Building." 4to.). 1870. 5. 4to." 2 vols.'* "Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. " L' Architecture Byzantin en France. folio. 1859. On the ground story the capitals so treated. published under the title of New York. 10 vols. A translation of the article "Construction" has been Paris. same in the senting foliage or figures of men and animals. Paris. Huss." 3 vols. were often continued as a rich. 1864-1873. 1888. 102). February 20. " Dictionnaire de 1' Architecture. Revoil (H.). broad frieze." Svo. Viollet-le-Duc.

Germany united under Charlemagne afterwards split up into small principalities. forced the people of Saxony to embrace that religion. There are also a number of important circular churches. Without peeces or joynings. and the style of that district is consequently varied from that of the Rhine valley. while. But many subtle compassings As babeuries and pinnacles Imageries and tabernacles I saw. No stone being found on the sandy plains of Northern Germany. and it was in these parts that Christianity took root. so that carriages in Berlin are converted into sledges.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. and in the south. Geographical. in the north and east. Geological. The existence of stone in the Rhine valley ii. cities had been established during the Roman occupation. v. being a strong supporter of ChristiThe anity. or more especially as baptisteries. brick was there employed. the conversion of the tribes giving great importance to that ceremony. paganism still existed. rendered permanent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting. i. i. as the heat in the summer is ten degrees higher. Religion. In the early period the Germans looked much iv. became fused into an absolute monarchy and has remained. and in the winter correspondingly lower. " Both the Castell and the Toure And eke the hall and every boure. but with wider extremes. plan of a typical church of this period is peculiar in having eastern and western apses. and eke full of windows As flakes fallen in great snowes. originally divided into many distinct nationalities. INFLUENCES. built as tombs. whereas France. facilitated the erection in this material of churches. to Rome. Climate. The average temperature of Central Germany iii. in . and Charlemagne. On the banks of the Rhine. may be said to be the same as Southern England." CHAUCER. Social and Political.

The Rhine districts possess the most fully-developed Romanesque architecture. In addition he established the Prankish dominion over Southern Gaul and Northern Italy In a great measure. and no great western entrance as in France. and the use of arcaded galleries under the_eayes. the most united of continental powers. resulting in the erection of many important buildings in his dominions. and in the unsettled state of the country. which are bold and effective in execution. king who became Roman Emperor. the one supporting the Church and municipal rights. reigning as King of Germany at the beginning of the tenth century.D. 90). 2. bears a strong The style resemblance to North Italian Romanesque. The house of Hapsburg succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273. On Charlemagne's death in A. which included all Central Germany and Northern Gaul. Otho. when French Gothic architecture was introduced. 1138-1273) with Lombardy. In the later portion of this period. and henceforth copied. 768-814). and the style lias_fe_wejl local -^axieiies than are peculiar in having that_pf France. Historical. and the other representing the Imperial authority. and was not without its influence on the architecture of these regions. he restored the arts and civiliza(No. the German princes pushed themselves into prominence tion by demanding the right to elect their own sovereign Conrad the First. in conjunction polygonal domes.spite of all 259 changes. The general architectural character is rich in the multiwith plication of circular and octagonal turrets. an event which shows the leading position of the Prankish emperors at the period. The political relations of the Hohenstaufen (or Swabian) Emperors (A.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. general adoption s 2 . due to certain influences dealt with previously (page 234 and above). The mosFncKIy" ornamented parts are the doorways_aiid_capitals. is evidenced in the similarity of the architecture of the two countries. His successor. Germany was troubled by the dissensions of the two rival parties. The plans of the churches western and eastern apses. and ruled over the land of the Franks. the first Prankish to Western Europe. the Pope at Rome.D. extending the boundary of the German Empire southwards into Lombardy. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. was crowned Emperor of the West at Rome. . was crowned by Charlemagne (A. Rhenish Vaulting appears to have been first adopted in the churches some fifty years after its in France. vi. but the conflict between the two took place mainly in North Italy (page 405).D. 814 this empire crumbled to pieces through internal wars.


dormitory. 1036). framed in with flat pilaster strips as buttresses. having a pointed roof. 104 and 105 A. Cathedral (1110-1200) (Nos. and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. crowned by a low octagonal tower. The fa9ades have semicircular headed windows.D. The Monastery of S. refectory. valley are specially rich in Saxony and the Rhine Romanesque As (A.D. Treves (A. Charlemagne's architect. and S.D. guest-house. 105 D. E. 261 the inventors of the Lombardian their Romanesque. abbot's lodging. 1030). Caen (No. G). as the representative cathedral of this period. interesting examples. cemetery. S.D. usual (Nos. Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral (No. The entrances were placed at the side. and round arched style lasted 3. and bakehouses. The Church of the Apostles. Godehard. The eastern portion has three apses. giving richness and importance to this The grouping externally is effective. and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low octagonal tower.GERMAN ROMANESgUE. B. In plan it consists of a broad nave. and consisted of a double-apse church and cloister. the vaulting of one bay of the nave corresponds with two of the aisles. granaries. are of the basITican type with triple eastern apses. 83 E. S.D. is an interesting and typical example of a German It appears to have been Benedictine monastery of the period. HiMesKeim (1133). The Germans may claim to be or North Italian till about 1268. opening from three sides of the central space. The bold dignity of this church may be compared with the confused effect of the French chevet. both being covered with cross vaults. built A. 11501170). school. are other examples of triapsal churches for which the city of Cologne is famous. and few works of importance were erected elsewhere till the Gothic period. 768-814 by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb-house for is as resembling S. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western apses. dispensary. Etienne.D. infirmary. Cunibert. Ravenna himself. 1047). and S. Martin (A. as S. the portion of the church.D. Cologne (A. prepared by Eginhard. F). Gernrode Abbey Church (958-1050). and Spires Worms . c). Vitale. 105 and 106) vies with those of Mayence (A. Maria im Capitol (ninth century). F. 1220-1250) is one of a series in that city which possesses characteristic features (Nos. 101). orchard. a position which found favour in Germany as well as in England. EXAMPLES. 820) in Switzerland (page 276). and of aisles half the width of the nave. face of the wall being divided up by arcading. of which a complete plan was found in the seventeenth century. Gall (circa A.



Plans. and the lower by his retainers. one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles. and apses also occur at the ends of transepts.264 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 106 and 107 G). which is used as a tomb-house. Germany 4. remarkable for a series of double or two-storied churches. Numerous towers. 105 G). as in Lombardy. The building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne. arid the Church of the Apostles. but in some instances the upper church would appear to have been provided in case of floods. LandsIn these it is held that the upper chapel was berg. 1093-1156) is a Benedictine On/either side of the western apse. for the Gothic choir was added in 1353 to 1413. 107 G). Cologne (No. width. 105 c). were employed. Western apses are frequent (No.D. and over the crossing a tower. circular. The chapels surrounding the structure are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. to admit of cry_pts jbeneath. Laach Abbey Church example built completely in this style. apses. pro- ducing a rich and varied outline. (No. The building is of interest. connected horizontally by ranges of small arches springing from . B. Walls. D). as at Treves and the Abbey Church at Laach.and a characteristic finish consists of four gables and a steep roof. either square. 83 c.. are the principal entrances from the western atrium. as in the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (No. The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster strips. and there are three eastern (A. and the western tower has been added in recent years. A short description is given on No. or polygonal. and two at the west end. used by the Prince and his personal retinue. 1173). connected by a gallery (Nos. contrasting in this respect with Italian examples. generally attached to castles. two being usually at the east end flanking the apse. and the gables and roof of the octagon are of the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. and often raised. and Steinfurt.D. as in the plan of Worms Cathedral (No. Lubeck Cathedral peculiar to North Germany is type of brick architecture but the choir and aisles were not added till A. 105 c). 106). COMPARATIVE. as the crowning place of the Western Emperors.D. sometimes octagonal (No. A. a hip rafter rising from each gable top (No. is generally found. The naves and aisles are vaulted in square bays. 105 G). Western as well as eastern transepts occur. 1335 (page 398). as at Nuremberg. The towers rise in successive stories. 83. is a . The vaulting-bays of the nave and aisles are of similar (A. The choir is always apsidal. historically.


Mouldings (see Walls). 104 and 106). Internally the flat plain surfaces were occasionally decorated in fresco. vault was supported by half-barrel vaults over the aisles. 106). design. The churches have sometimes a triforium and always a clerestory. Ornament. Moller 1852. The doorways (Nos. In the north colored bricks were used. Owing to the smallness of scale this favourite feature may be considered as a string course or cornice. especially round the apses (Nos. being superior to the later Gothic examples. is common. are a special feature of the style. The c." " Leipzig." Folio.266 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Boisseree " (S. and spires of curious form. E. but the capitals and bases take a distinctive form. 107 c. Passe Rose " (Historical Novel). Openings. These are as a rule of indifferent F. H). and the traditions and examples of the early Christian and Byzantine mosaic decorations. occur under the eaves of roofs. Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst. 107 G). Denkmale der Baukunst am Nieder-Rhein. (No. the origin of which have already been dealt with (page 237). with half columns attached. A gable on each tower face. In the Rhine district a central semicircular barrel D. are well designed. the latter being formed by the intersections of the planes between the adjacent sides of adjoining gables forming a pyramid. 105 D and 107 E). Munich. 5. rarely in the west front or transept ends. Open arcades.). leading from Roman through Romanesque to Gothic. and the alternation of The capitals piers and columns is a favourite German feature. were carried on in color. Columns. Timber roofs were also employed for large spans. with high pitched intersecting roofs (No. S. F. being rarely grouped (No. Hardy (A. windows are usually single. corbels (Nos. Folio. thus accounting for the absence of sculptured foliage. . a system which led by degrees to complete Gothic vaulting. 1844. The nave arcades were generally constructed of square piers.). Roofs.). REFERENCE BOOKS. though bold in execution. <. G. 105 and 107 N) are placed at the side. being a step in the evolution of spire growth. Tower roofs. D. (G. and were unsuitable for rich decoration. No tendency towards tracery is found.

i. . iii. do with Western Europe. ii. 1 INFLUENCES. Refer to each country. Geological. Refer to each country. in Northern Europe. Geographical. a general outline sketch is given. 108) gives the general distribution of the various countries in the thirteenth century. i. Climate. is more suitable for Gothic than Classic Architecture. into existence. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. for it is a sun wheeling somewhat low on an average round the sky.PIM01 13 CENTURY 108. and shadows are better caught by outstanding buttresses and the flying lateral members of a Gothic 1 Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country. The map (No. Sweden and Norway had little to strong united states. England had become thoroughly united under the Norman Kings. The nations of Western Europe had come Germany was the centre of the Western Empire and the Kingdoms of France. It has been pointed out that the sun. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Italy and Spain were also becoming Russia.

Msriokbtry was responsible for the addition of' lady chapels either laterally. the-adoration of the Virgin Mary and other forms of ritual.268 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.about an increase of riches and the erection of magnificent'buildv. Introductory remarks and a description of the The immense various order of monks are given on page 218. and the Archbishops of Cologne. arcades. the periodical pilgrimages. Thomas at Canterbury. vaulting and ornamentation of the pointed arch . Religion. as at Salisbury (No. The worship of relics. under the Grecian or Italian sun. towns joined together for mutual defence. or at the eastern extremity. S. also had their influence on the monuments. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Snow and inclement weather were responsible for the high pitched Gothic roof of Northern Europe. Refer to each country. The demand for chapels dedicated to particular saints. for an ambulatory to be used for processional purposes. than by the level lines of the heavy horizontal Classic cornices. the country was ings owing to municipal rivalries. many of the Abbots and Bishops were princes of the Empire. In Italy. which afterwards became principalities. The principles and character of Gothic architecture were' similar throughout Western Europe. 109. which moves higher in the firmament. and are indicated on No. vi. was evidenced in the way they made and unmade Emperors and Kings and disposed of their dominions. many buildings. and by so doing attracted wealtri" and power to their orders. The clergy. also took a pro^ minent part in temporal affairs. and Mayence were among the Electors of the Emperor. \ * ".Refer to each country. iv. divided into different portions belonging to the larger towns. power of the Popes. and the foundation of chantry chapels where masses for the dead could be repeated. The fully-developed Gothic art of the thirteenth century was the style which had been slowly developing itself throughout Europe as a necessary sequence of Romanesque art. and of local saints (as S. Treves. Hugh at Lincoln. whereas in Germany. also affected the general plan of Social and Political. which was probably at its height in the thirteenth century. 117 E). amongst the most famous being those forming the Hanseatic league. facade. Historical. and is mainly recognized because of the introduction and use in door and window openings. which are more effective. S. as at Ely (No. in consequence of their learning. 2. 117 A). The growth of towns which developed into important cities brought . Jn Germany. Swithun at Winchester). -.

buttresses. 141 F. heaping it up in towers that rose on open archways through the lofty roofs of the naves and transepts. This elasticity was obtained by the employment of stone laid in narrow courses with tolerably th.tapered away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fretwork of lacelike tracery. the collected pressures of the vaulting and roof were counteracted by arches. Romanesque . had to employ the materials at hand according to their nature. H. and to seek for those laws of elasticity and equilibrium whidi were substituted for those of inert "stability as practised by the Greeks and Romans. called flying buttresses. indeed. and fifteenth centuries the Gothic masons carried to the utmost the use of stone as a building material. and the entire structure consisted of a framework of piers. Every vertical support in Gothic architecture depended for its stability on being stayed by a buttress. These principles led to the introduction of much novelty in ribs mouldings.ck mortar joints. In the case of the nave vaults. and . Walls became mere enclosures. and eventually pushing their practice to the furthest boundaries. capitals and piers. weighted with tall pinnacles (Nos. having their upper parts designed with combinations of curves of great variety. Even the . The Gothic architects. developing ' still further the principles of architecture (page 221). G. it is evident. Further. they cut the granular stone to the thinness of fibrous wood or iron. the comparative scarcity of materials taught the Gothic . and these were provided with shafts. suggestion of height coinciding with the aspiring tendency of the style and its connection with the religious enthusiasm of the period. sometimes carried on corbels and sometimes continued to the ground. which in its turn was weighted by a pinnacle and every arch-thrust met another which counteracted it. is 269 v ^ found so characteristic as to give a which. fourteenth. leaning against the nave wall and supported at some distance by massive piers.walls themselves were occupied principally by glazed windows. could have been developed without the employment of such a material as stone. 141). arches. In the thirteenth. and ribbed vaulting held in equilibrium by the combination of oblique forces neutralizing each other (No.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. laid in tolerably small courses with mortar joints. divided by stone mullions. and 153 A). No such system of construction. They hung it aloft in ponderous vaults treated by art to seem the gossamer web of nature. influencing very largely the form of the nave piers. 109 A. for the numerous vaulting being collected at intervals were supported on capitals of a shape formed to fit them. scarce capable of bearing the stalactite pendants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century its expression. which gave the necessary elasticity to the various pressures. and revelled in tricks of construction and marvels of workmanship.


doing as little as possible. but is only the expression of the structural necessities. The same principle of truth was upheld. the characteristic mouldings of the Mediaeval period exhibiting much less waste of material than those common in Classic times. if not most. in the best types of architecture. sisted of walling formed of a rubble core between two faces of stonework. was wanting in the Gothic period. yet others were the expression of artistic invention and of aesthetic requirements. and if the vaults are divided by ribs it is because they are so many sinews performing a necessary function. The architecture was adapted to a structure of small stones with thick mortar joints. conditions naturally influencing the forms of each style of architecture. which had helped to mould the Roman style. and it was no longer the self-contained Greek temple. of the architectural features were founded primarily on structural necessity. but at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The military organization. restless structure whose aspiring tendencies found expression in vertical grouping. If the column is a real support and has an expanded capital it is for the purpose of supporting a particular load if the mouldings . stone having to be sought in various quarries from different proprietors and transported by voluntary aid. but a complex. the Alps. but was a and an indication of municipal sign of the communal spirit spire of which it formed an outward and visible prosperity. the Gothic architects of Western Europe possessed stone which was strong and hard. and the East thus they were absolutely compelled to erect considerable buildings with thin courses of stone.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. The was evolved from no utilitarian requirements. Form. reposeful in the severity of horizontal lines. and taken away. expression. and could be split into thin pieces. loftier . ever and anon. Although many. unity being obtained by the exact and necessary correlation between all the parts. and in this particular. or by workmen who were forced labourers. 271 architects to practise economy in their use. Romanesque architecture con. In the Middle Ages it was the constructional features themselves to which an attractive form was given. but had not at their disposal either the marble of Pentelicus or the blocks of granite which the Romans procured from Corsica. but the form had changed. and was a compromise between the concrete walling and the jointed stones (without mortar) of the Romans. and ornaments have particular developments it is because they are necessary. the architecture of this period stands in close relation to Greek art. As to the material at hand. is not the result of caprice. to fight in their owners' battles. whereas the Greeks erected small buildings with enormous blocks of marble.

the paintings of the Greek temples. which were first constructed and which supported thin panels of The difficulties of vaulting oblong compartments. nor the mosaics and frescoes of the Byzantine and Romanesque periods produced color effects that can be compared with the brilliancy and the many-tinted splendours of the transparent walls of a Gothic cathedral. while the semicircular arch was The ribs became still used for some time for the diagonal ribs. As indicated on Nos. when by the grouping of windows and the subsequent formation of mullions and tracery. the walls were kept internally as flat as possible. 109 and 141. permanent centres on which the panels or "infilling" of thin stone could rest. the entire screen wall between . a new method was gradually evolved. so as to allow the windows to be seen internally in every direction. Further. in D) during the three centuries of Gothic architecture is one of the most fascinating studies of the : style. Vaulting. the resultant of the two being in an oblique direction. it was necessary for the architects of this period to find a mode of construction more homogeneous and more capable of resistance. Such pressures are of two kinds outwards by the nature of the arch. became of secondary importance. The walls. therefore. and to avoid the expense of labour which the carrying of material of large size involved. the pressures of the vaults were transmitted to the angles of each compartment by the diagonal ribs. the colored and sculptured slabs of the Assyrian palaces. where painted glass was the principal mode of decoration. the painted sculpture and hieroglyphics of the Egyptian temples. and the support of the structure was effected entirely by means of buttresses or short walls placed so as best to resist the thrust of thje vaulting. and enabled the building to be erected all at once or in parts without disadvantage to the solidity of the edifice. which was evolved from that of the Romans (page 224) and consisted of a framework of independent ribs. In the north and west of Europe. The invention of painted glass was an important factor in the development of the style. which was stone.272 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. for traceried windows came to be looked upon merely as frames in which to exhibit painted transparent Neither pictures displaying the incidents of Bible History. and downwards by the weight of the material. and more extensive edifices being built. The method was an extension of the Romanesque system. used to cover the shorter spans. their place being occupied by stained glass windows. The increase of the number and variety of ribs and the consequent form of the vaults (No. were now overcome by the introduction of the pointed arch. In seeking to diminish the size of the piers and thickness of the walls. all the mechanical expedients of buttresses and pinnacles being placed externally.

The place in the national life which the mediaeval cathedrals occupied was an important one. as evolved from the cruciform buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the period of Constantine. 170 and Italy (Nos. symbols. Architecture then as now was also the grand chronicle of . BUILDINGS ERECTED DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 119. Free Library. a development from the early Christian basilicas. sometimes crowned with a spire. 118. north and south. Cathedrals were erected and decorated partly as a means of popular education. 3. F. as may be seen on referring to those of England (Nos. Belgium (No. and by others. either in glass or statuary. by such modern institutions as the Board School. such as Old S. were there displayed. the sculptured forms and brilliant coloring being The virtues and vices. were mirrored in imperishable stone or colored glass. (Nos. 120 and 127). many of which were in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. both of peace and war. Picture Gallery and Concert Hall. The plans in all parts of Europe. and the various handicrafts. T . CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES. 176 and 179). the short arms. The founded construction of these buildings. Germany (Nos. was carried on from generation to generation. past and present. and they were the history books of the period.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Museum. A tower. 273 the piers came to be occupied by bright colored windows. these of necessity took the pointed form of the vault. along with their reward or punishment saints and angels told of the better life. to a large extent.A. 117. Peter. EXAMPLES. are generally in the form of a Latin cross. The sculpture and the painted glass reflected the incidents of Bible History from the creation to the redemption of mankind. in which Kings. taking the place in the social state since occupied. history. and 172). 167). forming the The cruciform ground plan is considered by some as transepts. with their easily understood by the people. and the choir. \s a rule the nave is the portion to the westward. was generally erected over the crossing or at the west end. France secular 155 and 159). which was further influenced by the desire for lofty windows to act as frames for the glass. and must be realized in order to understand how they were regarded. Nobles and Knights were represented. originally adopted for constructive reasons arising from the progress of the art of vaulting. Rome (page 182).


as at Norwich. Norwich (No. light being admitted by the windows in this portion of the nave wall. usually square-ended in England (Nos. Gloucester (No. Compared with such long. there are many deviations. Peterborough (No. T 2 . York. or "clear story. and a means of communication between different parts of the Abbey. rising above the aisle roof (Nos. Above this arcade are a series of small arches. The lady-chapel is placed beyond the choir at the extreme east end. 159. Such is the general distribution of the parts of a cathedral or large church. Lichfield (No. 118 D). from which. . Peterborough. 117. The east ends or choirs.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE containing the bishop and clergy. Worcester. The columns or piers support arches (the nave arcade). were probably derived from the atrium of the Early Christian period (page 180). 119 and 120) are generally richer than the remainder of the church. 167 and 187). and the floor is raised above the nave level by steps. 275 that to the eastward of the crossing. 118. admitting light into the upper part of the nave this division is called the clerestory. and central towers (see Chichester. 119." probably derived from . Oxford. high. 120 j). Durham. which carry the main walls. Wells. Canterbury. The head of these windows is generally the level of the ridge of the stone vault of the nave. Lincoln and Ripon. often richly ornamented. York. as at Lichfield (with spires). while Westminster Abbey has a ring of chapels or chevet (No. separated by columns or piers. were circular. Chester. and often shapeless. 109 A and 141 G). 118 B). 155. Rochester. Continental cathedrals seem short. 117 D). in the warmest and most sheltered position. Great length. The principal entrance. the French word clair. are features of English cathedrals western towers also occur in many examples. and Salisbury (No. forming part of the original monastic buildings. and highly grouped examples. 117 A). opening into a dark space caused by the height of the sloping roof of the aisle this is called the triforium. 120. the position and number of transepts (Nos. south and west of the transept. all of Norman origin. is IN EUROPE. Durham. for instance. is at the west end. low. Gloucester and Wells). such as. naturally. but not invariably. 118 c). 127). which is covered by a high pitched wooden roof. or " blind story. ~ Each of these divisions is further divided into a central nave and side aisles. as at Ely (No. and Canterbury (No. or by a porch on the south or north sides. forming the centre of the secular affairs of the monastery. 117 E). east ends of The The cloisters attached to so many of the English cathedrals. or on one side. 117. owing to the intricacy and . 118." Above Hhe triforium is a range of windows in the main wall. They are generally.

side to side . as as at Wear " . 121) "The ranged ramparts bright From level meadow-bases of deep grass > Suddenly sealed the " light or are situated picturesquely on the banks of a river. With hues romantic tinged the gorgeous pane. MONASTERIES. 153. are often completely surrounded by houses and shops (page 368). the friend of the poor. or Durham. To fill with holy light the wondrous fane. In churches. are trees. interested in agriculture and industrial pursuits the Cluniac was the student and artist the Carthusian the ascetic and the Friars the missionary preachers of the period. For comparison of English and French Cathedrals. A complete monastery. and his dress was adopted by University students the Augustinian favoured preaching and disputations the Cistercian was the recluse. of which S. . 109. on the other hand. a single western tower is an English characteristic (No. described by Scott as." . Gall (page 261) and Westminster Abbey (No. which in many cases were actually built against the wall of the church itself (No. included . These were amongst the most important structures erected in the middle ages. The monks according to their several orders favoured different The Benedictine was the chronicler and most learned pursuits. To aid the builder's model. 127) are good examples.276 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the wreathed window planned. Milton so descriptively has " it. profusion of their buttressing (Nos. They were erected by the various religious orders already referred to (page 218). Worcester. Lincoln (No. 162). and were important factors in the development of mediaeval architecture. The English Cathedrals. as a general rule. richly rude." Bosom'd high 'mid tufted The French Cathedrals. see page 378. By no Vitruvian symmetry subdued. as at Canterbury. 130). with capricious hand. . i25) and Salisbury (No. of monks. In many a maze. . 154). 1 . owe much of their beauty to the fact that they are generally placed in a large open space called the Close. " Grand and vast that stands above the or. pride. . The interior of a Gothic cathedral has been thus described " The tall shafts that mount in : massy Their mingling branches shoot from Where elfin sculptors with fantastic clue O'er the long roof their wild embroidery drew When superstition.

the dwellings of the people. surrounded (0. kitchen. bakehouses. Chester. Examples of secular work. and a comparative table of the underlying differences between the Gothic and Renaissance styles is given on page 442. servants' rooms. 5. servants' hall. with infirmary. and other civil and domestic work are referred to under each country. library and scriptorium (the writing and illuminating room for making copies of books).) A Cloister Court. off which were placed the Chapter House. was often by granaries. orchards. Monasteries answered the purpose of inns in little frequented places. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. Lists are given with each country. guest house. and barn. as is the case to this day on the continent. open to the public. and the dormitory adjoining the church.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE : IN EUROPE. . with double gateway for carts. tribunal. REFERENCE BOOKS. (e.) cellarage for beer. stables. store rooms. (d} The Church Court or Close. with the Sacristy between it and the church. thus placed to keep away noise and smell. (b. Wells. A Common Court. 4. abbot's lodging. The lavatory was usually placed in the south cloister walk as at Westminster. approached by a separate staircase. wine and oil. The comparative analysis of each country is given separately. such as castles and residences of the nobles. gardens. hospitals. On the opposite side to the church were the refectory (dining hall) and kitchens. workshops.) Mills. COMPARATIVE.) An Inner Court. 277 beside the church (a. Peterborough and Gloucester. The placed under the dormitory. prison. and fishponds.

when winds blew loud. i. Richard II." SHAKESPEARE. for it has assisted in the development of purely national characteristics. and by giving rise to an incurable habit of travelling. \ ANGLO-SAXON. defensive to a house.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. Geographical. responsible for the special character of the buildings in different parts of England. Geological. England. bound in with the triumphant sea. laid Under the grave of things. and lying opposite the rich and populous plains of Europe. thus the transport of stone by sea was an . Isolation by the sea has had two alternating influences. owed much of her development to the intercourse effected by her ships. Against the envy of less happier lands. of dread foundation. Or as a moat.se rocky shore beats back the envious siege. Which serves it in the office of a wall. Who. This precious stone set in the silver sea. " Diffused Spirit divine through forms of her arch Faith had her arch. The geology of the country is. Into the consciousness of safety thrill'd . " The England may well be considered unique. and pointing still to something higher. This happy breed of men. ROMANESQUE (NORMAN). position of i." WORDSWORTH. This fortress built by nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war. INFLUENCES. human art. has led to the importation of continental ideas in architecture. AND GOTHIC. And Love her tower-. in every part. ii. this little world. Hope had her spire Star high. in some way. England being an island with natural harbours.

and the oolitic formations. and high winds with much rain necessitate conThe deep stant forethought in building to exclude the weather. in parts of Hampton Court Palace. The distinction between the regular and secular clergy was fully established. 132 j. Hampton Court contains good examples of sixteenth and seventeenth century brickwork. and Christianity. porches and small entrances of English cathedrals are in contrast with continental entrances. and sixteenth centuries (Nos. The conversion to Christianity of the Kentish by S. Suffolk. Where forests afforded abundant material. in the absence of good roads. climate is cool. as in Lancashire. Climate. and are directly influenced by the iii. of course. Even in the Middle Ages stone was brought from a distance. 597.D.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. being probably the earliest brick building existing in Brickwork of modern type came into general use in England A. have all affected the districts in which they are found. during which period several popes succeeded in overruling the effected civil King ^Ethelbert was power. but cold. Terra-cotta was also employed. Caen stone from Normandy being used in the erection of Canterbury Cathedral and other as transport became churches. although. almost continuous work. chiefly during the fourteenth. easier. temperate. By the end of the tenth century the greater part of Europe had embraced The power of the papacy had steadily grown. the limestones of Portland. Little Wenham Hall (A. about departure of the Romans. fifteenth. after being comparatively unused since the England. was at its height from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. gives a special character to the architecture of these districts. 279 important reason for its use in some districts. Augustine in A. 1260). and the different orders of monks had come into . but not pushed to extremes until a later date. such as the Bath stones. attempts at the assertion of national independence were continuous. The granites of Cornwall and Devonshire. and moist. during every season. mild. Essex (1500-1525). 1300. as at Layer Marney Towers. half-timbered houses were erected.elsewhere. but in the Fen districts. adapted The and is for climate.D. and parts of the south coast. In chalk districts the characteristic flint work of Norfolk. in Suffolk.D. there was a tendency for these local distinctions to disappear. material was conveyed on horseback. iv. Cheshire and. Religion. and 150. During the reigns of William and Mary and Queen Anne. and 247). In England. damp. brickwork was largely used in house construction by Sir Christopher Wren and others.

building. Richborough. but the influence of their architecture continued for a considerable period. which accounts for peculiarities of plan differentiating them from French Examples. 363. Many of the cathedrals formed part of monastic foundations (page 294). Social and Political.D. Leicester.) Fosse (d. A. A. and Chester. existence. The excavations at Silchester revealed the remains of a very ture. The in civilizing power of the Roman The roads was of importance opening out the country. v. Agricola built his forts from the Clyde to the Forth. baths. (. and progress was made in agriculand mining. A. 81. 731) for most of the information regarding this period. as a Roman colony.D. Britain. and signifies a Roman settlement in this country.280 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D.) Way. and from him is learnt that a stone church was a rarity. The Roman settlements in this country were. Hadrian's wall built from the Tyne to the Solway.) Wailing Ermine Icknield Street. temples. is derived from the Latin word castra = camp. their buildings exhibiting characteristic points of difference (page 2 1 8). Edmunds to Salisbury and Southampton. 420. Bury to Lincoln. and Burgh Castle (near Yarmouth). indicating the religious zeal of the period.D.D. Darenth in Kent. such as those at Colchester. as at Winchester. and villas as at Bath. 210. The Emperor Severus strengthened Agricola's forts. After the departure of the Romans in A. and protested against the dogmas of the papacy. The word "Chester. : four great roads in England were (a. Lincoln. Bignor in Sussex. markets. The remains of this epoch consist chiefly of castles. John Wycliffe (d. St. and Fifehead-Neville in Dorset. The arrival of the Angles and Saxons did not improve matters. provided with basilicas or halls of justice. the Roman dress and language being adopted by the British higher classes. 283. A. Silchester. 650 seems to be of We . 1384) asserted the freedom of religious thought. The Crusades. near Shrewsbury. A. Street. The dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. many of them. fine basilica. was divided into five provinces. London London to Wroxeter. the remains Roman work were largely destroyed by the barbarians who succeeded them. as they were especially ignorant in all matters of art. to Lincoln via Colchester and Cambridge. are referred to on pages 218. provided funds for the erection of new mansions." as an affix. are indebted to the Venerable Bede (A. 1 20. York.D. Cornwall Street.D. 449-547.) (b.

assisted materially in forwarding the technical progress new buildings. The English language was ordered to be used in the law courts.D. 1265-1284. Monastery of Peterborough founded. to which burgesses were first of the cities and boroughs. 1265. Westminster Abbey (consecrated 1065). 1362. 681. A. See of Rochester founded. at Rochester Castle. A.D. though the process was slow and difficult.D. A.D. King Cnut founded Bury St. King Alfred erected. but most of these appear to have been built of wood. and covered with thatch. the Tower of London. A. Benedict Biscop flourished as a church-builder. many of the ruined cities or monasteries. The Association of Freemasons. 1042-1066. took place. 656. Edward I. led the way in self-government. 1272-1307. William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury his and work at Cathedral. Edward the Confessor's religious enthusiasm. 1017-1035. 1154-1216. and remedied abuses. Leicester's Parliament. 1215.D.D. A. The rise of the farmer class and free labourer. 281 about the date at which stone churches were first built. 871-901. in order to withstand the strangers whom the Angevin kings were constantly bringing into England. Harold's Collegiate Church at Waltham conse- crated. 134). and the formation of towns. 604. A. The boroughs and justice. was called.D. 603. During this period the fusion of the native English and Norman settlers was effected. A.D. A. or rebuilt. influenced the construction of strongholds. abandoned his foreign dominions. A. A.D.D. and peace and prosperity in commerce gave importance to a middle class. The conquest of England by the Normans.D. Edmunds monA. and elsewhere. free speech. A.D. A. astery. 1061. around the abbeys or castles.D. A. 1174. 1349-1381. and attempted to consolidate Great Britain. founded early in the thirteenth century. The framework of modern political institutions began to develop. A. . summoned from A.D. See of London revived.D.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE.D. A. and the building operations of Bishop Gundulf.D. The conquest of Wales led to further development in the planning and design of castles. and in some of these it has been suggested that the timber forms of the earlier ones were executed in stone (No. The Magna Charta freed the Church. by which the invaders secured their position in the newly-conquered country. 1066.

and many other buildings. gradually brought the other English kingdoms and into subjection. the General of Domitian. King of the Saxons. carried out a large number of building operations at Winchester. 1476. including the college and refacing of the cathedral. 449-547. The Edward received the homage of all Britain.D. which swept away half the population of England. 84. A. R. French traders at the same time came to reside in London and the large towns. 450-550. Saxons and Jutes) conquest of Britain.D. . A. Expedition of the Emperor Claudius into Britain. 597-681. is well treated in "A Short History of the English People. exercising a marked influence on his writings. Julius Caesar's first expedition into Britain. 43. united the Houses. The Wars of the Roses. (the The English Low Dutch tribes known as Angles. Roman troops withdrawn from Britain. developed education. Augustine landed in England and the conversion to Christianity A. development of political institutions. Countess of Richmond. 420. A. against France. 1485.D. Green.282 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Accession of Henry VII. A. distracted England at this period.C. the West Welsh 802-837. the manners and government of the English being transformed.D. when a great impulse was given to the The Lady Margaret. LL.D. A. . A. and influenced art. diplomatic services. 924. Destruction of British churches by heathen invaders. to the owing Black Death. 55. conquest of England by the A. in Italy and Flanders." by J. of York and Lancaster. as the foundress of colleges.D. and the' military organization of feudalism introduced. William of The poet Chaucer (1340-1400) fought in the Edward III.D.D. The A. which can hardly be considered apart from the architecture which they produced. and should be referred to by the student. one of the greatest Gothic builders.D. 1455-1471. a press \ being established by him in the Almonry at Westminster. commenced. Final conquest of Britain by Agricola. Historical. vi. thus bringing over Continental ideas. Normans caused a social and political revolution. Egbert (a friend of Charlemagne). B. The condition of the English people. A.D. his employment on army of Wykeham (d. The introduction of printing by Caxton.D. between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster.\ A.D. King A. 1066.D. 1404).

Perpendicular (page 349). Romanesque period have been already explained on page 224. A. which brought about the conWest. riot as castles or places of defence. Early English (page 335). These and various other causes led to the great Renaissance movement. and a comparative table showing the approximate period covered by each is given on page 327. and Tudor (page 356).D.an Italian. A. Sutton Place (A. 1521-1527). known as the " Hundred Years' War. 1431. The wars with France. Norman (page 328). aided in the formation of the great which had a direct influence on feudalism and the Church. an accomplished painter of portraits and designer of goldsmiths' work and woodwork.D. and Henry VIII.D. The architectural character of Gothic architecture in Europe has already been referred to on page 268.. 1500. 2. Bordeaux. of England crowned King France at Paris. henceforward constructed. Gothic Vaulting The problems of vaulting during in the England. The Crusades. amongst whom was Hans Holbein.ENGLISH GOTHIC. where the essential differences between Roman and Mediaeval vaulting are compared. Girolamo da Trevigi.D. but as residences. visited the French King. who followed in his train returning imbued with the newly introduced Renaissance style as practised in France.D. The introduction of gunpowder ruined feudalism. c. A. fortresses which were impregnable against the bow of the yeoman and retainer. crumbling before the new artillery which Houses were lay at the entire disposal of King Henry VII. Francis I. is one of the earliest examples of a non-castellated domestic residence (page 322). as of Henry VI. which is referred to on page 547. on the Field of the Cloth of Gold the King and the many knights . Edward the Prince of Aquitaine. 1095-1254. It is usually divided into periods having special characteristics and known as Anglo-Saxon (page 327). was appointed Court Architect.D. 1520. The development of mediaeval architecture in England from the departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century. A. 1338-1453. and from this period modern ideas of domestic economy gradually transformed house planning. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. has a more complete sequence of style than in other countries. tact of East and 283 universities. A.D. Decorated (page 341). Henry VIII. encouraged other foreign artists. 1360. The first . near Guildford." Black Prince ruled at A.

III. .


as in the aisles at Peterborough Cathedral (No. These severies were of arched resting upon the back of the ribs. those with the longest span) remaining semicircular. 135) (b) groined cross vaulting in square bays (No. 112 D. great advance was made by the introduction of the pointed arch. whereas mediaeval vaulting consisted in profiling the groins which were erected first and supporting the vaulting surfaces which were made to adapt themselves to them. . surmounting all the difficulties of difference in span.D. were pointed (d) Sexpartite (six part) vaulting as in the choir at Canterbury Cathedral. in and 112. as shown in Nos. or (&) to make the diagonal ribs semicircular and stilt A the springing of the transverse and longitudinal ribs. L. c). . as at the Tower of London (No. consisted entirely in the design of the vaulting planes or surfaces without reference to their meeting lines or groins. 112 B. which produced the domical vault employed on the Continent. rebuilt by William of Sens in A. Two views of this type of vaulting at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen are shown in No. G). but the introduction of transverse and diagonal ribs in this period rendered temporary centering necessary for these. also known " " as " severies or " infilling were quite subordinate to the ribs and were of clunch or light stone in thin beds. in D and 112 j. F. The evolution of vaulting in England. 112 E. Norman vaulting was either (a) cylindrical or barrel vaulting. The pointed arch became permanently established. The following may be taken as the main features of vaulting in each period.e.286 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . 1174. and the method was either (a) to make diagonal ribs segmental. and are indicated in Nos. The church was thus crowned with a fire-resisting covering over which a wooden roof was placed in order to protect it from the weather. The cells. as on the Continent. or. in the later period. Norman. Thus it was in connection with the necessity for counteracting the thrust of the nave vaults brought down on piers that the greater part of the evolution of the constructive side of the style took place. in stone. which was used firstly for the transverse and wall ribs only. seems to have been but little used. 112 A) (c) other shapes in which the narrower vaulting arches were stilted (No. . and enabling vaults of varying sizes to intersect without stilting or other contrivances. In England the raising of the diagonal rib. the diagonal ribs (i. involved the solution of a group of constructive problems which have been already hinted at on page 272. The problem for the mediaeval architects was to vault. and at the same time to provide for the lighting of the building by means of clerestory windows in the nave walls above the aisle roofs. the nave of a church of the basilican type. The Roman system was in vogue up to the twelfth century. Early English (Thirteenth Century).

Later in the century intermediate ribs.ENGLISH GOTHIC. continuous. and were especially needed to strengthen the vaulting surfaces by decreasing the space between the ribs. The plain four-part (quadripartite) ribbed vault. and as found in the churches of South- West France. 109 A. the plan thus formed would have as many angles as ribs. in D). however. the "infilling at the ridge in zigzag lines as in the nave of Westminster meeting Abbey (No. when forming the window arch bordering on a vaulting compartment. were introduced between the transverse and diagonal ribs as in the vaulting of the nave of Westminster Abbey (No. 127 c)." because forming a boundary for each compartment. and any horizontal section of a spandrel or meeting of two cross vaults would be a rectangle.) This was a of the common arrangement. varying according to the curve of the latter. as in the naves of Durham. The curvature of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more centres." so called from its resemblance to a ploughshare. 112 j. Decorated (Fourteenth Century). The "ploughshare twist. as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting compartment (No. called a " formeret. Ridge ribs are generally horizontal in England and arched on " or "severy" having its courses the Continent. Gothic system was a rough use of mathewhich beauty was sought for. 287 form. primarily constructed as a skeleton framework of diagonal and transverse ribs. -During this period there was an increase and elaboration of intermediate ribs . was also introduced. and the naves and choirs of Lincoln. was chiefly used in this period. and designed without reference to the curvature of adjoining ones. 112 K. In this lies the w hole difference between the Roman and mediaeval systems. In the ribbed Gothic vault. and Gloucester. M). and would have a tendency to fall towards the centre of the compartment unless resisted by In continental examples the ridge rib is often not the ridge rib. Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals. known as tiercerons. In such cases ridge ribs were introduced in order to take the thrust of the tiercerons which abut at their summit at an angle. A wall-rib. and not a strict Peterborough. above that of the diagonal and transverse ribs (No. and were constructed so that their pressure was directed towards the piers and not the wall rib. but only extends to the last pair of arches which abut against it obliquely. L). and the aisles of T windows. for in the former the vaulting surface is everywhere level in a direction parallel to the axis of the vault. was produced by stilting or raising the springing of the wall rib. and was necessary in order to obtain greater height for the clerestory The geometry matical truths in regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration. but often had winding surfaces. Salisbury (No.

the panels being sunk in the soffit of the stone forming the vault instead of being separate stones The solid method seems to have resting on the backs of the ribs. however.e. ridge ribs. of of this period therefore consisted of transverse. and the vaulting of Winchester Cathedral (No. N. of such surface. been adopted first in the crown of the vaults where the ribs were most numerous. in which the main ribs. by their number and disposition. In some "perpendicular" vaults the two . described above (No. which. Ely (No. it is often called Stellar" vaulting (No. In the fifteenth century the setting out of the vault was much simplified by the introduction of what " is generally known as "Fan vaulting. Q) led. a change in the direction of the vaulting surface.. but lierne ribs were merely ribs lying in a vaulting surface. Bristol (No. a vault of numerous ribs. Tewkesbury Abbey nave. into a polygonal (hexagonal) pyramid. not springing from an abacus. i. Owing to the reduction of the size of panels. Sepulchre. by a succession of trials and phases. s. Holborn. and in consequence of the star-shaped pattern produced " by the plan of such vaults. forming equal angles with each other and being all the same curvature.288 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. In the early plain -ribbed vaulting each rib marked a groin. except a ridge rib. diagonal. Wells. The complicated "stellar" vaulting of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (No. 137 F). known as " rib and panel " vaulting. Examples 1337-1377). of this type exist in the choirs of Gloucester \ii2 Q). and elsewhere. for in fan vaulting the whole vault was often constructed in jointed masonry. Q).. The vaulting Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century). and a new set of ribs (tiercerons). These liernes. to a peculiarly English type of vaulting in this century known as fan. and of panels which became smaller and smaller until a single stone frequently spanned the space from rib to rib. Wykeham. o). 112. In the fourteenth century the masons converted this shape. The development was somewhat as follows: In the thirteenth century the form of an inverted four-sided hollow rectangular pyramid was the shape given to the vault. 112 P. The name "lierne" is applied to any rib. their form being determined independently regulated their curvature. 112 R. by the introduction of more ribs. P. often give an elaborate or intricate appearance to a really simple vault (No. known as Lierne ribs. intermediate. 112 N. palm or conoidal vaulting. a return was made to the Roman method of vault construction.D. 124 E. and connected at different heights by horizontal lierne ribs. ridge and lierne ribs in fact. as carried out (A. as in S. from the French lien to bind or hold. due to the increase in the number of the ribs.D. are formed on the surface of an inverted concave cone. F). o. 1390) by William (A.

's Chapel. . s) borough. Windsor R. 112 the retro-choir. and the transverse and wall ribs. The difficulty of supporting the flat lozenge-shaped space in the top portion of the vault surrounded by the upper boundaries of the hollow cones was comparatively easy in the cloisters. thus reducing the size of the flat central space. the pendants also placed some distance from the wall. and other examples beyond those already mentioned are in the Divinity Schools. . Ely. 299 M) is typical of the architecture of the Tudor period. must be considerably less than quadrants. and elsewhere. although it seems to have been used in the vaulting of earlier churches (No. as in arches to . George's Chapel. Gloucester Cathedral (No. These four-centred arches were afterwards applied to other parts of the buildings in England. the whole vault is of jointed masonry. to which the reason for its adoption is held to be due. and this would m'ake the window arch in the nave wall of acute lancet form but the window arch was made equilateral or even less in height compared to its span in this period.ENGLISH GOTHIC. 1513) the conoid was occurred.A. each portion must obviously be less than a quadrant. At Oxford Cathedral a somewhat similar method was adopted. Fan vaulting is confined to England. 289 . but the sides were cut off. obviate this the transverse and diagonal ribs in an oblong compartment were sometimes made as four-centred arches. Cambridge Henry VII. which were in others. difficulties In King's College Chapel (A. but when it was attempted to apply it to the bays of the nave.D. The depressed four-centred arch (No. and changing it from an oblong to a square on plan. being shorter. Oxford. as generally twice as long transversely as longitudinally. and a polygonal form of ribs adhered to. In the nave of Henry VII. if the diagonal rib is to be a pointed twocentred arch. and appears to have been first used largely JLD &*l Vaulting. For example. 's Chapel pendants supported by internal arches were placed away from the walls and the conoids supported on these. U . Westminster. in D). because the vaulting spaces to be roofed were square or nearly so. all the ribs starting with the same curvature. systems are found. as at King's College Chapel. continued to the centre. It is not found out of England. especially if the compartment is oblong. and so the segments of a diagonal arch of two centres preserving the same curvature would not meet at their summit without becoming To horizontal or possibly bending downwards to each other. thus forming an awkward junction transversely. PeterS. Trinity Church. being supported on an upper arch. F. where this type of vaulting was first introduced. but at a certain height the portions above this level were drawn with a longer radius in order that they might meet the ribs from the opposite side of the vault at the required height.

which form such Bosses. being merely two rafters pitching one against another with the tiebeam inserted. Henry VII. and it was never entirely discarded by mediaeval builders. being cambered or curved in the later examples this camber governed the pitch of the roof. (i. The bosses. 113 B). This was probably the only form known at the Norman period. as at Caudebec. the beam is merely pinned to the wall-plate at either end and unconnected with the Various methods were afterwards adopted in order to rafters. (2. 113 A. (4. and other places. The special forms of vault used in Chapter Houses are referred to is a later form often used in connection with fan vaulting. were a constructive the awkward junction "of the necessity. possibly with a desire to harmonize with the important superstructure of vaulting.) Trussed : Hammer-beam Roofs of various forms. being used in every succeeding style (No. connecting the tie-beam with wall-pieces (No. " Pendant " vaulting of vaulting.) . roofs of the Middle Ages are a special and may be classed in the following five divisions. the purlins resting immediately on it.) The "Tie-beam there is any record. and the simplest in construction. concealed above the vaulting. being illustrated on No. and tracery work in panelling. (5. in order that the awkward mitres of the rib mouldings might be hidden behind the ornament " " " " decorative of the boss.) forms. Collar-braced Roofs. B).) Aisle Roofs of several Roof" is the earliest form of which (i. Examples of pendant but not of fan vaulting are frequent in the Flamboyant period (fifteenth century) in France. Curved braces were often inserted.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . and form abutments to support the pendant conoids. 's Chapel and Oxford Cathedral are examples of this method on page 299. or ornamental keystones. holding their lower portions to counteract the outward thrust on the walls. Open Timber Roofs The open timber English feature of the Middle Ages. as at Wellingborough Church. primarily used to cover various ribs meeting at all angles. features in Gothic vaulting.) Tie-beam rafter or single-framed Roofs. in which pendants as elongated voussoirs are dropped from a constructive pointed arch. 113 Roofs. including arch-braced roofs. In the early examples. the whole being framed together and (3. make the truss harmonize well with other features. doors and windows. The tie beam was rarely straight.

Roof" is. and consists generally of hammer-beam. 113 A). 113 A). and to remove this hollow and unsightly appearance an upright strut was introduced. (2. and the weight of the roof carried lower down the wall by means of a curved brace tenoned into the hammer-beam and wall-piece. Being thus strengthened. 113 j). 1 13 A. E. B. which gave a pleasing effect. and elsewhere. As the bosses. as at Solihull Church. This greatly added to the stability of the roof. It is improbable. was probably chosen in order to form a space for the pointed vaults.) The "Trussed Rafter or Single-framed Roof. roofs of steeper pitch the open space above the tie-beam was filled in with perpendicular strutting or carved open work. 113 A). as seen at Morton Church. as a suspending piece. and is held to be the The arched form origin of the hammer-beam roof (No. The hammer-beam is merely the " " at the foot of lengthening and thickening of the sole-piece the trussed rafter (No. 2QI In giving the favourite form of the arch. A pillar or king-post and struts were often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the rafters. Norfolk. springing from a wall-piece below the tie-beam. was not satisfactory. 113 j). which were sometimes passed through the collar. Norfolk. as at Outwell Church. as at Stowe Bardolph Church (No. repeated at intervals of 10 feet or more. The timbers with wooden pins. This is an inversion of the use of king-post and tie-beam as adopted in modern roofs. This type of roof was often boarded on its underside. as at Swardstone Church and also as shown in No. It has been supposed by some that the hammer-beam arose from the cutting away of the tie-beam in the centre when a curved brace is used beneath the tie-beam. as at Outwell Church. was obtained by the use of curved braces fixed to the rafters and collar. are as at S. together outside of the wall rafters pitched on the a ledge was left on the inside. collars and curved braces. H. ribs and Wimbotsham. Mary. 113 D. as stated.) The to be a natural evolution of the triangular framing adopted at the foot of the trussed rafter roof (No. struts. and having once been used the superiority of its construction and appearance led to its being largely substituted for the tie-beam form." of which there are many examples. supports the intermediate rafters of the bay. it forms a truss which. as shown in No. the principal rafter being strutted. Lincolnshire. in which the former acts A timber arch was sometimes introduced. forming a pentagonal ceiling ornamented with Norfolk. but as the tie-beam always intersected this the result. and sometimes stopped on the underside. In roofs of large span each rafter had a collar stiffened by braces. j. considered (3. as at Lympenhoe Church.ENGLISH GOTHIC. halved and held "Hammer-beam U 2 . forming a triangular foot (No.


and there is little more resemblance between a hammer-beam roof and a tie-beam roof than consists in their both being double framed. Norfolk (No. as at Capel S. These are the main divisions. (c. Suffolk. the apex being framed into a wedge-shaped strut.ENGLISH GOTHIC. hammer-beam principals as at are supplied .) Those with no collars and no struts. (No. (e.e. Brinton Church is another example of the arch-braced type. Ipswich. 113 D). the object of the second range being to further the principals and convey the weight on to the first range and thence to the wall. in which a shorter hammerbeam is used. earlier. itself. but the effect is more complicated and less pleasing.) Those in which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces carried to the ridge. and include arch-braced roofs. the tiebeam was used in all types of roof. 1399 (No. (#. 113 H) and Eltham. A. braces. (d. as at S. forming a rigid chief support. and Middle Temple Hall : E). both having principals or trusses placed at regular intervals.} Those with collarbeams and no struts but curved braces. but there are various minor modifications of the type. i. so called when the collar is omitted and the arched brace carried up to the This form is very like that constructed nearly a century ridge. where the intermediate with hammer-beams this is a late example. but with the important difference that at Tunstead the braces are of the same thickness as and appear to form part of the principal rafters. as at Palgrave Church. as at Trunch Church. Mary. 113 c). 113 H). 113 stiffen . as at Westminster (No. collars and curved (a. There are many varieties of this form of roof struts. even in conjunction with the Outwell. whereas the collarbraced kind are not more than 4 inches thick. is an example of this collar-braced form. Moreover. Suffolk. structed until the end of the fourteenth century. and were not in Westminster Hall is the general use until the fifteenth century. that this was the origin. Suffolk. as Little Welnetham Church. curved braces only being used from ridge The archto hammer-beam. as at Tunstead Church. and was probably constructed after the hammer-beam Hammer-beams were not contype had attained perfection. Double hammer-beam roofs have two ranges of hammerbeams. Norfolk principals may be about 10 inches.D. which has no principal.) Those with a main arched rib springing from wall-piece and reaching to a collar. as opposed to the trussed rafter type. They usually occur when the pitch is flatter. 293 however. Margaret. while the Pulham Church. The curved braces answer the double purpose of strengthening the principals (No.) Those with hammer-beams. braced roof is the outcome of this latter form.) "Collar-braced Roofs" are a simplification of the hammer-beam form.. (4. earliest recorded example.

) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation. Rochester. Winchester. The constitution and foundation of English Cathedrals is important and is largely responsible for their monastic character and general arrangement. and carrying the weight lower down the which they also help Aisle Roofs in the early period were merely a continua- At North Walsham. and the Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff. Chester. 113 G) and Ixworth Church (No. and the hammer-beam was rarely introduced for these. forming a corbel for the wall-piece of the nave roof. David's. and S. (c. known as Norman. Lincoln. When the change in these monastic establishments was : : : . Paul. Ely. Wells. and which were reconstituted at the dissolution of the monasteries as chapters of secular canons. Refer to the General Introduction to Gothic Architecture (page 273). Peterborough. When they were gabled they were usually of low pitch. these buildings were mostly erected in the styles and Perpendicular. Gloucester. wall. Oxford. Worcester. being served by secular clergy. As mentioned in architectural character (page 283). thus Aisle roofs were usually simple. Exeter. Durham. Norwich. (&. Asaph. intermediate trusses being introduced to strengthen the purlins. The following is a list The Cathedrals of Canterbury. Norfolk tion of the rafters of the nave.) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. CATHEDRALS. Carlisle. and Bristol.) The Cathedrals of the old foundation are those which. S. is carried through the (a tie-beam roof). The following is a list The Cathedrals of York. New Walsingham Church (No. Westminster Abbey was a Cathedral Church from A. EXAMPLES.) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation. binding the whole together. They may be divided into three classes (a. London. 113 F) are good types of aisle roofs. Chichester. Decorated. 1540-1545. S. Lichfield. 3.) The Cathedrals of the monastic foundation are those which were originally served by regular clergy or monks. (b. the tie-beam of the aisle wall. Early English.2Q4 to steady. were not affected by the reforms of Henry VIII. Hereford. Salisbury.) Cathedrals of the New Foundation. The student is referred to Gothic Architecture in Europe (page 273) for the different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages which are here further enlarged upon. (a.D. Bangor. (5.




including many which formerly served as churches of the great monastic institutions of the period. but were served by secular clergy. chapter houses. workshops. where they are frequently found. and the Irish. library. Most of the English Cathedrals were founded or remodelled after the Conquest. The character which each Cathedral possesses generally indi: cates its Cathedrals are almost peculiar to England and Germany.. Davids excepted) have no cloisters. and the following Parochial Churches S. wine cellars. round which the various buildings enumerated above were grouped. guest Cloisters hall. prison. foundation are those to which (. and others. (cf. and gardens page 261). In these countries a large proportion of the Cathedral Churches formed part of monastic establishments in which are original purpose. viz. The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield. The plans are long and narrow. Southwell. and the the personnel generally made the abbot became the bishop. were provided with the apsidal easte . the monks became canons and choristers .) The Cathedrals of the new which are bishops have been appointed. The buildings founded by the Norman prelates. differing in not being provided with the buildings enumerated above. Canterbury.2g8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. scrip- torium. Monastery of S. thus presenting a complete history of the evolution of Gothic Architecture. Newcastle. whereas in France it is seldom more than four times the width. and The the choir is often of nearly the same length as the nave. The absence of double side aisles (Chichester and Manchester excepted) and side chapels tends to show that worship was more congregational in form than on the Continent. extreme length is often as much as six times. especially in France. refectories. Albans. as Norwich. as at Salisbury and Wells. mills. and Truro. They were also frequently planned as an ornamental adjunct to cathedrals of the old foundation which were not part of monastic establishments. The French Cathedrals were mostly erected in the thirteenth century by funds provided by the laity. dormitories. old Collegiate Churches. prior the dean. Scotch and Welsh Cathedrals (S. Manchester. York and Manchester. Ripon. The English Cathedrals are thus peculiar in retaining many of the conventual features. were required in monastic establishments from necessity. infirmary. Monastic found cloisters. Wakefield. fact that Diversity of style in each building was caused by the with the single exception of Salisbury (page 309) many were erected in all periods. as they formed a covered way for the use of monks. Gall. remaining the same. Ripon and Southwell. and therefore do not form part of monastic establishments.

D. in striking contrast with the French The Chapel examples. Canterbury. Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France. for " " the buildings. 1084 1 1 60) is circular internally. Wells and Worcester. Note." and seen in conjunction with cloisters. No. and Perpendicular . all of which have vaults supported by a central pillar and the surrounding walls. restless effect (cf. while at Lichfield (No. 2QQ termination. but has no central pillar. the flying buttresses to the chevet end of the building produce a confused. The normal type is octagonal with a central pillar to support the vaulting. 116) all three towers are crowned with spires. The central tower is generally accompanied by two western towers. and in contrast to the large western porches of the French Cathedrals. They were originally square in plan. The English Cathedrals. which produced a very different external effect.D. nave The refectory and outbuildings. which is further emphasized by the comparative lowness of the vault. 70 K). and/or the sake of brevity the Early English. In France owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. 1242-1290) is an eastern transept. The main entrance was frequently by a south-western porch. as at Lincoln (1225). 1093-1140) is apsidal. and is sometimes crowned with a high tapering spire. Salisbury (1250). but the English type evolved through Durham to Lincoln had square eastern terminations from the Saxon prototype (page 327). The characteristics peculiar to the leading cathedrals are here indicated. Chapter houses were required for the transaction of business by the chapter or bishop's council. sometimes developed into a chevet.ENGLISH GOTHIC. being covered with a sham wooden vault 57 feet in diameter. exteriors are in direct contrast to Continental examples. 117-120 for the plans. form a part only of the entire composition (page 276). 1142-1170). owe their internal effect to their enormous length. Ely. 115 and 116 for comparative views of models of the Cathedrals. Westminster (1250). as at Salisbury and Norwich. in reality of the Nine Altars at Durham (A. The characteristic high central tower. 114. The transepts project considerably. is rendered very effective in contrast with the low nave. being mostly situated in a quiet " close far from the madding crowd. and that at Worcester (A. as at Lincoln. acting as a screen against the cold winds. 101) absent in the English buildings. as at Bristol (A. York. Gloucester. See Nos.D. and there are occasionally secondary transepts. Canterbury and Durham. Lincoln. Decorated. as at Salisbury. York (1280-1330) is also octagonal. and Nos.D. but the example at Durham (A. and Wells (1292) (No.





114 G. "Ely (Nos. and high. " Becket's Crown. 114 B. on the north side. as in in having nave some German churches (cf. Norman work being of singular interest.. Peculiar and aisles of nearly equal height. flanked originally with bold north and south transeptal projections. transept called the "Chapel of the Nine Altars. The sides of the octagon are unequal. Fine central spire. Cloisters on the north. which it inspired. "Durham (No.. Norman really caused by the formation of lateral chapels. is of lesser interest. The Bell Tower is the only example of its kind belonging to an English Cathedral. 117 A. Internally. and clerestory.E. also late. Originally the church of the Benedictine order of S. 114 A. composition. . Band Norman nave and transepts. and Perp. 1306-1332. the original crypts are under all the eastern portion. respectively. Rectangular vaulted chapter house. resembled that of the Cathedral at Sens. and a central Perp. 1099-1128. There is thus an absence of the usual Norman recesses for monuments. E. by Alan of Walsingham. the special point is the massive arcade of the Norman nave. "Canterbury (Nos." Dec. 1140. 136 A. 6.E." in massive E. (1198-1215) Galilee porch. Chichester (No. style. The plan influenced that of S. Choir remarkable for splendid carving. . 216 feet in height. It. Present church is Dec. 120 B). two square bays in plan. the finest in England. No. the west front and towers are unimportant. A. Lady chapel at the east end. 119 G). The chapter house is oblong. Paul.E. Carlisle (No. 1133 and is said to be the earliest example of a Norman vault in England.D. Perp.304 styles are denoted COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE'. rivals. on the destruction of Anselm's Norman choir in 1170. 137 F). with fine wooden ceiling. Those which were E. The nave was vaulted in A. replacing a lallen central tower. Exceptional lady chapel. in 1322. is in the Late Perp. Norman work (1096-1133). Most noted feature is the unique octagon. ico feet by 46 feet. west front is an imposing composition (180 feet wide). 115 B. 172). An eastern 7. Canterbury." At the extreme east is the curious chapel called Extensive There are double transepts. choir of singular interest. owing to the bold tower. 5. E. The splendid central tower. 2. the churches of Benedictine monasteries (page 218) are distinguished by an asterisk *. has a rich vault of wood only. The singular contraction of the width of the choir. in a style after French models. containing the most perfect of tracery windows. "Elder Lady Chapel.D. 119 D). reaching to a central octagonal lantern. the openings. much in the civil wars. 253). large number of side chapels resembling Continental Cathedrals. An Augustinian monastery. nave. central and lower portion of south-western towers. and In 1866 thoroughly restored by Sir G. The chief example of double aisles. with timber roof and modern paintings. Dec. but suffered Scott. vaulted and elaborately arcaded. is worthy of notice. Bristol (Nos. The. erected by William of Sens. if any. cloisters. 116 118 B). are of great beauty. In front of the tower projects the E. ended by big octagonal turrets. in order to In plan thjs choir preserve two ancient Norman chapels. Werburgh. tower. London (No. help to form a group which for strength of outline and dignity have few. 229 feet The nave. On his death the work proceeded under William the Englishman. Perp. 1. Built of red sandstone. "Chester (Nos. A A An Augustinian Abbey. Bangor (No. being alternately 20 feet and 35 feet. 118 E).. 120 F). 120 K). The east end a fine 4. and quaintly channelled with characteristic spirals and flutes. 70 feet in diameter. The Perp. 8. and modern nave in imitation thereof. 114 H. with lofty aisle windows. triforium 3. by Street. the same width as the nave and 215 feet high. D. Remarkable canopied wall c. except in the general picturesqueness of the group. Repeatedly destroyed. (12421290). choir. the pillars about the same width as. A. 60 feet high by compare chapter house.

with spire on crown of arches. Vienna. and the vaulting throughout are Perp. Norman choir cased with Perp. Perp. No cloisters. Perp. and choir. 10. Ely). obtained as at Chichester by the inclusion of side chapels. Situated on slightly The nave. King's College. as at King's College. forms. 225 feet high. Cathedral built between A. Fine modern stalls. beneath which is the triforium gallery. Very rich in Early Perp. London. Wolsey when building his college of Christchurch. which has splendid fan vaulting with pendants. 120 j. "Angel choir. and Dec. 115 F. The interior is considered to be the finest in the Norman style next to Durham. The Dec.E. alternately circular and chapter house and lady chapel are E. fan vaulted.. is surrounded by a ring of flying buttresses. lady chapel and Dec. having twin towers placed over the Unique north and south transepts (cf. Remarkable for B). 120 c). 114 F. and S. Llandaff (No. 1474).E. 1096-1 145). removed in the thirteenth century for an oblong lady chapel. 115 c. No cloisters. Stephen. 112 R. work. B. Lincoln" sums up its greatest glory. The cloisters are on the north side. Aberdeen. The clerestory windows of spherical triangular form. resting Newcastle. resembling that of Durham. S. without transepts or side Two western towers. upper part and short spire.D. The nave is much chapels. Norman central tower having E. Norman nave and choir. 120 H).ENGLISH GOTHIC.E." 1256-1314. vaulting (No. 117 F. as it were. *Norwich (Nos. Oxford (No. 119 c). nave. Chapter House. 124 A. 16. and having also double transepts and central and western towers. cloisters of singular completeness. A Norman 19. *Gloucester (Nos. Giles. restored. The long. 119 aisles. Rebuilt 1185-1200. transepts choir will see how the French feeling is here departed from. front are in the E. excluding spires. the ridge of a steep hill dominating the town. Manchester (No. 137 E). having double Fine stalls. 116 F. Dunstan in the East. 1422-1520). polygonal. Bold central Perp. situated at the foot of a hill. similar to S. 118 c). narrow nave.D. 158 feet wide. the windows beneath clerestory on south side of nave. 1117 and 1190. C. Originally the church of a priory or The nave and choir are Norman (1158-1180). and the student acquainted with Canterbury E. and is exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved wood and stonework. 115 in 305 D.A. Pillars of nave. vaulted to central pillar. 12. The nave aisles only are vaulted (cf. Lichfield (Nos. 122 A. 136 B). aisleless transepts 17. g. consists of F. 116 D. on the north side of Cathedral. The choir clerestory. chapter house and sloping ground and built of reddish stone. 125. D. whose lower parts are therefore invisible. Hereford (Nos. style. 117 D.E. (A. W. 126). No triforium. The grand western facade. The apsidal choir is inclosed in a square chapel of Late Perp. Cambridge. Late Dec. spire. Central tower. The easternmost apsidal chapel.D. the " National former (271 feet high) being the highest in England. Edinburgh. Nave shortened by Card. Square chapter house with central pillar. 118 D). Exeter (Nos. It is the best specimen of the Dec. are Norman (A. The nave is covered with a painted wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments. destroyed. Situated on 13. supporting Norman arches. X . forming quite an unusual arrangement in order to gain height. 18. C. E. Lincoln (Nos. since destroyed. 115 H. in general outline resembling Canterbury. page 396). 11. constructed in A. n6B. 14. ornamenting what is probably the oldest wooden roof in England.E. 119 E). A 15. consisting of a screen wall behind which rise the two western towers. in style. decagonal chapter house. tower (A. as at Winchester. transepts. s). central and two western spires of rich and graceful character form the only example of the triple combination in England. The west front is unusual. Perp. and the Augustinian monks. a vestibule to choir. B. *Peterborough (Nos. style. long low building. and choir with apsidal chapels. central tower.E. D.D 1233. The E.

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The Norman nave and choir (1079-1093) were transformed . As three towers. Amiens is 46 feet wide and 140 feet high (three to one). *Westminster (Nos. total length (560 feet) of any mediaeval Cathedral in Europe. and strongly marked flying buttresses. Central and two western towers. 124 D. 119 H). the highest development of a type of is arcaded and enriched with sculpture Double transepts. Norman nave. 128. central tower. Central tower. Two-storied south porch. periods. Situated in a valley. . S. Of the present structure the eastern portion was erected by Henry III. Carving No cloisters. and Perp. in A. Ripon (Nos. including buttresses. 119 F). The triforium. Dec. and the end abutments are carried up as small towers crowned with spires. It has the greatest transepts Norman and tower. boldly projecting and vaulted internally. in the usual position to the south of nave. 119 K). Dec. 404 The cloister there is a fine north porch. Fine western in recent years. octagonal chapter house. erected by Sir Gilbert Scott.E. and Henry VII. 116 E. and is remarkable for its elaborate fan vault. o. Dec. The nave arches close by the sea. Rich choir stalls and tabernacle work. F. in A. forming the type of English. 117 C. by Wren and Hawksmoor. in place of the former lady chapel. *S. but with Perp. eastern lady chapel. have exceptionally fine. The shrines. internal loftiness (having the highest nave in England). *Winchester (Nos.E. 127.E. and fa?ade found in English Gothic. Wells (Nos. E. clerestory to nave and Norman wooden roof nave. 22. Rcof and choir stalls 23. style (restored by A A Scott). E. recovered and reportion of nave is E. and is believed to have been the model for that at York. are Perp. 20. transepts and Western Dec.E. is Dec. and transepts. being the loftiest in England. style.ENGLISH GOTHIC.. walled-in choir are Perp. 115 E. choir. period has been built in the central archway. Perfect western facade in E. the full height of the Cathedral. : feature in England. and eastern chevet. style. 1220-1258 in the E. The plan consists of a nave and aisles. Erected A. The E. E. transepts and towers. very rich and well preserved. 1360). 's Chapel was added by Henry VII. During 1260-1269 the four bays west of the transept were constructed. . the longest in England (284 feet). 115 G. 117 E. choir. illustrating the comparative height to width of the naves of English and French Cathedrals it has been shown that whereas Wells is 32 feet wide and 67 feet high (two to one). A Benedictine monastery founded by Dunstan betrays French influence in its polygonal chevet and chapels. S. Scott.D. 1 60. broken only by a Constructed almost entirely A. and splendid Dec. Alban.E.) (1214-1465). The nave was completed in ihe fifteenth century in imitation The western towers were completed of the older work. Asaph (No. -The nave. rood-screen at entrance support a carved oak roof of late (1508) design. and monuments are The cloisters. west facade is weak. Albans (No. 28. tombs. the chief glory of the Cathedral. Rebuilt in the Dec. Restored by Sir G.E. feet high. is unique. The 114 E. as Amiens is of French Gothic.D. few elm trees. surrounded originally by five aps dal chapels. gable crowns each arch. 1220-1260. 129). transepts with aisles. marble shrine of S. beside the river Alan. chantry chapels. 119 A). open tracery and elaborate vaulting of the E. 29. Norman doorways.E. *Rochester (Nos. 1722-1740. though some uncertainty exists as to the intended grouping. 119. 150 feet wide. 154 A. 309 a portico of three gigantic arches. the only complete example of this 25. has no central pillar. The plan has double transepts. 21. 123 and 140 D). 159 B. F. bays of choir are E.E. of close set openings with capitals. 120 G. 137 G). 1070-1107. two-storied porch of the Perp. 26. and 24. 122 E. 120 E). mouldings. Salisbury (Nos. transeptsand western 27. Other towers rise from behind over the end bays of the aisles.I). Southwell (No. Much destroyed and altered Norman nave. 121. Davids (No. to choir. 116 on a level site. See Nos. but The spire. west front. surrounded by the green sward of a wide close.



S ^ o o .w ffi H .



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and on the floor beneath stones appeared. With pillars crowded. and the roof upheld By naked rafters. Jf nave and aisle in Was And here display'd the walls . (For a description of S.oi a comparison between English and French cathedrals. Norman A MONASTERIES. London. nave. 1261-1324). choir. in concert with the temperate awe natural reverence that the place inspired raised in nice proportions was the : pile. In spite of the size of the cathedral it compares unfavourably with Durham for grandeur. E. fell. It is notable as the largest in area and width (being no less than 106 feet within the walls) of any English cathedral. The nave and choir are covered with a wooden imitation of a stone vault.E. cloisters. unpretending guise occupied by oaken benches. On my frame At such transition from the fervid air. see page 378. central tower (196 feet high). Dec. vaulting to choir. 145) are fine specimens. " " classic beauty of their mouldings (Street). The E. The five sisters a name given to the lancet windows of the north transept are each 50 feet high and 5 feet wide. level situation on the banks of 30. ranged In seemly rows .E. ***** The floor * . The Royal chantries of Interesting monuments. transepts are remarkable for the 31. see page 571. " The portals of the sacred pile A grateful coolness The And Not But large and massy. which will enable their various characteristics to be understood. 114 D. All withered by the depth of shade above. of Edwardian Gothic (Dec. * Worcester (Nos. Norman crypt. Compare Gloucester.) PARISH CHURCHES. (See page 276. north and south transepts and circular chapter the only one in England. and Dec.E. without central column and covered with a wooden roof. intricately cross' d Like leafless unclerboughs. King John and Prince Arthur (No.) Notf.. 117 B). for duration built . cloisters and house. strength of outline. and Perp. and we entered. No Perp. Stood open. E. the largest Wood in England. York (Nos. with Sepulchral emblems And marble monuments were hrongmg footworn epitaphs Inning effigies and some with small of brass inlaid. Paul's Cathedral. 118 A). The west front is of the French type. and grouping. stalls. rectro choir. the River Severn. that served to strike heart. 115 A. Wykeham and his successors (1394-1486) with a veneer of Perp. tower. on core and crowned with a vaulted roof. Tombs and chantries."-W O RDSWORTH graven .316 by William of the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The nave and the octagonal chapter house. The height of the nave is second only to that of Westminster Abbey. mid some thick grove.


The loophole grates where captives weep. and were fortified up to the end of the fourteenth century. . which are cruciform on plan. There was generally but in some of the tower. parapets with elaborate corner pinnacles were employed to connect the (No.) an inner bailey. finished with crenellated battlements. on the south side.D. 113. 140 G. . therefore. an absence of flying " the " open-timbered roof. and " was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a "broach on angle squinch arches (No. military structures were all-important. being vaulted. culminating in the "hammer-beam" variety of the fifteenth century. sometimes of two stories. and a long a single western chancel without aisles. while in (No. was theoretically bound to maintain him. and narrow with aisles. various types being shown on No. as the growth of the royal power suppressed petty wars between rival nobles.) the donjon or keep. (b.D. several stories in height all being surrounded by a lofty wall with ramparts and parapet and a deep moat. H). and Kenilworth Castle (No. as in the Tower of London (A. Large hooded fireplaces and chimneys became general. while the invention of gunpowder (A." the change from the square to the octagon octagonal on plan." SCOTT. and elaborate specimens of constructive art were indulged in. The battled towers. 131 A). 1500) ' . The principal entrance was by a porch.318 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Parish Churches. 130 B). In the twelfth century. over 1. 131 c). They were generally residences as well as military posts thus. These consisted of (a.) an outer " bailey " or court. 140 A) resting the following centuries. while complying with the ideas of defence. The castles were less strongly fortified. while exacting the former's service. clustering round the keep. E) and flying buttresses tower and base of the spire (No. and the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk have examples specially famous in this respect. The English developed ' THE CASTLES OF THE NOBLES. the donjon keep. although occasionally the western tower emphasized the main entrance. who. 1081-1090) (No. ' ' In the thirteenth century these castles were further enlarged by additional buildings. These were often painted with rich colors. the hall still remaining the principal feature. clerestory with windows. buttresses. the planning also illustrates the relation of the vassal to his lord. The typical English Church differs from the French in not and there is. 140 c. A large number were erected during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.100 castles being constructed during the reign of Stephen alone. and (c. near the west end. the tower larger Where a spire occurs it is usually is over the "crossing. These form an important part of the architecture of the Middle Ages.


with case it An external raised dais at one end and a screen at the other. . good example indicates that. D. and the sleeping accommodation was much improved." for the seats of the master and his principal guests. Shakespeare's is a Penshurst Place. and the original or opening for the escape of smoke from the central fire still exists.3 20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Penshurst." or withdra wing-room. " in the roof. 132 A. B. inclinations. The great banqueting-hall gradually ceased to be used as the common sleeping-room on the introduction of the withdrawingroom. London. A characteristic house of the period consisted of a quadrangular from the entrance plan with central courtyard. century. . Kent (No. was often at right angles to the Hall. as in all domestic buildings of the fourteenth In this of primary importance.D. desire for privacy In the fourteenth century an increased of the Hall was attained. and soon obsolete the older systems of defence (page 549). The porch or doorway led to the entry which. while at the further end of the Hall was the raised " dais. Dorset. the whole height of the house. becoming a distinctive feature. In the fifteenth century the central fireplace was moved to the side wall. the kitchen being The fire was in the centre of the Hall on " dogs. the Hall was the feature a is 68 feet by 38 feet 8 inches and 48 feet high. as in the earlier periods. by a panelled partition or screen. E. was separated as a vestibule from the Hall itself. E) is a fine in No. Westminster Hall. as in arose. and the highest development Mote and Hever Hall. as Crosby Place. an example of a Richard III. On the side away was the Hall. 131 B). moated manor houses merchant's home. as at smoke being carried away by the " louvre or by a wall fireplace with a hooded canopy. elevation is "louvre" example of a typical open timbered type. 132 A. and the fourteenth century house may be taken as the prototype of the modern country house. The plan (No. and sometimes. the sleeping-room for the though they were sometimes lodged in dormitories in the wings. The roof (No. F) (A. and Crosby Kent. The main body of the Hall was occupied by the servants and retainers. a royal palace Ightham Cranbourne Manor. and the floor was often only strewn with rushes and formed. referred to in Hall. Over this entry was the minstrels' gallery. a large bay window gave external and internal importance to that end. 1335)." the adjacent. 132 F) of a nobleman's house. made rendered quite the moat comparatively useless. 132 B. . as at Oxburgh Hall (No still given retainers. c. The "solar. and habits of the country gentleman of to-day. which in its highest development is an expression of the wants. as was the mediaeval castle of the feudal baron. The walls were hung with tapestry and with trophies of the chase.

1300-1650.ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES. XI MIRTH iramm of crat ma fl. . 3 .? '9' z . F.? .....D. '91. ^PFEET 132.A.

viz.D. and an external door led to a staircase. The undeveloped state of the towns is accountable for the absence of town halls. In towns the dwellings often consisted of a shop on the ground floor. 1521-1527). of the fifteenth " solar " century. has ground floor shops. In this respect the passage way on the first . rooms were usually thoroughfare only entered from the courtyard. century the typical In the sixteenth of buildings grouped around a quadrangular Tudor house consisted court. those forming portions of larger churches. There were different varieties ments in palaces or other these. in which the trade of the owner was carried on. Italy. sepulchral of . which gave access to the sleeping-rooms oil the first floor. the materials at hand. in contrast with France. floor to the houses at Chester is stone residence. Marney (A. above. In the latter part of the century the common dining-hall began to decline in importance. every city was more or less fortified. Belgium. where many such buildings exist. owing to modern ideas of privacy being introduced but the salient characteristics of the Elizabethan .. The entrance was in the centre of one side under a gatehouse. 150). Behind the shop were the kitchen and living-room.D. Compton Wynyates 1520) (No. in some cases. safety. page 553. light being obtained by a wide opening fronting the street. and brick with overhanging upper stories abounded. on the opposite side were the hall and offices. and dormitories in the upper story. viz. effective police. . and Sutton Place (A..322 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. monastery and Germany. house are dealt with in English Renaissance. those forming apartdwellings. the castles of the great nobles.as at Layer (A. and in the consequent insecurity against lawless vagabonds. The architecture was more or less developed. or attached to convents and monasteries. the living and and such ranged along the other two sides. sleeping-rooms being " " rooms or. or formed a dependency to a and thus afterwards arose in many towns two rival In the absence of authorities. while the Jew's house at Lincoln is a fine specimen of an early half timber a notable example. in proportion to the condition of the owner. which gave it prominence.D. ecclesiastical and secular. as The formation of towns was often due to considerations of when traders and others grouped themselves around . The " Butcher Row " at Shrewsbury.. 1520). and other local causes. Houses of CHAPELS. THE DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE.

Y 2 .

and this and the other rooms were grouped around a quadrangle. 1263-1264. and Henry VII. West- COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 1555. 1326. 1284. Corpus Christi. London . Exeter. monasteries. Tower of London (No. menced in 1176. Pembroke. At Cambridge: the colleges of Peterhouse. 135) . Jesus.324 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Clare. hall Museum. . 1448. Trinity. 1348. Windsor Chapel. 1511 Magdalen. John's Chapel. 1437 Magdalen. those attached to colleges tions and those erected on bridges germ of all these being a : Palace Chapel (No. the Chantry Chapel S. hall was the principal apartment. Brasenose. 132) (A. All Souls. . New College. 1509 Corpus Christi." The " Triangular " Bridge at Croyland. .D. Worcester. Gonville. 133). 1554. S. 1340. and S. Lincoln. Christ's. 1379. Queen's. was built by the religious confraternity known as the "Prates Pontis. and other educational the institu- chapels. and cathedrals. These formed important means tive of instances possessed a semi-religious character. Trinity Hall. Lincolnshire. Chapel. and in many A few representaOld London Bridge. The rise of Oxford dates from about 1167. large apartment to The following are a few examples of different types S. 127.John's. onward there existed a number of connected with churches. is a model in the GuildCambridge 1440). since destroyed Stephen's Chapel. (1480-1508). examples may be mentioned. 1497. . which aisles came to be added. 1427. (1422-1461). 1505 S. Colleges resembled the monastic establishments of The earlier times and were modelled on them in many ways. still exists. and Eton College (1442) was founded by Henry VI. com- . to make way for Westminster Palace King's College Chapel. 1542 and Trinity. 1458. 128.D. 1546. 1347. 1250). . and many of the principal colleges at these Universities were erected as follows At Oxford the : : colleges of Merton. 1314. and that of Cambridge from about 1209. John's. Oxford (1274-1277). 1441 Queens'. 1524. 1352. King's. Christ Church. on the Bridge at Wakefield (fourteenth century). Oriel. George's (No. having three pointed arches with abutments at the angles of an equilateral triangle and having three communication. Merton College Chapel. 1289. Lambeth (A. 's minster" (Nos. with the later addition of the Lollard's tower (1424-1445). BRIDGES. Westminster (1349-1364). with later additions. 129) (1500-1512). From the time grammar schools of Alfred Winchester College (1387-1393) was built by William of \Vykeham. as in the mediaeval house. 1326. . 1350. 1516. of which there . .

and the example from Chiddingstone dating about 1637. (No. and each period treated in a comparative way in a somewhat different manner to the method adopted in othsr styles. at the end of which is the chapel. HOSPITALS. Mary's Hospital. 132 MINOR MONUMENTS. by Rickman's divisions are made to include periods corre- sponding to the reigns of English sovereigns. and has bedrooms and sitting-rooms for the inmates opening on to the central hall. were founded by charitable people. whereas Sharpe's divisions are governed by the character of the window tracery in each period. ANCIENT TIMBER HOUSES. The architecture of England during the Middle Ages can be divided into centuries corresponding to the principal developments.ENGLISH GOTHIC. such as Chester. wall and chantries are specially notable. worthy 4. will give an idea of the appearance of these old timber houses. Many of these. 132 L. ALMSHOUSES AND BEDE HOUSES. still numerous. COMPARATIVE. roadways and three waterways. and elsewhere. the architectural character and examples in each period being given. which have is their specially denned characteristics. M. and numerous villages throughout the country. Cross. The Bridge Northumberland. Many of these are of careful study. . These are j). . Coventry S. at 325 Wark worth. Stamford. and form interesting examples of semi-domestic character. although belonging to a very early foundation. N) is mainly of the fourteenth century. of which many towns. . PREFATORY NOTE. the choir screens. . Other examples are S. tablets. (No. Northampton the Bede House. There have been various systems of classification adopted by Rickman and Sharpe are the best different writers. is in good preservation. can still boast a number. Kent. tombs. Winchester Ford's Hospital. and almshouses at Cobham. which are given under each style later. John's Hospital. Chichester. principally dating from the fifteenth century. 5. In the cathedrals and churches. but those now known.


. as S v Martin.e.. is an A...ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (ANGLO-SAXON STYLE). (i. Plans. the first half i6th cent. It is probable that timber was the material mostly employed in all classes of buildings. the triangular-headed openings. It is only for convenience in alluding to the different stages that the division is made. The masonry work is considered to show signs of the influence of wood architecture. Churches seem to have been planned as two simple by a small chancel arch.. it must be remembered that the transition from one style to the next was slow and gradual. or of rude copies. and that the great development in timber work of the later Gothic styles was due to this early use. so minute are the differences. and distinctly marked as such externally and internally. ..) Anglo-Saxons) to the ConSaxon... 134).e. Towers. 134 c).. The following are a few of the examples of this period : Worth Church. buildings are sometimes composed of the fragments of Roman architecture in Britain.. 134 A.. the pilaster strips. ANGLO-SAXON STYLE The (A. .... Tudor. 327 A each A. Brixworth (Northants). f^ Lance ^' Rectilinear.. D. (i.... Canterbury. and Brixworth. .. 134 F). Northants (No. ... Decorated. for it must not be forgotten that the mediaeval architecture of England is one continuous style.. end of I2th cent. 134 H). lower and smaller than the nave.) (i>e....e. 449 (arrival of quest in 1066 (i.) .. B. comparative table is showing the approximate period covered by Rickman.. Earl's Barton (No. given : Dates. the I5th cent..) Perpendicular. Greensted Church (Essex). There was often a descent of a few steps from the nave into the chancel.. of which Earl's Barton. Dover Castle and Church. D).. but these features are more likely ru\le attempts to copy the contemporary Romanesque work of Ravenna and other Italian towns.. Early English. joined example. Saxon. Although the period of each style is thus defined. Wickham (No. and can often hardly be traced. the chancel being squareended (borrowed from the Keltic type). the 1 3th cent. 134).. Sompting (Sussex) (No. oblongs...e. as in the "long and short" work... are without buttresses. Another type of plan is that of the Roman basilican form.D. Barnack Church. } /Norman. and the crypt at Ripon Cathedral. | Transition.. Sharpe... 1066-1189 1189-1307 1307-1377 1377-1485 1485-1558 to the Norman.. the I 4 th cent.) (i.. . and the baluster mullions (No. but the scanty remains of this period render it difficult to estimate the character of the buildings. Tudor. 449 to 1066)... Deerhurst (Gloucestershire) (No.

: The keep and . also known as the English Romanesque or Twelfth Century style. the principal examples are S. 1135-1154.. as in early Irish ing each other till they met at represent buildings as covered by slates Manuscripts examples. 134 E. G). and are sometimes divided by a baluster. Stephen. simple ovolos and hollows coarsely axed. as at Deerhurst Church (No. These were few in number and consisted of F. or shingles. but they were probably either of timber or composed of loose stones in horizontal layers approachthe apex. These are round or triangular-headed.. In London. 11541189. that occur in windows. The roughly formed balusters.328 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. have square jambs. Henry I.. 134 F). and appear to have been worked by a lathe. These were mostly formed of rough rubble work B. 134 A). Smithfield. William II. comprises the reigns of William I. hangings being probably in use. 1100-1135. John's Chapel in the Tower of London (Nos.. This was probably scanty. Henry II. as none exist. have been mentioned above. Mouldings. from whence it was introduced during the reign of William I. that abbey frown'd With massive arches broad and round. That rose alternate row on row On ponderous columns. and c. Walls.. Ttfbls were few. Openings. Roofs. as at mentioned above are also features. Great. By pointed aisle and shafted stalk The arcades of an alley'd walk . " long . It is well described by Sir Walter Scott similarities : The many " In Norman strength. NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. and presents with the architecture of Normandy. Columns. as at Wickham (No. Bartholomew's the (Transitional). hence the use of the axe in roughly finishing the contours. 1087iioo. The round portion of the Temple Church S. E. Ornament. in the absence of G. stumpy in the place of cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone moulded capitals (No. belfry technical ability. 1066-1087. 134 c). 131 A and 135).. short and low Built ere the art was known. To emulate in stone ". were treated.and short" with ashlar masonry at the angles formed in The pilaster strips Earl's Barton (No. courses.. Piers in churches are short. general appearance is bold and massive. There are no means of knowing exactly how these D.




and clerestory. and Winchester. with usually a tower Most of the cathedrals date from this period. 138). 136 c. owing to the recent conquest. as at Iffley Church. with semicircular heads.beaded or intersecting > open timber. are good examples : The The nave was considerably lengthened from the A. The interiors have nearly an equal height assigned to nave arcade. the principal examples ^reater portion of the Cathedrals of Norwich. Kent. triforium. Barfreston Church. great length being aimed at. The Tower of London gives a good idea of the system of defence adopted (No. These were frequently formed with square recesses. Albans.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . Waltham. Openings. Hereford. and a passage was often formed tetween the clerestory window and the triple arch carrying the inside of the wall. Alban's Abbey and Iffley Church (No. (No.n with 0e Omt ^^ whh Wa s scul P tural The roof-trusses a^l)^ were of ^ n . B. Buttresses are broad and flat. and often flush with the corbel table. but are often constructed with defective masonry. a method also adopted in the churches at Caen. which supports a plain parapet (No. of which the centre -equently occur in towers. but probably owing to these being more readily constructed. and frequently arcaded in later work. S. are sometimes grouped together. Doorways are deeply recessed and richly ornamented with the ornament and beak-head. and Tewkesbury Winchester. Durham. commanding fords on the rivers. with little projection (No. Walls. . The windows are isually small. They are narrow and deeply splayed. at the crossing. and transepts were employed. are In the Provinces. Saxon period. :st. as at Norwich. and other strategic points. of small Norman churches. the core being imperfectly bonded with the facing. 141 A). and the general type of plan laid down was developed rather than changed. having at their west end round towers supposed to be due to Scandinavian influence. Chichester. B). Oxon Abbey. The towers are square and massive. Peterborough. known as "orders. Lo'ndon (No. as at S. Exeter. A.* Gloucester. in the absence of suitable stone to form square angles. S. high roads." to their jambs. 138). Oxford. Durham. In Norfolk and Suffolk are some fifty churches. were numerous and important. Albans. but double windows divided by a shaft Three openings. chiefly of king-post form. Plans. Oxon in single lights. These are very thick. 131 A). and Iffley Church. Ely. The chapel of the Tower of Ely. Castles. 135) is a type of a small chapel in the style.



leaded together to of brown lines. with the addition A Norman font. 122). 1366).. Capitals (Nos. Clustered piers. Henry III. but occasionally forms reminiscent of in the Roman architecture occur. Columns. -The ornamented mouldings. Early Plantagenet. while at Durham fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the columns. E. with rectangular recesses. the existing cathedrals or abbeys of this period had originally wooden ceilings. bowtel. supported by corbels or grotesques. forming lozenge-shaped and other figures roughly executed in distemper. corbel. The simple framing is either left In fact. succeeded by the highly decorated work of the late period. Mouldings. the covering being of lead or shingles. often in conjunction with round piers. 139 and 146. consisting of black and white. or simple colors in stripes. The Corinthian type frequently met with in France is rare. or Thirteen Century Style. as at Peterborough (No. are usually of the cushion form. THE EARLY ENGLISH 1199. as in the roof at Peterborough. It is probable that hangings were employed in interiors. beak-head. The small shafts occurring in the recessed orders of doorways and windows were sometimes richly ornamented. are shown on Nos. as the chevron F. 135). Exeter. being sometimes carved and scolloped. being chiefly white. These are low. 1189- 1199-1216. piscina and sedilia are shown on No. stained glass began to be employed.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE). but were vaulted later.. and other orna- mented mouldings (No. Also known as Lancet. constitute crowning features on walls and towers. Ornament. produced a bold and not unLate in the period pleasing effect. 146 and 148). massive. and form a most important decorative element in the style. form patterns. nail-head. as at Gloucester. billet. as the Ionic example. STYLE. were also used. Wall arcades of intersecting arches (No. shaking itself free from the massive . constituted an effective dado decoration. or has a flat ceiling boarded and decorated. and Durham. London (No. and having an 335 inclination of forty-five degrees. comprises the reigns of Richard I. 1216-1272. or roll moulding. as at Gloucester. without regard to the courses. 144. White Tower.. and either polygonal or circular (No. The plain treatment of the earlier period was G. or zigzag. all exposed. The style of this period. John. Edward I. billet. and Exeter. 1272-1307. as at Durham and Waltham. in small pieces. Corbel tables. 135). Rudimentary decoration. Bristol. which was richly carved with nail-head. First Pointed. along the lower part of the aisle walls. 139). the glass.

equal in projection to their width. Wells (nave and west front). 117 F). is and simplicity in decoration. Lichfield. and the Chapter House. and 140 D). man work but more We filling On iTir J the concentration of the weight of the roof and leading to the gradual treatment of between as a mere screen. Plans (No. 136 Chapel). well-defined outline. restored (No. pinnacles. 122. Flying buttresses were introduced. in place of the massive Norman pillar. spire A. 132 G. Southwark. The pointed arch vaults are bolder. The choir. Lady Chapel. as. strong its dependence upon The Eastern Transitional. between Norman and Early English. " which (No. mark slender groups of shafts nally. The Chapel of Lambeth Palace (No. The proportion of opening 1S often excellent as in the e buttresses ' These retain the massiveness characteristic of cut stonework was employed. proportion. four bays of the nave of Westminster Abbey (1220-1269). the upper portion characteristic. York (transepts) (No. more elegant. and the ing their luxuriance upon knots of pierced and hanging leaves. 117 E). and less ' P ronounced th an in the Norman period. These varied but little from the The vaulting as it advanced modified the planning. occur connected by bands to the piers. 117 B). Rochester (choir and transepts). B). Lincoln (nave) (No. and first portion of the Temple Church. when pointed arches were finally adopted. transepts. The long trails of dog-tooth ornament lurking in the dark furrow of the channelled recesses. Worcester : (choir). Mary Overie (S. In the Provinces the principal examples are Salisbury Cathedral (Nos. Bristol (the A. and nave (restored) of S. nave compartments were made oblong in place of the former divisions. 140 mn the square tower without a parapet. The tall and narrow lancet openings give tendency to the design. and steeply pitched roofs. and the boldly projecting buttresses and Interthe exteriors. Ely (choir transepts and Gallilee Porch. in magnificent and rich. H. a portion of the Cloisters. and used more frequently (page 286). In London the principal examples are The round portion of the Temple Church. 121. The Choir. 127). which may be called : Norman. D). Saviour). Elder Lady 1198-1218) (No.336 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. extending like some petrified almost impart garland or bower of filigree work round the arch. life and vegetation to the very stones of these door and window an upward openings. in is Walls. K). the foliaged capitals and bosses intrudthe mouldings and hollows. in order to lateral outward of the pointed pressure vaults. and . square The "broach s B.

gradually throughout the whole building. Columns. and Nos. The braces were used to form a waggon shape. Piers consist of a central circular. known as foils (Lat. 127 c) and Salisbury (No. generally. Z . the triforium Lichfield (No. held in place by bands at intervals. These are steeper than in the last period. i.. G) are of lancet form. 1 1 1 and 112. Narrow lancet windows are grouped in two. stages were frequently gabled. In the interiors the nave arcade usually occupies the lower half of the height. This form of detached cusping is found generally in the circular lights. or even five lights. but were not of common occurrence till a later period. F. 124 c). surrounded by smaller detached columns (No. placed on the bell or lower portion of the capital. (Vaulting. and Lincoln was diminished in order to provide a larger display of glass. or carved with conventional foliage (No. 122 G). folium a leaf) being trefoil. D. or semicircular ribs were employed. 148). making the inside jamb very deep. or octagonal shaft. E. 123) and Westminster Abbey. the naves of but sometimes. B. so as to produce fine bold shadows (No. sixty degrees. B. and the different 141 B). three. and tracery was developed. 146). when the close setting of the flat rafters produces the effect of barrel vaulting.e. Flying or arched buttresses (No. 127 A. the upper half being divided equally between triforium and clerestory. 143 (Nos. Proportions. the glass being usually kept near the exterior of the wall.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE). as in the " Five Sisters" in the north transept. at first in connection with vaulting. then . especially the early form known as "plate" tracery (No. see page 286. the heads of windows having cusps forming The spaces between the cusps are part of the tracery itself. 142 A. as at Westminster (No. and Their arrises were often chamfered. as at the choir of Ely. Openings.A. quatrefoil or cinquefoil when having three. The framing was exposed where there was no vaulted ceiling. and pointed arches came into general use for constructive reasons. Roofs. c. four or five openings. 337 were formed into stages by weathered set-offs (Nos. so-called because the openings were cut through a flat plate of stone. 146).) E. Cusps or projecting points of Gothic tracery were introduced in the latter part of the Early English style. York (page 316). and ornamented with A). are more slender than in Norman work. The normal Windows = abacus F. The doorways are often richly treated. B). as at Salisbury (No. 136 D. is circular on plan. being let into the soffit of the arches in separate small pieces and entirely independent of the mouldings. often of polished Purbeck marble. 122. c. and 142 A. carved foliage (No. 141 E) were first utilized in this period. Capitals were frequently moulded. approaching the shape of an equilateral triangle.




and placed in niches with canopies over them. The most characteristic ornament in tooth. ivory and woodcarving. sculptured ground vaulting bosses. or Fourteenth Century Style. rings and utensils. 127). exquisite decorative art was produced in such works as the Psalters. sedilia. Mouldings. 147). Norman period. 146). Edward II. and an unrivalled deep and violet-like blue was a favourite tint.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE)." Flat surfaces are often richly diapered (see Glossary. comprises the reigns of I 1307-1327. caskets. known Carved foliage is conventional. Examples of an Early English font. scribe. 149. These are bold. In the Early English and following periods. The west front of Wells (1206-1242) has 300 statues. taking the place of the axe in the Early Norman period. saint. as in the fine thirteenth century glass at Canterbury Cathedral. as was the case with Greek and Roman ornament. the pieces being small and leaded up in patterns so as almost to suggest the cubic formation of mosaic. Ornament. and crisp and fine in treatment (No. illustrative of the ornamental art of the periods. A general tone of color pervades the windows. THE DECORATED STYLE. labourer. king. shepherd. forming a valuable record of contemporary life. page 691). Edwardian. 143 and 147). as in Westminster Abbey (No. deeply undercut. piscina. Missals. and often of pear-shaped section. Edward III. The Mediaeval Room at the British Museum contains examples of armour metalwork. being a grand composition where sculpture is fully combined with architecture. finial. and tabernacle are shown on No. which was generally placed is the doghollow mouldings. 3 2 7. for believing that such carved diapers were colored. 144. Sculptured figures of large size were used. and carved bracket on No. also known as the Geometrical and Curvilinear. knight and monk were represented. The chisel was generally used. 341 F.. Stained glass rapidly increased in importance.. Middle Pointed. as " stiff leaf foliage. In regard to color work. nailhead decoration of the G. typical examples consisting of convex curling masses. and was used in great profusion (Nos. it has been suggested that the carved diapers of this and the next period are copies in stone of the hangThere is ings or painted decorations of the previous period. and a gable cross. in which the huntsman. following the outline of the rectangular The chiselled dog-tooth succeeded the axed recesses (No. fisher- man. Books of Hours and Chronicles.I 377- . Later Plantagenet.


Spire-lights are ornamented with crockets (No. Openings. (the portion). but this was especially a French feature. 147 M). Cathedral (the choir. are lofty. and ribs occur on the angles of the tapering spires. as at Westminster and Penshurst (No.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals (naves). Clerestories were enlarged at the expense of the triforium. 132). Salisbury. eastern York Ely Cathedral 1260-1280). and the Eleanor Crosses. and the extension of tracery to the walls in the shape of panelling was now introduced. : plans were set out with a wider spacing in parish churches than in cathedrals already started in earlier periods. gradually gave way to parapets with angle pinnacles (No. and Lichfield (No. Wells. more noticeable . Walls. as in the exterior of Lincoln (No. Plans. including angel choir. IIOA. the vault becoming a main feature in the effect of the interiors. D. 147 K). Albans (choir). and B. from. and the "broach" form. and the Dutch Church. Vaulting ribs were more numerous and complex than in the previous style. 116 Band 125). The new in the bays. and magnificent. west front and chapter house). the importance of the buttresses are characteristic of the style. Austin Friars. from the size of the windows filled in with geometrical and flowing tracery. Spires. is simple. lofty than in the Early English period. 141 c) and crocketed canopies. 116 F). Lincoln (Nos. 343 The general appearance. Several of the great central towers were now carried up. the small number of parts. A. Kent. 140 c. S. 121 and 140 D). E). In domestic architecture the " Hall" was highly developed. as Salisbury (Nos. Buttresses occur with offsets in stages. set diagonally. 147 N). Parapets were often pierced with flowing tracery (No. In London the principal examples are Westminster Abbey (three bays of the eastern cloister walk and the polygonal chapter house) the Chapel of S. The proportions of height to width are less c. Ely Place. the English generally keeping to the battlemented form (No. although there is an increasing richness of ornamentation. The progress of vaulting regulated the planning of the piers. characteristic of the thirteenth century. and Southwell (the polygonal chapter houses). 125). Stone Church. : . The increased size of the traceried windows. Etheldreda. Angle buttresses. were introduced in this period. Holborn. In the Provinces the principal examples are Lincoln Cathedral (nave and east end. and was in itself strongly influenced by the increased size of the openings required to exhibit stained glass. usually octagonal. and in later periods are ornamented with niches (No.




foliage in this period is generally and consists of seaweed. In itself it lost the mosaic character . and Lichfield. Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the ball-flower (No. Roofs. and sometimes have open framing. 143). and wings put crosswise on their breasiS. Arches were formed by being struck from the points of equilateral triangles. " " part of the period it was flowing in character as in the choirs of Ely (No. Doorways (No. style. when moulded.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). (Vaulting. ever eager eyed Stared. Small shafts. Lincoln. and divided by mullions Tracery at first consisted of geometric lights. Etheldreda. Ornament. Norfolk (No." KEATS. surrounding and attached to a central column. ivy. F. Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked. 347 (Nos. 137 F). Mouldings. and the well-known tablet flower (Nos. and the nave of York. Columns. of which Eltham Palace and S. Holborn. forms. which in the Early English style were often planted on. 143) are ornamented with engaged shafts. 147 c). With hair blown back. are similar to those in the Early but not so deeply undercut (No. These are of moderate pitch. 147 K). and vine leaves. 299 i). 148 G). the foliage is more naturalistic. 112. 147 and 148). see page 287 and No. D. as seen in the exterior of Lincoln (No. Dripstones are finished with carved heads or grotesques. other mouldings being shown on Nos. 137 F) and Wells. and G. and are ornamented with crockets capitals. 125). as in the cloisters of Salisbury. which is specially characteristic of the style. Piers are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan. Ely Place. as at Cley Church. where upon their heads the cornice rests. the development of tracery. and resembles the leaves of the oak. ivy. The enlargement of clerestory windows proceeded pan passu with the diminution in height of the triforium (No. 146). 137 and 142) are large. or even of lower proportion (No. The ogee arch into Windows two or more (No. naturalistic. the choir clerestories of In the latter Ely. 299 v) was also used. maple. or vine (No. The English (No. 146). The cusps. 143 and 146. were a development from the Early English. Stained glass led to a great extension of window openings.) E. and have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style. W'hen carved. in this period were cut out of the stone forming the tracery. Cornices and dripstones often have their deep hollows filled with foliage and carving. oak. with engaged shafts (No. "The carved angels. are good examples. Carved .


Westminster. 127. Lancastrian or Fifteenth Century Style. Henry VIII. 149. 147 K). 1483-1485. Edward V. the clerestory and aisle windows being of great size. "The Would seem deep-set windows. "began to acquire character and importance. In London the principal examples are Henry VII. 377. comprises the reigns of Richard II. and lighter The subjects portrayed became of more importance. slow-flaming crimson fires. 's Chapel (Nos. more especially in wood. in THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. were strengthened by transoms in tiers (Nos. 1422-1461. Shrines and tombs in masonry are elaborate and beautiful adjuncts to the interiors of the cathedrals and large churches. 1485-1509. London. but the glass in itself gained in value and expression.. Late Pointed. Henry V.. the pieces being larger. tabernacle and sedilia. The triforium practically disappeared owing to height of nave arcade and flatness of aisle roofs. 1413-1422.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). Richard The general appearance varies much in earlier and later work. Westminster Hall. 1461-1483. Examples of a decorated font. The windows. . 15531558.. Holborn. in some great east end windows. 1370 and 142). in tone." Fittings. Porch (with vaulting) S. finial and boss on No. by an inner structure forming a gallery across the window. 143 D. a brass eagle lectern on No. : Margaret.. Henry IV. Edward VI. 145.. Henry 1483. by primary and secondary mullions. the Savoy Chapel in the Strand. also I known as the Rectilinear. and the crockets and finials to pinnacles and canopies increased and importance and gave additional richness to buildings of this period (Nos. 1399-1413.I 399 VI.S. stained and traced. choir stalls. are shown on No. III. the main lines in a perpendicular direction predominating. pews. and there was a loss in the general decorative effect of the interior. 1509-1547. The architecture of the last four reigns is frequently known as " Tudor" architecture (page 356). the latter being overladen with panelling.. and. piscina. owing to their immense size.. Henry VII. 349 and became more translucent. 128 and 129) (a most perfect example). Mary. as at York. Edward IV. Sepulchre's Church. pulpits. and a gable cross. and Crosby Hall.. the southern and western portion of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. .. as screens.. . 144. 1547-1553.


Evesham (1533). Cambridge. Gloucester (transept.'s Chapel (No. Cambridge (No. as at King's College. (The plans of castles and houses have been referred to on pages 318 and 322). 140 F). and often very Merton College. 128. Towers are numerous and important. Kettering. Parapets are embattled or panelled (No. Windsor (Nos. 147). lateral triangle (No. as at Henry VII. and Beverley . Buttresses project boldly. sometimes inclosed in a square hood-moulding above the head (No. common. was B. and Other examples are (choir). for panels in conjunction with stone tracery. which may be taken as the most elaborate specimen of the style. Owing this period. Plans. (Nos. resembling tracery of windows. 128). as at crockets. 70 L and 133). which have often great depth. and are crowned with finials (Nos. 124. 133 and 299). in the are often pierced. which are often richly ornamented with rich. of the piers. Openings. as the Bell Tower. Sherborne Minster. They are also panelled with tracery. " This immense and glorious work of fine intelligence. These were profusely ornamented with panelling 137 G). as at S. choir. Oxford and Cambridge (page numerous mansions throughout the country. as at early period inclose an equithey were afterwards obtusely pointed. in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. of Winchester. George's Chapel. and were generally erected without a spire. or struck from four centres (Nos. Flying buttresses are common and 128). 's Chapel (No. many of the colleges of 324). and King's College Chapel. it rises behind a parapet. 's Chapel. Winchester (nave remodelled) (Nos. Henry VII. 124 D. The use of flint as a wall facing." WORDSWORTH. and A. 299) . Northants (No. When a spire occurs. c. and the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick towers at Gloucester and Canterbury. in the Cathedrals of Canterbury (nave). Peter. Oxford. E. and cloisters).ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). 143). : 351 The west fronts In the Provinces the principal examples are S. ecclesiastical to the great building era that had preceded work consisted mostly of restorations or In church planning there was a decrease in the size additions. Walls. 137 G). 70 M). Arches . being sometimes deep enough in projection to allow of a chapel being placed between. York . Gloucester. and 128). as at Henry VII. and a tendency to throw all pressures upon the buttresses.


consist mainly of mullions producing a perpendicular hence the name of the period. and with pierced tracery (No. 142 o). caused by the vaulting shaft being taken up from the ground. The characteristic pier consists of four circular shafts connected by hollows. . and placed diagonally with their greater dimension north and south. Windsor. A A . executed under William of Wykeham. as shown in the doorway of Merton College. are well-known examples. or by niches for statuary. existing in Norfolk. 137 G and 142). and often large and coarse. stopping against the main In many cases arch. converting the west end into a wall of glass. 129). 143 j). and with two fillets. Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and a typical 42 moulding is the "bracket" mould (No.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). as at S. George's Chapel. effect. 112) is characteristic of the later periods (page 288). F. 146). The roof of Westminster Hall (No. 124). These were arranged on diagonal planes (No. Piers (No. and S. being one of the largest roofs unsupported by pillars in The and later roofs in the style became nearly flat (Nos. 146). 133). 148 L). Fan vaulting (No. Windsor (No. they are of enormous size.6 }. the east window at Gloucester (38 feet wide by 72 feet high). and having mullions continued vertically their whole height (Nos. covers an area of nearly half an acre. as well as the vaults of the central towers of Canterbury and Gloucester Cathedrals. Lofty clerestories are general. 113). Roofs. Carved capitals have foliage of conventional character. Mouldings. Open timber roofs of low pitch and of the hammerbeam construction abound they were often richly ornamented with carved figures of angels. Windows many examples the world. D. and the space of the triforium (Nos. and the spandrel filled with ornament. George's Chapel. and King's College Chapel (No. erected in 1399. . as at Henry VII. Henry VII. these mouldings being carried round the arch.A. on the front of the pier and not between the arches. 's Chapel. and strengthened by horizontal transoms. as at S. King's College Chapel. 124 F and 137 G) is occupied by panels. Windsor. Capitals are sometimes polygonal on plan. George's Chapel. The earliest are probably those at Winchester Cathedral (No. 146) are generally oblong on plan.'s Chapel (No. being wide and shallow. Cambridge. Oxford (No. i^. the mouldings being weaker and less effective (No. shallow and square in outline (No. E. 113 H). Columns. Doorways were generally finished with a square label over the arch. 353 the spandrels thus formed being filled with tracery or carving N). (No. 148 M. F. 70 j 133). and few have the abacus and bell perfectly defined.

CONCLUSION. all of period Chapel) (No. and a gable cross. Wooden chancel screens are very numerous. finial. and sculpture followed in the tram of literature. Cambridge. the upper part and the whole was being divided by mullions. Canopies are often of ogee character. 133. 's ornaments in square panels. niches. by the application of features on a small scale. Suffolk and elsewhere. from the base. prevented any such completeness of one tone Color decoration was freely employed effect. pulpits. screens. as in the early work. Ornament. The tendency was to obtain ornamental motifs in decoration. The various phases of English architecture from the time of the Romans to the reign of Henry VII. thus breaking away from the conditions imposed by the material. This return to color. usually conventional and 148. boss. and other fittings. gave contrast to the painted canopies of architectural character In very late examples. p). especially as . Architecture. statues. and battlements being carved along the cornices. used along with white glass. and pinnacles fleur-de-lis. 149 o. the portcullis. Crestings occur along the top of windows. the tracery of windows being repeated on the walls as blank panelling (Nos. In the fifteenth century the Renaissance of literature in Italy was taking place. on roofs. The misereres under the choir-stalls of the period were carved with delicate foliage. 147). piscina and sedilia are shown on No. 149. King's College. however. in Ornaments and sculptured foliage. round the arch without of cornice mouldings (No. grotesques. 128. 128). the general design becoming more pictorial. golden tinge produced by silver stain.354 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and flowers. are shown in Nos. supporting tracery^ treated with panelling. and poppy-heads on No. Examples of a Perpendicular font. as in the churches of Norfolk. and the of the ments elaborately also with the which were used unsparingly (see Henry VII. as at usually inclosing single figures. and perspective being introduced. and the generation that wrote and spoke the Latin tongue desired to build in the style of ancient . pulpits. and the bench ends Tudor flower with poppy-heads (No. and The 137 G). 147 are the Tudor rose. sanctus bell. with crockets (No. and Pier mouldings are often continued up the intervention of capitals. The special ornacharacter. 147 G). painting. 144. parclose-screen and chantry on No. pendant. a pew-end. gorgeousness of coloring exists with great confusion of form and subject. a rood-loft. and diminutive battlements along the transoms enriched G. 145. cresting (No. and it became the fashion to read the Latin authors. 128). have been dealt with.

A A 2 .

English Mediaeval Foliage and Colour Decoration. in which the influence of the Renaissance movement is noticeable.. Edward VI. 4 to. and the special forms will be considered under the head of Renaissance architecture." 2 vols. (page 349) is the style prevalent during Henry VIII. and Gothic structures. Ato. in 6." 1857. The Tudor style was followed by the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles. " Addy (S." (A ' )- Churches of Nene .).) and Crowther (T. 2 vols. there the Gothic style had never. 4 to. however. Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages. H." Analysis of Gothic Architecture." 4 to." 1847. Rome. grafted on to the native the reigns of Henry VII. " Britton (JOCathedral Antiquities.. 410. 1860. 1807-1826. until the Early Renaissance architecture. in these countries. and Sir Christopher Wren. G.. follO. more or less debased.). 5." 8vo. 1882. -" Parish Churches. 8vo. and Mary.. Evolution of the English House. etailsofGothicArchitecture -" 2v61s. folio. S. at any time. in which may REFERENCE BOOKS." 2 vols. Brandon (R. Brown (Prof.-" Gothic Ornaments. but probably under the direction of a designer familiar with the new features of the Renaissance. taken a because of the precedent afforded by the very firm hold.356 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. was slow. Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture. were erected late into the sixteenth century.. 3 vols. 1899.." )> : :S(J Collmgs. 2 deals with Ecclesiastical Architecture 1903from the Conversion of the Saxons to the Norman Bowman '^ 7 "R Co ings. Baldwin). 1814-1835." 2 vols. O. seem to have been made by a foreign artist." Churches of the Middle Ages.. "The Bloxam (M. Conquest. and in some examples the designs for the details and mouldings would It is styles be traced the increased influence of the old Roman architecture. for it is the work of those trained in Gothic art.-" The Arts in Early England. 4*0. " 3ra*idon. 1848-1850. and Details of the Interior of - nlm 2 vols..).). 1858. f 1822. IV 1*86 lSter 2 VOls. From Italy it spread to France and it took. and J." 5 vols. s' Elev ations." 13 vols. (H. England.. " Architectural Antiquities.. 410. less debased but picturesque exemplified in the more or of each country. finally shaking itself clear of incongruities. developed into the Anglo-Classic or Later Renaissance of Inigo Jones. Vol. The process. " alysis Ancient Domestic Architecture." 4to. described under English Renaissance (page 551). A. effected by Renaissance details being Tudor architecture Gothic style. The Revived style naturally originated in Italy. and because numerous Roman ruins. 1846.

"Gothic Mouldings.). Cent. an important collection of architectural casts of each period can be seen at the Royal Architectural Museum.}.). " The Abbey Church of St.) and Parker (J. Perpendicular (i$th Cent. Rickman (T.}. Ivanhoe. 357 St.B." 3 vols.)." History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of 1818." Occupation.).)." (The This work is specially valuable on Folio. 1870. Pugin (A." 8vo. 8vo..). Norman (nth Creswick (P. " Examples of Gothic Architecture. the Victoria and Albert Museum." Gothic Architecture.) Fairless (M." "The Gathering of Brother of the Barons. Turner (T. "The Siege of Norwich Castle. C. " L.." (H. Vaults of the Middle Ages. " Mouldings of the Six Periods of British Architecture. Cutts (E. 1891. R." Parker.I." 8vo. 1853-1859. Walcott (M.). Peter. " An Scott (G. E. "Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture." (Trans. S. " Some Account of the Domestic Architecture in England during the Middle Ages.). " Under the Black Raven. G. Pugin (A. " Architectural Parallels. Parker (J. Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture. Perpendicular (\bth Cent.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE).}. M." " A Clerk of Oxford. " Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Eng- Statham (H. Hertfordshire. and many being within the reach of the student. measured drawings and sketches should be made of these. 1881. Sharpe." Cathedrals of England and Wales. Gilbert)." 2 vols. Cettt. land.}. and the Crystal Palace. Sharpe (E. Alban. Historical Novels : Roman Norman Hilarius. " Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture. Sharpe.)." (\2tk Cent.).). Scott (Sir W. G. besides the examples already mentioned after each period. " Seven Periods of English Architecture.." 410. H.. and A." 187 1-74.). 1859-1877. 1849. careful study of the buildings themselves is necessary to appreciate thoroughly the progress of the style. Wickes (C." 2 vols.)." Scott (Sir G. . " 3 vols. Sharpe.). 1848. " The Last Ainsworth "Windsor Note.). 4to. Westminster." Lytton." 2 vols. Paley (E. Essay on the History of English Church Architec1 88 1. In London. 'Builder" Series." 1838. Prior (E. " Willis (R.). H. folio." 8vo." 1900. "A History of Gothic Art in England." 1860. 1821. 1830.).). 8vo. P." Blake (M. "Specimens of Gothic Architecture. "A Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery in England. account of its splendid series of plans to a large scale.) 1842.) 1898. H. The " Villa of Claudius.). H. Neale (J. Neale (J." 8vo. 8vo. Editor. Castle. Anglo-Saxon. W. ture." Large folio. E.." Cent.. which will impress the different features on the mind more thoroughly than study solely A from books." 1877.}.1900. " Church and Conventual Arrangement.A. Early English (i$th Decorated (itfh Green (E." 3 vols. Westminster.. Tufton Street.). \st half).). 4to. 1879..


).. "Glasgow Architectural Association. and consisted of single rooms one over the other. for near Lisbon.).'' 4 vols. ^he to the Perpendicular style of English Gothic.D.SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE. Aberdeen and Elgin. which possess REFERENCE BOOKS. manner. Melrose. are characteristic. and the planning of the buildings at different angles. The "corbie" or "crow-stepped" gable was used in preference to the straight-sided gable of England. 8vo. and the Abbeys of Kelso. especially from France. Andrew. Sketch Book.). In these the lancet window." 1878-1894. Holyrood and Dryburgh are the best known." 1896. 1885.. S. " Baronial Billings (R. MacGibbon Scotland. is employed. with which country there was a close political connection. (T. lines. W.was occasionally specially rich in castles and mansions of the Gothic distinctive character. and Ross Ross (T. was used long after it had been discontinued in England. accessible by " turnpike" or winding stairs. The " Castellated and Domestic of Architecture of Scotland. with projecting turrets at angles. Sketch Book. and in which stone was almost universally employed." 3 vols. Kirkwall. Dunblane. Giles). Scotland. Inspiration was largely drawn from abroad. Pinches (F. and almost bare.). The Pele or bastle houses were of the tower class. causing a picturesque and interesting in development on French (A. 1887. Scotland period. especially after Robert Bruce 1306-1329) finally secured the independence of Scotland. while in Rosslyn Chapel Portuguese influence is it is very similar in detail to the Church of Belem most important Cathedrals are those -of Edinburgh (S. 120 D) (having no transepts but a famous crypt). either singly or in groups. 410. 8vo. In Melrose Abbey is to be seen the influence of French and Spanish Art. vast height of walls. In vaulted roofs a continuous barrel vault with surface ribs.. while in the later period the Flamboyant tracery of French Gothic was followed in preference apparent." Folio.) and 3 vols. " The Abbey Church of Melrose. (D. and " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of MacGibbon (D). Dunfermline. Architecture in Scotland followed on much the same lines as England. Ecclesiastical Architecture . 151 is given a series of plans and sketches of different types of buildings showing the national character of Scottish Architecture. 1879. Glasgow (No. 1848." 5 vols. In these a picturesque use of circular towers. until the middle of the fifteenth century. treated in a simple. 'Edinburgh Architectural Association. On No. when it took a more national turn.

" 8vo. but the generally accepted view. as at Cormac's Chapel. and other places. and to which a small square chancel was attached. bell towers. The Round Towers generally detached and placed near the Church. The Monas(principally Franciscan) are small. were the most important. but few monuments of importance were erected. have been a subject of much controversy. probably the finest example in Ireland. 152). refuges. being of beehive form. They taper slightly towards the summit and are crowned with either a conical (No.Early Christian Architecture in Ireland. generally of stone.IRISH Celtic Architecture..D. Stokes refers to a group of seven small churches found at Inchleraun. but the absence of parish churches is remarkable. The Cathedrals of Dublin (No. Ardfert Cathedral. probably some time divided by a wooden screen. which was added in the fifteenth century. The best known are those at Cashel. and a tower. ARCHITECTURE. The early Churches were extremely small. Kilconnel. a transept and southern aisle. but the earlier castles built by the teries and Friaries Chieftains are interesting.'"' Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. Owing to the disturbances in Elizabethan times there is no domestic architecture of note. Kildare and Cashel. George Petrie. and Muckross. originated by Mr. and appear to have been used principally as oratories. cloisters. Prof. The Monasteries form another class of building. 152 j). Mediaeval Architecture. or were probably erected as symbols of power. unglazed. 15) and elsewhere. Within the English domain the influence of Continental art was felt during the Middle Ages. 1878 ( / TT 1 S Monographs Of) 1 '~ N tes on V on . usually having a nave and choir. where the priest could officiate." covered by a steep pitched roof. 1845. Co. The chief interest lies in the remains from the sixth century to the of the Celtic Architecture erected English Conquest in 1169. The monastic cells at the Skellings are peculiar. as in the early work in Greece at Mycenae (No. The naves were covered with barrel vaults. 1127-1134) (No. Windows appear to have been Glendalough." 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. Cashel (A. >tokes (M. 2"n Irish Architecture. is that they were used as treasure houses. similar to some in Asia Minor and elsewhere. from the ground. Kerry. over which was a hollow chamber " called an overcroft. and for displaying lamps at night time. 120 A). with domed stone roofs in horizontal courses. and the Rev. S.)." 187^-1877. 152 G) or battlemented The entrance doorway was several feet covering (No. Kevin's Kitchen.


Religion. The zeal with which the urban populations set about building cathedrals has been compared by Viollet-le-Duc to the commercial movement which has covered Europe with railways. to the north of which the were settled the Franks. 248. light as fern. (i 137-1 180). grotesque. for French Romanesque. (See page 248. Geographical. and in the mountainous districts of Auvergne the use of colored volcanic material gave a decorative character to the buildings of that ii. The Abbe Suger. France may be North and South. into divided architecturally. The introduction of various special cults gave fame to certain chapels and shrines. Louis IX. the minister of Louis V II.) (See page 246 in French Romanesque. which resulted in the erection of so many grand cathedrals. ever new surprise Graceful. Rome .) (See page 246 " Of hazardous caprices sure Heavy as nightmare. The excellent building stone aided in the development of the northern Gothic style.FRENCH GOTHIC. airy. leading the fourth (1248-1254). was manifested also in the Crusades. i. who may be styled the Cardinal Climate. Religious zeal. Wolsey of the period. much influence on church buildremained the controlling spirit.) found near Caen Geological. self in stone." Imagination's very LOWELL. Romance district. while to the south were settled i. exercised ing. such being largely due to their championship of justice and their adhesion to the royal cause. race. which are expressed in the richness of their architectural treatment. which as pilgrimage centres acquired both wealth and importance.) iv. though local liberties were not all swallowed up in centralization. INFLUENCES. The clergy as a corporate body reached the summit of their power and influence. with to please. iii. (See pages 246. by the River Loire.

FRENCH GOTHIC. were at constant war. France was inhabited by races of people who. to whom. Social and Political. when setting out on his last crusade. and all John's possessions in Northern Gaul. 987). but died at Tunis in 1270. largely increased the power of the crown. and the English Channel. the French crown afterwards passed. and the long lines of the tall traceried windows (Nos. varies considerably in different parts of the country. as Louis VIII. In continuation of the Romanesque style. to have forfeited all the fiefs he held of the French crown. . such being due to political. idea or prevailing principle of Gothic architecture The main in France was the same as in other parts of Europe (page 268).building epoch of the thirteenth century. Germans. numerous spires (with crockets). who was chosen king in 987. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 158. viz Atlantic. pinnacles. flying buttresses. 161 and 162). 363 The crusade against the Albigenses (see below) was a movement against Christians who had been declared by the Pope to be heretics. King of England. with the title " King of the French. Owing to the power of France at this time. the Gothic architecture of France. The real beginning of the modern kingdom of France may be said to commence with Hugh Capet. to the separation of the various parts by different languages and customs. vi. which naturally gave a classical tone to any new architectural development in the southern districts where they were principally found. v. Previous to the commencement of this period (A. environment. Louis on account of his goodness. and the next stage was to carry on a religious war against all who were considered to be enemies of the Papacy. 154. the vertical and aspiring tendency being accentuated by great internal height.. obtaining a sea-board on three seas.. Louis in 1229. widely differing from each other. As a consequence of the crusade preached against the Albigenses by Pope Innocent. called S.D. 160." Philip Augustus (1180-1223) after declaring John. Philip next defeated the combined forces of English. Historical. the dominions of the Counts of Toulouse were conquered by S. and Flemings at the Battle of Bovines in 1214. Louis IX. France thus the Mediterranean. high-pitched roofs. The development and consolidation of the French kingdom thus corresponds with the great cathedral. with the exception of Aquitaine. and governed by different rulers. and to the Roman remains. proceeded to conquer Normandy. the English barons offered the crown of England to Philip's eldest son Louis. : 2.
























Of HRiKP:!?

94^789 p








divided by M. de





or thirteenth century. (i ) Primary (Gothique) from the characteristic wheel (2.) Secondary (Rayonnant, or fourteenth century. tracery of the rose windows) or fifteenth century. (3.) Tertiary (Flamboyant) is however, on account of space, to consider the


subject as one continuous development

as, in fact,








where necessary with English Gothic.


All the great cathedrals, numbering about 150, were erected in first half of the thirteenth century, principally by funds

provided by the laity, and not as parts of monastic establishments, and in consequence vary considerably in plan and arrangement from English cathedrals. The French cathedrals, in situation and surroundings, are also in marked contrast (page 299) with English examples (Nos. 121 and 162), and are referred to by Browning, who talks of that
" Grim town, Whose cramp'd, ill-featured streets huddled about The minster for protection, never out Of its black belfry's shade and its bells' roar."
B, 154 D, 156, 157 one of the oldest of French Gothic cathedrals. The plan is typical in having a wide central nave with double aisles, transepts of small projection (being practically in a line with the side aisles), and the chevet arrangement with its double aisles and exterior chapels. The west front (No. 156) is the grandest composition in France, the western gable to the nave being hidden by a pierced screen, connecting the two western towers, The three deeply recessed western portals, the range of statues in niches, and the circular wheel window, are all characteristic

Notre Dame, Paris, 1163-1214 (Nos. 153





between the buttresses.
ble as possessing

fa9ades are spoilt by chapels having been placed

Bourges Cathedral (commenced

It has five aisles, in three different heights, the being 117 feet, resembling Milan Cathedral (No. 176), though in a different gradation. The vast nave of extreme icight and with length unbroken by projecting transepts, presents an imposing appearance. The view westwards



A.D. 1190) is chiefly remarkno transepts, for its shortness in comparison width, and its general resemblance in plan to Notre











5 8.

Interior, looking East,

B B 2






the east end is striking, owing to the picturesque confusion of innumerable flying buttresses, pinnacles, and other features. Chartres Cathedral (i 194-1260) (Nos. 1 10 E and 155 K) has a plan peculiar in having strongly marked transepts, each crowned with two towers, which with the two western and two contemThe cathedral is plated eastern towers would have made eight. remarkable for the fine statuary to the north and south porches (No. 165 A), the rose window to the northern transept, and the flying buttresses of three arches one above the other, the two lower being connected by radiating balusters resembling the spokes
of a wheel.

Rheims Cathedral (1212-1241) (Nos. 155 and 161) has a fine plan, the west front having three deeply recessed portals richly ornamented with sculpture, and enclosed with richly ornamented The upper portion has a row of statues in tabernacles gables. carried between the two towers instead of the open tracery arrangement seen in Notre Dame. The flying buttresses (No. 141 H) show the arrangement adopted over a double aisle, in which the
thrust of the nave vault

transmitted by arches to piers weighted

by pinnacles and statuary.

Cathedral (1220-1288) (Nos. 154, 159 and 1 60) is generally referred to as having the typical French Cathedral plan, but the side chapels to the nave placed between the buttresses are a later
addition. The interior is 140 feet high to the stone vaulting, and the roof of the nave is over 200 feet in height. The western


facade somewhat resembles Notre
central fleche of timber

Dame and Rheims.
shown on No.



and lead


Bayeux Cathedral (twelfth century) is remarkable for its twenty-two chapels and immense crypt under the sanctuary, dating from the eighth to the eleventh century.
Coutances Cathedral (No.


was erected



famous for the excellent design of the two western towers and spires, and the octagonal lantern over the crossing of nave and transepts.

Noyon Cathedral

(1157-1228) with a peculiar plan resem-

bling a combination of the

German triapsal Troyes Cathedral (12 ^-fifteenth

example with eastern

and the French century), a fine fivechevet and rich western facade

Soissons Cathedral (1160-1212); La'on Cathedral (11501200), exceptional in having of six towers; and Rouen

an English type of plan and group

western towers of a later

Cathedral (1202-1220), with rich period and iron central spire, are other

well-known early examples. The Sainte Chapelle, Paris (1244-1247), built by S. Louis, in which the space between the buttresses is occupied by windows 15 feet wide and 50 feet high, is often quoted as a typical Gothic structure. The plan (No. 155 H; was in size similar to that of











It has a richly vaulted Westminster Palace. rebuilding French features as the apsidal crypt, and such characteristic termination and the high stone-vaulted roof. in the Among later examples in the north of France, mostly style, are Flamboyant S. Ouen, Rouen (1318-1515), the choir (1318-1339) being Rouen (1432contemporary with that of Cologne, S. Maclou, the richest Flamboyant example in France, 1500), probably S. Jacques, Dieppe (1350-1440), and S. Wulfrand, Abbe:

S Stephen, Westminster (No. 119

since destroyed for


many buildings were erected during the Middle Ages, differing from these northern cathedrals in plan and design owing to the proximity of Roman buildings. Albi Cathedral (1282-1512), a fortress church, consists of a large impressive vaulted hall with an apsidal end, and having a
series of flanking chapels separated by internal buttresses. possesses an unrivalled fifteenth century rood screen.

ville (1488-1534). In the south of France

Beauvais Cathedral was originally built 1225-1272, but was partly reconstructed 1337-1347, the transepts being added in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This building was never comIt has the pleted beyond the choir and chevet and the transepts. highest nave vault in France, being 160 feet, and has a nave width of 47 feet from centre to centre of piers.

The Church of the Cordeliers, Toulouse
century), which



example of


partially destroyed in 1871, was another type, and has some similarity in plan with

that of King's College Chapel,

Cambridge. Sernin, Toulouse, commenced in 1096 (referred to on page 248), is a five-aisled example, the western portion and manystoried octagonal tower belonging to this period.

especially rich in domestic architecture, and throughout the country are to be found castles, town halls, hospitals, nouses, barns, farmhouses, granaries, and other buildings, in which the principles of the Gothic style can be studied. The House of Jacques Cceur, Bourges (1443), is a fine example of the house of a great merchant prince of the period. It is partly built on the town ramparts and has a central courtyard (ISO. 163), possessing a fine staircase tower.



Palais de Justice, Rouen (1499-1508) (No. 164), is an exceedingly rich specimen of French municipal architecture. The
restored by mSSS it Plerrefonand the Chateau Viollet-le-Duc, S. Michel (Normandy;, de Blois


,1498-1515), are examples of military architecture








The south of France has many examples of stone houses, and throughout the country half-timbered houses with plaster filling are still to be seen, as at Rouen, although fire and decay have naturally reduced their number. Students are often inclined to think that Gothic architecture was confined to ecclesiastical work, but it should be remembered that the style was employed in every building of the period.


(No. 159). Short, wide, and high. Length about four
times the width.
Cloisters rare, except in the south,






narrow, and low. six times the width.

Length about

where richly designed examples are met with. Transepts have slight projection, as may be seen in the sheet of comparative plans (No. 155). Side chapels numerous, due to
the popular character of the Cathedral for the worship of saints and * saying of masses. The apsidal east end developed into the chevet by addition of processional aisle and chapels, but


monastic foundation, and characteristic of English Cathedrals. Transepts have bold projection, and a second eastern transept is

and Lincoln. Side chapels seldom met with, due to the fact that the principal cathedrals were churches belonging to monastic foundations. The square east end characfound, as at Salisbury



Nine Altars




Laon, Dol, and

Poitiers are excep-

an east end transept



sometimes double, Notre Dame, Paris (No. Amiens, Bourges, Rheims and
western towers (Nos. 154,

aisles are


are Chichester


and Manchester (No. 119

nearly always (No. 119 G)




probable reason being that the great height of nave prevented a central tower being effective. A woodeny&V//^ often constructed over the crossing, as at Amiens
(422 feet high) (No. 165 B). Central spires are common

the only exceptions (page 305). The central tower the most successful and predominant feature, as at Gloucester (No. 1 1 5 H), Hereford (No. 115 Rochester





n6A), and Norwich (with spire) (No. 1160); or combined with one
western tower,as at Ely ( No. 1140). A single western tower is characteristic of parish churches.

Salisbury (with spire). (No.

attempted in by placing four at the angles formed by the junction of ic nave and transepts, and two at

Normandy. Towers sometimes


the west end, with
only, as at Laon.

central flf-che

Towers frequently arranged as a group of three, viz., two western and one central, as at Lincoln (No. 1 1 6 B), Canterbury (No. I i6c), Durham (No. ii4B) and York (No.
115 A).




jencral largeness ot parts.

houses never polygonal.

and Chap-





general smallness of parts. Chapter houses are often polygonal.


H O O U ^ w

specially characteristic of lines. Roofs. 156). Rheims. Wooden roofs of an ornamental . and single-framed timbers were used. emFlying buttresses largely on account ployed. 113. as at Gloucester. and were highly ornamented with niches and panelling. Westminster Abbey. Transitional buttresses may be seen at Salisbury with curious weathering. as at Notre Dame. flat the Romanesque projections of sometimes semiperiod. 121). Open tracery parapets are typical (Nos. being necessary of height and width of aisles and naves. (No. 153). them (No. and deeply set in west fronts. ENGLISH GOTHIC. 161 and Coutances and 162). Flying buttresses are not so prominent a feature because the they are considerably less ornate than the English examples. Later buttresses of deep projection are are projections. 147 M). Battlemented parapets are typical (No. They were used with special effect at the east end. Canterbury. 164 and 165 c. treated ornament- Carpentry was more advanced. 154 and 164). These are of moderate to pitch. \\ith intricate tracery. - Doorways elaborate and rich. B. England. There is an absence of cusps in late French tracery. lar" tracery. D). - Doorways Openings. These are always steep and ornamented with metal ridges and finials (Nos. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are steeper the higher they occur. and provided with a projecting porch. The characteristic west front is Interiors owe much to the elaboration of triforium. Paris. is Openings. or were in the apses of circular. and there are seldom double -aisles or chevet. 115 H. Buttresses usually formed with offsets have chapels between 157). D. variety of clerestories and richness of vaulting. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are flatter the higher they occur. 116 C. Early buttresses were a development from the slight Walls. and strongly marked with offsets and pinnacles. /22. (Nos. especially churches. 1150). Interiors owe their effect largely to their great height. often placed laterally. 133). c. Early buttresses Later ones much pronounced. FRENCH GOTHIC. are special features. Roofs. and Salisbury (Nos. without offsets (No. Walls. and elsewhere. D. B. Windows develop on " " but plate the same English work. approaching flalness in later periods (Nos. development * in the later period being flam" boyant tracery. Buttresses often nearly vertical. the final development.i8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Notre Dame. They are constructed with double timbers of special type to surmount high vaults. c. 141). 156 and 161) and transept 153 B). Windows have much "plate" the final tracery. Durham. 156. complex piers. otherwise clerestory is comparatively low. although found at Chichester. larger and finer than in England. Wooden roofs. tracery was seldom used. Circular windows are not much used in ends (No. The characteristic west front Wells Cathedral (No. Paris (No. being " Perpendicu- Circular windows in west fronts (Nos.

FRENCH GOTHIC. not much developed as part of design of interiors. 109 and 112). The^e are and not Mouldings. Capitals of a classic type were only occasionally employed. Tower of London (No. as when the shafts started just above the square abacus of the arcade columns (No. These vaults are usually domical and ridge ribs were rarely employed. There was a difficulty in bringing down the lines' of the vaulting with this type. Columns. especially The square abacus (No. rich. 146). L). John's Chapel. The joints was peculiar to England. The mouldings of the pier arches sometimes die into the pillars without capitals. K. These were and . and clumsy expedients were in use. and also the octagonal or polygonal (No. highly developed. F. " bell " foliage rarely met capitals without with. and was preferred to circular columns.FRENCH GOTHIC. which. Vaults. of great variety. in to the vaulting (No. Moulded Normandy. Vaults were used more in the cathedrals than in parish churches. and A bold. Coverings of lead were generally employed. and intermediate and lierne ribs seldom used (page 288) (Nos. 112 and of the severies are at right angles or parallel to the wall ribs (No. F. Paris (No. as in Notre Dame. 1480. is The clustered nave colums are characteristic. Plain circular E. Columns. great height being a characteristic. except in often Moulded "bell" capitals were employed in all periods. ally. Coverings of slates were often 381 ENGLISH GOTHIC. 122). besides an early application of stiff leaf foliage. 165 H). of moulded characteristic. sometimes of wood. gave a strong backbone the Pendants are frequently used " " flamboyant period. early carved capitals usually having "stiff leaf" foliage. as in the S. and their evolution in each period is shown The development was on No. preferred. 165 G. of less variety. the Early English period (No. J. 148 G). The early adoption of attenuated shafts as a continuation of the vaulting ribs being taken as the basis of the pier formation avoided any such difficulty as was met with in France. In the south is found the square pier with attached three-quarter a special feature. being of large section. as part of design of interiors. Fan tracery vaulting (Nos. H) derived from the classical feature was F. 135). as in Salisbury Cathedral (No. Q) was characteristic. very slight development taking place. joints of the severies are parallel to the wall rib. 1 58). employed. 1 1 1). character. 146. or placed 129) The diagonally (No. Vaults were specially characteristic of the style. 165. and in have bold projection. The vaults have level ridges and have longitudinal and transverse ridge ribs. in D). 158). 2ss larger in size. 165 P. The round abacus (No. and the crocket capital (No. and are due to Roman tradition.K) was much used. E. shaft piers columns (No. probably due to the influence of carpentry. of the Capitals with foliage Corinthian type lasted well into the style. as at York and the Cloisters of Lincoln. Mouldings.

according to the intent of the artists of the epoch. Rheims (No. and is particularly seen in the great doorways of the figure sculpture was not carried out west fronts of Notre Dame (No. finials. 1850-1872. especially in the South of France. earlier of large whereas the later examples consist figures surrounded with representations of the niches and crocketed canopies as executed by the sculptors.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. -" La Sculpture Francaise. FRENCH GOTHIC.). the west front of the of Chartres. Ornament. Paris. REFERENCE BOOKS. 156). however. are rich in this respect. 8vo. Decorative G.. " " The ornament dog-tooth (No. The carving of such features as gargoyles. " Architectural Drawings. and Chartres possesses examples which. as at Canterbury. in a prevailing tone of blue tending to violet. folio. in painted wall decora- The painted roofs the Perpendicular notable. Color decoration to wall surfaces have been fully developed. much attention being given owing to the smallness of scale. Folio 1870 Cathedrales de la France. Color decoration in frescoes and as applied to sculpture seems to Stained glass was developed on similar lines as in France. Paris. Features and details are coarser. give an idea of the general effect of an interior. Decorative figure sculpture of the highest type was attained. in style. the examples. but the Cathedrals of Wells and Lichfield. and sculpture was much employed." 2 vols. 165)." 8vo. crockets and corbels was either of floral forms or of animals and birds. less attention ENGLISH GOTHIC.. being conventional in the Early English. in The naturalesque in the Decorated and again conventional in the Perpendicular. where they are inclosed in niches or tabernacles surrounding the arch in successive tiers. "Archives de folio. Corroyer . Much of the best stained glass has. and Westminster Abbey. 161)." 3 vols. " 1893 M anueld'Arche-ologieFran 9 aise. and in the north and south porticos so extensively as in France. and often were kept some distance from window openings. so rich as in England. Stained glass was much developed. and it would appear that hangings were imitated tions. la Commission des Monuments Historiques. on being given to these account of the largeness of scale. and pier arches applied to capitals as well as to door and window openings. 147 A) is common." 4 vols Pans." 50 collotypes. been destroyed. being in small pieces heavily leaded. and screens of period are 5. 1899 ou Rudiment -"Abecedaire. .902 " (E. G. former being the most complete." Baudot (A de) Large folio." liurges (W.andwas of great refinement (No. Amiens. Paris. Ornament.). 1884. 1 d'Archeologie. Features and details are of great refinement. Gothic Architecture. early examples of the carving varies considerably each of the periods.


1858." Rational Buildin-" \ Historical Novels. Monographic de la Cathedrale de Chartres." i vol.. 1895. A. Gonse (L. Verdier (A." vols. 1852-6. 1828. C. K. 8vo. (R. 410 Paris. 410.). 410.). Pugin (A. Paris. " Lassus (J. 1902." 4to.) et Cattois (F. Paris. Monographic de Notre Dame de Paris.) et Viollet-le-Duc (E.). Paris.).. 1869-1872.). 1867-1881." 1858. au XVI.)" " L'Architecture du V." Folio. Nestield (E.. A. Paris. A." 1862. " The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera. The most famous Loba.)." " (C." 2 vols.384 Gailhabaud royal folio. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 8vo. MacGibbon (D. (A. (]. M."Architecture Civile et Domestique au Moyen Age. E. Viollet-le-Duc (E. . " L'Architecture Normande aiix Xl e et Ruprich-Robert (V." 410. P." translation of the article Paris." 2 vols. 8vo. M. " 1899. 1889. L'Art Gothique. Newcastle. XI c I Siecles. B." James (G. " "Construction" has been issued under the A title of By G. 1888.-" A Monk of Fife.). R. Moore New Development and Character of Gothic Architecture.). Paris. H.)." " Blisset (X. Siecle.). J. and 4 Large Folio. folio. and 410 text. P. Lang (A.). 186-?." Folio. e " L'Art (K..).). Paris. New York.). Huss.-" Philip Augustus. 1864. Lenoir. Shaw Folio. folio..). et de la Renaissance. 1859. "Architectural Sketches on the Continent. "Specimens of Medieval Architecture." 8vo. "Architecture Monastique." 2 vols. " Specimens of Early French Architecture. " Male Edinburgh.). Norman). E. Paris. Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. Lassus (J. " Dictionnaire Raisonne de 1'Architecture 10 vols. York. B. Religieux du XII Siecle en France. Franchise." Johnson (R.

Religion. The mediaeval architecture of these countries developed with the social progress of the people. Ghent. This was greatly influenced by the religions of France. the heiress of Flanders. " The darkened roof On rose high aloof. ii. corbels were carved. and weavers to fief of France. The whole of the Netherlands c c F. the pillars with clustered shafts so trim. i. large in conception and rich in detail. as in the small house facades in the towns. thus accounting for the dual influences found in its architectural development. notably Guildhalls and Town vi. reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the merchants of Antwerp." Was The And SCOTT. and Holland under German influence.A. iii. v. in. the towns with independent municipalities rivalling each other in the arts of war and peace. Stone was used in Brussels Cathedral and other examples. Climate. under whose dominion the Netherlands were at different times. With base and with capital flourished around Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound. Halls. Historical. as work. and granite was also available. Geographical. were erected. Flanders.BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC. and the consequent effect upon the architecture was considerable. between the Germanic and Romanic races of the European peoples. and other cities. iv. grotesque and grim. and Spain. became united of the first Duke of Valois to Margaret. The district abounds with clay suitable for the making of bricks. Germany. Social and Political. but has greater extremes of heat and cold. This is similar to that of England. being specially noticeable in domestic i. that locked each ribbed aisle and a fleur-de-lis or a quatre-feuille . the cathedral at Tournai being wholly of that material. as a Burgundy by the marriage . Many buildings. The country of the Netherlands lies wedged it were. pillars lofty The keystone light and small . Geological. Louvain. Belgium being under French. INFLUENCES.

however. 2. The f the latterof equal heights. a good example. with its single western tower g the . and narrow aisleless tranwest front 1422-1518).D. fully r l * . that of the hilly part partaking mixture level part (Flanders) partaking of French character. 1226-1280) (No. The Dutch character of simplicity is translated into the barn-like churches. 167) is h ne S Ch " r( B el ^ um and is chevet. EXAMPLES. and for this reason the architecture of Holland is of less interest than that of Belgium.386 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the choir has large side chapels The vaulting and nave windows date from 1350-14^0 Antwerp Cathedral (A. A The architecture of Belgium during this period was of two main of German. 154 c. and lofty churches of the fifteenth century has. (A. complete developed Gothic. (15197. countries. French ideas in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. The cathedrals show a general inclination to the general disposition of their plans. been destroyed. The eastern termination has a half-developed chevit.transepts" with four towers a lantern are of the Transition with period. and iM are other well-known examples. and the Romanesque and choir. which for this class of buildings is unequalled in other Dutch architecture. Brussels Cathedral (A. 1146-1338) is illustrating the styles of three -successive periods. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.D. very light and elegant in character. but in the Town Halls a national style of architecture was evolved. 167) is one of the finest examples. 1352-1411) (Nos'. owing to iconoclastic zeal. remarkable for nave and Baying Cht Dordrech *> Ypres. Tournai Cathedral . 3. of Spanish features is observable in many of the domestic buildings. The nave is the circular-ended . and that of the types. and were constantly at war with one another. descendants of the French kings. Much of the ornament in many of the fine.1555)? During the Middle Ages the cities of the Low Countries were the richest and most powerful in Europe. has a national character of its own. the choir (1226) being generally considered the Gothic work in Belgium. Early in the sixteenth century the Netherlands belonged to Charles V. ' le aisles.D. large. were brought together under the rule of the Dukes of Valois. although somewhat resembling German. 111 ' ' ^ Ut Ghent .




which was of massive construction. The Town Halls are exceptionally fine those at 'Brussels (1401-1455). Many were designed on the same lines. COMPARATIVE. This reflects the independent and prosperous condition of the medieval towns. surmounted by a high roof with dormer windows in tiers. ' SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. is a somewhat striking example of comparative architecture. for The Town Hall The Trade Halls for buying and selling merchandize. The French chevet was also adopted. Plans. and the lower portion. Walls. In domestic work the long. c.390 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and forms a landmark for many miles round. 167 F). 352 office. 168). very characteristic. and Ghent (1481) (No. unbroken fa9ades and greater symmetry and regularity of the scheme are characteristic. cloth. its chequered history being referred to by Longfellow : " In the market-place of Bruges Stands the belfry old and brown . 169). 168). the Gothic fa9ade(i5i8-i533) contrasting with the Renaissance facade (1595-1622). especially which the country was renowned at this period. These. the central portion being carried up as a tower. Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded. the Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200-1304) being exceptionally also built as meeting." . The windows are richly ornamented with . and are several stories in height. Bruges (1377) (No. and their free and open appearance may be compared with the halls of Florence and Siena. form a class of building suited to the needs of the community. feet high (No. A. adopted in (No. the upper octagonal portion of which is richly ornamented (No. B. The possession of a "beffroi" (belfry) attached to the town hall was an important privilege granted by charter. along with the trade halls and guildhalls of which Ypres is probably the finest example. 169) being the more important. Openings. Short and wide plans after French models were the cathedrals. at 168). that at Antwerp having seven aisles being regarded in other countries as non-Gothic in design. frequently used as a record is one of the most picturesque of these towers. Louvain (1448-1463). and there are several examples in the market-place of Brussels. which were very powerful.places for the separate trades or guilds. The Guildhalls were 4. Still it watches o'er the town. was The beffroi at Bruges. built in two distinct styles. are also fine. Ghent (No.

H S3 W 33 o .

folio. "Study Book Architecture and Art. Jacques at Liege with paintings of a rather later date.). Ysendyck Jas. REFERENCE BOOKS. " The Ancient Domestic " Edifices of Bruges. clustered piers. Haghe King " (L. c. Ornament. H. In domestic either hipped (No. " Goctghebuer Ghent. folio. Sketches Belgium and Germany. The use of round pillars in the nave. 167 B. 410. 1880-1889.) . chimney stacks." of Mediaeval 1840-1850. nor the grace of English. (F. c. D. by F. Waudru. D). Coarse profusion is characteristic of Belgian arcades. and S. (T. " de 1'Art dans les Pavs- Mary of Burgundy. 1827. Brussels (No. have steep pitches. regularity in position and panelling. tracery. sculpture. instead of E.). blue stone is combined with a red brick filling-in of the vault." (Historical Novel." 1075." Documents Classes (J J. and are by crow-stepped and traceried Numerous turrets.. is well exemplified at S." et 4 vols. at Mons. mouldings. (P.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. buildings.. in a scheme of permanent decoration. (C. 5 vols." Bruges. Van).). possessing neither the vigour of French. A peculiar feature is noticeable in some town hall where a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches means of a long keystone from a concealed arch. 1878.). In S. and bear a similarity and which are marked features in these large Roofs. Stroobant Belgique. as at Liege.). Choix des in Monumens des Pays-Bas. 1858-1868. Columns. Gudule. and bold combine with the tiers of dormers to complete work roofs the rich profusion of the walls below. Folio." 3 vols.." Monuments Folio. Gothic. d'Architecture de Sculpture en Verschelde Brussels. 169) or ended gables of picturesque outline. J. is fully decorated 5. Antwerp. Mouldings.

i. Sown close among the strewings of the floor And either wall of the slow corridor roods away. and latticed passage wet ." . that of the Freemasons (cf. Cool with broad courts. prior to the Reformation. was the civil. Trade guilds acquired great importance during this period. The most French Revolution. rule of many of the bishops. iii. 258 for German Romanesque. Religion. thick to the girdle tie Wherein was bound a child with tender feet Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it. Geographical. page 281) having been credited with much influence in the design and working out of the Gothic style. and timber in Hanover and the north-west. . which has a Stone was great influence on the architecture in these regions. The River Rhine was an important factor in the rise of cities founded in the earlier period.) Some From rush flowers and lilies ripe to set. Was dim That spanned his head from nape to crown these Mary's gold hair. west and south by large and warlike empires having strong racial differences. the truth as to the individuality of the architects will not easily be made out. (See page 258 in German Romanesque). Climate. The plains of Northern and North Eastern Germany produce no building material but brick. INFLUENCES. Owing to this situation it had direct communication with all the great European States.GERMAN (See page " GOTHIC. interesting feature in the religious life of Germany. . ii. Some of these episcopal principalities were not finally abolished until the period of the iv. In the absence of records. Germany was flanked on the east. i. as well as ecclesiastical. Social and Political. . v. with deep device of gracious things Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings Shut to the side or Peter with straight stole And beard cut black against the aureole . Geological. found in the centre and south. a lordly house there was.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 'a brick architecture was developed. as at Lubeck and the which. as in the latter country. exercised considerable influence on the peaceful arts. Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the Lombard league of the north Italian towns (cf. neighbouring 3. The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed directly from France. no Gothic building being erected in before the thirteenth Germany century." because no king was universally acknowledged by all Germany. but the Romanesque In Northern Germany. were times of great confusion and lawlessness. and was not a pure development of the Romanesque. which had been developed to a greater extent than in other countries.394 vi. known as the "great interregnum. This may be ascribed to the monumental character of buildings in the Romanesque style. regarded Cologne Cathedral as the great 9 B) ' ' ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. of the bmlding being completed according to the original design in the nineteenth The clear width of nave between century piers is 41 feet 6 inches and C m Th! remainder '. no c and 170) may be cathedral in this style. page 234). ' " " . reluctantly adopted at the time when it in France. although not equalling that in the valley of the Po. although expressed in a somewhat meagre manner. cities. in the valley of the Elbe. EXAMPLES. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The " Hanseatic league. was attaining its great perfection precedents were long adhered to. 2." an alliance of the great commercial towns of North Germany. has that special character belonging properly to the material. until the house of Hapsburg Germany was came into power in 1273. the In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries heart and centre of the Western Empire. giving a superficial e nced in and the choir was . therefore. completed in f u "7?. Gothic was. 6aStern P ortion bein a g It resembles Amiens and dimensi di rect copy in plan cathedral of North Europe. (Nos. Historical. The years 1254-1274. having an extreme a width of 275 feet.


Kuttenberg. S." The result of typical form." LONGFELLOW. . is the " Hall Church. Landshut (1404). The western towers have open-work spires. 1377-1477) is spacious and lofty. to reduce the importance of the nave. Stephen. known as the the side aisles to the same height as the nave. Lambert. Barbara. characteristic of wall. S. and S. and S. Vienna (1300-1510) (Nos. nave of the same S. him.D. The cathedral " was built by A Erwin von Steinbach but not he alone. The architect stones. Mayence.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. octagonal apse without ambulatory. with The small triangular Ulm Cathedral (A. great master Children that came As day by day Grew old and died. and to do away with the necessity for flying buttresses. was to raising abolish the triforium and clerestory. 172). S. open-work spires porch is a peculiar feature. . and fine choir stalls. of his craft. 172 and 173). For many generations labour'd with . to see these saints in stone. spire similar to that of Cologne. but with a total height of 385 feet. Ratisbon Cathedral (1275-1534) (No. The western tower is 529 feet in height. has aisles and a " Hall Church. and one great roof . And on and on and is not yet completed. Munich Cathedral. a remnant from Romanesque traditions. Quintin. being therefore Vienna. being notable for the small ratio of support in regard to its floor space. Martin. added in 1859-1869. has a regular and western towers. out of the blocks they rose. height. Stephen. Marburg (1235-1283) (No. are other examples of this type. Freiburg Cathedral (1283-1330) has a plan. 171). Built bis great heart into these sculptured And with him toiled his children.is characteristic in having no clerestory or triforium. and their lives the walls Were builded with his own into As offerings to God. and a polygonal eastern apse without ambulatory. . while rendering the interior more spacious. . and still the work went on. no D. the three aisles nearly equal in width and height. It has an arcaded gallery to the eaves. Elizabeth." as are also S. Hildesheim.


Heilberg (1350). 4. 170). Apses often semioctagonal. the party walls being apparent. and a square outline is not uncommon. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. The Rathhaus at Liibeck and other cities. The planning of the roof-ridge parallel. found at end of transepts. thus in Nuremberg the ridge is generally parallel to the street. are types of the brick architecture of North Germany. Lubeck. as in some English cathedrals. Entrances are often on north or south. in goodly numbers. to the general plan Triapsal plans are frequent (No. . while at Landshut and elsewhere. gables are the result. Tower porches occupy one of which is completed and has of transepts only positions a splendid spire. The chevet is uncommon. to the street in towns influenced the design considerably (see page 536 in German Renaissance). sometimes only one central tower occurs. Freiburg. less open than usual in German work. These were based upon (a. the ridge being generally at right angles to the street. and at east and west ends Plans. and frequently contained more stories than the walls " " for the large supporting it. The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne. 172 D). of air. Hildesheim. and dormer windows are plentiful. instead of being at the (No. (1280). are evidences of the prosperity of the inhabitants of these times. Magdeburg (1208-1211). Miinster and Ratisbon are the best known. Twin towers occur at west end of Ratisbon Cathedral 171). with their stepped gables.) the French plan. Town Halls (Rathhaus) at Brunswick. and these exhibit great variety of design in scrolls and other features. the covering the church in one span. and express the possibilities of design in that material. The vaults are traceried. Lubeck Cathedral (choir and Lubeck. COMPARATIVE. as at Naumburg. are notable. In later work. although it occurs at Cologne (No. and the town gates of Castles were erected the Baltic provinces. as at Marienburg and Meissen in Saxony (1471-1483). aisles) and the Marien Kirche. and the original stained glass exists. German style of churches. being used as a drying ground and planned with windows to get a through current monthly wash. and artistically treated. and Prague. In the domestic architecture the roof was a large and important feature. or at right angles. A. Halberstadt. .398 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) the round-arched and (b.



Cologne (No. B. 174 is E. Openings (No. The typical examples are Strasburg (1429) (No. Churches were nearly always vaulted. In the north the clerestories are excessive in size. double examples. 172 F). Tower roofs of the Romanesque form were still used. Great attention was paid to the vaulting. Lubeck in the north is the centre of a brick district. Oppenheim. 172). though ornamented. Mouldings. west end. corresponding with two aisle bays. 171). owing to the height of the aisles. 154 E). thus interpenetvation of mouldings (fifteenth century) was a very characteristic treatment. being weak. covering nave and aisle in one span (No. the outline. and the place of transepts (No. starting as low down as possible. spire Towers with was often Freiburg (1300). with a wooden roof. Columns. each being provided with its own base and capital. and the use of two tiers of windows was due to the lofty aisles (No. tracery windows being used in later Excessive height F. The resulting complicated intersections required great skill in the geometrical setting out and execution. spires were much used. which was due to the side aisle being made nearly as high as the nave. Ratisbon (No. 401 take They sometimes have towers over them. Piers usual in naves (Nos. F. 170 and 172) and E. the tendency being to make them lofty posts carrying the. Tracery was employed on the outer and inner wall surfaces. but the junction of the insufficiently marked. 173) Cathedrals. as also in Bavaria and at Munich.A. both as regards its size and excellence of construction. and churches of this material abound. Open-work tracery spires indicate the same liking for this feature which is seen in the Rhenish Romanesque churches. Roofs. Ratisbon. D D . Walls. sometimes covered only. Cologne. Square vaulting bays to the nave were often adhered to. c. Complexity rather than simplicity was striven after. the mullions being often cut across the openings behind. without reference to their origin and meaning. consisting of two different sets of mouldings. and were Vienna (No. as at Freiburg. a characteristic. and elsewhere. and when the aisles are equal in height to the nave it is the recognized German type known as the "Hall Church" (No. F). not the columns found in early French Gothic. but vaulting in oblong bays afterwards became general. 172). 173). no c). roof. to provide a great expanse of stained glass. Tracery was elaborated. but were D. The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque style simply copied. appearing and disappearing in and out of the same stone.GERMAN GOTHIC. The special German feature is the immense roof.

Examples are found throughout Germany. 1836-1850. and in cases were most elaborate. and in colored brickwork was used as a means interiors are plain and bare in character." Folio Denkmaeler der Baukunst der Mittelalters in Sachsen.). Whewell (W). H. Features such as pinnacles are larger the higher they occur.) Leipzig. and either placed against a wall or isolated " and were used to keep the " pyx with the eucharist. and the Lorenz Kirche. G. . j). all erected in minature. 1842. Histoire et description de la Cathedrale de Cologne. Leipzig. the tracery of later windows sometimes representing the branches of trees ("branch tracery "). 174). They usually represented a Gothic spire with its traceried windows. 174 A. Study-Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art. " REFERENCE BOOKS." Scott (Sir Walter).). " Ecclesiastical Art in (G. Puttrich (L. in which technical display was more considered than grace of outline.). Munich. Baukunst. and canopies.. Foerster (E. Stained glass and ironwork were well treated. Ulm (90 feet). folio. statuary decoration. They are of stone or wood. King 4 (T. dating from the time that the consecrated Host above the altar went out of use." 4to and folio." vols. " Baukunst. They form an important feature of German decorative art. Foliage was treated in a naturalesque manner." 4 vols. and therefore scale is destroyed. " Denkmaeler Deutscher Baukunst. and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a common In general. Moller Leipzig. as at Ratisbon (52 feet)." Anne of Gierstein. was unsuitable for the its place moulded and of decoration. vols..). 2 vols. Boisseree (S. to the design." Deutschen 8vo. 1873. 1852. Nuremburg (64 feet). 1843. tapering upwards in many stages. 1855-1869. Ornament (No.). the carving was superior feature (No. many The enforced use of brick in the north employment of sculptured work. pinnacles." 12 folio. c." (Historical Novel. as at Cologne.. J.).402 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Tabernacles or Sacrament Houses were developed in this period. Denkmaeler " der Germany. and the 5. 1858-1868. whereas in English and French work the features do not increase in size. the -shrine itself being closed by a pierced iron grating.. folio. Lubke (W.-" Architectural Notes on German Churches. Hartel (A." Architektonische Detaile und Ornamente der Kirchlichen " Berlin. being placed at one side and forming a lofty and towerlike structure. and they are sometimes of great height. 4to.). . 1891.


182). Lucca. Northern and Central Italy supplied abundant and beautiful material for the elaboration of plain wall treatment. effected and also in panels. many large buildings. while the climate counteracted effectually any desire the Italians might have had for the suppression of the walls by the employment of large windows of stained glass. The work at Venice was similarly influenced by an oversea trade connection with the East. Geological. The influence of the climate and brilliant atmosphere is apparent in the small windows. iii. having been erected in these materials. for the reasons mentioned above. Orvieto. (See page 228 for Italian Romanesque. Genoa. as in Florence (No. Among the little sleepy pearls to be I will A shrine lit over with soft candle flame. INFLUENCES. the architect relying much for effect upon and disposition. Red. German influence in Geographical.ITALIAN GOTHIC.) " give thee twelve royal images Cut in glad gold. with marvels of wrought stone For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas. And the strange Asian thalamite that was Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea. Climate. such as mosaic work and fresco decoration. factors which also hindered the development of tracery. through the Lombardy was connection of this part of Italy and Germany geographically by the Brenner Pass. and other places. Siena (No. 181). The colored marbles of ment of this style was important. were necessary to keep out the glare and heat of the Italian sun. The brick and terra-cotta of Northern Italy has left a decided impress on the architecture of that district. which. The influence of materials in the developii. The preference for opaque treatment. their color . black. such as the Hospital at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia. i. and white marbles were used in stripes. was inherited from the Romans. with thick walls. " i.

Orvieto. losing authority and influence during their absence from Rome. without . for the citizens being dispersed during the sixty years of Latin occupation. Social and Political. as shown in the Classic forms and decoration. and proceeded Yet other countries looked to Italy to sack the adjoining town. in vi.) the to mask the flatness of the roofs (Nos. 405 The real power of the Pope as head of the Church died with Gregory X. The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a century in advance of northern Europe. the effect that each holiday they blew trumpets. Oscar Browning in his Italy. The maritime commonwealth of Genoa considerably reduced the power of Pisa in 1284. and small wars were of constant occurrence. To the Latin conquest of Constantinople.ITALIAN GOTHIC. in 1415. Italy into small principalities and commonwealths. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Western lines (pages 230. . Historical." at this period was cut up v. of The influence of construction Roman tradition. the powerful family of the Medici (page 447). Siena and Florence. all commerce was transferred to the cities of Italy. 1203. is mainly attributed the sudden development of the formative arts in the thirteenth century in Europe. Pisa. and were very powerful in consequence of the wealth and industry of the cities over which they held sway. learning and commerce. as the head in arts. a sub" Mediaeval ject dealt with by Mr. The erection of the Cathedrals of Siena. (1271-1276). was^so great that the verticality which marks the Gothic architecture in the north of Europe does not pervade the Italian examples to the same extent. Milan and Lucca was largely due to the civic pride of the various rival cities. 259) distracted Italy from 1250 to 1409. in which political life was full of rivalry and activity. Florence. The poet Dante (1265-1321) has in his great poem presented a summarized picture of the age. and many Greek artists were In the thirteenth established at Venice. Rival Popes existed until a settlement was arrived at by the Council The factions of the Guelphs and Ghibelof Constance. 182) (b. century successive members of the Visconti family ruled as Dukes of Milan.) the tendency aisle roofs by a mere screen wall forming the west facade. Religion. The churches are especially noticeable externally for (a. while the numerous Town Halls Tasso has a line to attest the growth of municipal institutions. and for nearly seventy years (1309-1376) resided at Avignon. 181. and the latter was conquered by Florence in Florence became one of the chief states of Italy under 1406. iv. 2. The succeeding Popes were under the influence of the King of France.


as. there is no beauty of detail or of design on a small scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded bricks. Stone of different color was also carried systematically in patterns through the design. There is an absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance or the buttresses. is necessarily characteristic of brick buildings. who allowed the material to express its own capabilities without trying to disturb its architectural function. but the crowning cornice (No. 184). Corinthian capitals of modified form and the Roman acanthus were constantly used in Gothic buildings (No. the columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and other animals. and is in this respect superior to that exhibited in northern examples. colonnaded aisles. and the broad surfaces covered with fresco decorations. Porch pillars on the lion resting. The Italian use' of the details were small brickwork was essentially the right one and designed with taste. are as durable as most kinds of stone. as at Verona. Mosaic was used externally in panels. . and a smallness in detail followed. although the effect of sublimity is perhaps not to be obtained in so small a material unless used in the broad massive manner of the Romans. 182). 181). which. if carefully burnt. which was eminently suited to the material. in their plastic state rendered much ornament easy of application. for example. The treatment of moulded brickwork has never been carried to greater perfection than in North Italy during the Gothic and Early Renaissance period. but it enters far less into the general composition and meaning of the architecture. . old. and the effect of variegated color was relied on instead of depth of shadow a perfectly legitimate and expressive use of material where small and colored units are used." TENNYSON. On the other hand. 407 reference to the slope of the roofs behind (No. especially in civic buildings. and the employment of elaborately carved projecting porches at the west end. sufficient projection not being obtainable for cornices. and this was always tolerated by the Italians. And sombre. Terra-cotta and brickwork. (c. . are characteristic features.ITALIAN GOTHIC.) the flatness cheir place being more than taken by the beautiful colored marbles with which the facades were faced. Sculpture partakes of classical purity. " Stern and sad (so rare the smiles Of sunlight) looked the Lombard piles . at the Frari Church at Venice and elsewhere.) the great central circular window in the west front lighting the nave and comparative unimportance of the mouldings. giving a A flatness and want of shadow^ special character. (d. in continuation of early ideas and practice.

D. both in character and details. Verona. Milan. the glory mount of marble. Padua. Mark in plan (page 208). ITALY. and resembled (No. S. At the crossing of the nave and aisles is a vault crowned with a marble 'spire. 3. is the most important work of this period. in the place of the ordinary capitals. the character of the whole design is expressive of richness and lacelike intricacy.408 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 176 B. and there is a marked German influence. Externally. have produced designs for the unfinished in 1396. in emulation of Florence Cathedral. The giant windows' blazon'd fires . " 175). if completed. the chanting quires . which is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles of glittering marble (No. domes instead of five. with the exception of Seville. commenced stages. Petronio. commenced in 1390. Pavia. filled with statues. c. S." TENNYSON. ! A The height. the nave terminating with a circlet of columns in the French manner. erected by the first Duke of Milan. Bologna. Cremona. The feature of the designed by Brunelleschi in A. . and double aisles of extreme height. interior is the range of immense shafts to the nave (No. In plan it consists of a nave with a very small clerestory. being constructed of massive marble slabs. would. a hundred spires. Padua (1237-1307) is a remarkable design. nave and tects. 177). B. district. where terra-cotta was largely used. exemplify the influence of brick and terra-cotta on the architecture of the The Certosa. O. 175. laid upon the upper surface of the vaulting. lantern in on either side. the gloom. have been one of the It was to have consisted of a largest churches of this period. whose summits are treated with canopied niches. closely resembling S. aisles and outer chapels in section the Cathedral of Milan west front. EXAMPLES. 1385-1418) (Nos.D. c). Vicenza. The churches and palaces at Bologna. but inclosed in a German polygonal apse. and is built entirely of white marble. 176 A. the space. It is the largest mediaeval cathedral. The roof is very flat in pitch. but with seven and the front porch omitted. To the Ambrosian ritual is due the absence of side-chapels in the original scheme. Many archiincluding Palladio. The domes in 1475. having a central crowning an internal dome. NORTH Milan Cathedral (A. and the great Hospital. 1440. and Genoa contain specimens of brick architecture with pleasing moulded details. O Milan. 177). were added Antonip.


Interior. 177. looking East. .ITALIAN (NORTH) GOTHIC. MILAN CATHEDRAL.

Buon) is the grandest effort in Each facade consisted of an civic architecture of the period. the otherwise blank walls being broken by a few large and richly ornamented windows. open arcade of two stories. by G. Contarini-Fasan.D. are other examples of the secular architecture of the period. and the solid and connected character of the tracery gives some stability to the design. and Cavalli are other well-known examples. the excellence of marble as a material for carving being largely responsible for the refinement of execution in this example. . and S. Venice (Nos. . but was rebuilt and extended over the double arcade in the Venetian style. 182)." S. in imitation of bricks. Pavia. as is also the grouping of the windows towards the centre of the facade. and B. showing the influence of the Monastic The latter by Niccolo Pisano. Pisani (No. with rose-colored and white marble. 179 A and 180). 178 and 179 B) (facade A. 411 and domestic architecture of this period. the latter being peculiar in having - two western towers. Verona (1261). The Doges' Palace. and it must be remembered that the Venetian state occupied a prominent position as a great trading centre in the Middle Ages. and an English type of plan. both at Florence constructed in the fourteenth century and afterwards destroyed and the Bridge over the Ticino. The Ca d' Oro Palace. 1424-1442. so heavily loaded above. one originally advanced in front and surrounding the main building. The lower columns seem to rise out of the ground. also by the Brothers Buon. and has a fine campanile adjoining the church (cf. are magnificent examples. arranged in patterns. The delicate and light carving in low relief which occurs in the capitals of the arcades is justly celebrated. a Dominican church. orders. is another fine specimen of the The tracery domestic work with which Venice abounds. a Franciscan church. is Venice remarkable for the civic " Where Venice sate in state. throned on her hundred isles. Vercelli (1219). (1362). with six eastern chapels.ITALIAN GOTHIC. and S. Andrea. the extremities of the design being left comparatively solid. The Palazzi Foscari. A general idea of . S. 179 c). especially is Venetian in character. her power and richness being due to the supremacy of her navy. thus producing the effect of a central feature inclosed by wings. Giovanni e Paolo (1260-1400). Venice (Nos. Siena. having no bases. No. are notable examples. Anastasia.1280). The Ponte alle Grazie (1237) and tne Ponte Vecchio the Bridge over the Adda at Trezzo. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (1250. The latter was partly destroyed by fire in the sixteenth century. is of the Basilican type.


. . tfrttfe&fefei |l II. . Q 100 ft U ! -.ITALIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.J P ^?l @ MlL 179. SCALE 5Q. .




while the facade was completed in 1887. is 417 Bank Piccadilly. 182) is remarkable in having a dome. in piers and arches.D.ITALIAN GOTHIC. being further remarkable for the fifteenth century bronze doors by Ghiberti. 58 feet in diameter. is The Campanile (Nos. is a well-known example of the same type. known example. of Arnolfo di Cambio. 184 c). allowed of a cry. and the octagonal dome. Internally the fine effect promised by the plan is not realized. 176). and characteristic rose window. is an imposing example erected by the Dominicans. buttresses arid pinnacles (No.D. The Palazzo Vecchio. 1243-1284) (No. is an octagonal structure faced with pilasters and richly colored ornamentation.D. but E E . and is built in red and white marble. Maria Novella. The unfinished elevation of this east end is a grand design. 181). covering an irregular hexagonal space at the crossing (No. the nave itself. vast masses of grey pietra serena stone. is a wellof open tracery is The Campo Santo. obtained from the old front of S. and inserted in the solidly designed lower story are sculptured panels of great interest and Below the present tile roof the start of the intended beauty. 91). Florence (1376). was added in 1420 by Brunelleschi. is ITALY. erected in Spandrels. by Giotto square on plan. Orvieto Cathedral F. 1290) resembles that of Siena. Croce. spire can be traced. Florence (A. but remodelled by Arnolfo in A. which is used as a baptistery. and S. adjoining.D. as in the adjoining cathedral. the absence of a triforium. of England. Siena. The ground falling towards the east end. and for its facade in black and white stripes.D.A. (Sta. Florence (1298). the tenth century. 179 D). Pisa (1278-1283) (No. S. and for the marble facades The cathedral was erected from the designs in colored panelling. having an unusual development in the arches (No. James's and the building in Lothbury. 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. Maria dei Fion) (1294-1462) remarkable for the wide spacing (55 feet) of the nave arcades. 1278). and the Loggia dei Lanzi. by Arnolfo di Cambio (with its remarkable tower). with three portals of equal size. the Palazzo Publico. being contrasted by blank white-washed chiefly The Baptistery (originally the Cathedral). are examples of the vigorous secular architecture of the period. Florence (1294). 292 feet high.pt being formed under the sanctuary. Siena Cathedral (A. Tracery of an elementary character is introduced into the windows in this (A. 176 D and example. 181). 1294. opposite the CENTRAL Florence Cathedral (No. in four stories of increasing height. 1324). (A. Venetian Gothic Hall.


in which the principal personages of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic style. and is very northern in detail. 179 D). The pointed arch was used. CENTRAL. Assisi (A. the churches. Roman in form. E E 2 . built of brick and plastered. as at Florence (No. and Saracenic in decoration. The style has been described as " Greek in essence.ITALIAN GOTHIC. Both churches are vaulted.D. shows the influence of Etruscan and Roman models. The nave is now restored with an open timber roof of the Basilican type. while the lower parts of the walls have a high dado of white marble. S. decoration in Palermo Cathedral 4. 1228-1253). Jacobus of Meruan. Francis." Messina and Palermo Cathedrals have plans founded on the Roman basilican type. with borders of arabesques in gold and color. depending much more on its frescoed interior than upon the architecture proper for its magnificence and character. and is more harmonious in design than the Siena example. COMPARATIVE. is an example which was from the designs of a German. but suggesting Northern Gothic in its vigour of skyline. Plans. The main idea striven after in these churches was the unfettered display of mosaic decoration. AND SOUTH. the facade dating from 1310. It consists of an upper and lower church. 176) and Siena Cathedrals (No. S. the naves having timber roofs of great elaboration and intricate construction. \ SOUTHERN ITALY AND The referred SICILY. 419 feeling. but without mouldings or even receding planes (No. and received a complete treatment in painted decoration by Cimabue and Giotto. In Rome. NORTH. Maria sopra Minerva (1280) being quoted as the only Gothic church in Rome. of a central and two lower towers. It is imbued more considerably with Northern Gothic mainly of one period. resembling in their effect the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. the apses in At the west end is a group consisting particular being very fine. 183). influences at work in these districts have already been to in Romanesque (page 239). with a border introducing green and purple porphyry architectural in patterns. is a remarkable example of external stones of two colors. with detail of an arbitrary style. The endeavour to create a great central space in A. churches of the Basilican type were erected throughout the Middle Ages.

B. as at Siena (No. and have shafts with square capitals of Corinthian type. The best known are at Florence (No. in many cases not finished on the score of expense. from the family of that name. 181). Towers. Pavia. Walls. and may valle. 1840). and even inlaid with glass mosaic known as "cosmato" work. These facades are often incomplete. Mantua and Pistoja. A moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches. The most imposing external feature was frequently a dome. Facades are treated independently as decorative compositions. 181 and 182). continuing the Romanesque tradition. are an advance on the Romanesque lanterns at the crossing. Openings. the side aisles having oblong ones. projecting buttresses. instead of the moulded mullions of northern Gothic examples (No. These slender shafts are often twisted. Verona (No. The absence of large windows obviated the necessity for projecting buttresses. with northern methods. 181). sometimes beautifully decorated. 184 K). like northern examples. and may be compared is obtained by deeplymoulded string courses. 182). 176). Siena (No. which are frequently inclosed by square lines as a frame. being compositions in marble facing. and Milan Cathedral (No. in diminishing stages. This surface treatment was borrowed from the Saracens. and lofty pinnacles. flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. each having three high gables. From the absence of vertical features and shadows in the facade. 182). and generally circular.420 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. window. 178). thus reversing the Northern Gothic practice. The marble was used in bands of two colors at Siena (No. have square shafts without buttresses. as at ChiaraCertosa at Pavia. as at Florence and Milan (No. and developing no spire growth. central lantern tower. in which effect while the capitals are richly sculptured. usually isolated. and in panelling at Florence (No. and able themselves to withstand the pressure of a vault (Nos. c. Lucca. . 182) and Florence (No. the high and flat walls being usually comparatively solid throughout their length. The windows are often semicircular headed. 176 D) and the Certosa. the triforium being usually omitted. The widely-spaced nave arcades are characteristic. The nave vaulting is frequently set out in square compartments. These lofty pierced by a small. 181). and often have no relation to the structure or roofs behind (No. arcades practically include the aisles and nave in one composition and give the effect of a single hall. 176). 182) and Orvieto. and the clerestory reduced to the unimportance of a vault spandrel. the The be compared with English work. as at Florence Cathedral (No. Venetian tracery is a special form of geometrical combinations (No.

borrowed from northern Europe. were also used. and treated solely as a field for mosaic and other elaborate decoration. It is in the carving and mosaics to the sumptuous altars and canopy tombs. such as Giotto's chapel at Padua. H. 421 of low pitch. Some buildings. E. leading up to the golden age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Opaque decoration was preferred to translucent the art of fresco. 5. pavements and choir stalls.1329-1380). These are r buttressing. Iron tie-rods -were often used to prevent the spread of roof timbers owing to insufficient Roofs. but the continuous sequence in the design of such features. 177).ITALIAN GOTHIC. are shells for painted decoration. Mouldings. is an examp'e rich decoration.). 184 A. History of Architecture in Italy from the Time . and peculiar treatment of tabernacle capitals." Folio. recalling Roman work. and of small importance in the design. and the section of an arch mould is often identical with that of the jamb. G. four pilasters combined back to back being a common section. 184). Columns. 184 B). of the Scaligers. 1877. F. Verona (. B. and many of the churches at Rome have " elaborate inlay mosaic work of " cosmato design on their arches of The Tomb and twisted columns. In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers. Round piers. 179 and 180). They are often in contradiction to the steep gables of the facades. by their height and size. as may be traced north of the Alps. Ornament (No.A. E. the pulpits (No. at . Commercial and Street Architecture of France and Italy. The piers of the arcades in the churches are times surprisingly clumsy in plan. L) and sculpture features. "Examples of the Municipal. A Anderson (R. is not observable. G.). Mouldings are throughout subordinate to surface decoration. and the Sistine chapel at Rome. being scarcely visible from below (Nos. by constant exercise upon the noblest subjects in the grandest buildings. that the decorative character of the style is best seen. the most interesting being those due to the use of brickwork in the facades. \produce the effect of a columnar interior (No. " Cummings (C. the general design is often neglected in the attention bestowed upon accessories. D. almost devoid of architectural In carving (Nos. Classic tradition led to a refinement and an elegance which contrasts with the grotesque element found in northern work. and in the veneering of the facades with colored marbles. REFERENCE BOOKS. although there may be capitals at the impost. These have a flatness and squareness often little changed from Roman work. F. but on the other hand. with capitals and bases.


H. " Street (G." Folio." " Ziegelbauwerke des Mittelalters und der Renaissance Folio. 1835. R.).) et Zanth (C.). " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy. 1874. 8vo. "The Lion of S.). 1860. 1867.) and Macquoid (T. Waring (J.. Strack (H." (Historical Novel.). . 423 REFERENCE BOOKS of Constantine to the Continued. folio. \in Italien. " Rohault-de-Fleury (G. G. Paris. 1901. Dresden. 1889. Knight (H.). 4to.. "Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy. (H. Mark. " La Toscane au Moyen Age. 2 vols." atlas 1886. 1862.ITALIAN GOTHIC.). 1842-1844. " Hittorff (J. L. vols. Nesfield (E." 2 vols." Folio. Architecture Moderne de la Sicile. Henty (G." 4to...). Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages.) ' . W. W. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain." Folio.)." 2 " 3 vols. 1850. Dawn of the Renaissance. 8vo. B. (J. Kunst des Mittelalters in and text in 2 vols. Griiner(L. E.). Berlin. 1874." 8vo.)." Boston. Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture. Ruskin Schulz "Stones of Venice." Folio Denkmaeler der of plates. Paris. Unter-Italien. I.).

Stone was the material generally employed.ooo feet above the i. while in the south the climate is sub-tropical. to vulgar mind unknown) . Burgos. 3. was surrounded by mountains which inclosed a fertile plain. Stern patriots. the struggle being a war of religions as well as of races. ii. Religion. and led the way to heaven. TICKELL. were used in places. the finest in the country. and prodigal of . graced with scars. . with brick bonding courses and quoins. in the north. was used under Moorish influence with much taste and success. i. . by whom impartial And saints. iv. Allegiance to the Papacy has been a characteristic of Spain.SPANISH GOTHIC. laws were given Just men. This varies with the structure of the country. Rubble-work. stood Spanish architecture cannot be underwithout a knowledge of the geography of the country. The existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some parts. INFLUENCES. . is cold. but granite and some of the semi-marbles. The kingdom of Granada. and exposed to keen winds even in the summer. where the Moors held out until the close of the Gothic period. The arrangement of the choirs and the size and sea. who once the reins of Empire held In arms who triumphed. divided by sierras. Constant warfare with the Moors gave a certain unity to Spain. who taught. or chains of low rocky hills. which the country throughout possesses. and the subdivision of the country by sierras. as in the towers and gates of the city of Toledo. Climate. iii. who for sacred freedom stood. Geological. 1 Oft let me range the gloomy ! aisles alone (Sad luxury show Along the walls where speaking marbles What wor hies foim the hallowed mould below Proud names. and Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance." . or in arts excelled blood Chiefs. Geographical. which is that of a series of table-lands of varying elevations.

James. After the Romans left Spam the Vandals and Visigoths took possession. which has been occupied at different times by peoples of various races. Leon. and the exuberance of intricate. there was always more or Moorish influence. is specially required in the case of Spain. The evidence of this is to be seen in the stronghold of their power the south of Spain where the curious construction. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. the Moorish capital. v. and won back Seville and Cordova. and Portugal were all growing up and gradually driving the Mahometans into the southern part called Andalusia. as the capture of Toledo (1084) by Alfonso VI. the pierced stonework tracery of Moorish design. Navarre. and. 710-713 (page 655). and for 800 years their influence was continuous. that Gothic art took root. and from Toledo. and are rich in detail.D. was the turning It point. were covered with intricate geometrical and flowing patterns and rich surface decorations. Historical. gained by the Christians. for although Toledo was captured by the Christians in 1085. less of ' Moorish influence. for which the Saracenic art is everywhere remarkable. such as the horseshoe arch. and lace-like. the battle of Tolosa (1212).SPANISH GOTHIC. pressed into the east of Spain until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to the Mahometans. as in the Jews' synagogue at Toledo. the Christian states of Castile. was during the reign of S. Social and Political. 425 importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals were due to the ritual. this influence made itself felt in Saracenic features. The study of the history of a country. always necessary in order to properly understand the development of its architecture.. A. King of Aragon. This influence occasionally reached far into the north. the country was invaded by the Moors from North Africa. 2. under window. Ferdinand (1217-1252). detail are everywhere apparent. In the south. The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors seem to have been executed by the aid of Moorish workmen. sown by the spirit of conquest and aided by the wealth of the conquered Moors. vi. as already mentioned. Aragon. After many intermittent successes. These fretwork screens occupy the whole Elsewhere buildings. In the Spanish peninsula. after which. in later times. called the Conqueror (1213-1276). owing to the superior education and ability of Moorish workmen. and the final expulsion of the Moors did not take place till 1492. after which Mahometan influence gradually declined. the Spanish conquests were gradual. the richness of the architecture. . who united Castile and Leon.

Burgos Cathedral (known as the "cimborio "). 187 D).D. is a five-aisled church and resembles Bourges (page 368) in general idea. owing to the grand scale of the single-span vaulted interiors. Leon Cathedral goes beyond its French original at Amiens. The cloisters of many of the cathedrals. It is about the same length.D. 1227) (No. while the size and of the side chapels are striking. is an example of a building with nave. owing to the space between buttresses being utilized internally for chapels. are characteristic. and has the choir mclosure west of the crossing. were both influenced by the Southern S. with their openwork spires (No. 1078). 1487). transepts and a complete chevet. Santiago de Compostela Cathedral (A. in the expanse of window opening and tenuity of its supports. which is octagonal. In this church the nave is covered with a barrel vault and the side aisles with cross vaults. (A. 3. In the later period. the grafting of classical details on to Gothic forms produced some of the most picturesque features imaginable. with a singularly shallow Toledo Cathedral . where. broad wall surfaces and horizontal lines are special features of the style. Toledo. on the other hand. Leon Cathedral (A. 1230) is irregular in plan (No. as that of the Capilla del Condestable (AD. due to the influence of Northern French Romanesque. EXAMPLES. has two towers to the western fa9ade. remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late completed 1567. lantern extraordinary importance detail* (A. Isidore. though on French lines. the nave being reduced to a mere vestibule. recall Cologne. Contrary to Northern Gothic.426 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (completed 1149). over 50 feet in diameter. 185). and old Salamanca 1120-1178). it may be said that a liking for excessive ornamentation without any regard to its constructive character is apparent.D. and generally. but nearly 50 feet wider. 186. as Barcelona. 190 L). The Gothic style was best developed in Catalonia. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. it has a special character. The exteriors usually are flat in appearance. and Lerida. which.D. as in most parts of Spain. The "coro" or choir is in the usual position to the westward of the crossing. and a richly-treated lantern over the crossing which was in The It French Romanesque models of Aquitaine and Anjou. and the peculiar treatment of the interior is shown m No. which has a dome over the crossing of nave and transepts.




church Severe simplicity is the characteristic of the both inside and out there are no features but a few well-studied mouldings. although the total length of Seville is little more than that of -the Abbey. Gregorio. The peculiarity of plan. times .D. the space between being used as chapels. 187 A). 187 c). Barcelona Cathedral (A. but there are no aisles. in four compartments. in which of wood. is remarkable in that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttresses. and side chapels. flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary S. as at Albi in the south of France. Maria del Mar. is the largest mediaeval cathedral in any bears a considerable resemblance to Milan Cathefanciful in detail. an immense retdblo or reredos upon the sanctuary is placed apsidal sanctuary. 187 B). (parish) church is separate. but confused and weak in its lines. 189) shows the lace-like character of detail derived from Moorish influence. which are internal features. 1298) (No. 73 feet in of the Law width. cathedral of Seville it the extraordinary size of this be pointed out that each of the four side aisles is practically equal both in height and width to the nave of Westminster Abbey (page 309). From these comparisons an idea can be obtained of the immense size of this Spanish cathedral. The Central Hall Courts. loaded with bosses of a purer Gothic style. Thus one aisle of Seville represents As show ng : may the size of the nave and choir of the abbey. .430 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The vaulting is rich. as some would prefer to say. Spanish and small apse. of the It Cathedral (1401-1520). will give an idea of this interior. Externally there is but is less The parroquia a certain shapelessness and absence of sky-line. or. and the aisles and nave of great height. Surrounding the church. . erected on the site of a same size. but included within the cathedral area. Seville mosque country. but it differs from most of the great C atinental churches in having a square east end. S. 1328-1383) (No. having a nave. in diameter. the nave being one vaulted hall. although only 48 feet in width. and is repeated four in addition to which there is the great nave. Valladolid (No. Gerona Cathedral is a further development (No. Barcelona (A. are the chapels. the spacing octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet There is being wide. and 130 feet high. double aisles. The vaults rest upon a splendid example of a town church.D. in It is typically having a rectangular outline. no triforium. and only small clerestory windows in the spandrels is of the vaults. 55 feet wide from centre to centre of piers. and of the same depth as the aisles. dral. in places. was no doubt caused by the structure being made to fill up the space occupied previously by a mosque. while the nave arcades have twice the span.

Interior. S. . 188. TOLEDO.SPANISH GOTHIC. showing Octagonal Dome. JUAN DE LOS REYES.


and Barcelona Cathedrals. all showing French influence. the later work being characterized by extreme. Thecimborio. south of France. In regard to the plan of the cathedrals. in design. The position of the choir is generally to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts. comparing in its intended purpose with Henry VI I. ornamentation. Sernin. and Valencia town hall. Internally octagonal vaults. as seen in work the best examples Barcelona municipal are to be found in Catabuildings. These were carried to excess in Leon Cathedral. which has not only a glazed triforium. stained glass (Nos. as S. are characteristic. much Roofs. (A. 1476 (No. 'as at Seville. and the parish church is often included in the area of the cathedral. were favoured. as in Germany.D. externally roofed with stone. Toledo. 188). In domestic lonia. and were design probably inspired by Moorish work. and Burgos Cathedral being D. COMPARATIVE. 's Chapel at Westminster. c. 127). and Norwich Cathedral (No. and Valencia and S. as at Burgos (No. Ouen. openings are of large size. 185). an arrangement probably derived from the Early Christian basilicas. 190 L). B.A.D. Openings. 118). There is much flatness and absence of skyline in the exteriors. 187 E). Plans. Rome (No. are other examples of early date. 187) of many of the naves is a prominent characteristic. is a rich example of a sepulchral chapel. which are intricate in and ingenious in construction. such features as tracery. 73 B). F F . but developed in decorathan in construction. "Walls. although the lines are not always tion. 433 S. as at Seville. erected by Ferdinand and Isabella.D. or dome is nave and transepts. 1260). but also a large part of Even in the the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as well. Burgos having in place of gables effective horizontal arcades.SPANISH GOTHIC.D. resemble each other in plan. Chapels are numerous and large. bosses. Clemente. Vaulting was used freely. 186 and 188). on the lines of the facade of Notre Dame at Paris. Toulouse. Juan de los Reyes. width and comparative shortness (No. and even wild. Traceried open-work spires. Valencia 1298) (A. A. In design French models were favoured. south. at the crossing of the similar in treatment to examples in the S. rather F. 4. used. and ribs producing a rich effect. Leon (A. those at Burgos being worthy of attention (No. Rouen. and also seen at Westminster Abbey (No. and Lerida Cathedral (No. 1262). the great A.

and nothing was accomplished. 86) the great octagonal piers at S. figures.' or rich and lofty grilles (Nos. and the latter of such solidity that the effect of metal is obtained. wide interiors. 190 E. and expressive (No. The favourite feature of a lantern at the E. and strong to gaudiness in coloring. and is crowded with niches. that form galleries across the western ends of the churches. 187 c) being no less than 73 feet span. interiors of Spanish churches. extending through nave and aisles soffits attract attention on entering. M. the former naturalistic. being usually Flemish in style. and however deficient in other qualities. and by freely . In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed for all the arcades. and contrast with 1 (No. or alabaster. 186 and 190 H). it combines in producing the notoriously impressive. 'Rejas. which at Burgos crossing gives importance to the central piers. were successfully vaulted in a simple style. The most decorative feature in G. of Spanish art. 190 H. and elsewhere. in one span. Maria del Mar. notably that at Christchurch. but this is far from being the character of other more numerous examples in Spain. in hammered and chiselled iron. This feature is usually constructed of wood. the formality of the long and vertical bars being relieved by figures beaten in repousse. 190). and having a total length of 270 feet. or in duplicates attached back to back. are indicated in No. resembling the great English altar screens. Sculpture in stone or marble is often life-size. Toulouse. N). Those at Toledo and Seville. Mouldings. j. Stained glass was used. including The boldest and most original vaults are the great flat duvet. arches. are probably the richest specimens of mediaeval woodwork in existence. heavy in outline. that at Gerona (No. F. Their rich in three spans. and give scale to. are also characteristic. to compare in interest with English vaulting good. Ornament (No. are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567). In Catalonia the best and In most artistic work was produced in a restrained manner. In the south. 190 c. Refinement is not the usual characteristic F. as at Seville. Spanish churches is the vast retablo (reredos). Hants. every moulding has its purpose and expression. Sernin. Columns. Original and arbitrary forms were mingled with features borrowed from France. if sensational. Barcelona (page 430). canopies and panelling (No. similar in effect to those of Milan. S. which is often as wide as the nave. naturalistic. Oviedo. but without Carved capitals of characteristic form the tabernacle capitals. and their curves frame the view of. Painting and gilding were used to heighten the effect.434 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. stone. K). and reaches up to the vaulting. the interior of the church beyond.


are common. Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain. atlas folio Madrid. " Waring (J. 5. " Roulet (M. B. Waring (J. 1874. Villa-Amil (G. employed crestings and traceries adapted to the material. de). 1852. ' . F. P. " Street (G. lecterns and choir desks were also elaborately treated." Folio. " Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana" (a magnificent work issued under the auspices of the Spanish Government). Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain.) folio. 89 parts.Architectural Studies in Burgos. REFERENCE BOOKS. Barcelona Cathedral having some resembling those at Chester. Magnificent stalls. Few things in Spain are more original and artistic than these Rejas. while bishops' thrones.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." (Historical Novel. 1842-1850. E. ." 8vo. 1850. God the King.). (not completed). R.). 1859-1879.). My Brother. BA ..) and Macquoid (T. each provided with a separate canopy and crowned with a tall spire. " Espana Artistica y Monumental/' 3 vols." Folio. N. Paris. pulpits.

Italy in the fifteenth century. That hoped to leave eld temples in the lurch. its world late born. Religion. that inordinately glow. The Renaissance movement. the spirit of inquiry. were now falling before the Turks. i. or re-birth (Renaissance). and England. of Classic Architecture in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century. iv. which aided the spread of knowledge. are instructive. and must be grasped in order fully to understand so great a change. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. among the Teutonic races. " IN New structures. Lay. Geographical. made ripe of ihe archetype Extant for wonder every upstart church. Corrected by the theatre forlorn That as a mundane shell. Germany.D. arising in i. to Subdued. INFLUENCES. and the diffusion of freedom of thought. < !h. spread from thence to France. By many a relic . brought back harmony. This desire was originally fostered by Wycliffe in England (A. and by Martin . and over the whole of Western Europe over what had been the Roman empire in the West. THE causes which led to the re-introduction. and o'ershadowed it. to a desire to break away from Romish influence. In this section the Renaissance movement as affecting the whole of Europe will be dealt with. cSe a1 -! ^ to each country. who had been the most civilized people in Europe. The Eastern empire did not come under its influence. for the Greeks in the East.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. 1377)." BROWNING. led. The invention of printing.

and kept large standing armies. Historical. and where the municipalities had developed a spirit of municipal Italians. as a set-off to the writings of the mediaeval philosophers. The Jesuits who headed the counterreformation carried the style into all parts. civil by a fresh building era in northern Europe. 1517). the former influences the public taste. among the MSS. Germany (A. whose authority had for so long borne an exclusive sway. vi. written in B. In Italy. under powerful rulers. worked hard to direct the public attention to the original text of the Testament. because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on the New who had at hand the ancient Roman remains. whose learning was an important influence in an age which was ripe for a great intellectual change. the Colosseum. Petrarch (1304-1374). in which countries Reformation Renaissance in architecture. the Basilica of Maxentius. and Boccaccio (1313-1375) aided in the spread of the newly-discovered classic literature. A new intellectual movement v. practically a direct return was made to Roman forms. was a general grouping together At the beginning of the sixteenth century . Social and Political. at the same time giving it a special character (page 496). a revival of ecclesiastical architecture took place. and to the Greek classics. where feudalism had never fully established itself. therefore. which caused a revolt against mediaeval art. Erasmus (1467-1536). the remains of the great baths. on the other hand. In Italy. proceeded side by side with This renewed vigour in thought and literature was accompanied In England.D.C. of Greek and Latin authors brought to light about this time. there of the smaller states into independent kingdoms. Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected. was Vitruvius' book of Architecture. where the Reformation took no had been built in hold. and where comparatively few churches the Gothic manner during the Middle Ages.D. 50. one of the few Greek scholars of the period.438 Luther in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture. the enterprise. 1453 caused an influx of Greek scholars into Italy. in religion 1521. and the Roman fora. Thus a revival of classic literature produced a desire for the revival of Roman architecture. and the subsequent fall of Constantinople in A. and thus Dante (1265-1321). and in every important town Renaissance churches were carried out on a grand scale and in a most complete manner.D. which was translated into Italian in A. Again. such as Pantheon. and domestic architecture received a special impulse from the diffusion among laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII. who governed with Three great inventions authority.

and Corinthian. . in the fifteenth century possessed skilful jewellers and excellent medallists. the headquarters of the new movement. printing. as Ghiberti. 439 had an important influence gunpowder. Donatello. but it must not be supposed that in this development no advance was made. 262). a system in their application being gradually evolved. and the revival of learning. as by the Romans. which led to the discovery of the West Indies (1492) and America. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. were their pupils. Such results were worshipped for their own sake. and goldsmiths somewhat naturally only looked at the finished results as the goal to be aimed at. but merely a minute planet in the solar system. Italy. who were at once painters. which favoured that stirring of men's minds which caused the reformation in religion. and at other times with their true constructive significance.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. and it was by their help that the Renaissance commenced and expanded. Copperplate engraving was discovered in the third quarter of the fifteenth . viz. and often to a great extent applied regardless of the materials of their execution. indeed. Buildings designed for more modern wants were clothed in the classic garb of ancient Rome. The main features in the style were the Classic orders (Nos.. 2. century. From their well-known good taste. which had changed the whole method of warfare the mariner's compass. were applied in many novel and pleasing forms. architects consulted them. The Renaissance of the fifteenth century in Italy. Men. In place of such evolution there was the worship of style. therefore. that is. and were not troubled about the means to such an end. of the past results of the nature of materials as formulated into systems. and aided the tendency which caused structures to be looked upon as works of . was a break in that orderly evolution of architecture which is based on the nature and necessities of materials. It is true that Roman precedent was the basis. and a style built up which has become the basis of all modern styles. sculptors. the Doric. architects. and of the sixteenth century in other parts of Western Europe. Ionic. and often. silversmiths. jewellers. and the foundation of colonies by European states and. Galileo (1564-1642) proved that the earth was not the centre of the universe. but columns and pilasters. 38. The development of the schools of painting also had their influence on architecture. which were often used decoratively. lastly. whether plain. with entablature and details. and Brunelleschi. fluted or panelled.

and thenceforward the necessity of making the jointing accord with the various architectural features being no longer imperiously felt.440 art. by the whim and fancifulness of the designer. In the Renaissance period the new mouldings and carvings could be executed with more exactitude and less expense in situ. Speaking generally. A building. but perceiving that this form was merely an envelope. attracted by the mere external appearance of ancient Roman art. continued in the matter of construction to a large extent to follow the traditions of the Middle Ages. an advance was made. For the same reasons. becoming largely independent of constructive exigencies. In the Gothic period each stone was finished. to ignorance of Roman methods. it will be observed. and tombs. and to a greater extent an art of free expression in which beauty of design was sought for. were special features of the style. The wide and narrow spacing of the pilasters in the Palazzo Giraud is a novel form (No. which did not separate the structure from the decoration. the period may be looked upon as the age of accessories. moulded. as in many of the Roman palaces (No. being often designed by men trained as painters. 197). and cornice were employed as elements of composition with special regard to the artistic result and with considerable originality. It would be a great mistake. because the architects of the period. and sculptured in the workshops before being laid a method which produced skilful and intelligent masons and stone dressers. altars. the Roman manner of forming the main walling of concrete and casing it with marble. and. frieze. there was an endeavour to reconcile the Gothic and the Roman methods of construction. in which iron. or brick was not followed. 195). and obliged the sculptor to make the decoration suit each piece of stone. In the decorative detail. instead of being dependent mainly for their form and effect on structural necessities. were designed in great numbers. gold and silver work. the body and facing were one and the same thing constructively. therefore. i. in which their principles were followed by their pupils and followers. for new and delightful combinations of features were introduced. fonts. Architecture ceased to a certain extent to be subject to the considerations of use. Such structures often have a princely sculptors.. to state that Renaissance architecture was solely imitative. many of whom founded schools of design. or goldsmiths.e. Owing. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. also. was regarded rather as a picture with pleasing combinations of lines and masses than as a structure of utility. a want of harmony between the jointing and the architectural features often resulted. In . where the column. stone. therefore. and architecture became to a great extent a personal art due to the fancy of individual architects. pilaster. monuments. dignity. and fountains.

oratories and public fountains were special creations. in . in 1404. Although important types of church design were evolved. Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes which led to the revival of Classic architecture throughout Europe. gates. plastered and painted with colored decoration. 254). and elsewhere. spans. they were the first to introduce as an architectural "motif" the wall of massive rusticated masonry with arched openings. palaces. it appears that the groins were now formed by means of the ordinates The Renaissance architects Dome. or added to many old buildings. as at the Vatican palace by In cases of cross-vaulting with narrow and wide Raphael. with elliptical soffits. 202. Venice (No. chapels. 209). thus making it a great external dominating feature (Nos." in which windows were formed. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). in Which buildings the wall was frankly treated as architecture. and was besides frequently built of wooden framing. passages. Renaissance Vaulting. and staircases of Renaissance palaces and churches. the Palazzo Pesaro. groins forming on plan instead of the wavy line produced by the intersection of a semicircular vault with one stilted above its of l* followed the Byzantine treatment in importance by lifting it boldly from its substructure and placing it on a " drum. a comparison of a few of the more prominent characteristics of the style with the treatment which obtained in Gothic architecture is given. and before proceeding to consider the development in each country. facades to town buildings. in the halls. Note. In the beginning of the fifteenth century the Gothic principles of ribbed vaulting were abandoned. yet the main the most characteristic monuments were the municipal buildings. 191 and 192). tombs. country houses and elaborate In addition. Likewise. a straight in E). and was in no way imitative of ancient Roman buildings. both in Italy and in elsewhere. Florence (Nos. giving place to the revival of the Classic method of solid semicirThis type of vaulting was much used cular vaulting (page 117). as in the Palazzo Riccardi. 441 metal work the bronze baptistery gates at Florence were won competition by the sculptor Ghiberti. but increased it " (No. and are the finest examples of a class of work for which these craftsmenThese accessories of architecture were architects were famous. line springing. often of remarkable richness and beauty. 3. erected.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. 212.

in the lower stories.442 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. is not too much to say that. GOTHIC. 253). 252). i. . and 173). B. and Bow Church (No. parts are many. 116. a nave of the (Nos. Paul (No. Angles of buildings often cated. masonry of smooth-faced walling. 121. Grandeur gained by simplicity and (Nos. 136). by which a general effect of grandeur is produced. 192). These were often constructed of uncoursed rubble or small stones (No. 181. 205. Plans. 2 54). Interiors are more irregular. Interiors of churches were planned on Roman principles (Nos. 140 and 154). S. 198. are exceedingly fine. 114. and when they occur are symmetriIn England those cally placed. 213. 213). beauty of Picturesqueness and individual features portion of part to part carefully studied (Nos. 223 and 254). The parts are few. 212. Symmetry and pro- Plans. A. 200. as in a mosaic. and carry out the Classic idea of fewness of parts. Stucco or plaster were often used as a facing material where stone was unobtainable. rusti- smoothed (No. 162. 117. RENAISSANCE. and carry out the Gothic idea of multiplicity. tendency (Nos. and are covered with stone vaulting 123). or carefully indented with patterns Angles of buildings often of ashlar masonry or smooth-faced stone. 20 1. London (No. 155.. Walls. 255). the rest of the walling being of rough materials. 112. 193. A. 4. Materials are large. Walls. 199 and 203).e. bered same length as a Renaissance church twice as probably divided into many compartments. Grandeur gained by multiplicity In (Nos. which. the design being paramount. and are often crowned with a spire (Nos. turrets. 223. COMPARATIVE. not built in horizontal layers . Materials are small in size. particularly sought after (Nos. Fewness a tenlargeness of parts have dency to make the building appear less in size than it really is. built in blocks of unstone. and finials help to emphasize the vertical The dome is a pre- dominant feature (Nos. 113). was occasionally rusticated heavily (No. and covered with domes and pendentives. each piece in a wall has its value in this style. 128 The tower and spire are predominant features. 159 and 187). the nave being divided into three or four compartments (No. Towers are sparingly used. 125. or open-timThe roofs (No. Paul. 175 and 189). no. Masonry was worked according to the nature of the material to It a new and significant extent. at S. 203. 115. 197). Compare 213). 254). the building appears larger than it more really is. Compare Cologne Cathedral (No. also of brick and rough flint work. consequence of the large number of parts. The use of the material according to its nature was lost. structed in These ashlar were con- K. Towers are a general feature. as in Florence. Small towers. as rubble or flint.

142. were placed where wanted. are divided by mullions. occupied by windows. roofing is an important element in the design. but were made much of in France and Germany. In Italy. the use or non-use of which means of decoration influenced number of the the size and openings. 121. window 246). without much regard to symmetry of composition. the most perfect specimen England being Westminster Externally 113 H). with a bright atmosphere. Domes have usually an internal plaster soffit or ceiling. 161. and of considerable size. Open-timbered roofs occur. Openings generally come over one another. Gable ends are steep. 193 and 211 K) or of semicircular form (No. Roofs Vaulting was developed by means of the pointed arch. upon which they depend for their beauty. Door and window openings usually pointed (Nos. 193. Openings. with a dull climate. All roofs other than domes were hidden in Italy. The Classic system of moulded architrave (No. of great richwith mouldings ness. and in conjunction Hall (No. 253). were often provided with small circular shafts and carved capitals. Gable ends of churches and buildings generally were formed as pediments. 138 and 150). and are painted in colored fresco. C. 206 D and ( Door and winare semicircular 2 1 4 C). 164 of the style. 197 and 200} and intricacy of mass are prominent characteristics (Nos. London (No. 109 and depends and are in 112). the placing of openings over one Windows and doors another. This treatment was for the introduction of painted glass. on the setting out of the ribs on which the severy of the vaulting and on the grace and rests. The dome over a large space was generally constructed with an inner and outer covering. 211 A. space vertically (No. Openings. Roman form without ribs. 1 headed (Nos 194 E and 206 A). in formed receding planes (Nos. windows of the earlier period are large. often richly carved. Openings Doorways and other openings are surrounded by such architraves. . as S. dow openings Nos. and crowned either with sloping parapet or ornamented timber barge boards (Nos. though not necessarily so. or square- C. Roofs. .e. 94 K) projecting from the wall face was revived. Paul. RENAISSANCE. i. 143. 242 and 243). the windows In northern Europe. and 173). Often little attention was paid to the centre lines. 156 and 161). and are symmetrically disposed with reference to fagade.) Simplicity of treatment and breadth of mass are prominent characteristics 443 GOTHIC. in the for effect on the richness of the carved bosses.. Boldness and richness of sky-line (Nos. 132 j. Open-timbered roofs a beautiful feature of the style. and often have stone mullions or the solid dividing uprights are small. with a low pitch (Nos. as Jacobean halls. D.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. The influence of climate on these was important. 125. Vaults are of simple D. 162. with chimneys. beauty of these curves (Nos. 94 F j and 143). but the tendency was gradually to plaster them up (Nos. 125. must be reckoned as a means of effect.

RENAISSANCE. 161. splay (No. Columns. 207. Tablets and string courses of carved ornament occur (No. 123. balconies. from no building. being the chief glory of internal decoration. and was less strongly marked than the boldly projecting Classic cornice. 210 The parapet. and the capitals and bases were either heavily moulded or carved with conventional foliage. all the best efforts at color being obtained by means of opaque decoration. 145 G. and are refinement beautifully carved. Classic E. The contours of mouldings follow as may be seen in the architrave (Nos. 207. 191. portion of height to diameter does not exist. 193 A. high roofs. figure The human abandoned statuary being often much larger than life-size and 254) (Nos." pressive of pressures upon the piers to which. turrets (Nos. 146). 210 and 212) occur in every building. Ornament. 128. 214 and 218). often and on 215). numerous pinnacles. being an essential quality. as fresco or mosaic. Cornices and Classic other features of origin (Nos. 204. or pierced with open tracery (Nos. with towers and spires. 198. 192. 200. string bands. and in the Florentine palaces is bold and impressive (Nos. 147). asintheRomanmanner(Nos. F. G. G. recesses in the early peiiods. sometimes. Where used. E. and partly the raison d'etre of the immense traceried windows. gay or solemn. or and used decoratively in fa9ades. 197 and 209) are strongly pronounced. took the place of a cornice. 133 and 147). 191. The principal cornice plays an important part in the style. The shafts were often rusticated. often mark F. 153. as Stained glass was extensively used. 160 The relative proand 177). they ex- columns and orders were revived were entirely structural. which acted as a frame . and structurally as for porticos (Nos. but many new combinations of mouldings were The contours and mouldings portions are Roman lines. 209. 219 and 248). each story (Nos. 156. 192 and 198). casting a deep shadow. 209. and by their frequency and importance produce an effect of horizon ta/ity. K. figure The as human a scale. fluted spirally. varying in outline and treatment in different centuries. 198 G.444 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. GOTHIC. 162 and 185). Mouldings. 197. of circles joined by inclosed in rectangular fillets. 158. battlemented. Mouldeffect depend chiefly for upon light and shadow. ings Vertical features. 205 little to as a scale. such as buttresses and horizontal features generally (Nos. 194. or wreathed with foliage bands of " and fruit. Mouldings. adhered and 177). Stained glass was used. effect of verticality. 206. 196 197.i95. 200. H and 254). which was lavishly applied to interiors. 205. 165 A. produce an Ornament. 154. - The Columns. Can spare the shapely Grecian column. Cornices. they were attached (Nos. 'thus helping in giving relative value to parts (Nos. Cornices. or in later times based on a diagonal designed. 164. I. however.

Carving was often grotesque and rudely executed (Nos.A.I. i. as in the Palazzo del on the actual material. 174 and 190). RENAISSANCE. REFERENCE BOOKS It is (refer to each style). tive features. GhiDelia Robbia. Milizia. 124 E. the Victoria and Albert Museum." by Quatremere de Quincy.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. derived from reading " The History of the Lives and Works of the most celebrated Architects. Vasari. noticing the influence of climate and race.B. by " Michael Angelo. 214 and 218). Library. for it is only by a close study of the details themselves that the style can be thoroughly grasped. and others. 153 B and 175). and the biographies of G.. and arches. buttresses.e. 194. such as pinnacles.g. examples of their work being in the Victoria and Albert Museum.. where possible. but in the best examples. As about this period the names of architects begin to be prominently mentioned in connection with their own designs. " Sgraffito scratched decoration. by Fra Giocondo Consiglio (page 490) at Verona. Cathedral). Rome. 165. and \ e. and elsewhere. the social and political causes which were at now work. themselves being enriched. Chapel. sculptors. peculiarities of the necessary to glance briefly through the chief Renaissance style or manner in each country. The student should study many excellent examples which have been collected in the architectural courts of the Crystal Palace. 5. and will be found in the R. Great efficiency in the crafts is noticeable in the work of the Renaissance architects early (Nos. This was effected by the construc- who were 206. Interest in their works will be much increased by reading of the influences which directed these master-minds. and the various incidents in their lives which tended to influence their work. and. translations of which are published. . 133. often painters and berti. and colored plaster. in the Sistine 445 GOTHIC. Note. possesses a decorative character in harmony with the architecture. for its reception (Nos. as in colored marbles of central Florence 181. Italy (see No. Color for exteriors was dependent was sometimes applied to the exteriors. it will sometimes be convenient to group them into schools In this respect much information may be for that purpose. Donatello.

and Venice. all But pure form nakedly displayed^. The ii. which. more vivid that it slept awhile 'Gainst the glad heaven. statue to its niche ascends to dwell. being. They And love not fancies just betrayed. although its dominions included only a small part of Central Italy. studious heads out again. . artful tricks of light and shade. BROWNING. As if a spell broke.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. worn-out story. i. Florence. The quarries of Tuscany supplied large blocks of stone and marble. THE FLORENTINE SCHOOL. the penetrating eyes .) (See page 404 for Italian Gothic. being near the surface. It must be remembered that Florence was more than a city. one of the powers of Italy. were easily obtained for building purposes. And things absolutely made. i." . o'er the white palace front Come The The The interrupted scaffold climbs anew walls are peopled by the painter's brush. namely. "Florence at peace. 1 (See page 227 for Italian Romanesque. Geographical. and the calm. in fact. Rome. each art You boast. all resumed. which will be enumerated shortly. Geological.) " Come." C LOUGH THE Renaissance of Italy varies considerably in the chief centres of the great revival. and this was due to various social and political causes. leave your Gothic. activity and influence of the Florentines caused a Pope to declare that they were the fifth element. and the monumental character and massiveness of these materials considerably influenced the style of the architecture. INFLUENCES (see page 437).

some of which are in the Victoria and Albert Museum Lorenzo . . Michelozzo.D.D. and was the patron of Brunelleschi. The artists of the period were often at the same time sculptors. As rival parties in the city were engaged in constant hostilities. Savonarola. Ghiberti (1378-1455). As showing the commercial prosperity of Florence. Luca . In art he tended to the Puritan theory. Historical. employed his wealth liberally in the advancement of art. the Sistine frescoes bearing witness to his power over Michael to call Angelo. famous for glazed reliefs in terra-cotta. Dominican preacher. Mino da Fiesole (A. Masaccio. Social and Political. at our feet.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE. 1464) He founded the Medici Library and Platonic Academy. it is worthy of note that the golden florin was first coined in that city in 1252. and soon became the general standard of value in Europe. and architects. and others. sunny-sweet. 1442-1497)." At this period Florence produced the great iv. Among other causes which affected the development of the style. Pietro and Lorenzo Medici succeeded Cosimo. gradually usurping His son Cosimo (died supreme authority over the State. famous for his bas-reliefs and statues at Florence and elsewhere. and among these were : Robbia (1400-1482). reproductions also being in the same Museum. the sculptor of the bronze gates to the Baptistery. Florence commenced to grow in importance on the removal of the inhabitants of Fiesole to the banks of the Arno in 1125. whose reforming energy divided He looked to the French king the city. his influence on the minds of his generation was not lost. Or palace how the city glittered Through cypress avenues. is The character of the climate well indicated ' ' by Tennyson : In bright vignettes. and although suppressed by the Pope. and each complete Of tower or duomo. the palaces being in reality semi -fortresses. ' a general council to reform the Church. so intimately connected with the rise of Florentine art. and Florence "the Athens of the Renaissance" became the centre of the revival in art and literature. and swayed its policy. and Benedetto da Majano (A. vi. who v. wave took the popular side against the nobles. Donatello (1386-1466). iii. 447 Climate. the bright and sunny climate rendered large openings for light unnecessary. Religion. In Italy generally there was a of national enthusiasm and patriotic feeling and an endeavour to assimilate the old Roman magnificence in art. The Medici dynasty. 1431-1484). Lippi. Donatello.della painters. safety and defence were primary motives in building. was founded by John of Medici (died 1429).

until in 1737. followed. which are therefore called "astylar. Siena being ceded to him in 1557 by the Emperor. The columnar arcade is . during his brief invasion of Italy. the walls resting on columnar arcades (No. blocks of rusticated masonry in the lower stories (No. The general absence of pilasters. 191). The palaces were all built round interior courts. one Italy Pisa became subject to Florence in city bore rule over another. 259). and the latter gradually became the chief power in The grouping is 1406. Ghibellines (pp. (1537-1564). suppression of political liberty followed. as the Republic. in spite of successive banishments. and mural monuments and altars are exceedingly rich with sculpture and decoration. and. 192) of the Florentine palaces give to these buildings that character of solidity and ruggedness for which they are remarkable. acting on behalf of the. being divided into the hostile camps of Guelphs and Italy. is specially noticeable in the design of the palaces. who. the House of Medici becoming extinct. however. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. but the Medici. especially under Cosimo I.. The effect of these palaces is considerably aided by the massive cornice which crowns the structure. 2. The Michael Angelo acted as the engineer of the republic. were finally reinstated by the Emperor Charles V. but in 1860 it was united to the Kingdom of Italy. as in ancient Greece. being proportioned to the whole height of the building. During this period the nobles were at constant feuds with each other. a special feature. and also in the fourteenth century the artistic capital. In 1494 Charles VIII. together of the independent commonwealths of a feature of this period.Ghibellines. it enjoyed political freedom with the exception of the years 1807-1814. as in the Riccardi Palace 191 grand D). Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) took part in these conflicts. His successors. but eventually the wealthy family of the Medici became the ruling power in the State (see above)." The sparing use of carved detail. of France occupied Florence. During a siege of eleven months. the Grand Dukes of Florence. Paolo. the former being generally successful. and in fact of features of any The massive kind. and into the hands of Austria. as in the Ospedale degli Innocenti and the Loggia S. greatly extended the Florentine dominions.448 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. who. 230. the Duchy passed In 1801. possibly derived from the arcaded cloister of the mediaeval monastery. which arose from his claims on the kingdom of Naples. took the town in 1530. gives a marked character of simplicity to the style. afterwards as the Kingdom of Etruria. The short-lived republic of Savonarola (see above) followed. during which time it was incorporated with France. (No. as decorative features.

193 D). Florence (No. Spirito. The Dome of Florence Cathedral (A. are both examples of churches on the basilican plan.) The architrave type is that in which mouldings inclose the window. a Florentine by birth. and is raised upon an octagonal drum is in which are circular windows itself is lighting the interior.No. (b. consists of a round a'rch. as being the leaders of the Florentine school. It covers an octagonal apartment 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. 1377-1446). constructed of inner pointed in form. 1425) (No. and Riccardi Palaces.) The arcade type. as at the Strozzi.) The order type is that in which the opening is framed with a pilaster or column on each side supporting an entablature above. the latter having aisles formed round the transepts and choir. 176 and 181) was Brunelleschi's principal work. EXAMPLES. as in the courtyard of the Pandolfini Palace' and in the Palazzo Riccardi (No. 1420-1434) (Nos. his design being accepted in competition. 3. (c. which henceforth exerted a considerable influence over his works.D.D. 192). his main object being to complete the unfinished dome over the Cathedral of Florence. Having reached the period when the personality of the architect has increased in importance. and outer shells. will be briefly enumerated. 191 and 194 D) .A. being constructed on a Gothic principle with eight main ribs and sixteen intermediate The dome S. 194 F. this being the final development. in the centre of which is a circular column supporting a simple piece of tracery (Nos. and a flat wooden ceiling to nave. The groups : types of doors and windows may be divided into three (0. Note.D. ascribed to Raphael. G G . and ribs. Pitti. Florence (A. and consoles on either side support a horizontal of pediment cornice.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) KE&AISSANCE. with voussoirs having horizontal joints. Lorenzo. and S. and also shown in . usual in the heavily rusticated examples. Alberti. BRUNELLESCHI (A. the chief works of Brunelleschi. It is said that it was constructed without any centering. and others. as employed in the' Pandolfini Palace. and is probably the earliest F. studied the features and construction of the Pantheon and other examples of Roman architecture. 193).




alternating with entrance vestibules. which cause the entablature to be mitred round the pilasters of the order which carry the lunetted half dome of the apse. 1420) (No.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE. Florence the first 1451-1455) is known as which superimposed pilasters were used. in both of which he appears to have been associated with Michellozzo (1397-1473). r . was remodelled was never completed.D. " De those of Brunelleschi. Over the intersection of the nave with the transept is a dome. Andrea. The Riccardi Palace (1430) (Nos. consisting of a dome over a square compartment. and his works exhibit more decorative treatment and are less massive than He wrote a work on architecture." which largely influenced men's minds in favour of the revived Roman style. Mantua (A.D. is a refined example of his smaller works. are examples of the massive rusticated buildings with heavy crowning cornice for which the Florentine style is noted. a thirteenth century in the revived style. B. although dignity was lost compared with the Pitti Palace. take the place of the customary aisles on each side of the nave. by the reduction in size of the great crowning cornice. 193). is particularly notable and important as the type of many modern Renaissance churches. (A. Renaissance building in S. 191 and 192) and the Pitti Palace (1440). 1447-1455). in the facade over S. was one of the churches in which consoles were placed the side aisles to connect them with the nave. Francesco.D. ALBERTI (1404-1472) was a scholar deeply interested in classical literature. S. Chapels. lighted by three windows. and consists of a single nave with transepts. The Pazzi Chapel. The Ruccellai Palace. c). 453 instance where isolated fragments of entablature are placed on each column with the arches springing from these. in the drum or lower portion of w hich are windows lighting the interior. Re ^Edificatoria. and shows a lighter and more refined character. 193 A. but the fa$ade (A. Maria Novella. Croce) (A. and the front is reminiscent of a Roman triumphal archway. Florence (in S. 1472-1512) (No. Rimini Gothic church.D. Florence 1470). the interior ornamented with a single order on pedestals supporting a barrel vault. first (A. The chancel is apsidal.D. which is entered through an open colonnade of six columns supporting a decorated vault and forming the front fa9ade. The perfection of the proportions makes the interior of this church one of the grandest in the style.

cinque libri d'Architettura.). Berlin. 1891." 8vo." Burckhardt " Die Renaissance " F. " Das Ornament der Italienischen Kunst des XV. Buildings." Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana. 1891-1895." 1888." Architectural Studies in Italy." Folio." Folio. (J.)." English translation by R. H. 1888. COMPARATIVE 5. "Scelti Florence.). Grandjean de Montigny (A.). Peake. Reinhardt (K. Note. 4 vols. " Manuale di Architettura Antica e Moderna." Toscana.'' Melani (A. 191). Characteristic Florentine ornament is shown in No. " Genua. Sanmicheli(M. in Italy. B.) . "The Architecture of the Renaissance 8vo. entitled " The Five Books of Architecture made by Sebastian Serly. 1901. " Details from Italian i82." (George). Kinross (J. Alberti (L." 410. Gauthier (M.san< 1882. "Detail and Ornament of the Italian Renaissance. V. Eliot di Architettura della Citta di Firertze. " 1611. Geymuller (H.. P. both by Cronaca. 3 vols. in Italien. or I dieci Libri de' 1'Architettura. "Central und Kuppelkirchen der Renaissance in Italien.). G." Fletcher (Banister " Andrea Falladio. Paris.).) et Famin (A." Folio." . 1854. GENERAL. Strack(H. " Oliphant (Mrs.). Hamburg. " De re redificatoria. Raschdorff (J." Romola." Folio.). Paris.454 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Nicolai (H. Dresden. folio.." 1890.). 1867. Gruner (L..).). and the Gaudagni Palace. 1885-1894.).). The Strozzi Palace (1489) (No. 1899. 1882. folio. " Die Renaissance in Italien. Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces of Italy. C.)." ." 1832.). Stuttgart. J.. " I Serlio (S. 1886." 2 vols. Schutz (A. Berlin. Ten Books. Von. Anderson (W.)." Folio. entitled "Architecture in 1726. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1874." Folio.Makers of Florence." 4 vols. J. Le Fabbrichecivili Ecclesiastiche eMilitari. " Les edifices de la Ville de Genes. 194. Jahrhunderts. are other Florentine.). (see page 490)." Folio. 4. 2 vols. folio..). Anderson (W. Ruggieri (F. Munich. J. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. 1902. Oakeshott (G.). Folio." (Historical Novel. 1738." Folio. &c.) and Widmann (A. examples. "Architecture Toscane.). plates in folio and text in 4to.)." English Translation by Leoni. 1818.


During the fifteenth century the popes were temporal princes. vi.) Religion. Michael Angelo.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE THE ROMAN SCHOOL. Hi. i. proposed to effect this by absorbing the Italian leaf by leaf. The return of the The scandal of rival . and fortified palaces were not necessary as in Florence. who afterwards spread abroad the style of the Renaissance in other parts of Italy and beyond. broken temples spread. and colonnades. 404. Raphael. The ruins and new buildings are important as forming models for influence the whole of Europe. Geological. " See the How Rome With waste of all-devouring years her own sad sepulchre appears nodding arches. INFLUENCES (see page 437)." \vild ! ! POPE. and Caesar Borgia.. Geographical. From the time of the Council of Constance. The return of the popes from Avignon to Rome in A. Colosseum. and great patrons of art and learning. the popes took a more prominent position as Italian princes. states as one would eat an artichoke Julius II. Splendid new palaces and churches were erected. popes took place in 1376 under Gregory XI.D. later Renaissance period. in consequence of which party spirit was checked. Social and Political. such as the ii. Rome was the home of the old classic traditions. Pantheon. formed the quarry from which much of the material for the Renaissance buildings was (See pages 112. (see below). Historical. and during the fifteenth century they greatly extended their temporal dominions in Italy. Climate. and whose architecture was now being revived. besieged Bologna in person. 1376 helped to restore her to her former position of importance and prosperity. ncphc\ to Alexander VI. which naturally exerted great influence in any new development. iv. founded in the often combined in the same pope. 1415. and the decoration of old ones carried on by successive painters of whom Peruzzi. by rendering the papal influence universal v. the factions of the barons continued unchecked. The unique character of Rome as an was its prestige as the capital of an empire that had crumbled away. and others were eminent. existed to counteract the Reformation. In Rome a central government existed. During the absence of the popes at Avignon. A school was created for artists and workmen. The remains of old Rome. except during the brief rule of Rienzi's republican state in 1347. Some hoped that Italian unity would be effected under the papal sway. as sacred and secular capacities were The Jesuits. i. extracted.

form of Arcuation was only sparingly introduced. but is most successful and suitable in detail for the terra cotta with which it was constructed. an abbey church of the fifteenth century. taken and plundered on the 6th May. transepts and dome. The Classic orders were largely used in the facades and courtyards (Nos. 1527. Milan (A. and founded the new cathedral of S.D. which was strong under Louis XIV. The principle which animated architects in the later school was that of unity. until the rise of national feeling which. 457 popes at Rome and Avignon was terminated in 1415 by the Council of Constance. and was not always exerted for good. order.D. BRAMANTE (1444-1514). but studied at Rome. The Cancellaria Palace (A. to which Bramante added the choir. Spanish influence became powerful. 2. the first Roman architect of note. 195) are examples of Bramante's later works. Julius II. a warlike and ambitious pope. and in the ducal dominions. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 1492). S. after which Rome rapidly gained in wealth and prestige. which they endeavoured to attain by making a whole building appear to be of a single story thus two or more stories were included by an order of pilasters. practising first in the city of Milan. 197). though checked in 1848. in which a more pronounced classical tendency is seen. in imitation of the Colosseum. 3.. except tiers of arcades. 195. by the Emperor Charles V. but never by another superimposed . Maria della Grazie. but it was replaced by that of France. . 196) and the Giraud Palace (1503) (No.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. and a general attempt at correctness and conformity to the ideas of ancient Roman architecture preThe size and simplicity of the palaces of Rome produce vailed. was born in the year that Brunelleschi died. educated as a painter under Andrea Mantegna. which was sometimes crowned by an attic. Peter and the Vatican. 1495-1505) (No. 196 and 200). Rome was. for the last and seventh time. without Rome ceasing to be the headquarters of the papacy. He was a Florentine by birth. is essentially transitional in style with Gothic feeling. and was probably a pupil of Alberti. extended the temporal power. led in 1870 to Rome becoming This remarkable revolution was effected the capital of New Italy. an effect of dignity (No. The growth of the power of Austria was next felt throughout the Peninsula. in the EXAMPLES.

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ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. the internal diameter being only 15 feet A. The Villa Faniesina. were executed by Peruzzi and Raphael.D. had its later cloister court of arcades supporting columns constructed in 1504 of the middle period especially exhibit great refinement in mouldings. Ant. who may be called the " continuator " of the style of Alberti. was founded on this design.I. and is executed in brick walling . a system afterwards made use of by Sansovino in the Library of The remarkable frescoes of this building S. Rome (A. by Bramante. by Cola da Caprarola. buildings at Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536) was the architect of Rome." by Baron von Geymiiller. 1536) (No. Maria della Pace. ornamented with cupids holding festoons. 196 c. London. Damaso. da Sangallo the younger (A. S. The Massimi Palace. and circular-headed openings. by Vulliamy. 199 architecture. founded in design on the small Roman circular temples. Rome (Nos. the Tiber. S. is especially interesting in the way the convexfagade has been treated. Rome. and detail thus he uses flat pilaste'rs. BRAMANTE'S PUPILS AND FOLLOWERS. as tending to show the influence which Bramante. Park Lane. is ascribed to his influence. the Cortile delle Loggie. 1503). Peter (No. but is overladen with pilasters. 1506).A. bold and grand designs for the Courts of Law (never finished) near " for S. Todi (1508-1604) (No. an example full of refinement and beauty. 196 A and 206 D). 461 The Cortile of the (A. B. and contained windows. Mark (No.D. Pietro in Montorio (1502) is a perfect of gem (No. are S. 210). is a two-storied structure (each story comprising an order) with boldly projecting wings. 1485-1546) erected the This is the grandest Farnese Palace.D. and Greater and Lesser Belvedere Courts in the Vatican well-known examples of his secular work. 197 and 198). Maria della Consolazione. of all the examples of the school. section. Transactions. or elevation. and few architects of the school were several so well trained.D. framed by square lines His " Ultima Maniera " is seen in the (Nos. The latter was central arched loggia and rich crowning frieze. exerted on the development of the Renaissance in 'Rome and in . Bramante's works every European country. whether of plan. is interesting. c). both in design and detail. 1891. 203 D). Rome (A. which appeared in the R. 199). Dorchester House. and in his " projects An article on "The School of Bramante. D). The Tempietto in S.B. erected in 1484. and able to execute works so finished in detail. carving.

Bou^ II.ROMAN RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES. i L ju ui n in -~srv 9\ w (J)msfa@wrwKi . u_imn .

to the garden and the painted ceilings are remarkable. The Palace of Caprarola (No. r G. The surface of the vaulting was found to be painted with studies from the vegetable kingdom. 201) is a pentagonal semi- Rome . which was a special feature in the original design (No. Columns or used only in a special way to form frames -to the windows. The grand crowning cornice. rendered pleasing by bright coloring. The Pandolfini his death). were based on these Roman examples. and was the author of " The Five Orders of Architecture. and the use of hard stucco with painted decorations was one of the things he learned from these remains. The excavation of the Baths of Titus gave Raphael an opportunity of studying the interior decoration of ancient Roman buildings. Giulio Romano (A. London. Peter. he exercised a great influence on the development of French Renaissance architecture.D. but did little. with figures of men and animals. all blended together in fanciful schemes. decorated with the Doric order. 1516). erected in 1530 (ten years after one of his most famous designs. 1550) (No. and with such objects as vessels and shields. and was the architect of buildings at Mantua. (A.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. E).D. The internal open court (" cortile ") is in the style of the Colosseum. is one of his best known works. Raphael (A. The Villa of Pope Julius. 238 D. Lorenzo in Miranda. which is a one-story building. It is quadrangular in plan. and comprises The recessed arcaded facade large saloons round a central court. and the design is perhaps the nearest approach made on the part of a Renaissance architect to reproduce the features of a Roman villa. The designs for the decoration of the Vatican Loggie. BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA (A." Being taken back to France by Francis I.D. and a reduced cast of a portion of it may be seen in the Italian Renaissance Court at the Crystal Palace. At Rome. and also the Villa Madama (A.D. 198 B) was added later by Michael Angelo. He designed the facade of S. (page 497). but authorities differ as to his exact responsibility for the designs ascribed to him. the stucco decorations being by Giulio Romano. is Palace. now the Etruscan Museum.D. 1507-1573) exercised great influence by his writings. each of the stories being well marked horizontally by pilasters are projecting string courses. 1492-1546) was a pupil of Raphael. Florence. London. including his masterpiece the Palazzo del Te. the "motif" being afterwards followed for the Travellers' Club. he was engaged on S. 1483-1520) was the nephew and pupil of Bramante. w hich he carried out. 463 with travertine dressings from the Colosseum. and the "motif" was followed for the Reform Club.


ro (N v) ^IT) LO OJ TJU-) j.A.H D O O (U 'rt PL. H H .. o O H u w E . U rt F.


over the alleged. The two small cupolas at S. S. The high altar stands under the dome. producing a rich effect. 203 E). and the short transepts are terminated by semicircular a'pses. Lorenzo. Peter.D. the western arm being precisely similar. are other works. Peter (No. S.D. tomb of S. 1568-1632) (No. while the internal circular court is suggestive of the Colosseum at Rome (see the Chateau de Chambord.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. The walls are faced with plaster. 200 and 201). Peter. Andrea. 199) is one of many is Rome designed on the lines of S. 137 feet 6 inches in diameter." 100 feet high. and the Laurentian Library (A. four bays of immense size. 199) one of his earlier and a simple oblong on plan having an elliptical dome with pendentives. MICHAEL ANGELO (A.D. " No single parts unequally surprise. 1550) (No. 1520) (No. was the most important building erected in the period. extension of the nave and aisles toward tne east practically bringing the whole scheme to a Latin cross. the later it. and painter of the roof of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (A. also turned his attention. consists of existing church (No. The Gesu Church (A. and many architects were engaged upon In plan (Nos. 1474-1564). 204) has one gigantic order of Corinthian pilasters. His principal works at Florence were the Mausoleum (or New Sacristy) (A. to architecture. (A. Peter (page 471). within a " baldachino.D. and the dome is beautifully decorated in mosaic. the central crossing is covered by the dome.D. having statues of his patrols. late in but reckless detail mars his work.D. page 500). recalling Hadrian's tomb in mass and outline. All comes united to th' admiring eyes. 1508). the chancel being at the west end. The interior (No. 150 feet high." POPE.D. finished the Farnese Palace. 193 D). Rome. a famous Florentine sculptor. fortress situated 467 on the spur of a mountain looking down into the valley. representing the Fall and Redemption of Mankind. and the unfinished municipal palace at Bologna. 80 feet wide. This w as probably effected so as to inclose the whole of the area of the previously r The nave. grand examples of one-order buildings. crowned with semicircular barrel vaults. H H 2 . Rome (1506-1626). but perhaps his best work was the reconstruction 'of the Palaces of the Capitol (A. A vestibule at the East end extends the whole width of the church. both at S. 1524). 75 c). Peter. 1540-1644) (Nos. 203 and 213) it was a Greek cross. and carried out the Dome of S. and colored to imitate marble. Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici. He life. smaller works.

CJ o XI CO .


w H W PH CO .

D. Peter was recognized as a model of which numberless churches were erected throughout Italy. in which. Death of Raphael. Baldassare Pevuzzi appointed architect. and A. strengthened the piers of the dome. the construction of the great dome. 1546). end. were entrusted with superintendence Division of opinion existed as to altering of the work. 1516). Raphael's suggested ground original plan to a Latin cross. and simplified the form of the aisles. which A good inclose one of the noblest entrance courtyards in Europe. campanili. formulated a 1506. the original architect. 137 feet 6 inches internal diameter.D. 203 c) and lofty His plan is shown in No. The A. which had shown signs of weakness. a synopsis of the history of this building Bramante. A.D. 1564. 1520. Giocondo (d.D. in which process the masterly planning of the accessories. A. with an attic 39 feet high surrounding the entire building. 108 feet high including entablature.D. S. which were to give scale to He planned and commenced the interior.D. The view of the dome from the east except at a distance. by Raphael. Foundation stone laid. the drum of which he completed. and at his death (1564) left drawings and models for the completion of the work up to the lantern. has an immense order of Corinthian pilasters.D. as architect (d. A. with a central dome (No. 1546.design in the form of a Greek cross with entrances at East His design for the dome is shown in No. Vignola continued the building of the church. . 471 The exterior (Nos. Antonio da Sangallo the younger succeeded him A. He rejected Michael Angela appointed architect. Death of Bramante. disappeared. following is : Fm plan is A. 1515). The capture and sack of Rome disorganized all artistic work. 1536. as in most drawings of the church.D. 203 M. idea of the building. 202. 203 B. 1536. 1514. shown in No. A. 1513. Proposed a picturesque design of many orders. the innovations of Sangallo. however.D. roughly executed in travertine. 203 L. The design owes much to the circular four-fold colonnades added by Bernini in the seventeenth century. Raphael. in its general distribution. 203 and 205). the top of which is 405 feet from the ground. 1520. restored the design to a Greek cross. His suggested plan is shown in No.D. Giuliano da Sangallo (d. 203 j. but died A. is nearly cut off behind the screen wall of the now extended nave. the detail is rendered less offensive by its smaller scale. is to be obtained from the model at the Crystal Palace.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE.

CO .

He also erected the brazen baldachino under the dome (No.000 148 S.D. the Palazzo Barberini. by Galilei (A. 213) S. Rainaldi appointed architect and prepared designs A. Carlo Maderna. 138 ft. by Maderna. 203 K. 1605-1612.D.35O 170 Area in Length sq.000 7A 156 205 Pantheon (No. Bernini erected the fourfold colonnades inclosing the piazza. and the Chapel of Sixtus V." BROWNING. S. Characteristic Roman ornament is shown in No. 206. Giacomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana A. 1590). The Palazzo Borghese (A. instructed by Paul V. Compare plans (No. 1574-1590) on the Lateran. Maria Maggiore (A. 109 ft. : Milan (No. In Baron von Geymiiller's book. 10. 1629-1667. 6 in. 202.D. 1612.D. of . for " With arms wide open to embrace The entry of the human race. and the Fountain of Trevi (A. and erected the present contemptible facade (No. A. 1585-1590. These (Nos. The Papal Palaces The (1586) is portico to north transept of S. A. yds. 80) 9. 4. 203 E). 176). (No. in S. lengthened the nave to form a Latin cross (No.D. 142 ft. 1543-1607). 6 in. 473 adding the cupolas on either side of the great dome. Maria Maggiore. erected the dome from Michael Angelo's wooden model. Diam. are ineffective in relation to the whole mass. Giovanni in Laterano. by Fuga (A. 203 K). campanile. Peter.D. 176). and also a comparison drawn between the fundamental principles of design which characterize each plan. . 6 in. Other examples in Rome are : (A. 107 ft. COMPARATIVE (see page 490). 650 feet wide. Florence (No. excellent in themselves. Paul.dome. in front (Nos. The Portico to S. which is very interesting. 1743).D. in yards.D.D. 18. 203 E). Sophia 8. Note.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. Quirinal and Vatican Hills. 54). 202. 137 ft. Giovanni in Laterano The Facade of S. 1735). E and 205).. there is a the portions of separate dates colored differently. with scheme.D.150 118 Cologne. already mentioned. were by Fontana. 1734). 204) with metal taken from the portico of the Pantheon. also by Fontana. but effected nothing.


Paris and Vienna.. " 2 vols. -The greatness of Venice was founded on Oriental commerce. Paris. Vicenza. 5." The best English editions are those by Leoni and Ware. Rossi (D.. "Studio d' Architettura Civile della Citta di Roma.. radiant. 1776. quivering line Of the water's crystalline . B.) et Fontaine (P. And before that dream of light. u Baudenkmaeler Roms des XV. The Honour of Savelli.). Broad. Trans. 4to vol. 1868. 1882. Fabbriche e Design! di Andrea Palladio. peopled labyrinth of walls.). Folio. half-reclined On the level. Stiack (H. M. F. Amphitrite's destined halls.). folio." 4 vols. and the . red." " P. Rome Moderne. Berlin. (G." Folio. Scamozzi (O. Fontana " ''Edifices de Letarouilly (P. and Shine like obelisks of fire. Geographical. the sapphire-tinted sky. 410 and folio. Suys (T." Rienzi. " B. 1855. 1818. L. 1891." Palais Massimia Rome/' Folio.). Paris.de).A. folio and Le Vatican et la Basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome. Which her hoary sire now paves With his blue and beaming waves. de Plaisance de Rome et de ses Environs. of text. ! A Column. Jahrhunderts.3 vols. L. Projets primitifs pour la Basilique de St." . Maccari (E).IX.). due to her important geographical position." SHELLEY INFLUENCES (see page 437). folio." 3 vols. Pierre de Rome/' 2 vojs.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. Roma. 1891. Venice lies. 1809. "The School of Bramante.-X.) et Haudebourt (L. folio. Lo the sun upsprings behind. 1720-1721." 1 Quattro Libri dell' Architettura. Paris.." Folio. " Underneath day's azure eyes.). " Les Geymuller (H. Palladio (A. Lytton (Lord). Ocean's nursling. As within a furnace bright. Berlin. Geymiiller(H. i. Raccolta delle Chiese di Roma. ) Yeats (S. 404). and dome. 475 REFERENCE BOOKS. 1875-1880. Panting with inconstant motion From the altar of dark ocean spire To i.I. and the peculiar formation of the coast.). 11 Palazzo di Caprarola. :> 4 vols. effect of this commercial prosperity lasted well into Renaissance times (pages 232. " Choix de plus Celebres Maisons Percier (C." Letarouilly. F. Paris. tower." J Historical Novels H THE VENETIAN SCHOOL. de). The history of the Venetian state was always influenced by the proximity of the sea." R.. de).).

Strong loyalty to the State even the clergy was manifested during the attempted interdict among of Paul V. being farther from Rome. the earlier buildings . Geological. and houses being set upon a structural formation having an piles in a shallow lagoon. and eventually in 1715 the whole of her possesYet " the sions. its commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and merchant princes. and the supremacy of Venice in the East was undermined. between the periods of Gothic and fully-developed Renaissance. Venice was engaged in conquering the surrounding towns. This favours out-door life. Religion. palaces. Therefore. founded in the sea. though tempered by sea The northern position called belvederes. tolerance of Venetian policy is shown by the erection of the Greek church. and. renders chimneys more prominent than in other Italian cities. an interesting example of the local Renaissance. exist in many houses. and the rivalry of the leading families led to the erection of fine and lasting monuments. In the middle of the fifteenth century (1453. Venice has the appearance of a floating city ii. v. ence of the Pope. of peaceable citizens vi. such as the palaces which line the Grand Canal these however were not fortresses. Historical. Open top stories. as at Florence.the architecture of upon Venice from that which produced upon the architecture of Florence. Venice continued to maintain a semi-independiv. The Venetians had a beautiful type of Gothic architecture of their own. were taken from her. During the whole of the fifteenth century.476 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. breezes. the learned theologian Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623) The being the adviser of the State during this crisis (1607). the heat in summer iii.. Social and Political. owing to the previously existing circumstances of the two cities. Climate. churches. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Venetians were at constant war with the Turks. Constantinople was taken by the Turks. important influence on its art. except in North Italy. there was a period of transition. The government of Venice was republican. due to her political necessities in those days of growing temporal power. being great. arts which had meanwhile been silently developing shed a glorious sunset over the waning glory of the mighty republic. were not so much under the influence of that city as was Florence. to which Venetian nobles were appointed governors. but the residences . different effect it The Renaissance movement had a very ." 2. By the discovery ot the new route round the Cape to India by Diaz in 1486.

heavy rustication being used to contrast the basement with the upper part of the facade (No. as.' leaving comparatively solid boundaries to the facades (No. producing strong effects of light and shade. 210 F) details. and having a straight frontage with the water. This design has been followed for the Carlton Club. 1536) was erected by Sansovino (No. having the same effect as the recessing of portions of the structure.D.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE. B). In Longhena's works and other late examples.D. one order higher round S. palace. being erected by Sansovino in A. The regularity of the disposition of a Venetian facade is described by Browning. for instance. who talks of the " Window with window just The mating. the Giant's Staircase. 208). of a lighter and being used freely in all designs. in S. 1479-1570). Mark's Library and the palaces by Sansovino (A. . SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. London. is unusual. 1554. giving access to the upper portions.D. Door on door exactly waiting. as at Florence. A special Venetian feature is the grouping of the windows near the centre. in which windows were sometimes placed more graceful kind than that of Florence. in consequence of the houses being situated on the side of The canals. balconies (No. The Library of S. by Ant. 209). and a cornice usually marks each story (No. Extreme depth was sometimes ^iven to the frieze.D. was executed in 1584 by Scamozzi. 3. 207). 209) are graceful and important features. Mark (A. rustication of walls. and have no great projections. EXAMPLES. 210). and give light and shade to the facade. in contrast with the great crowning Florentine cornices. the detail became large and projected boldly. 210 A. The architecture of Venice is. in general. A. The Court to the Doges' Palace (No. new A (see below). 210) was commenced Rizzi." is In the later period perfection of details characteristic of the Venetian Renaissance. which facades are comparatively flat. in the 477 style having Gothic in conjunction with Renaissance notable instance is in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the Doges' Palace (No. The facade of the Geological Museum in Piccadilly is founded on the design of the lower part of the courtyard facade of this 1486. Mark's Square. but the continuation of the design. columns and pilasters (No.







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by Longhena (No. a feature which also occurs at S. Maria della Salute (A. 1456-1515). are other churches worthy of note. The Scuola di S. Zaccaria.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE. 211). Maria dei Miracoli . 485 The Zecca. was erected by Sansovino. by Sansovino (No. as exhibiting the difficulties of adopting the Classic orders to the facades of churches of the basilican plan. the central space being covered by a circular dome. whose drum is connected to the outer walls by buttresses (No. although the facade of the latter was by Scamozzi (A. by Pietro Lombardo (Nos. being a modified copy). 212 and 213 E). and has a peculiar treatment of column rustication. has to each story an order of engaged The windows are columns the earliest example in Venice. semicircular pediment on the facade. are later examples. Note. A secondary dome covers the chancel. Giorgio dei Greci (A. with domical and barrel. and S.D. Marco (A.D. and the Pesaro Palace . by Pietro Lombardo. reliefs in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. S. 214. 1451-1493). the facade of which was by Pietro Lombardo. by Sansovino (A. the facade of S. architect. 209). semicircular. 1485-1533). which is covered with a roof of semiThis is emphasized by a circular form. Mark. (A. contributes to the picturesque grouping of the exterior.D. and a small tower also carried up. 1530). groups most beautifully with the surroundings on the Grand Canal. with delicately carved and different colored marbles. 1650-1680). Salvatore (A.D. Francesco della Vigna. 211). 211 c.D. 211). 1481). by Longhena (Nos. 1536.D. as shown in No. by Sansovino (A. Characteristic Venetian ornament is shown in No. are other examples of the early or transition period.D.D.vaulted bays. The Vendramini Palace (A. 1538). These churches are instructive. their fanciful shapes contributing to the rich effect. and the choir is raised twelve steps above the nave.D. and S. 212) over the aisles.D. The sacristy is beneath the raised choir. S. 1534-1562). 1549). 1532) the Grimani Palace. is a rich example. Giorgio Maggiore. not uncommon in Venice. Giorgio Maggiore (A.D. which projects on the side opposite the entrance. 1480) (No.D. 1575). Giobbe (A. by Sanmicheli (A. S. London. II Redentore (A. and has curious sculptured perspective. 1576) and S. S. S. a transition example. 1632). In plan it consists of an octagon with chapels projecting on each side. the plan derived from S.D. Mark.D. 1560) were both by Palladio (No. The Cornaro Palace (the Army and Navy Club. 207 and 208). or Mint. has no aisles. with a Renaissance treatment of tracery. by Tullib Lombardo.D. held to be founded on (A. The walls are faced internally and externally. has a fagade (1562) by Palladio resembling S. Zaccaria (A.



D. which appears externally as a low It is dome above the main building. F and and the Palazzo Valmarana The Teatro 238 B). and the upper ones having pilasters. and the entrance gateways through the fortifications of Verona are excellent instances of his power of giving character to his works. 215 and 216 A. 216 G). with a pillared portico on each face leading to a central rotunda. 216 H). and unity and dignity There are several examples in Vicenza in. He indefatigably studied. with the stage built in perspective. the Palazzo Capitanio (formerly Prefitizio) (No. a square building. as the Palazzo Barbarano (A. all the Roman antiquities. VICENZA AND VERONA. to obtain scale in that feature. still their publication in books had a far-reaching influence on European architecture. These are notable cities possessing many examples of Renaissance architecture. A second method was to comprise two floors in the height of the order (No. Vicenza (generally known as the Rotonda). The Villa del Capra. 1580). both in ways from the angles ol was utilized by (page 581). These arcades (Nos. and are his most famous work. Vicenza was the birthplace of Palladio (A. and he wl& followed in his methods by Inigo Jones (page 567). owes its importance to the double-storied Renaissance arcades. (A. This is generally known as the Palladian "motif" and was produced in this case by the necessity of making each bay correspond with the Gothic hall. the Palazzo Tiene (A. and measured. and are counted in the Venetian School. of which it forms the frontispiece. . the scene of his labours. 216 G). The design Lord Burlington at Chiswick the tiled roof.D.D. 1556). c) were designed by Palladio in 1549. 216 D. 1556). 1518-1580) and His churches are referred to above. 1484-1549). originally erected in the mediaeval period (about 1444). and were often never fully carried out. is an example of the application of the features of Classic architecture carried to an extreme (Nos. the whole composition. His designs were mostly erected in brick and stucco. hipped copied elsewhere. E. the lower story being rusticated. of both of these methods. Verona owes many of its most important buildings to Sanmicheli (A. and it has also been England and on the Continent. who was also the originator of a new system of fortification.D.D. being built in a beautiful stone in two stories of Doric and Ionic orders. 1560). Olimpico (A. as may be seen by the drawings in his book on architecture. is an interesting building completed by Scamozzi. the Palazzo Chierecati (A.D. B.488 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. an architect of ability.D. 1570) (No. The Basilica at Vicenza. all of this building Although Palladio's designs were mainly executed in common materials such as brick and stucco. separated by arches supported on a minor order.


without which the designs would have the unity of Greek temples. the Roman coffered and vaulted nave (No. and at Verona. Where an open site permitted. Stories are defined by an order to each. B. as in the Colosseum. 193 j). and Braschi palaces and the Scala Regia of the Vatican. Venice. In pure wall treatment it is akin to Egyptian art. Corsini. Florence. 211 D). More varied planning on a grander scale (Nos. COMPARATIVE. The style of columns (Nos. planning Staircases inclosed by walls (Nos. Canossa. 211).4QO by a bold and COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. A. . 196. In the multiplicity of parts the style allies itself Florence. 191 and 192). as those in the Barberini. 198 and 199). in which to the use of rustication as a means of effect. 217 A). a style of rather than country buildings. 207 and 209). 218. the dome on pendentives and Basilican plan (No. AND VENETIAN SCHOOLS. and corrected by breaking them round the columns. while subordinated as a whole by the great top cornice (No. Two or more stories are united by an order upon a graud scale (No. were all followed. simplicity and compactness. belong to this school.D. ROMAN. which dispenses (Nos. the dome over a circular space (Roman type) (No. The style of fenestration and rusticated quoins The astylar treatment. 4. The style of pilasters (No. were used. with columnar supports. 1500) at Verona was erected for the colored by Fra Giocondo. were used. 199 G). Plans. a broken. Rome. with orders and makes each story complete in itself. 193 E). 193) were vaulted by ascending barrel-vaults. Windows are disturbing elements. Walls. Venice. 195). he gave great extension original treatment.D. the Byzantine domical treatment (No. are the best known examples of his style The Palazzo del Consiglio (A. and is chiefly remarkable " " work of the facade. Excessive separation by the entablatures is modified. placed in a central area. 199 c). Rome. The utmost to adapted town. the Roman barrel-vaulted type (No. 208). Staircases. Note. to the Roman. are features. sgraffito Characteristic ornament is shown in No. 193 A). 191) was adopted. In church work. Bevilacqua. 19 1. complex. . 200). and the Basilican (No. The Palazzi Pompeii (A. In church work. surrounded with arcades. In church work. and the dome on pendentives (No. and picturesque disposition was adopted otherwise a straight front to the canals had to be adhered to (No. THE FLORENTINE. Staircases. circular and elliptical. 1550) (No.

217. .


Pictorial effect was attempted in the vaulting of halls and staircases. Rome. In Milan and other North Italian cities. 197and 200). to staircases. divided by a column carrying two minor arches. 191). the low dome over the crossing was a favourite Florence.spaced. Roofs. were adapted to palace facades. Domes are grouped with towers in churches (Nos. was continued from previous periods (Nos. In churches. after the style of the then newly-discovered Baths of Titus. E. 191). Venice. The typical opening is an archway in rusticated work. 197). Vaults of a similar kind were more elaborated. as at the Certosa. Raking vaults feature (No. the scale of openings. Florence. and S. Openings are large. 197). Openings seem small in relation to the great order adopted (No. Florence. as in the Colosseum. and severe in treatment (No. 198 H). the arcade and colonnade. but by the system of proportion to the order employed (Nos. forming a semi-tracery head (No. and simple cross or waggon-vaults in halls. and the motif' of the style. 493 Openings. Venice. the low internal cupola was often covered externally by a lofty structure in diminishing stages. surmounted by pediments (No. 196). Rome. Roofs rarely visible (No. Milan. 195. . Roofs having balustrades preferred (No. 193). and later on with orders on a small scale. Maria della Grazie. 191). and even such features as balustrades were not regulated by use. 192). 211 and 212). Columns. Flat pitch tiled roofs are sometimes visible (No. and close set . The application of the orders on a great scale is the " In their use. 192). generally frescoed. Pavia. 194 D). Domes mounted upon a high drum and crowned with a lantern are universal in churches (No. though columns were used to arcades. 195). arches resting directly on columns are typical (No. D. wide. 207 and 209). The treatment of a centre and two wings. 210 A). obtained by window spacing. numerous. Rome. treated with coffering or stucco modelling (No.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. c. In courtyards. were not regarded. A square-headed opening was treated with a framework of architrave mouldings (No. internal necessities of the building. Openings are small. Early examples do not have the orders (No. 199). the arches springing direct from the capitals (No.

and great projection.). Venice. Oliphant( Mrs. until Michael Angelo. Decoration is equally spread throughout the facade. Venice (No.). "The Architecture of Andrea 1715. 214). Prominence of detail is characteristic Venice. 1851. as in the great stone shields at the angles of palaces (No.). and masks. Decoration." 3 vols. Close adaptation of the features of the Classic orders marks the Roman style (Nos. Those between are few and simple. Leoni (G. Schmidt (O. projections.'' XT Hlstoncal Novels. Ruskin (J."/ ) . and entablatures were usually broken round these . Ornament. L.) Examples of the Architecture of Venice." Folio. and his followers." " Venezia "(published by Ongania). 191 and 194). architects. " Le Fabbriche e i Monument! cospicui di Cicognara (Conte F. Moulding stories Rome.).). 1893. F. . London. having more variety than prevails in the sternness of the former. Venezia. REFERENCE BOOKS. Marion). .). " L'Architettura " . G. scrolls. e la Scultura del Rinascimento in Venice. Rome (No. The revival of fresco Sculptured ornament to friezes carved with infant genii.. 1851-1853." Crawford (F. Ruskin (J. folio. was abundantly used in the three schools. to give full effect to the of which were based on grand crowning cornice."Marietta. 3 vols. painting and its application to buildings the artists of the great schools of Italian painting had an by important decorative effect on all the schools. introduced their arbitrary details. 208. Calli e Canali in Venezia. '42. Every spandrel has its figure.. Florence. the details Classic examples (Nos. 198 and 206). such as carving and sculpture. 1890-1894. '21. and the high relief of sculpture competes with the architectural detail in prominence fruit (No.. The problem of successive tiers of orders was worked Venice." Folio. Mouldings. Renaissance works in Venice ." Stones of Venice. Venice. Paoletti (P. Stands midway between Florentine and Venetian work. and less exuberance than is found in the latter. .. 5. Palladio. 1898. 206). folio. 194). " Vicenza. which contrast with the plain wall surfaces. while spandrels have figures in high relief (Nos. is collected in masses. despising the sound methods of the earlier of the late entablatures have deep soffits and keystones. 210 and 214). were reduced to the minimum. 192). 208 and 209) projecting columns were preferred to pilasters. "Makers of Venice. 209). out (Nos.494 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. Florence (No." 2 vols. 207. . 1838-1840. 8vo.

the detail is delicately and richly modelled. and received their name from it. the niches with statues executed by the greatest sculptors of the day.D. and were employed in the Church of 5. Palazzo Rosso (red). of Gothic feeling may Milan was.D. in the Renaissance style.D. 1474). The dome is interesting as a Renaissance copy of a type used in the Gothic period as at Chiaravalle and elsewhere. former times had built Milan Cathedral (page 408). as the Palazzo Bianco (white). 1457). as Florence. Although these cities formed no distinct school. make it one of the richest and most is and perfect specimens of the arts of the architect and sculptor.ITALIAN (MILAN AND GENOA) RENAISSANCE. and flights of steps. has some remarkable buildings. supported by large consoles (No.D. and is specially remarkable for the small scale of its parts. although clothed with Renaissance details. 1500-1572). principally designed by Alessi (A. Many of the palaces were painted wholly in one color. the windows occupying the square intervals between these brackets. Pavia. and the bright coloring. by Borgognone. treated in perspective. rusticated. in which advantage was taken of the sloping sites to produce beautiful vistas of terraces and hanging gardens Genoa These buildings usually have their basements pilasters were freely introduced as a decorative feature while the facades were crowned by a bold projecting cornice. The Genoese palaces are remarkable especially for the entrance courts. has the west facade (A. is famous for its chancel wall. courtyards. as it is now. 217 . gives them a very bright appearance. and Venice. The Certosa. and is probably the most important of the early examples. The arcaded galleries. D). which was covered with stucco. the arrangement of the vestibules. very suitable to the material employed. with the help of the Italian sun. It is in marble. and . 1476). greatly encouraged art. 1492) (page 457). . the leading lines being essentially Lombardian Gothic. Maria delta Grazie (A. which was erected in the Gothic period (A. Satire. Milan (A. and in the great courtyard of the Ospedale Maggiore (A. 217 B). 495 MILAN AND GENOA.D. and for its octagonal sacristy. who in of Italian towns. and the wealth of beautifully executed detail. Rome.D. by Bramante. one of the richest and most populous The powerful family of the Visconti. to resemble stone-work. there were many noteworthy buildings which be briefly referred to. near Milan (page 408). a pupil of Michael Angelo. S. The building material at hand was brick. Brick and terra-cotta were the materials chiefly to hand. by Filarete. 1396). a Both these buildings possess a considerable amount Florentine. The Palazzo Municipio (Doria(No. by Bramante.

" 1663. because the Rococo period. Agnese by Borromini.D.). Paris. often overemphasized by gilding and sculptured figures in contorted attitudes. Rome. beneath the trappings in the later period of the be traced elsewhere. Durelli (G.). P. Paravicini (T.)." Folio. publics et particuliers de" Turin et La Certosa di Pavia. " Die Renaissance Architektur der Lornbardei. This style. represents an anarchical reaction.). and Tursi) (A. and of the period." : Folio. and Borromini (1599-1667). V. cornices made to break round them. and broken and curved pediments. Balbi. Milan. the ornamentation was carried out to an style. REFERENCE BOOKS. can Renaissance movement. when the was commencing. 217) S. which was followed in the seventeenth century.496 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. extraordinary degree. style is a debased application to architecture of Renaissance features. broken curves in plan and elevation." Les plus beaux edifices de la ville de Genes. and a strained originality in detail. B. and many churches at Naples and modern forms. The application of classical of bad detail. 218. without regard to fitness or suitability. Peter. was designed on the lines of Raphael's plan S. and among the most prominent examples are the Roman churches of S.D. Carlo Madema (1556-1639). Maria di Carignano (A. are the best known. and F. Bernini (1589-1680). and twisted columns are also features of the In the interiors. ornament is shown in No. 1564) (No. P. 1855. and consisted of exaggerated and badly-designed detail. commencing at the time when the movement in religion connected with the Jesuits was in progress. 1878. 1818. 1853. Characteristic Note. Pans. Such work is to be distinguished from the mixtures of certain forms of the early Renaissance. 5. coming after the reign of a highly systematized classical style. huge scrolls.) et Lesueur (J. Cambiassi of also by Alessi. Maria delta Vittovia by Maderna. Rubens (P.). and the Palazzi Durazzo. was adopted by them for its essentially modern character. or Baroco. " Architecture italienne edifices Callet (F.'' Palazzi antichi et Dresden. its almost universal extension style being a ideas to monument to their activity." moderni di Genova. are the characteristics Columns were placed in front of pilasters. . The Rococo. 1552). THE ROCOCO STYLE. and the features described are specially to be seen in the Jesuit churches throughout Italy and the rest of Europe. were among the more famous who practised this debased form of art. Gauthier (M." Folio. C. Sinuous frontages.

but also in science and literature. Cellini. Climate. Vignola. were not permanently extended. which hereafter. in vindication of their claims to the thrones of Naples and Milan. Refer to page 246. iii. Religion. will find their places. i. the old order remaining until. and Napoleon. Thus the Louis XIV. as London is a brick city. Refer to pages 246. the supply of churches erected during the mediaeval period proved adequate. (See page 246 for French Romanesque.) "In all new work that would look forth To more than antiquarian worth. PrimaIn the later period. had little effect upon churches." CLOUGH. and from Paris emanated any movement. The number of chateaux erected during the early periods of the Renaissance in France was due to many social causes. such. style. The Reformation maintained practically no hold in France. and is a stone city. brought to France by Francis ticcio. v.A. iv. Social and Political. K K . and more especially many returning in the train of the French kings. and workmen over Europe. not only in architecture. moreover. and furniture. and Cortona. INFLUENCES (see page 437) Geographical.the end of the eighteenth century. Geological. Paris is built. in spite of the conquests of Louis XIV. The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. As. in 1527. Among the chief of the artists were Leonardo da Vinci.) (See page 362 for French Gothic. France had now more clearly defined boundaries. F. in 1494. and by Francis I. Rosso. marks the distribution of Italian artists France. Refer to pages 246 and 362. the Italian Bernini was . it was the domestic work which took the lead in this period. in a quarry of a fine-grained building stone. Or something i.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. the Jesuit style (page 496) prevailing in those built during this period. I. Palladio's pediments and bases. 362. Paris at this time was the capital of a compact and rapidly consolidating kingdom. which had an universal influence upon interiors. Serlio. so to speak. ii.

1461 practically led to the consolidation of France into one kingdom by the reconciliation of the Duke of Burgundy. 1589-1715 (or seventeenth century). and the accession of Louis XL. and Louis XIV. Francis II. Charles VIII. (1610-1643) Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the royal power. /56o-i574.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) ine Classical Penod. Historical. place to place was responsible for much of the picturesque early Renaissance south of the Loire. marched through Italy. 442. His conquests. 1525. lomew took place at Paris. Louis XII. Cardinal Mazarin continued his policy.D. led to a general coalition against him. In the reign of Louis XV. and in 1508 Louis joined the league of Cambray formed against Venice. The style may be divided into three periods (a. Florence being the ally of France during all this period. and Louis XIV. 2. ascending the throne in 1643. 1461-1589 (or sixteenth century) comprising the reigns of: Louis XI. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 led to a further emigration of Protestants to England. Rousseau. in A. became an absolute monarch.. 1574-1589. Francis I. at the same time becoming more absolute in their own country. 1589-1610 (introduced classic type). From 1558 to the end of the century. The English were driven from France in vi. 1559-1560. 1610-1643. 1483-1498. were thus brought into contact with the superior civilization of Italy. and drawn into the Renaissance movement. after which there was an emigration of Huguenots to England. 1547-1559. comprising the reigns of: Henri IV. Francis I. 1461-1483. : Henri III. of France. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 1515-1547' Henri II. in the Netherlands and Germany. Ch le * IX . the religious' wars. claiming the kingdom of Naples. Charles VIII. In these wars the French kings.) The Early Renaissance Period. BarthoCatholics. and prepared the ground for the great revolution that began in 1792. 1572. 1543. ' Refer to pages 439. During the reign of Louis XIII. and others weakened authority by their attacks. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Spaniards at the Battle of Pavia. distracted the country. 1498-1515. between the Huguenots and The Massacre of S. A band of Italians journeying from the guest of Louis XIV. (1715-1774) the evil effects of despotism and bad government became more marked. During the first half of the sixIn 1494 teenth century Italy became the battlefield of Europe. and the writers Voltaire. (0.f. Louis XIII. ^d . 1643-1715. and to his great defeat at the hands of Marlborough. although failing in their actual object.

A return to Classic forms occurred. 212). It was essentially Predominant a palace-buildingepoch(Nos. 220. mostly on the banks of the Loire. city palace as in Florence. Severe Classic disposition not only appropriate but necessary in the narrow streets of Florence and Rome. where the chief buildings were erected (No. 1715-1793 (or eighteenth century). The large number of the churches of the jVliddle Ages sufficed for existing needs. 222). The picturesque disposition ot Gothic origin. and in ornamental features.) The Rococo Period. 199. 221) was sought for in these buildings. characteristics are picturesqueness. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 221). K K 2 . 193. and direct A period of transition in which Renaissance details were grafted on to Gothic forms. i. only applied to the front fa9ade Principal buildings erected in the country. Early buildings were principally churches. Rome. as at the Church of S. Influence of ancient Rome and her buildings apparent in greater purity of sculptured detail. who vied with each other in the erection of these important structures. (. the architecture being correct and dignified with a large use of the orders externally. as Florence. 220. In order to understand better the architectural character of French Renaissance it is compared with Italian in the following table : ITALIAN RENAISSANCE.. in buildings erected Principal towns. Predominant characteristics are stateliness and a tendency to Classical horizontality. 207). so that every fa$ade was of importance. picturesque grouping from every point of view (Nos.e. Venice. church-building age (Nos. nymphs. prising the reigns of : 1774-1793. or on the straight waterways of Venice. while internally a fanciful style of stucco and papier mache decoration of scrolls. as Chambord (No. Chateau de Blois(No. 222). and Louis XVI. in consequence of the comparative fewness of these buildings erected in the Middle It was essentially a Ages. Venice. Considerable variety however arose in use and disposition . and the architectural features were often appltgue. or Rome is principally seen from the street. although the number of Italian palaces of the epoch is very large. Influence of Rome less apparent. country chateau sides. Early buildings were principally chateaux for the nobility. 219). 221 and 223). 192. is seen on all and the importance of a (No. being palaces for kings. dukes and wealthy and powerful popes (Nos.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. The latter reign 499 was a period of remarkable artistic activity. 195 and 207). 204). "220). and a tendency to Gothic verticality (No. more in keeping with the country surroundings. Paris. shells and figures form important elements. 1715-1774. comLouis XV. 203. wreaths. Eustache (No.of the revived architectural features (No. partly because of distance from the headquarters of the Renais- A A sance movement. being palaces built for royalty and nobility. 211.

by Pierre Nepveu. as mentioned above. are long wings containing the is servants' apartments on one side. 220 c. 3. (A. with slight modifications dependent on site and local necessities. The Chateau de Chambord (A. The chateaux on the Loire are irregular Gothic castles. B).D. Behind this main building was the garden. and which contained the reception rooms.. was largely employed. (A. the letter F decoratively formed among the carved balusters. and is provided with a. and 221). and the The rich crowning cornice and carved roof dormers. with no traces of Gothic influence (No. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. are symmetrical and stately. i 515-1547). whereas in English country houses after the time of Henry VII. E. version (minus the staircase) is to be seen in Fettes College. 219). A Scottish the emblem of Francis I. introduced from Venice. The Chateau de Bury (A. a typical example and may be compared with a typical English plan (Nos. 220 and 221) over features essentially Gothic. near Blois. porteThe screen wall is flanked by towers. are interesting (No. and in the centre of one side was Each of the side wings to the court is placed the chapel. which contained the family apartments. the windows all face outwards.. 220 A. entrance is in the centre of this wall. It consists of a large square court. circular externally. and offices and stabling on the other. but with a colonnade facing the court. solid externally. is one of the most famous erected in the . up to the present day. 1520) (No. are notable. 131 and 244). is and Francis Edinburgh. cochere. The country houses of the nobles in the Venetian territory. The Chateau de Blois I. with a coating of Renaissance detail (Nos.D. In shell ornament. and square internally. the mullioned windows showing the preference for the square section of mullion. In French country houses the windows face on to an internal courtyard. or carriage entrance. 1526) (Nos. EXAMPLES. D. and the repetition of the carving of the salamander. and vaulting bosses.D. forming two sides of the court. 1508). one of the more important examples (No. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.D. 2 16 D. 219). one story lower than the main building. The above description applies equally to French town houses. F). as in the ancient Roman atrium' (the courtyard corresponding to the atrium).500 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 131). The pilaster treatment of the fa9ade. erected by Louis XII. a courtyard being an exception (No. in front of which is a screen The wall. the famous " Staircase Tower" by Francis I. and attached to these. These are connected at the further end of the court with the main building (Corps de logis) in which the family resided. in the style of Palladio.


K U PI | IJU' 220.i ' F/tto If BfID flf 7Ef ^ ' e&sanrj r3^r=inn. I II llJlllilJ.FRENCH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES. .tBl. I.

220 F. Contrary to Blois. the Gothic feeling throughout the design. of sky-line. and the Chateau de S. 201). 1539). advantage to the pentagonal semi-fortress of Caprarola (No. the chief interest of this example lies in the sumptuous interiors. under Italian influence. where possible. and possesses a semi -fortified The traditional circular towers of defence. 225 K. 1528) was erected by Le Breton.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. and its construction lasted from the time of Francis I. whose crowning lantern is the central object of the external grouping. and Vignola and Serlio seem to have worked on the design. and protected on three sides.D.D. the flatness of the projection to the pilasters. are incorporated in a palace design infused with Italian detail. with four halls as lofty as the nave of a church. (page 463). by Vignola . yet richness. Paris. as shown on No. (A. whose favourite residence it was.D. the building exhibiting. The central feature. architect. by rich dormers (No. and tunnel-vaulted with coffered sinkings. roofed with slate covered cones. 220 E). or "donjon. a complete history of the progressive stages of the French Renaissance style. the ornamented chimneys. built up in a cage of stone. the first architect. but the original design . 1515-1578). the Chateau de Chenonceaux (A.D. 503 Loire district of central France. make this example one of the most characteristic of Early French Renaissance buildings. by while the fourth side was defended buildings inclosing a courtyard by a moat. especially the high-pitched roofs.. Primaticcio and Serlio (No. This may be taken as the most important building in the style. L. The general design of the Louvre was originally intended to cover the ground of the fortified Gothic palace which it replaced. M) and tall chimneys. The smallness of scale in regard to mouldings. The exterior is remarkably plain. and the general vertical treatment of the features.D. due in part to the convent it replaced. Pierre Lescot (A. Rideau Germain-en. 225). 220 feet square. 1520) 1515-1523). The Palace at Fontainebleau (A. which give to the building its characteristic confusion. Egham. arranged round a courtyard. These conical roofs are broken up. to Louis XIV. An English version is the Royal Holloway It may be compared with College. 400 feet square. The present design consists of two stories and an attic (No. "is square on plan. At the junction of these halls is the famous double spiral staircase. Other noteworthy examples are the Chateau d'Azay-le.. picturesquely situated by a lake. The main block.Laye (A. corresponding to the keep of an English castle. as in the saloons decorated by Benvenuto:: Cellini. The Louvre. in consequence. and standing for the most part on a bridge over the water. commenced the work in 1540. character. There is a remarkable irregularity in its plan. for Francis I. was surrounded.

u .

during 1852-1857. the gallery facing the Seine was erected (1595-1608) by Du Cerceau. 1589-1610). as built by Lescot. two stories were added by F. and additional stories were added on the north and south sides of the court to make up the necessary height to the eastern block. whereas the Louvre stories. but was finally effected under Napoleon III. du Cerceau. without any reference to construction or fitness. commenced in 1456 by the This was formed of open colonnades in two architect Filaretc. Under Napoleon III. due no doubt to climatic influences . entablature was pierced for admission of windows. The sculptured work by Jean Goujon especially noteworthy. the Pavilion de 1'Horloge being added to form the centre of the enlarged court fagade. and other architectural features. (A. Under Napoleon I. Perrault added (1688) the eastern fagade. The lower order is of Corinthian. and triangular or circular pediments were placed over pilasters. above which is an open colonnade of coupled Corinthian columns. Only a portion of one side was erected. broken up only by pilasters. (A. forming one of the most pleasing specimens of modern French art. the northern portion fronting on the Place du Carrousal (completed by Napoleon III. was doubled in size by the architect Lemercier. Paris for menced . windows. and shows the debased of the period. 1610-1643) the Louvre. Under Louis XIII.D. in which a certain richness and dignity are added to the picturesqueness of the earlier inclinations periods. B. the throughout. 600 feet in length.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. consisting of In the a domical central pavilion with low wings on either side. (A. Under Louis XIV. the Louvre was finished by Visconti. The destruction of the The Tuileries Palace. com(A. 1515-1570).D.D. The problem of effecting a proper junction between this palace and the Louvre was a crux of long standing because of the want of parallelism between them. and an order of pilasters of less height was provided is for the attic story. by Philibert de l'Orme. 505 The only only included a court one-fourth the present size. (1863-1868) and the Republic (1874-1878)) was constructed to connect this building with the Tuileries Palace. consisting of a solid-looking basement. 1564-1572) was Catherine de Medici. reign of Henry IV. the upper of Composite pilasters.D. 1510-1572) is Under Henri IV. as mentioned above.(A. courtyard in Italy to which that of the Louvre may be compared is the Great Hospital at Milan.D. throughout of solid walling. by the addition of the fa9ades north and south of the Place Louis Napoleon. the details being coarsely carved Corinthian columns run through two stories.

with their 1. (A. . of tombs. from which wings project by 170 230 feet. The Luxembourg Palace. are examples.D. terraces and arbours. in which Renaissance details were often grafted on to Gothic forms. was erected by Francois Mansard.D.. as the House of Agnes Sorel. Genevieve. H). courtyard. later examples in Paris are the Arc de Triomphe 1806) by Chalgrin the Library of S. the Classic orders to each story. and the apses of S. by Labrouste completed by Visconti the Hotel de Ville. The tombs of Louis XII. Beaugency. F.D. facade (A. there are many charming examples of the style. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. by Jules Hardouin Mansard (1647-1708). the central projection design." 315 feet feet and three stories in height. with its astylar the Louvre. are very fine. Denis Cathedral.D. near Paris. pulpits.D.D.320 feet. Pierre at Caen. The . . the mansard roofs treated separately for the pavilions and central portion. 1863-1875) Amongst (A. . and Cardinal d'Amboise at Rouen the portals of the church of the Trinity at Falaise the external pulpit at the Chateau de Vitre. 1664. Florentine buildings.D. a corp de logis.. for Louis XIV.506 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and many others throughout France. Paris (A. early examples of the incoming style consisted mainly. i. measuring 320 feet and each wing 500 feet. 1533) by Ballu and Deperthes in A. The Chateau de Maisons.e. altars and doorways. . 1611) (No. in the The Palace of Versailles was commenced in A. and having screen and portecochere in front. reconstructed in its original style of the Early Renaissance (A. 1871 and the Opera House (A. In addition to the important buildings mentioned. however. the Hotel de Bourgtheroulde. 223 E. has rendered the connecting galleries architecturally ineffective. in . . and is remarkable only for the uniformity and tameness of its The dimensions are very large. and is shown in plan and It is notable for the effective use of elevation in No. 1843-1850). was erected by De Brosse for Marie de Medici of Florence. Florence. It is now used as a Senate House. enclosing a courtyard. 223 G. the intention being to imitate the bold and simple treatment of It resembles the Pitti Palace. architect. " It has a French type of plan. treatment of the. fountains. Orleans. and additions to churches. Rouen. near Paris (1658). as England. and general refinement of detail. Tuileries during the Commune in 1871. the Hotel de Ville. thus giving a total of Le Notre laid out the gardens which. by Gamier.D. 1515) in S.



by Lemercier (No. Paris. with the corners filled in so as to make it a square externally (No. which. 69 feet in diameter. Paul. a kind of apsidal end. S. London (No. B). visible by means of windows at its base lastly. flying buttresses. 223 D) is approximately a Greek cross. Paris in plan is ability of the masons of the period. provided with openings to form The piers eight. clothed with Renaissance detail. thus bearing a similarity to S.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. illustrating the highly developed technical Eustache. and other Gothic features. Etienne du Mont. with circular As to the exterior. external stone lantern.D. In plan it is a Greek cross. 92 feet in diameter. are so formed as to produce internally an octagonal effect. S. rests on four piers. vided with windows in the drum. above which rises a dome. Paris (1670-1706). deeply -recessed portals. commenced in 1670 by Bruant. covered with lead.D. 1750. The construction differs considerably from that of S. appear independent of the dome. by Jules Hardouin Mansard. overloaded with decoration The Church of the Sorbonne Sulpice. Paris (A. Paul. because of the apparent weakness and want of variety of the unbroken ring of free-standing . 222). but the outer dome is of stone covered with lead. 1629) was designed by Lemercier and has a domical treatment with a facade of superimposed orders. It has a famous rood-screen. 1532). 223 c) as that of the Invalides. where an intermediate brick cone supports the . 1713-81). 1517-1538) is another example to which the same remarks apply.D. The dome is a triple one (No. mentioned above. with double staircases and carved balustrading in Renaissance detail. Paul. The Pantheon (1755-81). being at a different The triple dome is prolevel. the openings leading to four angle chapels. 253).D. 509 (A. above which is an interior dome. a typical five-aisled mediaeval church. Paris (A.S. shows that the principles of the Italian Renaissance were fully established.D. The dome. to its three-storied facade. 175 feet high. it has high roofs. London.D. laid out on Gothic lines. Paris (A. over all is an external dome crowned by a lantern of wood. with painted decorations. 1650) the grand two-storied facade being added by Servandoni in A. The exterior of the dome is poor in comparison with that of S. which completed the scheme of the Hdtel des Invalides. was erected from the designs of Soufflot (A. 223 A. over this comes a second or middle dome. Renaissance tracery to the windows. Amongst the later examples are S. is an unfortunate example of the intermediate period. (A. or lower portion. pinnacles. four halls surrounding a central one. in fact.D. The church is. The plan (No. Paul and Louis. with a central opening. The Dome of the Invalides. 1627). S. but clothed with detail inspired from Italian sources.


1804) was erected by the architect Vignon. or portico at the west end. Paris (A. It is usual for the main wall. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. although in many cases features are found which do not exactly correspond with the type. ampler space for the important rooms. that the columns are built of small courses of stone. At the east end is an apse covered with a half-dome. 5!! columns unattached to the drum. which at one time threatened the stability of The exterior (No. 4. 208 and 220 and 221). 191.D. showing a direct imitation of ancient Roman architecture. which has. being divided into three bays. or central open courtyard. The Madeleine. hall castle the first floor. to stand on the piers or giving columns of this arcade. viz. The The castles of the previous period influenced both plan and design of the early chateaux. as it would be called in a Classic structure. In plan it is an octastyle peripteral temple. Chambord may such castles. called the "piano nobile (Nos. The external order has a defect. some of which were on the site of. the cella. which have a blank wall treatment. the joints of which confuse the lines of the fluting. the light being obtained for the nave by a clerestory over the aisles. great feature ot Italian houses is the cortile. The vaulting is ingenious. and has been decorated recently with frescoes by foremost French artists. The interior of the church has an order of Corinthian columns with an attic over. The interior is fine and original. on the first or principal " floor.. 198. in all important examples. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. the cornice to which is carried round the remainder of the fa9ades. through the eyes of which is obtained all the light for the church. but it must be borne in mind that the subject is treated generally. with two lower wings inclosing a courtyard cut off from the street by a screen wall. 217). and being a further step towards absolute copyism. a colonnade or arcade round it. on Plans. Plans. which often occurs in French buildings. A. 224) has a Corinthian colonnade the edifice. The typical house plan in the towns has a main block. 196. COMPARATIVE. 350 feet by 147 feet. and elegance has been obtained by a tenuity of support. covered by flat domes. be counted as an attempt at an ideal plan of a mansion. . or additions to. A.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. The essential differences between Italian and French Renaissance \vill now be treated in a comparative manner. and half palace (Nos. and the architraves are formed into flat arches with wide joints. which are in Italy. and that the comparisons state what usually is the fact.

! 9 2 > 1 9S) except at Venice. with elaborately carved dormer windows and chimneys. 215 and 216). though changed in detail (Nos. In the later buildings greater and transoms of the Gothic method continued. High roofs are special roofs are special features. Walls. The gables and window-dressings were crowned by a deep cornice at the top (Nos. are in plaster (Nos. 192. Vertical cou221 and 225 K). though less ornamented Stone was the chief^ (No. but red. K). as at Genoa and Vicenza. Flat or low-pitched D. attention being concentrated on the prominent stone dormers of the early period (Nos. 191. Early 200. brick was''. The attic was a between consoles. 226 R). (No. Attics are rare. work was used in large and rough masses with ashlar facing. the horizontal lines of their entabla- metry plainness prevails to give effect to the orders. for the reason that in a narrow street the roofs could not be seen. with circular windows (No. in attended to Mezzanine floors were much used in large mansions. 220). one for each story. which give the' and circular feature. Openings. varied by facades Straight orders. 219. 197. pling of windows was effectively practised. the openings being the features upon which all the detail was concentrated (Nos. Roofs. 219. 220 and gradually gave place to 225) and balustraded pedimented elevations (Nos. designs were often astylar. 198 and 210). sometimes combined with c. 221 and 222). Chimneys. but an open top feature story (Belvedere) is a Brickin houses of all classes. features. Roofs. designs convenience. 224 and 226). B. if used at all. 223 E). were masked as far as possible (Nos. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 196. the main apartments then having an upper row of windows. or were set tures prevailed (No. material. usually came increasingly into use. Chimneys continue to be marked window orders. the mullions In early. The mansard roof lent itself to pavilions which mark the angles of the facades. 191. 207. which give sky-line and picturesqueness to the design when viewed from a distance (Nos. Symin position was carefully late work.512 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 226 J. Italian work. 216 and 217). on account of the use of the great cornice. lated and the Symmetry reguposition of openings. In the Rococo period a return was often made to the astylar principle. the top floor openings were often formed as a deep band. 195. determined their 199. 221). In early examples were made visible roofs above the tile The French Mansard form preserved invention of the the roof . features. rather than the Openings. so as not to interfere with the fa9ade treatment. to preserve the range of openings externally (No. in late examples the use of Classic orders. it. while the centre often has an attic (No. when excessive prominence and exaggeration of detail marked the window dressAs the attic was rare in ings. arcades. 223 E). c. but as the orders. B. or Walls. or dressings Later examples. 192 and 197). position (Nos. or frieze. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. special windows (ceil de bceuf ) often occur in it support to D. main cornice.

papier mache. 203.as at the Louvre. 217. where they assume the importance of towers. (Nos. 191. 226). 216). nice The heavy cor- for protection from the glare of the Italian sun (Nos. given each story (No. in the profilings of mouldings were tried Some examples. -- Pilasters were either plain. Ornament The wood times (Nos. generally in late work. influence of Vignola in this respect is visible (Nos. L L . F. Mantua.A. as at Blois. In early examples. I n later work it continued. as The tapestry at Fontainebleau. Columns. and as lent itself it 210 A). Fresco and 214 and 218). 513 FRENCH RENAISSANCE. great cornice. 194. (No. frescoes were. and combinations of methods. In churches especially a single order prevails. G.211 and 212). An " order " was often made to include two or more stories of a building. and stucco decoraIt was tion in white and gold. in the early period the two being combined. the sinkings were treated with a black inlay. 223). Mouldings are usually large but well studied in profile. square or oblong. An " order " or column was usually 220). the details assigned to each were used in full. at Orleans. sometimes out of scale with the architecture. which was the type of Palladio (Nos. Mouldings. Interiors. 201. E. Later stucco work suffered in the same way. 199. to give value to was provided Gothic influMouldings. slates being nailed in the sunk faces of the stonework. Where the orders were employed. ence pervaded the early work. but gradually lost the character The and scale of the material. as in the The arabesques of Raphael. as (No. the later being nearly always balustraded (No. were regulated unduly F. 193. 196. Ornament. Pilasters were Columns. 225 K). 223). members. 221. F. Domes were relied upon for sky-line in churches (Nos. Venice having some extraordinary examples of its abuse. * 218). however. often splendidly carved with arabesque designs. At Chambord (No. Compare the Vatican. 2060. 206. 200. G. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. panelling of Gothic continued in the early period.shaped patterns. E. while sinkings are un- decorative adjuncts to Gothic features. such features acquired to great prominence. 225 H). 200. 204. pavilions. Columns usually do not The run through two stories. have extremely small the top cornice. Classic and Mediaeval. was pilaster in Italy preferred rather for its The architectural importance as an " order/' the panelled decoration being often omitted. or carved with delicate foliage (Nos. but sometimes treated with foliage common. Raphael style of decoration was introduced by Italian artists. The architecture gradually acquired a special character from the treatment of mouldings. 219). 225. and the Palazzo del Te. rusticated or panelled in star . 214 star-shaped J.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. The "Belvedere " gives character to villas. style of internal wood. string courses were of slight projection. as a feature (No. modelled plaster were much employed. 192 and 197). and devoid of decorative value. and hangings of the early period were superseded by the universal Louis XIV.



Gurlitt (C. 1864." 3 vols. Motifs Historiques Decorations Interieures. Monographic de THotel de Ville de Lyon.} Petit (V." 3 vols. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 1 879.) et Darcel (A. 1864. (E. 4to. (E. Du Cerceau 2 vols. * .). 2 vols. 1859-1867.. folio.. 1863-1866. folio.)." 2 vols." L'Art Architectural en France. "La Renaissance de Fran9ois I. folio. Paris.) et Cattois (F. John of Strathbourne. " Chetwode (R. D. Chateaux. Die Baukunst Frankreichs. 1861. P." Paris. Rouyer 4to. folio. " Palustre (L. Sculpture in later work lost touch with the decorative feeling of architecture. and had the merit of a certain fitness and unity. A.). I .. 2 vols. " Paris. 1858.4to. Sculpture acquired an increasing importance.1 885 (Not completed. Verdier (A." Folio..COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " " Bastiments de P>ance.). " Motifs Historiques : d' Architecture et de Sculpture.. 1867. Histoire et Caracteres de 1'Architecture en France.). Weyman (S.)." Paris." Sauvageot " (C. folio. Palais. applied to every accessory. Chateau 8vo.).-"A Gentleman of France." L' Architecture Civile et Domestique. Rome.. Paris. Daly (C. Paris. . 1870.). Les plus Excellents (J. " Le Palais de Fontainebleau." Hlstoncal Novels - I .. and FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 1868-1870.)." Folio. folio." " Paris.)." 2 vols. REFERENCE BOOKS.. and the best available figure sculpture has been used in connection with great extravagances were perpetrated." Folio." Chateaux de la Valle'e de la Loire. as in the fountains of modern French architecture. (L. Paris. " Desjardins (T. 1867. Hotels et Maisons de France. by the features of Classic temple architecture. 1900. 5. La Renaissance en France.). . La Renaissance Monumentale en France." 2 vols. Paris.. Paris. 2 vols." Paris.).). Berty " (A. folio." Rouyer Paris.. and have often no relation to the requirements of the occupants. 4 vols. Pfnor (R. a Louis XIII. Daly.).).

of social importance. ended by the Peace of Westphalia in A. INFLUENCES (see page 437). Luther's a revolution in the religious life of Germany (see below). 'neath my tabernacle take my rest. v. In the latter part of the sixteenth century. translation of the Bible into High Dutch caused that language to become the recognised German tongue. The country consisted of a number of small kingdoms or principalities. Geological. 1648. thus preventing any national effort as in France. Religion." and the chief reformed seat of learning in Germany. (See page 258 for German Romanesque. the general scale of the detail being small. . Refer to pages 258. In the eighteenth century the literary works of Winckelmann. Social and Political. And somewhat of the choir. Heidelberg was the centre of " Humanism. with all their fittings. iii. but the prominence given to preaching brought in galleries and congregational planning. which was under one united head. those silent And up The And And into the aery dome. 393. ii. each with its own capital and government. . In architecture little of great interest was produced. Geographical. Refer to pages 258 and 393. and brought about i.) (See page 393 for German Gothic. old churches. and a sunbeam's sure to lurk I shall fill my slab of basalt there. iv. One sees the pulpit o' the epistle side. Goethe and others aroused interest in Greek architecture. The absence of stone. i. continuing to be used. influenced largely the architecture of moulded and cut brickwork was used in every that district variety. The Thirty Years' War. Climate.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. in the great alluvial plains of North Germany.) " My niche is not so cramped but thence seats. where live angels." BROWNING. was .D. and surface ornamentation being formed in raised patterns. Martin Luther (1517-1546) attacked the practical abuses of certain doctrines of the Church.

style was in vogue. called the Smalcaldic League. for mutual defence. known as the " Thirty Years' War. provided once more for religious equality and tolerance in each state. In 1517 Luther nailed up his theses at Wittenberg. when the Peace of Augsburg was conall cluded. princes. which left each state free to set up which religion it pleased. while the Henri IV. The Renaissance style in picturesqueness and variety of grouping. and in 1520 he defied the Pope. of Spain) succeeded to the possessions of the Houses of Castile. Renaissance. who had married a daughter of James I. however." commenced in 1618. and in 1519. 1648. and France joined in for her own aggrandizement. and carried on in Germany between the Catholic and Protestant Other princes. Refer to pages 439. marking the commencement of the Reformation." princes who followed him protested. The war had. by publicly burning the bull of excommunication put forth against him by Pope Leo X. Hence many Englishmen and Scotchmen served in these wars. passed a decree against all ecclesiastical changes. 442. Burgundy. becoming the most powerful emperor since Charlemagne. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. which may Germany is chiefly remarkable for . The war of the Emperor Charles V. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. joined in these wars on the Protestant side. of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. and this marks the period of the German In 1516 he obtained the two Sicilies. 1529. and caused France to become the leading nation in Europe. and the Low Countries. This style as in other countries may be roughly divided into three periods corresponding to the sixteenth. Aragon. against which Luther and the " Protestant. 2. The Diet of Spires. and the Catholics against the Protestant princes extended from 1546-1555. and finally in the great religious war. This resulted in persecutions. hence the name This led in 1530 to the Confession of Augsburg and the confederation of Protestant princes and cities. (Charles I. and quaintness and grotesqueness of ornament. of England. The Peace of Westphalia. which was aided largely by the revival of learning.518 vi. he was elected to the Empire. It was introduced from France. utterly ruined Germany. Historical. on the death of Maximilian. under Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. due in a large measure to the traditions of the preceding style. such as Christian IV. Charles V. under the Elector Palatine Frederick. but made no provision for those people who might be of different religion to the government of each state. about the middle of the sixteenth century.

/ w 3 W Q s ffi .


Town Town The Pellerhaus. especially the fagade of the Heinrichsbau (1556) (No. The threequarter columns. with mullioned windows and Hall. 521 it account for a good deal of the grotesqueness and crudity which possesses. with an order and entablature to each story. 1590) in this style. and a stone vaulted roof. which commenced at the beginning of the " nineteenth century. has its eastern gable (A.D. in fact. The Hall. 229 B). 228). Heidelberg Castle has interesting examples of the style. whereas in France they are principally found in the country (page 499). and Dresden. The Rathhaus (Town Hall). Solothurn shaped gables (No. EXAMPLES. originally executed in the Gothic. and the immense gable comprising four stories. The scrolls by which the stages of the gable are contracted are also typical. with pilasters and entablature to each story. are characteristic features. and the Fveidrichsbau of the later period (A. 1605) (No. is an .D. marking each floor. The Gewandhaus. as is also the vaulting. 1601)." and was chiefly It consisted in the confined to Munich. German Renaissance and it differs from French in lack of refinement. are other characteristic examples. a connecting link between Elizabethan architecture and French Renaissance of the time of Henri IV. 227) of the early period. Symbolical statuary was prominently introduced (No. or appropriateness. Nuremberg and Hildesheim are also rich in domestic examples of the period. B. which have elaborately-carved string courses. and classical details surrounding the windows. 230). without reference to their applicability. It forms. 3. The later period. Brunswick. has a fine two-storied porch (1571) (No. Nuremberg (A. in a style purer in detail than usually found. c). Lemgo. adoption of Classic forms in toto. 231 A. each provided with an order of vase-shaped pilasters. with detached Corinthian columns.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. with pedestals and entablatures. but the design suffers much from overits ornamentation. The arches on the first floor are pointed. 229 A). while resembles in some respects our own Elizabethan. It consists of semicircular arcading. in a general heaviness and whimsicality of treatment. as in Elizabethan work. Examples are mostly found in towns. and the (No. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.D. Berlin. Cologne. has been called the Revival.



or scrolly pediments (No. the Castle. Openings. by Hansen an imposing edifice. the Museum. and crowned by grotesque. is well known. Gables assume fantastic shapes (Nos. the The Brandenburg Gate. the Rathhaus. 1 method of an internal courtyard was In towns. and the Zwinger Palace. many-storied houses were erected with adopted. It is constructed internally and externally of stone. The French . COMPARATIVE. (A. resting on eight piers. c. and the celebrated architect Schinkel (1781-1841) erected the New Theatre.D. Pinacothek.524 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or Venice during Renaissance times Windows are large. Walls. 4. Oriel windows of various" and design were plentifully used. for wide. are a few of the picturesque and free examples of the early period. 1843) is ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 1784). The latter especially notable. Berlin (A. the Zeughaus at Danzic (1605). Brick and stone were used singly and in combination. Munster (1615). is responsible for the Glyptotek. 1784-1864) of the classical styles in Munich. buildings. the Rathhaus. open spaces. an abundant practical needs remaining from the mediaeval (A. Vienna. and the Walhalla. and having a dome 75 feet in diameter. Dresden (1711). 229 A). Munich Dresden (1726-1745) and exhibit a desire is are among 1582) and the Frauenkirche. and richness was produced by the application of columnar features as ornament (No. the Stadtweinhaus. great roofs. Plans. The new churches were few and supply for all insignificant. Michael. The Gateway. both in the fa ade itseffshapes 9 (No. The Revival by Klenze the architect (A. which also has the elaborately-treated stepped gables. being 140 feet square on plan. The Parliament House. Altenburg (1562). In the later periods B. Halberstadt (1552). Stuttgart (1553). 2310). 230) and on the angles of Such features did not appear at Rome. Heilbronn.EJT. Leipsig (1556). example of rich domestic architecture. S. and the Polytechnic School in that city. period as in France. 229 A and 231 E).D. continuing the practice of the mediaeval period. A. the Rathhaus. mullioned (No.D. so characteristic of the period. applying them to modern buildings. In all of these buildings the great idea was to copy classical forms and details. Florence. the best known buildings. 230).


227-231).) Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance/' " (E. 1891. Such roofs served a useful purpose. The imitations of Italian carved pilasters as at Heidelberg are inferior.).manner. O. B. folio. wherein much fancy is displayed. 230). Pfnor (R.). Lambert und Stahl Motive der Deutschen Architectur." 2 -vols. Mouldings. Fresco work was attempted during the revival at the beginning of the century by the Munich school. G. Ortwein-Scheffers. 4 vols. in the south-east of The first two methods.*' Deutsche 1871-1888.shaped gables (No. Paris.526 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.)." (Historical Novel. E. The many stories (Nos. There being D. large roofs in the town houses. Roofs. in the Ornament late glasswork is interesting. (A. Stuttgart. The Pellerhaus. as in the Gothic. Sculpture is best seen native grotesques (No. 1892. B. Though Renaissance details were affected in the preceding style... 1890-1893. (Nos. H). c). 229 E and 231 the usual Classic features were adopted (Nos. Renaissance. folio. The 5.). 231 A. the worst features of the last age of the Gothic style.). REFERENCE BOOKS. and many other places. are prominent features in this. 228 were two methods of treatment (a) making the ridge parallel to the street front." 9 vols. Leipzig. 229 and 231). used as drying-rooms during the periodical wash. 231 D. 410." Leipzig. and are often supported on corbels. A." Folio.. Ortwein (A. 229 F. " Monographic du Chateau d'Heidelburg. (ft) making the ridge run at right angles to the street. the stories being marked by rich cornices the columns and pilasters were richly carved. F.) l Renaissance und . j). period.. as decorative adjuncts (Nos. E. containing and 230). were given up. Lichtenstein. 1859. Columns. and the second method permits the use of fantastically. as generally carried out in Nuremberg. . Haut (W. Berlin. G). but the art soon died out. there being some fine specimens at Heidelberg (No. rising one above the other. Boldness and vigour must be set against the lack of refinement and purity in detail. Nuremberg (No. shows a combination of the Landshut. The orders were employed in a free. Studium der Deutschen Barockstils. Fritsch (K. F. " folio. as adopted in : Germany. 229 A). such as interpenetration of mouldings and other vagaries. allows for the display of many tiers of dormer windows (No. c. 2 vols.

and unimaginative. iii.) " Many In its scarlet bricks there walls. but the Dutch. * * Yellow lichen on the * * * Deep green water rilled the moat. led to a revolt in 1568 which lasted till 1609. the barn-like churches developing no features of great interest. Social and Political.honest. mirrored by the erection of monumental structures. constituted the United Provinces. (See page 385 for Belgian and Dutch Gothic. ii.. which are in general . were and old grey stone On * the bricks the green moss grew. Refer to page 385. Refer to page 385. of Spain. The increase of riches through matter-of-fact. was not. i. The prominence given to preaching. and the demand for greater comfort regulated planning. Climate. Geological. Refer to page 385. v. strongly Protestant. but. Brick material of this phase of the Renaissance. trade in consequence of the discovery of the New World by Columbus. under the able rule of the Duke of Parma. The Belgians. and finally under a Their architectural expression republic became a great power. i.5V) BELGIAN AND DUTCH RENAISSANCE. The persecutions begun under Charles V. Their daring and activity in trade made them one of the chief powers of Europe during the . In Holland the character of the Dutch is shown in their buildings. whether for lack of interest or funds. is Geographical. Religion. stone. and continued under the Duke of Alva. being mainly Catholics. viceroy of Philip II. was limited. however. rallied to Spain. INFLUENCES (see page 437). the characteristic iv." MORRIS. nothing on a large scale was attempted. Each side had a red brick lip Green and mossy with the drip of dew and rain.

of 1565). but picturesque in Belgian examples are wild and licentious. G). the Archbishop's Palace. 2. the Palais de Justice. still great benefit may be derived from studying much of the domestic and civic architecture for while wandering through the streets of these old-world towns. Historical. is The Town Bruges. Brussels. and crowned by a high-pitched roof with dormer windows. is of gracefully-designed iron ties (No. Liege. while Dutch examples are plain. ornament with. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. this domestic style.D. The Spanish occupation of the Netherlands. 233). seventeenth century. the richness and prosperity of this particular city contributing not a little to An order. with occasional stone courses and dressings. . in great size). but their extensive colonies gradually passed over to the English. 232 G) are other works. Leyden Town Hall Among recent examples. together with ultimate expulsion of the Spaniards in 1648. 442. The design of houses and fittings a large amount of attention. the whole design being placed on a sturdy rusticated basement. vi. 234 D). Refer to pages 439.D. Malines. Amsterdam (only worthy Hague Town Hall (A. Although there are few large or important works erected during the Renaissance period in northwest Europe. and mullioned windows were employed in each upper story.. Belgium. or row of columns. erected by de Vriendt in A.52 8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 3. the execution of this fine work. style. and 'the consequent influence of Spanish art in the sixteenth the loss of liberty under Charles V. 1506-1712. century. leaning rather towards the work found in . by Polaert. were perfected. including Brick received its due prominence in furniture. (No. when Holland freed herself under the House of Orange. Hall. must all and the be taken into account in this section. are met In the design of the gables. the Ancien Greffe. is an imposing edifice. the Stadthaus. much originality of treatment found (No. executed in bright red brick. The Hotel du Saumon. 1565 one of the most important buildings. mention and for its (A. often the matter of design received approaching dulness. many charming specimens of street architecture.D. and details of internal work. the the Neo-Grec Domestic Architecture. 1579) (No. as a Catholic from A. 232 D. remained country and a Spanish province under the rule of Spain. and with additional .D. EXAMPLES. Antwerp.




the groundwork of the achievements of the Renaissance in these It was in the modifications of detail that the influence countries. folio. in character. " (T. and possessing a certain characteristic quaintness." Documents " 410. Walls. und Holland.. and visible chimney stacks (Nos. the " " " motifs being usually Italian. 4. E. R. Plans. " George (E. especially. out too much inquiry into their rationale or detail (Nos. . being heavily panelled. The orders were used as decorative features. and were Gothic practice (No. Carving of vigorous grotesques occupies any vacant panel or space (Nos. Bas. 232 D. Lysbeth.). 5. corrupted or original. 232 c. that of coarseness. Ornament (No. G." according to the critic's point of view. H and 234 K). towers of many stages (No. D. The woodwork (No. and often verging on the grotesque. Italian forms. are crowded together in streets and Their general effect and grouping must be enjoyed. grotesque. B. D). The great development of domestic Gothic formed A. Ysendyck (J. COMPARATIVE. referred to under Gothic. B. E). 1883. being gradually adopted. 232 G and 234 c. Columns. 1878. rusticated." 2 vols." Etchings in Belgium. 1880-1889. Leipzig. with- and 234 c. group most harmoniously. that surround the windows of the previous period (Nos. The same defect. and otherwise treated in a licentious and grotesque fashion (Nos. sides of canals. van). generally much corrupted. but at the same time thoroughly suited to the use of bricks. G Gables of curly outline. of varied colors.)." J. 234). H) and stained glass of this age are especially worthy of study. F. these quaint buildings. 5 vols. REFERENCE BOOKS. and rococo squares. rising very often from the and form fascinating studies for water-color sketching. 234 A. classes de 1'Art dans les Pays- Antwerp. 232 F. continued in this period. and traceried panelling. These were numerous in continuation of the arid crowded. of large window spaces. E. Mouldings. G. The orders took the place of the niches." (Historical Novel. 232 and 233). statuary.. 232 D). and the further divorce of detail from construction and material rather accentuated the evil.). Openings. some of the old German towns. 232 and 234 c G )> Roofs.532 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of the latter was felt. F. of these street fronts are good examples of the treatment Many In Holland.) Haggard (H. The high-pitched forms continued long in favour. j). as well as the dormers. Die Renaissance in Belgien Ewerbeck folio. picturesque.

i. The presence of very pure iron ore. in which the Goths of Northern Europe and the Moors of North Africa formed the most important elements. v. Granite was much used. Climate. It RENAISSANCE. the universal Architect. and the fall of Granada in A. which by their hard work had been made to flourish. Historical. Religion." COWLEY. or a tower That might with Heaven communication hold. From the latter part of the fifteenth century the power of Spain gradually increased. A . and power from the discovery of the new world. in the northern mountains. Refer to page 424. in Spain. Ignatius de Loyola. and brick was also iii. facilitated the development of decorative ironwork. and heretics being persistently persecuted. The people were a mixed population. iv. and this proved a great loss to Southern Spain. The counter reformation found its motive force in the Jesuit order. until she became the chief power of Absolute despotism was the policy of Philip II. made her the leading nation in Europe. of Spain. arising i.si* SPANISH "For God. The Reformation obtained no hold whatever The religious aspect of the great struggle with the Moors.) had been as easy to erect Louvre or Escurial. 1492. The accession of Ferdinand and Isabella to the throne. ii. Geological. mark the . Jews Europe. (See page 424 for Spanish Gothic. founded by a Spaniard. Geographical. and the national character of the church have already been mentioned (page 424). vi. Under Philip III. Social and Political.D. INFLUENCES The position (see page 437). Refer to page 424. (1598-1621) the Moriscos were driven out of the country. As Babel vainly thought to do of old He wanted not the skill or power. employed in certain parts. combined with the vast hereditary and conquered possessions of the Spanish monarchy..

is called " Plateresque. checked the power of the Turks The but his by winning the great naval battle of Lepanto. and the of the Armada expedition against England ended in the defeat Provinces were gradually lost. Sicily. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and Naples. and Herrera (d. . has been slow. as understood by other nations. and the chief expositors were the architects Berruguete (d. In the early period. marriages. away from true principles. 1597). grafted on to Gothic forms. : may be divided into three tolerably distinct periods (a) The Early Renaissance Period. ceased to exist. Many revolutions followed. The style of this period. Angelo. as in other European countries. from " " silversmith. innovations. reigning over Spain. Germany. produced a style as rich and poetic as any other of the numerous phases of the Renaissance in Europe.534 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1571. in government. 1500-1517). and the were due to a succession of great dominions of Spain Charles V. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. This Sardinia. the Moors. lasting to the middle of the sixteenth century (b) The Classical Period of the latter half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century and (c] The Rococo Period of the latter part of the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. The University. has an open arcaded . EXAMPLES. platero The middle period became more classical. but progress. the Netherlands. 1560). Alcala (A. known as Churrigueresque. 442. fell The late period shows that the style. the infantry being the finest at that time in Europe. harsh and despotic rule alienated the Netherlands. and influenced to some extent by the exuberant fancy of the Moorish work. Renaissance details. as was the case in Europe generally. The Refer to pages 439. a pupil of Michael . the expulsion beginning of the Spanish Renaissance. 2. story under the roof a specially characteristic feature and details showing the lace-like character of the Plateresque period. led to an outburst of national resistance.D. and by the empire was held together by his skill excellence of the Spanish army. Philip II. Napoleon's invasion. style. and Spain as a power in 1588. from being minute in detail." from its likeness to silversmith's work. at the commencement of the nineteenth century. becoming imbued with the Rococo 3. and Austria. of consolidation of Spain. which was aided by the English.



The Palace of Charles V. exclusive of palace. and a handsome It has been storied arcade in the Doric and Corinthian orders. sculpture is by Berruguete. but much of the stoneIt is generally regarded as the work has remained uncarved. The Casa Miranda. was commenced by Juan de Bautista for Philip II. on the first floor in the courtyard. The back elevation is an early example of a many-storied building in the classical style. The Casa Lonja (Exchange).. and consists of a monastery. which is of the Bramante school. has a "patio" or courtyard. 100 feet by 50 feet. inclosing an open circular court 100 feet in diameter. 1548) (No. " The " bracket capitals. the lower being rusticated. best example of a municipal building in Spain. to the right of which is the college with its site . is also noteworthy. the whole of this severe and monumental building being executed in granite. was built (1583-98) from the designs of the architect Herrera.. supported on fine " patio Corinthian columns. and the whole design. the central The feature of the two visible fa$ades being in colored marbles. The structure is built in a golden-colored stone. The circular internal elevation is an open colonnade in two stories. their use being to decrease the long bearing of the architrave. near Madrid. On the south side is a grand staircase inclosed in a space. design. has one facade (A. The palace was never roofed in or occupied. an ancient square castle of MoorishGothic architecture. It has a rich facade " " surrounded by a double patio (No. palace. and the upper having Ionic columns. The external fagade is two stories in height. to the upper story.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. Granada. and church. so that mezzanines could be lighted where these occur. The Alcazar. It is a group of buildings on a 740 feet long by 580 feet wide. Both basement and upper story have bull's-eye windows above the lower openings. Alcala. in the centre of the long facade. 235). 237).D. adjoining the " Alhambra. and the Ionic order. of small height. while the interior possesses a " surrounded by arcades in two stories. Seville. 238 c). are undoubtedly of wooden origin. considerably extended at later periods. all grouped into one The grand entrance. and having off the half landing a grand square two-storied chapel. In plan it is a square.. and is an important structure. Toledo. 236 A) in the early Renaissance of Charles V. 205 feet each way." was erected in 1527 by Machuca and Berruguete. with the Doric order to the lower. The Palace of the Escurial (No. leads into an atrium. is the purest example of Renaissance in Spain. but in 1567 Herrera was appointed architect. college. a feature mostly found in Spanish buildings. and the columns have typical bracket capitals. 537 The Archbishop's Palace. Burgos (No.

.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. 237. House of Miranda. showing the Bracket Capital. " Patio" of the BURGOS.

The detail is classical. is built in granite of a gray color. The architectural character is so restrained that the structure looks nothing at a cursory glance.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. to the early period (1567). 539 four courts. Santo Domingo. is most impressive. Rome. as the Vatican does with S. is the church. and having only the vaults colored. being of granite with It has a suitable detail. the palace proper at the east end is only an annex. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. and does not conflict with the church. surrounded with three stories of On the arcades. without dressings of any without any attempt at grouping. with a slight yellow tinge. flanked by the two towers and surrounded by the great mass of building. 60 feet square. Immediately in front. which is 320 feet by 200 feet. a Greek cross on plan. 1524-1610). sort. and in blocks of great size. lying between Behind the church. in one stone. The masonry is excellent. with three courts 60 feet square. The entire structure. following somewhat the type of the Carignano Church at Genoa. on a vault. whether in granite or not. internally and externally. Peter. and shows that Herrera studied to some purpose in The principal Spanish feature is the placing of the choir Italy. the The architraves of doors being 10 to 12 feet high. but at least the design may be said to be suited to the material. external fa$ades are everywhere five stories in height. beneath which is a domed vestibule consequently the interior is. are the state apartments of the palace. so that they are effect to the and inferior in facade at the Alcazar. Salamanca(A. Moreover. magnificent reredos in such quietly-toned marbles that its richness might pass notice. the courts of the palace and the college. 186) belonging an example of the wealth of . and is detail so characteristic of the style.D. at the end of the atrium. The taste of Philip II. however. and beyond is the great court of the college. in effect. and beyond is the great court of the palace. The plan of the church is Italian in origin. Burgos Cathedral has a magnificent dome (No. deriving peculiar its detail from Moorish influence. over the lengthened western arm of the cross. the windows square-headed. and illustrates " richness of the " Plateresque style (page 534). described above. is an important the early work with excellent figure sculpture. The interior. the whole being silhouetted against a background of mountains. which material may have influenced the design. and Herrera might have produced something equally plain. In general grouping nothing could be finer than the dome as a centre. left of the atrium is the monastery.

Largeness of scale characterizes palaces as well as churches. Churriguera. relieved by an elaborate doorway. Santiago. forming an open top story. as at the Escurial and in Madrid. without reference either to good taste or fitness. in which fantastic forms were employed for their own sake. B. which seems due to Moorish influence. forming a class of structure in which Spain is especially rich. 1529). Staircases are often large. 236). and has even Plans.D. the transepts and apsidal chancel. The general effect of the interior is powerful. (A. 236 B and 237). a glimpse only of the patio can be obtained. being usually shallow. The lofty circular choir is radiating supports. by Herrera. or Spanish version of the Roman atrium. In the latter half of the seventeenth century there was a reaction from the correct and cold formalities of the school of Herrera. as in the Burgos transept and the Casa Infanta at Saragossa. when open. but (A. in which latter building the patio and staircase beyond are as picturesque and fanciful as any in Spain. Gables were never or rarely employed. Arabesque pierced parapets or crestings are In churches wide naves sometimes without any aisles are usual.D. and Carmona cathedrals have steeples placed alongside. and the ritual choir remaining west of the transepts. although Herrera's The west faade is imposing. leaving a blank wall below. the Granada Cathedral Gothic system being followed. is universal. Lanterns or domes are common at the crossing. domed on Valladolid Cathedral tinctively Classic. but unduly sensational. but effective masses. A. example translation of Seville Cathedral into the Renaissance style. and also granite. rough. and Italian cortile. 4. on which all the decoration was concentrated. COMPARATIVE. and in incredibly rough. . but a special feature is an arcade (No.' 540 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The streets of Toledo present walls all but blank (No. by Diego Siloe. Fine stonework was used in other places. remains incomplete. out of scale. through the doorways of which. 1585). ingeniously disposed. constituting a fresh and original departure. is more dis- model is preserved. and buildings were erected in a manner called Churrigueresque. as at Saragossa. Walls Brickwork was used in large. but wholly the interior the execution and detail are Granada. but with the Classic orders applied to the piers carrying the vaulting. is a grand It is a of the Renaissance churches of Southern Spain. and which was generally treated in a most pleasing manner. 236 A). In houses the Patio (Nos. Malaga. after the name of the architect. an added seclusion.


Openings. 236 and 237) the baluster shape. due to Gothic and Moorish influences. the great mitres. and the angle towers of the Escurial may be compared with the spire of S. a lathe. Expression Ornament . have spires of slate or lead work of fanciful outline. 235) give to the church interiors quite a special effect by the flutter of the in the entablatures In the middle period. fanciful . small orders. work. from the top of which the arches spring. as in the " Audiencia" at Valencia. A was perhaps due to the special largeness of scale (No. Berruguete was the Donatello of the Spanish Renaissance. 235. elaborately detailed. A the bracket capital (Nos. importance of a gateway in oriental countries a feature found in Spain owing to Saracenic influence. much was given special feature which the long bearings of stone architraves are relieved by corbels on either sid^. c. Columns Rococo F. 236 A). by refinement (No. and at Toledo they alone relieve the blank. often carrying a highly ornamented head (No. 239 A). work. Roofs. These were generally flat or of low pitch. Saloons sometimes have a light-arcaded Ludgate (London). were used abundantly. the orders were used in slight decorative forms (Nos. Classic correctness prevailed until the outbreak of the in wood turned low relief. the walls. being decorated in arcades sometimes had very high In the later pedestals.54 2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. many (No. resting on corbels. are of of the early period are remarkable. period. but his figures often are wanting in decorative treatment. for ten or more stonework. being of plain draperies. 235. while the sill is often absent or untreated. to forms is In early work. narrow. Doorways were emphasized (No. the great cornices of the brick palaces wood. combined in treatment with the capital itself. Martin. Columns. walled streets. Sculpture varies much in quality. 239) number of breaks which occur mitred round columns (No. to be hung with feet in height. 236 A and 239 D). Mouldings. Windows were treated with well-designed grilles. G. internal gallery resting upon a great projecting wooden cornice. even in designs of the severe Classic period. and to in In the early style. D. Towers. affording a passage in front of the windows in the main wall. however. and their dressings in stonework are frame-like in character (Nos. and detailed in a style suggestive of Arab influence. or shafts. 236 B and 237). and reaching to the flat wooden coffered ceiling. as the Palacio de Monterey at SalaAt Saragossa. 239). of an outline suggestive of the forms due E. Internally the great saloons in the early common manca. 239 D).


).). to Spain. have the character of paintings in oil. (R. 89 parts. Baudenkmaeler Spanien und Portugal. uncommon (No. " 1893. The fresco work of the Escurial is merely late Italian. 1842-1850. Stained glass tended to be loaded in color and over vivid. REFERENCE BOOKS." Junghaendel Folio. often was emphasized unduly. or wood are the finest decorative feature of the churches. Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana. "An Architect's Note-book in Spain. The subject of the Renaissance in Spain has been well taken up by architectural students of late years. de). the figures being often lifeThe iron size. and violence of action is is not stone.544 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. usually crude and realistic." (M. and armour design was carried to great perfection by the Spaniards.). " Die Baukunst Spaniens. " (C. 239 E) is an example of the elaborate metal work of the period. 1889-1892. 8vo. P. Crawford (F. and the drawing is frequently clumsy. and the architectural detail very elaborate.) und Gurlitt (C. Espana Artistica y Monumental. Paris. " In the Palace of the King. Digby). being apparent.). 1898.). Rejas.. M. Berlin. " Villa-Amil (G. B. atlas folio (not completed).) and Macquoid (T." Folio. 1837. 2 vols. 5." in Folio. Waring (J. Roberts (D. accessory arts. 235). Dresden.)." 410. B. or grilles." Calvert (A. 1903. Flemish influence. 1850." published by the Spanish Government. and the following books contain interesting examples. " Ford. folio. " Folio. " Impressions of Spain.. " Prentice (A. Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain. folio." . 1889-1893. the iron pulpit (No. 1872." (Historical Novel.). are also a source of effect (No. Madrid. 1859-1879. Wyatt (Sir M.) Uhde Picturesque Sketches in Spain. "Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. N.). not of the best kind. and the canvases of Murillo at Madrid and at the church at Seville. D). R. The painting on the sculpture The great retablos of alabaster." 3 vols. though In the large in scale. Tile work is excellent in Southern Spain. 239 A." Handbook 8vo.

Geographical. N N .A. The closing of the Continent to travel during . and show their wavy line. might be seen by some to be reflected in the architectural fashion of successive periods." BAILLIE. . i. INFLUENCES (see page 437).6-K IWTfl 240. side by side grace. roof's St. like twain of sisters dear. her abbey's pride While far beyond the hills of Surrey shine softly tinted. Through their soft haze. It would be hazardous during this period to lay too much stress upon the relations of England with the Continental powers but the relative cordiality of this country with France. F. or Holland. Refer to page 278. ENGLISH ! RENAISSANCE. i. With distance In kindred The towers of Westminster. Paul's And high dome amid her vassal bands Of neighbouring spires. a regal chieftain stands over fields of ridgy appear.


which paved the way for the introduction of the Renaissance into England were many and significant. Cheshire. Social and Political. and Herefordshire were reduced. so that the timber architecture of the mediaeval period had died out. resulting in a tion of life. The use of brick received a great impetus after the Fire of London.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 438). stir in religious matters took place in Western Europe. the tomb in the Rolls Chapel (A. 1516) by Torrigiano. as greater comfort was demanded. The suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) caused the diffusion of vast sums of money and land. while the ancient nobility was almost entirely annihilated. 356. which Henry VIII. In the increase of ii. and the opening out of the great coal industry. and some of these have been The following also aided the dealt with (pages 283. 547 the great war at the end of the eighteenth. Essex (1500-1525). - Terra cotta for ornamental details was introduced by the Italian craftsmen of Henry VIII. the funds for which enterprises proceeded from the newly seized revenues. 1559. distributed freely among his courtiers. certainly coincided with the worst phase of English architecture. to other features that did not complicate the architecture of the earlier periods. and was again brought into prominence on the introduction of the " Dutch fashion. had its influence. Geological. In London.. a material very similar in weathering and effect to that used in the Renaissance palaces of Venice. and at Layer Marney. and also because the authority of the Pope was increasingly felt to be irksome. and wood had been gradually disused as an external building material. Monasteries either fell into ruin or were converted into cathedral churches on the monastic foundation. The Act of Supremacy. partly on account of abuses having crept into the Church. N N 2 . by cheapening fuel. In the early part of the sixteenth century a iv. Climate. Others were cleared away for the erection of houses according to the new style. settled the relation of the English Church to the power of the Crown. and incidentally. and thus " Flemish bond. A great increase of warmth was found necessary iii. led to each room having a fireplace. as in the busts of Emperors at Hampton Court by Giovanni da Majano. movement The Wars : of the Roses (1455-1485) caused a terrible destruceighty princes of the blood being slain. the forests of Lancashire. Refer to page 278. Shropshire. Religion. The historical and other events v. the introduction by Inigo Jones of Portland stone. population and cultivation of the land.D. as a technical term. has its significance. and beginning of the nineteenth century. which the Popes failed to rectify.


1512). and marks the era of Spanish influence in England. Henry declared the Pope to have no jurisdiction in England. employed part of the funds obtained from the suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) to . the Reformation was finally settled. 557). . from which there was a reaction end of the fifteenth century. craftsmen to England (page 498). Wiltshire (page 557). The extended use of gunpowder rendered ancient castles obsolete. and Sir Philip Sidney had considerable influence. A certain John of Padua was also brought to England by Henry VIII. The Protector Somerset commenced building schemes which were interrupted by his execution (A. bearing an important relation to the introduction of Renaissance art into England. Rouezzano and Giovanni da Majano. continued the Reformation. The new nobility and rich merchants were naturally more susceptible to any fresh movement they desired. being anxious to provide themselves with the paraphernalia suited to their rank. The introduction of printing by Caxton (1476) powerfully aided the new movement.D. and amongst the artists. 's Tomb in Westminster Abbey (A. Finally. Torrigiano. writings of Spenser. as the hoarded knowledge of the world could then be disseminated. at the 549 period of architectural depression. Flemish and . were : Holbein.D. moreover. . and newer fortresses tended to become merely military posts. but Mary's policy was reactionary. and is usually credited with the design of Longleat House. was composed of men who were connected with the new movement. Under Elizabeth (1558-1603). Henry VIII. 1552). causing the enlargement of men's ideas and the increased spread of knowledge throughout the country. his He mixed I. who executed Henry VII.D. and Edward VI. important country houses. thus influencing efficient execution of the newly-imported Classic Historical. the wars against the Huguenots in France. Shakespeare. the erection and The reign of Elizabeth (A.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 1558-1603) inaugurated the era of the erection of the great domestic mansions. from Basle. Bartholomew in A. Henry VIII. 1572. no longer habitable as palaces by a king. which play an important part in the development (pages 324. 1520. had undisputed the English crown. Burleigh. endowment of grammar schools and colleges. The court of Henry VIII. very largely the architecture. or as seats by the nobility.D. or newly acquired wealth. and Edward VI. settling in to England in large the eastern counties especially. and on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. thereby In literature the influencing the architecture of certain districts. led to the emigration of many skilled vi.German workmen and weavers came numbers. and the Massacre of S. meeting with Francis possession of generally with foreign affairs. was an event of some significance.


As during the Middle Ages a sufficient number of churches had been erected for the wants of the people. architecture may be divided into the Elizabethan (A." and other windows (No. style does to fully-developed French Renaissance. oriel. Elizabethan Architecture was a transition style. THE ELIZABETHAN STYLE. . for many Gothic features were retained and ornamented with Renaissance applied only in a tentative manner. and large chimney stacks were retained. and England was much under the influence of French art. 1558-1603). Charles II.D. principally erected in cities. Charles I. . gardening was important. . 1558-1603). were country houses erected by powerful statesmen. as the Francis I. successful merchants. by William of Orange. formal garden. . pierced parapet.D. 551 itself felt. 1800page 589 Late Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (1851-1901). Hanoverian dynasty) commenced an era of quiet domestic The growth of London proceeded rapidly. and on the expulsion of James II. such as the tower. arcades. page 567 Queen Anne and Georgian (Eighteenth Cen. England slowly deteriorated.. churches of this period were many and important. for in designing the house with forecourt. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. ELIZABETH (A. Gothic features. 1603-1625). With the accession of George I. was in the pay of Louis XIV. a special in Italy and finished character was given to the buildings themselves. marked the decline of Spanish power in Europe.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. Dutch influence made (the 2. 251 B). page 561 Anglo. and the defeat of the Spanish Armada. or fully-developed English Renaissance. and newly-enriched gentry.D. large mullioned "bay. The examples of Elizabethan architecture. 1588. Page 593. which followed the Tudor style of the reigns of Henry VII. but art in progress. fountains and terraces. English Renaissance tury). gable. and Henry VIII.Classic (Seventeenth Century). 51). page 578 Early Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (A. contrasting with the palaces and churches of the Italian RenaisThe influence of landscape sance. see below. Many . like those of the French Renaissance.D. (page 536). relation to details which were at first The style bears the same Anglo-Classic. until the Exhibition of 1851 marked the commencement of a revival in all forms of art.'s attempts to develop art were interrupted by the outbreak of Puritanism. following periods: Jacobean (A. few were built in this This was also the case in France and Germany whereas period. The rise of Holland was taking place.


B). of Scotland (d. 151 j). Dorsetshire. portraits of ancestors. complete in every aspect. As already mentioned (page 551). monuments. and is in this respect a The alliance of James IV. The H-shaped plan was evolved by extending the wings on both fronts. as at Holland House. an Italian. a the sixteenth century. which the later architects renounced by omitting the side forming the entrance. which was typical of the Tudor period. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. 553 The Elizabethan style represents the attempt to apply Italian architectural features to buildings. became a detached building. the earliest Elizabethan Mansions. in 1512. while above were arranged the trophies of the chase. but it did not confine itself to architecture only. EXAMPLES. 244 A. as at Chastleton in Oxfordshire. The following features occur in the principal examples i. The gatehouse on the centre of the side forming the entrance. the tomb of Henry VII. and fittings. Gloucestershire. Edinburgh (No. London (No. retained from the mediaeval period (No.D. 131 D. family relics and heirlooms. decoration. examples of the style consist works such as tombs. 1610) Cranbonrne. as at Burton Agnes. with kitchen and offices at one end and withdrawing and living rooms at the other. in Westminster Abbey. Other fanciful plans showing extreme originality were erected. hall placed centrally. was lined to a height of 8 or 10 feet with oak panelling. The larger type of house was evolved from the quadrangular plan of the Middle Ages (No. The great hall. admitting sunlight and allowing free circulation of air about the building. 131 F). a triangular house attributed to John Thorpe (No. : . as Longford Castle. 1513) with France caused French architectural features to be introduced. Stanway. 241). E). . doorways. as at Hat field House (No. 131 B). - of building. as it pervaded the whole of the ornamental arts in style furniture. internal courts for lighting being sometimes employed.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. The E-shaped plan thus came into existence. As in other countries. as at Oxburgh Hall (No. as at George Heriot's Hospital. being generally regarded as one of small of the earliest examples. armour. 131 B). designed by Torrigiano. 3. Yorkshire (A. domestic architecture received more attention than any other class Two general types of house plan were in use at the beginning of Of these the smaller type consisted of. and other features. and elsewhere.


the hall being often two stories in height. 243). 250 K). 244 D. The picture gallery" is supposed to be derived from these apartments.D. (A.D. pierced balustrading. 555 At one end of the hall. frequently relieved by room-like projecting bays those at Haddon Hall being about 15 feet by 12 feet. The hall fireplace was much elaborated (No. 242 and 244 E) is a special feature. Wiltshire. by the entrance. 241).D. from Stockton House. 1618-35) is 136 feet by 18 feet and 16 feet ' The term high. It served as a means of communication between the wings of the The length is house. the ceiling being richly modelled in plaster. and below are dimensions of important galleries. a chapel (sometimes). rich carving. There is no feature of an old English mansion more characteristic than these galleries. the proportions varying considerably from the hall in being comparatively low and narrow in proportion to the length. 1607) is 130 feet by 22 feet wide. while at the other end is the raised dais with tall bay-window. Charlton House (Wilts) (A. 113) either with the timbers showing or formed with plaster panels (No. the sill of which is level. Moreton Hall (A. 131 E and 245 c) often extends the whole length of the house. were other apartments. with its heavily-carved newels. and was used more as a means of communication. and gives to the interior an air of spaciousness and dignity. 166 feet long. " iv. and It was generally placed in connection with the hall.D. An example of an apartment treated with panelling its whole height and with elaborate carved chimneypiece is shown in No. Montacute House wide. of approach. and the roof (No. . The hall in the later period became of less importance as a living room. 243) is 109 feet by 18 feet wide. oak panelling the full height. and richly carved with the coat-of-arms of the owner. 1576-1597) (No. 1580) is 170 feet long by 20 c) is feet 6 inches Hardwick Hall 22. feet 5 inches (A.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Haddon Hall (A. some of which belong to the Jacobean period.D. the latter increasing considerably in number and importance during this period. its importance being due to the fact that the chief living rooms were often placed on the first floor and therefore demanded an important almost at the floor means iii. Aston Hall (A. over which is the minstrels' gallery. 1589) (No. or " solar of Gothic times. The broad staircase of oak (Nos. ii.D. 245 wide and 26 feet high. was elaborately ornamented. The walls have usually glazed with leaded panes (No. and the bedrooms. 1559) is 75 feet by 12 feet 6 inches wide. with stone-mullioned windows. long gallery on the upper floor (Nos. is the carved oak screen. The withdrawing room.


Wilts.D. - 1558. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS ELIZABETHAN MANSIONS. l6l2. 1580 A. (later fa9ade). Northants. Moreton Hall.D. Many of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge (cf. situated within the seats of revived learning. Notts. Holt. Trinity College.D.D. Westley.D. Holt. Kent (No. 1624. Westwood.D. naturally gave a great impetus to the new style. A. erected in the period. Worcester. 1634. C" Smithson. Cheshire (A. Kent. John Thorpe (?). A. John of Padua (?). Wilts. 1593-1615. A. 132). Ralph Simons. l6l2. Pembroke A. A. 131 F). for which Cheshire and Shropshire are specially famous.I 589. OXFORD. CAMBRIDGE. Sidney Sussex College A. 1565-1574.D. John's College (Court).D. A. Theodore Haveus of Cleves (?). Name. Name. Jesus College. 1595. and now forms an irregular pentagon on plan. Knole.John Thorpe. A. Thomas Thomas Thomas Thomas Holt. . 1584. john Thorpe. A.D. with superA.D. Longford Castle.D. Somerset. page 324) were erected during this period. with circular towers at each angle. College. 1567. Wadham College. A. Nevill Court. 557 Kirby. 1550-1559) (No.D. and central open It was added to in the eighteenth century.D. Warwickshire. 1580.D 1570-1585I A. 247).D A. Date. Holt. Northants (No.D.D A. Wollaton. 1590.D. 1571. Oriel imposed orders. Burghley. S. and these buildings. Elizabethan Colleges.D. The Gate of Honour. I570-I5751570. A. Caius A. College. Charlecote. 575.D. A. list. Gateway of the Schools (No. Clare College. Penshurst. Emmanuel (Court).ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. is an example of many of the timbered houses. Architect.D. triangular courtyard. and Jesus Colleges (portions of) and others. Date. Architect. l6l2. 248). Longford Castle was originally triangular in plan (No. as object lessons to the rising generation. 246).D A. Ralph Simons. Merton College (Library). Montacute House. A. Longleat. The Quadrangle. Ralph Simons. 1580-1601. A. College. 1600-1624. .

u .



Bishopsgate (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum). is well worthy of study. EXAMPLES. 561 Town Houses. 244). picturesqueness as classic literature and models became better known. J onn Thorpe. and other of the country towns throughout England. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS JACOBEAN MANSIONS. for example. JAMES i. in London. (A. The celebrated architect. 1607-1612. but they were at least the outcome of the social conditions of that age. 1611. Some of the detail and ornamentation may be questionable. 1607. London. Hants (No. most of which are easily accessible." preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum.D. Sir Paul Pindar's House. Date. Staple Inn. Wilts. 131 D. Holland House. Jacobean furniture design continued on the same lines as the architecture. style of the Elizabethan. Name. John Thorpe. erected several of the mansions The Jacobean was a development Gothic gradually diverging from of this epoch. arid his book of "compositions. A. 241 and 249). 1603-1625). A. 2.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE.D. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 565).D. Elizabethan of these exist. Many interesting specimens and among them are several houses of half-timber construction. 3. Architect. Hatfield House. 4. and the use of the columns with their entablatures became more general. A. 5. Kensington (No.D. F. as. A. 250). Charlton House.A. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. the Hall of Charterhouse. The buildings of this style were most suitable to the wants of the people in whose era they were erected. will give as much if not more pleasure than the study of the buildings of any other period of Architecture in England. COMPARATIVE (see page 562). INFLUENCES (see page 545). 1607. THE JACOBEAN STYLE. I.D. Herts (Nos. Holborn. E. Bramshill. and an examination of the mansions erected during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. and many examples in Chester. o o .

Elevations have the character of picturesqueness. Longleat. and wide flights of steps. Loseley. as at Hatfield House (No. are charming features in the style. the A. A. Hatfield and elsewhere. 1618-1635. Openings. Plans. A. raised above the : garden level (No. near Guildford. box. following in a general way the slope of the roof (Nos. 1613. Essex. as at Haddon . B). Holland House (No. c. Hatfield (No. Bay windows were largely used.D. B). such grouping being often brought about through the work being an addition to a previous Gothic house. 1603-1616. 248). 242. and Audley End. 243). 4. The great hall. COMPARATIVE. 249 and 250 A. 250 D.D. 246). the Classic orders being used in a very free manner. Broad terraces. A rchitect. Longleat. 244). Longford. . The chimney stacks are special and characteristic features. 131 D. H. so that they play an important part in the composition and outline of the house. entrance being in the middle of the letter. the baluster being much employed. often placed one above the other in the f^ades. B. 245 c). 244 E).D. and other trees cut in fantastic patterns. as Knole. Burghley. while many are irregular in plan. with yews.D. 244 B). K). 132 F). Aston Hall. E). 1612. Walls. the long gallery. Hardwick(No. 249). 249 and 246) but sometimes they are of cut brickwork. A.562 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE Name. Bernard Jansen Bolsover Castle. Date. and Holland House (No. 245 D). (No. Audley End. Parapets are pierced with various characteristic designs (Nos.D. the broad staircase Characteristic features are (Nos. Warwickshire. THE ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN These are often E or H-shaped (No. Gardens were often laid out in a formal manner. Penshurst (No. and very often a chapel (No. as at Bramshill. Norfolk Hall. and Haddon (ball-room wing). Cranbourne Manor House Dorsetshire. A. A. the shafts being carried up boldly. STYLES. with balustrades. 246). and form important features of the style. 244 and 246). being often treated in a prominent manner with orders. and Kirby Hall (No. as at Hatfield and Kirby (Nos. Kirby Hall (No. Loseley Park. as at Montacute. 244). the Gateway of the Schools at Oxford (No. Derbyshire. l620. 244 A. Smithson. The gables are often of scroll-work. Blickling . and the two ends forming wings. 244. (Nos.


as at Bramshill (No. Grotesquely carved figures as terminals occur (No. and Hatfield (No. occur Lead both separately and in the same design (No. 250 G). and the use of convex mouldings. 244 A and 248). 244 A). accompanied by bulbous Square columns were used. is a constant feature (Nos. the topmost order is the smallest." D. 246. 250 H. These are local and coarse in many instances. or battlemented. Roofs. 249). 250 M). arcaded. and also stone slabs in certain districts. and elsewhere. centre which is perhaps the most licentious specimen of the style. 250 E). seems to have influenced in many ways the sections employed (No. treated or panelled. as in Nos. often banded or carved at intervals. (Nos. This type of detail is also found in pilasters. 246 with leaded glass. 249 and 250 G). 244 A.564 filled in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Ornament by raised bands. 241. The balustrade. The orders were employed rarely with E. Bramshill. 250 in carving generally. High. the most Italian-like example. 244. corresponding to the comparaBramshill has a fa9adetive unimportance of the upper rooms. ribbons. interlaced in grotesque patterns. in imitation of the damascened work which was at that period so common. purity. Mouldings. and oriel windows are common. 250). banded with swellings (No. Dormers were largely used. 250 G). "Strap" ornamentation was formed of about the width and thickness of a leather strap. (No. flat. and pilasters were similarly At Longleat. 250 G). A typical cornice consists of a large cyma and small ogee moulding above a corona of little depth. and turrets were in common use (Nos. as at Bramshill (No. It is considered by some to have been derived from the East. and and festoons were preferred . as in the ceilings (No. 248. Arcades were often introduced. 249 and 250 D. " Through this None come wide opening gate too early. France and Italy. especially in the form of recessed loggie. j. none return too late. F. strap ornamentation (No. through and on piers and in spandrels. and crossed by horizontal transoms. pierced. Plaster work. and tiles were both used. scrolls. Doorways are often elaborate in design. c). as at Hatfield. G. Arcades were much employed. 249). more especially in pilasters. as at Bramshill (No. Columns. 250 K). 243. a characteristic treatment being the reduction downwards. 249 and 250). are special features adopted from the late Gothic period. Large heavily-mullioned windows (Nos. as at Hatfield (No. M). and 247). and attached as if by nails or rivets. to Gothic foliage types. or low roofs with balustrades. but founded on Classic originals.

" 1841-48. " Observations on the Architecture of England during the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I. etc. from the Charterhouse. Richardson. 243 and 250 M) was used for ceilings with great skill in design and adaptability to the material. 251 H). Guy). " Gotch (J. and the tablet from Peterhouse College Chapel.). 242.). Clayton (J. occurs in pilasters and pedestals. folio. and Cheshire. . " Studies from Old English Mansions. entrance porches. a large number being found in churches throughout the The chapel screen country. 1837. 1836. 251 G) the cistern now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. . ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN. Nash (J." 4to. 565 Prismatic rustication. Parkinson and Ould. Dawber " 1891-1894. 5." 4to. J. are very numerous and charac- making The teristic. mantelpieces. ." 2 vols.D. Mansions of England in the Olden Time.)." Folio.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Habershon (M. screens. 251 F) the pulpit from North Cray Church. Gotch (J. 1604) and Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster Abbey. color decoration little or no progress. will indicate to the reader the manner in which Renaissance features were applied to the arts and crafts connected with architecture." 1839-1849. (Gloucestershire. and broad friezes were sometimes modelled with much quaintness and grotesque feeling. G. A.. " The Ancient Half-Timbered Houses of England. " Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and Sussex. Herefordshire. and many being richly colored. Annals of an Old Manor House " (Sutton Place. and in later times colored stones were inserted in their stead. 251 E). 410. Plaster (Nos." Folio. such as the monuments to Elizabeth (A. (F. . Old Cottages. and other Halftimber Buildings of Shropshire. . 1846. "A Collection of the Ancient Timber Edifices of England. REFERENCE BOOKS. 251 j). and the tomb of Lord Burghley (No.).)." 4to. . A." 1901. "Early Renaissance Architecture in England. Kent (No. London (No. 250 F). or the projection of blocks of stone of prismatic form (No. 251 o) Convocation Room. " Old Cottages. as at Hardwick. 251 A) the bookcase from Pembroke the throne and stalls from the College. " 1893. Cambridge (No. 251 c) the doorway in Broughton Castle (No. Farmhouses. " Buildings in the Cotswold District 1904.). Davie (W.). 1904. Farmhouses. Tapestries continued to be used for walls. " 4to. 1900. 250 G). Richardson (C. and other Stone (E. Oxford (No.).). monuments and tombs (No. Cambridge (No. Architecture of the Renaissance in England. Harrison Guildford).


The transitional Elizabethan and Jacobean styles at length gave way before the influence of Inigo Jones and Wren. (1625-49). Gotch's text-book on James I. his works being carefully studied by him. many of Inigo Jones's designs. and on his return introduced a purer Renaissance style. H. THE ANGLO-CLASSIC. Kent (A. 410." Folio. 1614-1616). William and Mary (1689-1702). the Commonwealth (1649-60). and thus Palladio had a great influence on English architecture. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.). and with a porch having the baluster-columns of the earlier periods. John Thorpe's Original Drawings in the Soane Museum." Shaw (H. influenced the work of Inigo Jones. but returned to He revisited Italy in 1612 for further England in 1604. He was invited to Copenhagen by the King of Denmark. 1840.). Comprises." Scott (Sir Scott (Sir Early ] Walter)." Taylor (H. The Commonwealth intervened. James (1685-89). " Old Halls in Lancashire and Cheshire. study. The following are among his principal Buildings Chilham Castle. A good " selection of these are reproduced in Mr.) "John Inglesant. 1902. who are considered the founders of the Anglo-Classic style." 4to. Palladio's native town.). "English Interior Woodwork of the XVI-XVIIIth Centuries." Nigel.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE 567 REFERENCE BOOKS Richardson. (1660-85). 1839. E-shaped facade.) "Sir Indar. and checked the execution of transitional of brick with stone dressings. INIGO JONES Long study in Italy. Tanner (H." Walter).D. Renaissance Architecture. (1573-1652)." His toncal Novels. 3. B. the reigns of Charles I. Charles II. The Italian architect Palladio was Inigo Jones's favourite master in design. INFLUENCES (see page 545). OR SEVENTEENTH CENTURY STYLE. is a : example . 1884. and especially at Vicenza. i. "Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and Folio." Kenilworth. Continued. EXAMPLES. with radiating side wings forming a horseshoe court at the back." The Fortunes of Shorthouse (J. " Details of Elizabethan Architecture. 2. founded on Italian models and ornamentation." ReedQ.


has the two lower stories The hospital was included under one huge Corinthian order. the Embankment Gardens. a pupil of Inigo Jones.D. was to be 75 feet high. In this design. As an architect. which was one of the grandest architectural conceptions of the Renaissance (No. elegance. Beds (1616-1621). was an important part of his education. with a total height to the top of the parapet of 100 feet. Greenwich (1639) (No. Northants (1630-1634) the King's (Queen's) House. Paul. Whitehall (A. a part only of a Royal Palace. divided into two stories. being Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College and at the University of Oxford. Raynham Hall. as curtain wings to the main blocks. Norfolk Stoke Park. 252 E) was arranged round courtyards. Wilts (additions) (1640-1648). 131 H. . SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723) was a scholar and a mathematician. since destroyed. Wren lacked the more thorough technical education of Inigo Jones. 1619-1621). Coleshill. on the Louvre were then in progress. one of which was to be circular. is severe and imposing by reason of its simplicity and good proportions. and constituted a great . executed by the master mason Nicholas Stone. 252). The plan (No. 1626) (No. Berks (1650). and in design like the Banqueting House (No. but his study of French architecture at Paris and elsewhere in The works France. the river facade of which was executed by John Webb. 569 Banqueting House. are examples of his country houses. The arcades and buildings around the market were also designed is The by Inigo Jones. Hall.D. . and was not always able to clothe his constructive forms in equally appropriate detail. proportion. formed the river entrance The gateway is now in to Old York House. the Barber Surgeons' Hall (1636-1637) and Ashburnham House. 238 A) Wilton House. are more happily combined than in any other Renaissance scheme of the kind. his early mathematical training fitting him for the constructive skill shown in his later works. 1631-1638). but has been altered and rebuilt by subsequent architects. 252 c). j). and Lincoln's Inn Chapel (1617-1623).ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. York Water Gate. each 30 feet high. The greater part of the building was to have been of three stories. and the great court would have vied with that of the Louvre (page 503). The remainder. . and purity of detail. Houses in Lincoln's Inn Fields and Great Queen's Street (1620). Westminster (1640). Covent Garden (A. Greenwich Hospital. Houghton (1630) . afterwards added to by Sir Christopher Wren (page 576). and Chevening House. London (A. S. are examples of his town buildings. 252).D. Kent (No.

ENGLISH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES.00 . TIMBER flWMIIG MI Vim EIGHT 1/IM HKHTOF SUPPORTING BtE - FOR (foils ^---9 y. goo . .Q 50 . t ESTIMATED IV. effl 5fflLE FOR && IO. '. 100 fr 253- ..

Paul and the City churches. and Cologne Cathedral. which are not visible from the exterior. he used with stone dressings. which ranks amongst the finest Renaissance Cathedrals in Europe. supporting an entablature and attic. is given (No. which has given the color it was originally intended . The wall surfaces have recently been decorated with glass mosaic. abandoned for pecuniary and other reasons. Wren's work shows more French influence than that of Inigo Jones. consists of a great central space at the crossing. as at Hampton Court. Light is admitted by means of windows in the clerestory. Rome. as Opie said. school in 571 of art. the Pantheon. and other buildings. Dome of the Invalides. Paris. as may be seen on comparing his work with that of Inigo Jones. and a projecting The building has an western vestibule with lateral chapels. internal length of 460 feet. in which he was obliged to study economy. as executed. red brick His principal Ecclesiastical works were as follows S. and an area of 60. . and. indicate. was Wren's masterpiece. and having east and west a nave and choir in three bays with aisles. An illustration showing its comparative size and disposition with S. This. 253). The dome. above which are formed the flat saucer-like domes. whom the French followed. were executed in Portland stone. : but the influence of the with a projecting western vestibule clergy." and indicating a careful study in the proportion of part to part. Peter. which was. 253 B) are ornamented with pilasters of the Corinthian order. who desired a long nave and choir suitable for ritualistic purposes. The first design. His great opportunity was the destruction of London by the Great Fire in 1666. The internal piers (No. which is pure Italian. being mixed "with brains.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. finally caused the selection of the mediaeval type of plan. but Wren. 253 B. 213). Many of these. as compared with Vignola. consequence. to their dignity . who never visited Italy. 86 feet high. Many of his designs. under Sir William Richmond. which by its good weathering properties adds and importance while in domestic work. a breadth including aisles of 100 feet. and elsewhere. however. north and south transepts. all his designs. much thought. London (1675-1710). as S. Marlborough House. after which he devised a grand plan for the reconstruction. to have. including S. was in plan a Greek cross (No. as shown in No. arranged somewhat similarly to Ely Cathedral.000 square feet. Paul's Cathedra]. often gave a semi-French turn to his designs. more especially in the decorative detail. is of triple concarried on eight piers (cf. however. Paul. but he was employed in a large number of churches. of which there is a fine model in the northern triforium of the Cathedral. crowned by a dome. Palladio continued to be the inspirer of English work. It is struction.


supports the stone lantern. and the intermediate conical dome also of brickwork 18 inches thick. a rugged screen. that well I trow. the projecting masses of masonry at the meeting of nave and the support of the dome from the transepts expressing The colonnade to the drum is particularly ground upwards. but as the aisles are only one story high. Like shoreward billows of a troubled sea Arrested in their rage. known as the Gallery. Peter. which latter has The outer dome is formed of timber a height of 365 feet. and approached by a broad flight is flanked by two finely proportioned towers. Rome. with cave and crevice seam'd. covered with lead. Twenty. The facades have two orders totalling 108 feet in height. 35 years. 215 feet high.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. has its summit 281 feet high. The poetess Joanna Baillie has well described the majestic appearance of S. 1 8 inches thick. having every fourth intercolumniation filled in solid. Bishops." rises an attic above supporting the dome. and is made to group well with the central dome. It might some lofty Alpine peak be deem'd. having between them the double storied portico of coupled columns supporting a pediment in which there is a fine representation of the conversion of S. One. S. page 500). So far from earth removed. . The western front. London. of steps. which receive the thrust of the nave vault. 100 years. columns attached to effective. the lower Corinthian and the upper Composite. One. Paul on a foggy day : Rear'd in the sky. The dome externally is probably the finest example in Europe. Paul. Paul's arrests the wandering eye . 180 feet wide. 'Tis then St. which is crowned with lantern and cross. The eagle's haunt. Paris. and thus giving an appearance of strength and Behind the solidity which is lacking in the Pantheon. Did not its form man's artful structure show. Master Mason. being formed of three-quarter radiating buttress walls. the upper story on the flanks is a screen wall introduced to give dignity. 573 Paris. The lower parts in swathing mists conceal'd " The higher through some half-spent shower reveal'd. and is 109 feet at the base of the drum. 253 B). Six. One." Time Building. and to act as a counterweight to the flying buttresses concealed behind it. and rests on the intermediate dome (No. " Stone balustrade. The exterior is exceedingly effective. The inner dome of brickwork. ball and cross. Architects. S. diminishing to 102 feet at the top. Eight openings are formed in the summit for the admission of light to the inner domes. Stretched wide on either hand. Paul. In lurid dimness nearer streets are seen.



. Piccadilly (No. S. properties is an evidence of his scientific skill in the constructive carpentry of the roof. a group at once picturesque and the Royal Palace. S. Trinity College. . the Library of Trinity College. Oxford (1664). the latter resting on eight of the columns. Church. are examples of his Gothic treatment of Pembroke College Chapel. are successful though plain examples of his galleried interiors. and are notable for skilful planning on awkward and confined sites. : (1663-1664) was The Secular works of Wren were numerous The Sheldonjan Theatre. Cheapside (1680). the more important of these are the following Stephen. in which a square tower supports a pyramidal spire in receding stages clothed with classical details. Dunstan in the East (1698) S. and The Inner Court. Michael. a fault which was avoided in Bow Church by the use of inverted consoles. Cambridge (1679) the Library of Queen's College. London Bridge (1671). B) of which Wren may be called the inventor. Fleet Street (1680) (Nos. inclosed in a rectangle. Cambridge one of his earliest works. (1721). are work. is another example generally considered less successful because of the telescopic effect of similar stories. Paul's Cathedral. Clement Danes (1684) and S. The Western Towers of Westminster Abbey S. characteristic of mediaeval churches. Oxford (1665). the sixteen columns. The Monument. has a steeple simpler in design. Cornhill spires. S. but exceedingly picturesque in the group that it forms in conjunction with Wren's masterpiece. 255 c. 257). the Fountain Court and Garden Facade of Hampton Court Palace (1690). carrying cross vaulting and a S. S. Ludgate. is the most successful of a type of Renaissance steeple (No. and is deservedly famous for the excellent effect produced by small means within a limited area. 255 A. (1711). Aldermary . Bride. at Winchester (1684). Mary. has original and ingenious planning. 256). in the splendid acoustic of the hall. the Two Blocks of Greenwich Hospital furthest river. Winchester . central cupola. combined in Chelsea Hospital. Walbrook (1672-1679) (No. is considered more important than the "long-drawn aisle" space for processional purposes. Oxford and the School Room (1682) . other examples of his collegiate from the stately. and general in which a central preaching suitability for Protestant worship. 257). D. These are models of simplicity and restraint. Martin.576 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Among : Bow S. James. Wren was also responsible for the erection of some fiftythree City churches in the Renaissance style between 1670-1711.


2." OR EIGHTEENTH CENTURY STYLE. London (1670). Comprises the reigns of Anne (1702-14). the centre third being occupied by the hall. and their which they were designed. i." "PEDIMENT AND PORTICO. as at Greenwich. 238 A). two stories in height. reached by an external flight of steps as at Rainham in Norfolk. storerooms and cellars. (1683). 258 D. as at Holkham Hall (No. F). both already mentioned (page 569). saloon. 131 H.. j). or an oblong. and the Banqueting Palace Gardens. is a pleasing example work. (1760-1820). George III. to which importance. 258 A. The basement in both types contained the kitchen. as at Chevening (No. THE "QUEEN ANNE. Blackheath. Castle Howard (No. the house was usually roughly divided into three. either and square or oblong on plan (No.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (1727-60). saloon and staircases. removed to Iheobalds Park. the ground floor was frequently treated as a basement. 131 K). facades and interesting The Temple. or connecting H -shaped E . everything was sacrificed. Maryborough House. are a few examples which show Kensington number of different classes of buildings upon which for suitability to the several purposes its the large he was engaged. 4. c). Hall (Orangery) in Pall Mall (1709). In the oblong type. of a smaller type of monumental Herts. In the latter part of the seventeenth. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 588). and reception-rooms. the plan of the smaller type of house was usually a square. is plain brickwork an example of his character is given. the first floor being the principal one. E. as in the principal simpler style to which to Fleet Street. Morden College.. COMPARATIVE (see page 585). B. I.F) superseding the Jacobean plans. 258 C. In the larger type of house. George George II. Greenwich (No. (1714-27). as at the King's (Queen's) House. entrance gateway Temple Bar. and Kedlestone (No. In the square type the centre was frequently occupied by the top-lit saloon. 5. INFLUENCES (see page 545). and this led to the internal staircase being reduced in The hall. and during the eighteenth century." "GEORGIAN. were placed in a central block. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. On either side symmetrical detached wings were added. London (1674-1684) with wooden doorways.


" really did happen. that at this time there grew up a national style. by Pope in one of his epistles to the Earl of Burlington. Castle Howard. The publication. Blenheim. viz. land with imitating fools Who random drawings from your sheets shall take. and Kedlestone. Herts. Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar. and of the drawings of the in the early part of the century. And of one beauty many blunders make . your noble . as colonnades. most of the less important houses for the middle class people being erected in the useful and modest Queen Anne and Georgian type of square house. of this period and as they were contemporaries. 258 F). my your just. Park. Fill half the glorious. not excepting the domestic class. Chatsworth. as at Castle Howard (No. but not a dwelling. Lancashire. . Load some vain church with old theatric state. Derbyshire (No. buildings once were things of use. as at Stoke portions of quadrant form." r ? Or the remark of Lord Chesterfield to General Wade may be quoted. corridor planning did much for convenience and comfort in domestic architecture. practising at the same time. and well There were many style of architecture. and the fast developing trade of the joiner admitted of the elaboration of internal fittings. 131 K). design of the buildings. 1310). 258). or where d'ye dine I find by all you have been telling That tis a house. by the Earl of Burlington. The Jacobean gallery survived in a modified form.580 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. rules. Moreover. And pompous shall. which almost entirely put aside as unworthy of consideration the comfort and convenience of the people who had to occupy them. Rome was lord. however. The fact must not be overlooked. Moor Park. Turu arcs of triumph to a garden gate ****** . and Holkham (No.. a point remarked upon by Pope The was influenced by a passion : "'tis very fine. their names and principal This passage suggests what characterizes the famous architects works are given. that the latter had better take a lodging opposite his Palladian mansion (by Lord Burlington). Oxfordshire (No. 238 F). often treated Northants (No. But where d'ye sleep." Inigo Jones. are thus referred to by Palladio. of the designs of " Antiquities of Rome. Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door. and many other examples. Yorkshire (No. 258 c). "You show Yet us. not profuse. if he liked nothing but the front. Latham Hall. for symmetry and grandeur.

and a step towards the privacy which is now insisted upon. with others. 1713). He published a book of his own designs. notable for skilful grouping the . Westminster. and Wanstead. Oxford. S. in the somewhat heavy style of his master. Colin Campbell (d. Norfolk (1723). and was the author of Complete Body of Architecture. stately. senior (d. Chatsworth. an amateur architect Ware (d. known works were the front and gateway of old Burlington House (1717). 1743) was a He pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh. erected the Mansion House. the most important mansion of the period erected in bury . Clement and Bartholomew's in London the Radsteeple. 3. Mary Woolnoth . London. May"A fair. in it is and which a striving after symmetry and monumental grandeur. Anne. the Danes Church Hospital all cliffe Library. EXAMPLES. Piccadilly. . Derbyshire (A. notably clerk of the works at Kensington Palace and Greenwich Hospital. Gloucestershire. Thomas Archer (d. ham House. . and works at Hampton Court. . Principal works: George. Hawksmoor held several Government appointments. His better known son was the designer of Newgate. 258). London. 238 F). and the Senate House. erected the Horse Guards. S. Northumberland. Gloucestershire King's (A. and Seaton Delaval. England. William Talman (d. erected S. in architectural detail. Rococo style.D. Horse Guards Parade Devonshire House. as with other of Wren's pupils.D.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 1734) was the the compiler of the ' k Vitruvius Britannicus. led to the debasement of architecture. Yorkshire (A.D. He Isaac erected Chesterfield House. He was the architect of the Pelican Fire Office. tion in collabora- with the Earl of Burlington. Houghton. and S. Essex (1720). 131 K). the most appropriate of and patron of Kent artists. 1714) (No. Lombard Street . but and ideas of some originality grandeur were too often marred by eccentricities of treatment. Cambridge. George Dance. (A.D. is an example of a ponderous character. PrinciS. 1681). Birmingham. and the commencement of the Palladian type of house. Norfolk (No. George in the East Limehouse Christ Church. 1763) was a pupil of Wren and followed him in his practice. Blenheim Palace Principal works: (No. The Earl of Burlington (A. Sir John Vanbrugh (1666-1726). was often his badly designed. in which the above works. Dover Street. Castle Howard. In the plan of Blenheim there is an extensive use of corridors as communicating passages. at the expense of usefulness. S. (1666- Nicholas Hawksmoor S. Kent (1684-1748). 1766). SpitalHe also all in London. Dyn. and other He Villa at designed the Palladian Chiswick an English . 1715). being a great development in planning. may be found. City architect of London. Martin in pal works were : the Fields ." which contains plans and elevations of all the country houses of any importance erected best His during the century. and Holkham Hall. are other works. is both picturesque and S. John. Weston.D. and Ely House. Castle Howard His works were much influenced both by Wren and Vanbrugh." Sir Robert Taylor (1714-1788). S. 1695-1753). fields assisted Sir John Vanbrugh at and Blenheim. Blooms. 1768). 1714) (the Mary-le-Strand tower is an oblong on plan). James Gibbs (1683-1754). Treasury Buildings. Philip.

and the College and Register Office.1813) studied Rome. downe . Bath (A. . but lacking somewhat and strength. 1764). His best known work is Prior Park. near designs . stone Hall. He travelled largely in The brothers Adam were the authors of a marked style of interior decoration that is known Furniture and by their name. 262. the Corinthian order of the Temple at Tivoli being closely followed. Whitehall. studied in Italy (1788)." in the year 1760. Kenwood House. dignified. Esher Carlton House. . commenced in 1776 (No. Wiltshire and Fonthill Abbey (1795-1822). first Treasurer of the Royal " Treatise on Academy. Luke's Hospital. prison lished in translation of the Villa Capra. Buckingham Sion House.D. The Dulwich picture gallery is by . . His early designs are Palladian. school.D. it fails in the quality of apparent suitability of purpose. 1735-1743). 259). wrote the Decorative Part of Civil the He carried on the Architecture. (1728-1792) published "Diocletian's Palace at Spalato. Robert John also of S. Ireland Bowden Park. and there is a consequent taint of eccentricity. His Europe great work is Somerset House. The Brothers Adam.D. in . Kedle. and the vestibule to . and largely employed. . Greek revival 261. England." traditions of the Anglo-Palladian objecting strongly to the then commencing. Hampstead . runs through t\vo rustication is A single order stories. James Wyalt( 1748. The character of his work in general is correct and refined. on the site now occupied 'by Waterloo Place (the Corinthian columns being employed at the National Brooks's Gallery) Club.582 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 17611762). a pupil of George Dance. which is grand. x and the East. Hampstead and many (A. He undertook the restoration of many of the cathedrals and important churches in England and Wales. ^00^(1704-1754) of Bath. near London (A. . 258) LansStratford Place. London House. a book which influenced architectural design. Edinburgh. He was appointed architect to the Bank of fames Gandon pupil of Sir the Custom W. Adams' chimneypieces are specially characteristic. Sir John Soane (1750-1837). Other designs are two sides of Fitzroy Square the Adelphi Terrace (named after the the screen in front four brothers) . are Lee Priory. and simple in its parts. London. Derbyshire (No. . Chambers. and various other works in that city. pub" Illustrations of Baalbec and Palmyra" in 1750. decoration were treated together with the design of the rooms themselves with refined and elegant details. private houses in London. and lately demo- Vicenza (page 488). and White's works in London Club. (1742-1823). creating a lished the taste for Roman magnificence. which is a charming and refined piece of work. Comparing this design with Newgate. junior. Kent Castle Coote. Whitehall ( 1 760) . Adam conjunction with Dawkins. occupied many This important building years of his life. and his later ones are thoss of an original mind. London (1765) Stowe House. Sir William Chambers (17261796). Caen Wood. The proportions he adopted for the Classic orders are given in Nos. Dover House. but the small knowledge of the true spirit of Gothic archi- and constitutes his masterpiece. in originality Holland Henry (1740-1806) erected Claremont House. The Pantheon (1772) in Oxford Street. but he was unable to clothe them with suitable details. of the Admiralty. a erected House and the Law Courts at Dublin. .

o Q sS" en u~> CS .


tively developed. and apartments. arcades. in Sir John Soane's Lincoln's Inn Fields. 260 G). but infrequency of openings was compensated for by large and unobstructed window areas (No. Plans. Windows were reduced in number as much as possible. occupy the ground floor. Pugin has starred him with " the affix the destroyer. Openings. Excessive cellarage. F). Gate piers are frequently in excellent Vertical grouping of windows was effecproportion (No. ingenious domical. doorways (No. to mask undesirable necessities. circular. COMPARATIVE. often cubical in proportion. ANGLO-CLASSIC. being introduced.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. but in later work it was usually stuccoed. and elsewhere. spherical one being sufficiently . and the large compositions of windows to more than one room or story were not affected by party-wall or floor divisions. were regulated by the proportions of the Classic orders. or other top lights. and often for the facing. Walls. " dignified for this style. and filled in solid between B. or by a mean approach from a side door through the basement. 4." 585 Museum. 258 c). 238 F. sometimes showing signs of being dictated by a preconceived The Italian use of a piano nobile above a storage elevation. tecture then existing is responsible for his inability to effect these with success. Unbroken surfaces contrasted with the porticos. E) the maximum scale was a question of material and expense. ANNE AND GEORGIAN STYLES. Brick was used most commonly for walling. K. or window dressings of the composition (No. Chimneys are often concealed. 260 A. Octagonal. pilasters. and the best rooms are reached by a great external staircase and portico (No. 261). c. and special Venetian Character (No. as in the houses of the Brothers Adam in Fitzroy Square. 261 c). sometimes of a Porticos. 258). 252 E and 258 c. are usual (No. H. Stone was used as an ashlar facing and for dressings. 131 G. These are marked by regularity and symmetry. as in houses in Hanover Square. and are used with and without balustrades. the varied shapes of the rooms. basement. j. formerly him. elliptical-shaped c. 258). 260 B). Corridors gradually supersede the hall and en suite or thoroughfare systems of planning (Nos. " No roof but a D. Pediments are the only form of gable. QUEEN A. affected the planning of many country houses (No. on plan. balustrades or attics conceal the small . Staircases receive much attention. 258 D). his private house. Roofs. are not uncommon. or kitchen offices. and blank walls. and the minimum condition of having to pass through them (No. and suites of such saloons are arranged in various combinations. These are usually thick. contains interest- ing drawings and models.


^JL SS3 ^t "te> *r"" is fcU m ^j> ^ w || .

1901. covered with lead. amount of low-pitched roof covering the building (No. (No. 260 D). Chambers (Nos. and turrets were well designed. who carried the art to a high pitch of technical excellence. tombs H. were most often of two or more stories in Columns. and design is thus often found of equal standard in very varied The large employment of wood. was modelled in stucco with great skill and effect. and small buildings resembling Roman Temples (No. 260 and chimney-pieces (No. LATER ENGLISH RENAISSANCE." 3 vols.. however. were employed in interiors with considerable effect. while small examples were sometimes entirely of wood. material smallness of scale was rendered possible. Wall (No. and French work of the style of Louis XIV. and skilful outlines (No. K) are among the most pleasing decorative features in the style. (SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. on Greek examples. folio. " Works in Architecture. Mouldings.). 5. orders were used wherever funds permitted (No. 260 tablets (No. Adam (R. 258).) Adam (R. 255). . being applied in every material with small modification (Nos. The orders were executed with facility in wood or plaster. often purely decorative height (Nos. in function. The standard mouldings of the Classic orders F. and J. who took various Renaissance architects as his guide. In the smaller works. Decoration. and J. The canons of proportion first laid down by Vitruvius (page 167) were still further insisted on by Sir W. in which classes of building. The G. tiled roofs having a wooden eaves cornice.) duced from the above. 258 A and 259). steeples of the period. but on possible owing to the small the introduction of stucco and iron these could be erected. Domes. admitted of much elaboration and refinement in such features as the main external cornices and doorways. artists such as Verrio and Sir James Thornhill being engaged. founded on Roman. or in the later period. those on a large scale being lead covered. became the stock-in-trade of every workman. 1773-1822. 261. 261 E)were most effectively grouped in parks and gardens. 262). rival mediaeval spires in fanciful E. Columns. and his successors was also followed. 260).). but sometimes fresco decorations were employed. REFERENCE BOOKS. cupolas. were often effectively used. Single order porticos of large scale were not size of stone obtainable. The splendid in stone and wood. 262). Ornament j). 260. Whitewash was usual." (A selection of plates reproFolio. while the Brothers Adam and others imported Italian workmen. Pilasters. or both.588 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Decorative Work of. 260).

Folio. \ Hope (A. Comprises (1830-37). Complete Body of Architecture. 589 Belcher (J." / ." 2 vols.) and M. ." (Also abridged edition.D. folio. M.). Great Britain.). Formal Gardens in England and Scotland." Folio. The beginning of the century saw Palladianism on the decline. "A 1896. jun. and Victoria (part of) (1837-51). The notes on this period are merely -given as explanatory of the general course of architecture at this time. etc. and the introduction of eclecticism as a governing idea in architectural design. Kent. E." 1897. Swan Folio.. On the one hand. 2 vols.). " Later Renaissance Architecture in England.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. due to the Stuart Napoleonic wars. and Revett's "Antiquities of Athens" (A. 1900.).). Life. Scott (Sir W. M. 1848-1849 u Gibbs (J. Lady Grizel. 1756. INFLUENCES (see page 545). (1820-30). and S. " Towers and Steeples designed by Sir Christopher Taylor (A.). (Contains much interesting information concerning the life and work of Sir Christopher. " Inigo Jones's Designs. Inigo) and H. Macartney. 1767-1783." 2 vols. i." of Sir Christopher (A. " Parenfalia. Folio. 8vo.. shut out new ideas in art. Plans.)." Folio.).) 1750.. Virginians. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Houses. "The 1897. " Ware (I. folio.). folio. 1897-1901." Woodstock. Triggs (H.). Wren. 1715-1771. H.. Blomfield (R.D. 1901. " Vitruvius Britannicus." Devereux. 8vo." 1881. Book of Architecture." 2 vols. 1835. . the reigns of George IV. History of Renaissance Architecture in England." Folio. Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture 1883.). " London Churches of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." Folio. isolation from the Continent.)." . in 8vo. Tanner. and on the other hand.). . Birch (G. Work.)." Works of Sir Christopher Wren Churches of London and Westminster." Folio. Designs in Architecture. Woolfe." Simon Dale." By W. 2. Wren (C.. folio. Thackeray (W. " of Inigo Jones." Stratton (A." " Wingfield (L.). 1728. " Papworth (W." 1902." Lytton (Lord).-" Esmond.." " The Thackeray (W. 1762). Inwood's " Erechtheion .) the Parochial Clayton (J." I T > Historical Novels. T. 1764). " Paine (T. 1757. Inigo)." 5 vols. and Gandon." Folio.). " " Robert Adam's " Spalato (A. William IV. " Some Architectural Works Triggs (H. THE EARLY VICTORIAN STYLE (THE AGE OF REVIVALS). and Influence Wren. By Campbell.


and Grange House. side by side. since spoilt by erection of adjacent buildings. London the National Gallery (fettered with conS. f Pancras (1819). and the laying out of Regent's Park in palatial blocks of synimetricai architecture. : William Wilkins : New Court. caused an increased interest in Classic architecture and the erection of buildings modern internal arrangements). run concurrently. and the works of other writers. John Shaw Dunstan . the galleried church of the period being clothed with details. Brandon's of the Middle Ages. already referred to (page 582).In wood(-i j^\-\^>^}\ New r THE GOTHIC SCHOOL." and other works. since altered Regent . by Horace Walpole. (A. Luke. 1769). 3. Cambs. of the Regency. with colonnades have moved) All Souls. Savage: S. caused an increasing interest to be taken in Gothic This interest was further aided by the erection of Architecture. reproducing purest Church of S. Nash (1752-1835). " Churches Paley. internally of the traditional architecture. an attempt to copy absolutely the of Greek detail. Britton's Architectural " " Cathedral Anti(1807-1826). the Antiquities of Great Britain quities of Great Britain" (1814-1835). by Blore Quadrant (the since been re. 1831). for the first time. EXAMPLES.. directly from old cathedrals and copied churches. Trinity College. and Fonthill Abbey (a monastic building with (A. and the New Buildings.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 59! " Greek copied from Greek originals. Somewhat later. an early attempt at revived Gothic. Fleet Street : ing London. . Strawberry Hill (1760-1770). a Pseudo-Gothic Abbey. Cotman and the elder Pugin. Wild. This started a fashion for castellated mansions. by James Wyatt. Cambs. which is known as the Revival. ditions) George's Hospital. (A. Examples in the Classic ture. 1819). as at Belvoir Castle. Athens. Langham Place.D. S.D. . Cambs. Chelsea (1820). H. in many respects the Erechtheion. and externally battlemented and turreted 1840) : in imitation of the Edwardian castles.D." Battey Langley's "Gothic Architecture Improved. Buckingham : Palace. and Gothic schools of architec- Note. the influence of literature helped to produce what is known as the " Gothic Revival. Street." a movement much strengthened by the importation of the Elgin marbles in 1801-1803.. the writings of Professor Cockerell and the publications of the Society of Dilettanti (A. 1831-1832). .D.D." Rickman's " Attempt to Discriminate the Gothic Styles" (A. are placed THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. William Wilkins (1778-1839) University College. which now. Sir Jeffrey Wyatville (1766transformed Windsor Castle in 1826. Museum at York DownThe College. W. King's College. Hants (1820). a fine treatment of a town church. the writings of Coney. introduced the age of stucco Haymarket Theatre. 1776-1832) in the West.

simplicity of idea. Threadneedle Street. a new era in the Gothic revival began. . and elsewhere S. and made a vast number of designs in collaboration with or as assistant He had not yet arrived to others. Rome. On the death of Elmes. and brought in the " astylar " treatment of design. a design inspired by the Farnese Palace. Amongst the numerous works which he erected. S. 1855. Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860) travelled extensively in Egypt. Cockerell com- The pleted the decoration of the interior." He erected the Taylor and Ranthe Sun dolph Institute. and published "The Greek Temples of yEgina and Bassae. George's Cathedral. : Prof. George tian " style. Oxford Fire Office. 1833 Houses of Parliament. can typical examples be mentioned Roman Catholic churches at Nottingham. besides convents. TV/* (1798-1873) Royal Exchange.592 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Cockerell. Pall Mall. R. Ramsgate. (lately demolished). shows the influence of the Pandolfini Palace. which is Classic in inspiration. London (1831). Elmes (1815-1847) George's Hall. and ornamental work generally of following : .. by the earnest study of old work. Derby. In Bridgewater House. travelled much in Greece and Italy. and richness of character pervade the whole design. 263). Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867). Southwark. . Gothic "in the . " depamphlet contrasting the " architecture of the day graded " with what he called the Chris- THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. R. metal work. and United Service Club.A. (17881863). at the meridian of his power when he died at the age of forty. H. In the Gothic revival Pugin sought to restore the fervour of faith and the self-denying spirit which were the real foundations of the artistic greatness and moral grandeur of the Middle Ages. only the few the colonnade and portico design is handled with great effect. Regent Street (1825) . . erected Fitzwilltam Museum. lege. in which symmetry of the leading lines on plan. L. commenced 1840 (No. Sir IV. Sir Charles Barry : Birmingham Grammar School. Externally a : church building was awakened. and. the fashion of useless porticos. Liverpool. Pall Mall. London. and carried out with scrupulous adherence to the spirit and detail of the Perpendicular clothing. and many in colonies. : . He abandoned Greece. and Italy. and S. period. Weiby Northmore Augustus Pugin (1812-1852). is the most perfect design of the Classic School. from beingemployed upon his father's books of mediaeval architecture. the main hall recalling the Roman Thermae (page 144). The Travellers' Club. Prof. The a pupil of Sir John Soane British Museum (1823-1847) (in which remark the application of the useless but grandeur-giving to buildings) public porticos General Post Office King's Col: . Florence. under Sir Charles Barry on the stained glass. vault was executed in hollow tiles by Sir Robert Rawlinson. mansions and schools. monasteries. Basevi (1795-1845). fittings. A new spirit of Decimus Burton (1800-1881) Screen at Hyde Park Corner in 1824 Athenaeum Club. a pupil of Sir John Soane. acquired an extraordinary knowledge of the He published a rousing style. London (recently altered) Banks of England at Manchester. Cambs. THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. over Chapel. Pall Mall. and was followed by the Reform Club. Pugin erected more than sixty-five churches in the United Kingdom. the Houses of Parliament. won in competition. C. Pall Mall. AugusHe worked tine's. . Brisand Liverpool and Hantol.

discarded porticos as unnecessary. Venice). Willis. glass painting. and others. by its illustration of ancient decorative art. third of the series (1849). Hall at work. had powerfully aided F. Rev. The restoration of a large number of cathedrals and churches. 1857). the influence of the Gothic revival is 593 THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. the attention of all was riveted on the earlier phases of mediaeval architecture which every- Sir James Pennethorne (1801assistant to Nash. and the works of Beresford-Hope. and detail is refined. and 1871).D. first idea of the movement that of carrying on the Tudor style so that. and the final touch to this influence was given by the 1851 Exhibition. THE LATE VICTORIAN STYLE. Prof. Comprises the latter part of the reign of Victoria (1851-1901). the Gothicists was now paramount. Fetter Lane. Burlington Gardens Somerset House.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Orders were sparingly used. is a still more ornate example of the Renaissance. in 1851. Piccadilly (after courtyard of the Doge's Palace. design of this great building was It was the climax of the slight. Petit. and Cliefden. and the erection of many new churches. and formed a starting The popularization of point for the arts of the Victorian age. and followed on Renaissance rather than Classic lines : one was engaged in imitating. Sharpe. cation of "The Seven Lamps of Architecture" and "The Stones of Venice. Shrublands. Cockerell and Prof. and by the atelier which was there maintained for some years. Brandon. . and sculptured works. The Great Exhibition of 1851 caused the raising into prominence of the minor arts. the Trentham Hall (where landscape gardening of the Italian School is admirably carried out). Whewell. western wing (A. which in the end has done so much to raise the arts and crafts to a higher state of perfection.A. J. and in marked contrast to the previous buildings of the Revival. helped on the Gothic movement. decoration. Parker. in 1860. Donaldson were writing on the Classic side. influenced by Barry. while Prof. Service Commission." by Ruskin. directed the execution of the fittings. the intention being to combine picturesqueness with symmetrical stateliness. under Sir Charles Barry. The immediate effect of the evidently felt. agreeing with the style of the building. The end of the period of Sir Charles Barry marks the close of the Geological Museum. and the His Italian feeling final Halifax. the Civil The influence of Classic Revival. Other important works in the country are : Town less strong. mosaics. Highclere. such as metal work. Q . at the time of its completion. Record Office. architecture by the architectural courts and models of buildings The publiin the various styles aroused an interest in the subject. Pugin. L. The foundation of the South Kensington (now Victoria and Albert) Museum carried further the influence of the 1851 Exhibition. greater richness is sought is after.

Westminster . London. GOTHIC SCHOOL. 1861. Harrow School. London house in Cadogan Square the Convent. He endeavoured to introduce the Early French Renaissance. Venice. in Northumberland Avenue. Paddington . Mark. Oxford . Owen Jones : Westminster. houses. S. Mary's Cathe- Haley Hill. Banks and Barry : Dul: Kensington the Albert Memorial S. London the Speech . William College. it was attempted to extend to buildings every purpose until the movement met with a severe check in the decision. John Gibson National James the Less. Room. or Free Classic. Sir Digby Wyatt (1820-1877) Courtyard to India Office. Oxford . The work of Shaw. James's Hall. and it is in fact but a poor ideas of the Renaissance. and built his own house in Melbury Road. B2itlerfield : vvich (the Burlington House Courtyard and facade to College . restored Cardiff Castle. CLASSIC SCHOOL. Charing Cross Station. Mary Abbott. Westminster. Street (1824-1881) : S. . E. and Margaret Street. Benjamin Ferrey S. dral. P. Stephen. ledge. A*. Piccadilly). British Mu- seum reading-room Carlton Club. Nelson : Junior United Service Club. Provincial Banks in London and the provinces. a : modern version of Venetian Gothic. Pall Mall. George. to erect the Home and Foreign Offices (1860-1870) in the Classic. acquiesced in by Sir Gilbert Scott. many and other new churches. Mary Magdalene. the Law Courts. . Burges (1828-1881) Cork . Doncaster (1853) S. all of which show the increasing desire for and S. Barry (1831-1 880) Covent . : Cathedral (1870) . The design thus dictated to Scott was not likely to be a masterpiece. and Webb influenced the design of smaller buildings in suburbs and country. The Free: masons' Tavern. London Alban. the Gothic revival. after the library of S. East Grinstead house and church at Holmwood. has unique decorative work inside by Alfred Stevens. which for . Nesfield. Pancras Station buildings in Broad Sanctuary. and elsewhere. . Messrs. London. . Stoke Newington the Martyrs' . G. Lewis Vulliamy : Dorchester House. W. . Sir Memorial. Edinburgh . Holborn.594 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. S. Garden Theatre Building. . . Victoria Embankment. as in the Temple Chambers. Strand The Art Union . E. Brandon Catholic : and . restorations. for domestic buildings. Keble Saints. church 5 at Halifax (1855) church at Hamburg S. after a Roman Renaissance palace. and Philip Webb. . study of color. compromise between modern French and the traditional Italian After this crisis a new movement. in which the Classic orders embracing two stories are the Society for freely introduced the Promotion of Christian Know: . due to Norman Shaw. or as it was called. Mary. . All Sydney Smirke : The story added to Burlington House . then arose in favour of the Queen Anne style. Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877) The Foreign Office. : M. S. while churches and kindred buildings continued to be erected in a developed style of Gothic architecture. the modern style. Cockerell: Gilbert Scott (-1810-1877): Camber well Church S. Nesfield. . F.

595 London. and H. additions . Grassland: Holloway College. and the Albert Hall. James Brooks: Churches in Holland Road. Kilburn. west front and dome added later. West Croydon. Norman Shaw : New Zealand Chambers. Mark. come Alexander Thomson. Gordon Square. Scott nington . Todmorden Apostolic Church. London. S. James. His eight London W.) S. . Town field GOTHIC SCHOOL. Hall and Assize Courts Natural History Museum. Bristol Assize Courts. buildings. churches (1) : Embankment. G. Augustine. Philip IVebb: "Clouds. Gribble: The Oratory at (2) Holy Trinity. G. : S. Lowther Lodge. John. of Glasgow. Alban. R. Kensington. Congleton Waterhouse : Manchester . . Agnes. . (6) S. (5) S. and many houses. H. Whitehall. in the Palladian Gosford Park. since altered. hall. Davis and Emmanuel : City of London Schools.: Truro Cathedral. Learning Brothers: Birmingham. (4) Brompton. The student confined to London may obtain an idea of the early French Renaissance style by an inspection ot this building. Moscow Road. Town A.A. and houses at Bedford Alliance AssurPark. Gospel Oak. and many others round London. Pall Mall houses at Queen's Gate. Cambridge. Whichcord: S. 1859. Kenchurches at Southwark and Norwich the Greek Church. : Hall. Fowke and Assistants: The Science College." Hampshire . (7) Catholic Apostolic Church.Whitehall. Upper Norwood. Hall.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. South Kensington. E. Redhill . Kenoffices at Lincoln's Inn sington . Chiswick ance Office. Pearson. Chiswick Parish Church (additions) S. Lord Carlisle's house. since altered . 1879 . and Northampton Town Hall. London. of Ruskin's teaching. (The Italian style a condition of the competition. Admiralty (The result Buildings. manner. Leadenhall Street. South . S. Egham (after Chateau de ChamStephen's Club National Safe Deposit. J. of an open competition which practically sounded the death knell of Gothic architecture for public R. . Astor Estate Offices. S. Hoiborn Eaton Hall. Vauxhall. London houses. Peter. London house near . Thomas's Hos- Bodley and Garner : School Board Offices. Q Q 2 . Cheshire City Guilds of London Institute. John. directly the out- Burns: Buccleuch House. Currey pital. Fields. Lower Kennington Lane. (3) S. Kensington. Anne. Young: Glasgow Municipal Buildings. The Smith - London. John. Michael. Town bord). Thames Embankment. W. White- (8) Maida Hill. CLASSIC SCHOOL. : Spanish S. Godwin Market and Guildhall School Capt. W. : S. Red Lion Square. Kensington. to . known as "Greek Thomson": several buildings at Glasgow with a peculiar severe treatment of modern Greek which had much influence. 1879 Prudential Assurance Offices. Place. S. War Office. London Leamington. . London Thames Nesfield: Lodges at Kew Regent's Park.) G oldie . as country " Wispers ". Deane and Woodward: The Oxford Museum. L. E. : Sir Horace Jones of Music. . Pembroke College. Bessborough Gardens (1850).

Bournedomestic work Offices. Palcy and Austin : and shire. Robson and ] son : Sir Arthur Blomfield: S. Douglas and Fordham Churches and domestic half-timber work. 5 Newnham Basil Champneys : Girton and . . mouth. Sedding(\*3j-\%<)2) Holy : : London. Hammersmith . Children's adjacent . other churches in Stock port Lanca- Theatre. S. T. : . Castle Allerton. Sussex. . G. . /. Hospital. Leeds. London. . R. Folkestone. . Wilson. Oxford ." Harrow Mission at Hampstead . Cambridge Indian Institute and Mansfield College. marks the Mountford: . Old Bailey. Westminster. London Rylands Library. page 56). Wormwood Scrubs Scotland Yard (Anglo-Classic). Bentley New Cathedral. Staffordshire . John. London. . Piccadilly. John. L. Jackson: Work at Oxford the Examination Schools and . and many other churches Sion College. Thames Embankment the Church House. Chelsea (1890). . T.596 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Westminster All Saints. Chiddingstone Causeway S. . S. Collingham Gardens and Cadogan Square. colleges in revived Ernest George and Peto (Influence of Flemish Renaissance) : ber Church ney Wick. Town proper importance the Church of the Clerkenwell (a new Holy Redeemer. Moorgate French Church. CLASSIC SCHOOL GOTHIC SCHOOL. Holborn Viaduct Hotel and Station. Bodley and Garner Hoar Cross. . version of the Wren style) ." and Bryhouses near Salisbury anston. premises. E. and Clement. Electra House." Dawpool. R. Robson: Institute of Water Colors. Peter. Thomas's Seminary. in " " " Craigside. Street Office. smith . Victoria. the People's Palace. and elsewhere. . additions to Elizabethan. Telegraph Offices. . S. J. for London School typical Board London red brick stocks. Work . Art Gallery and Pump Room Government : . Moorgate St. Trinity Church. Brydon Hall and Bath Polytechnic Municipal Buildings. IV. . Bride's Vicarage. Luke's Holy Rood. John F. in Chester and elsewhere. Moorgate Street. Belcher: Institute of Chartered Accountants Colchester Town Hall Eastern Co. and Badminton Clubs. Ernest Newton Houses at : . Mary. the Wren style Salisbury. Finsbury. W. (also see . and many others. raising of the arts and . . . Brighton " Greek Architecture. Colleges. Soho Square. Junior Constitutional. Westminster the Church of the S. London Lloyd's Registry Office. Chelsea Town J. ham. Mary. M. Sir Aston Webb: Metropolitan . Clap- E. Horsham. Edis : Constitutional. Palace City Bank. and several large houses. S. London. London. W. Works Hill. Brentford S. the New Gallery. Ealing. Insurance Buildings. dressings and yellow E. E. Sir Aston Webb and Ingress Bell: Birmingham Assize Courts. Colcutt : imperial Institute . Stevenstyle in S. D. and in conjuncT tion with H.. London houses at Streatham Common Buchan at . W . Florence: Hotel Woolland's bridge. and others. New Church. H. Church at Clumchurches at Hack: . Manchester. Life tecture). Knights/. Hammer. crafts into their Hall Battersea Town Hall Battersea Polytechnic Liverpool Technical Schools and Art Galleries Central Criminal Court. ' . Sheffield . Watford Church. Finsbury Circus. London (a monumental example of street archi. Portsea. London Christ's Hospital. R. . Sussex.

In the "Gothic" school. where. Melbourne Cathedral. Gothic and Renaissance styles. H. and elsewhere Episcopal Palaces. Prynne: Dulwich and During the last fifty years the pages of the professional journals have contained most of the noteworthy buildings erected. Classic is principally though not wholly reserved for secular buildings. Parliament House at Sydney was intended to be rebuilt in this . large extent followed the lead of the mother country. city halls. Wokingham and else- Victoria Naval College. Municipal Town Hall . and the Parliament House. of architecture in the great self-governing Zealand and Canada. and buildings The development New have been and are erected both in the Classic.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. style. Montreal. and the outward symbol of the twentieth century. Carce : Churches at . resist all revivals and fashions. Hare: Oxford Municipal . . Bristol and Stewart and Lanchester. G. for they seem to show that a style or out. Dartmouth Memorial Processional Avenue. Haslemere. As in England. Canterbury. Buildings Buildings . Fellowes Churches elsewhere. and Gothic for ecclesiastical buildings. and become the free expression of our own civilization. T. W. and the The Parliament House at Ottawa are outstanding examples. D. but the building was not proceeded with further than the foundation. Some of the larger works are of importance and are an evidence of the political growth of those colonies in which they are situate. Among those in the "Classic" school are the MacGill University. Stafford . insurance offices. Henley Hall. such as Australia. H. Sir Aston Webb: Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington) 5Q7 GOTHIC SCHOOL. at Staines. and it is a source of much pleasure and instruction to go through these records of the developments which have taken place. Fordington. Richards: Cardiff Town Hall and Law Courts. has to a colonies. CLASSIC SCHOOL. Liverpool. Leonard Stokes : Churches and schools at Folkestone. Melbourne and a large number of banks. worked British Colonial Architecture. . and law courts. a homely type of design resembling our own Georgian style being employed for smaller domestic works of the countryhouse type. manner in architecture is being slowly which may. the old buildings being still in use. Crewe Town Exeter. London. it is hoped. and elsewhere.

the Old State House and the Town Hall at Newport are other well-known buildings. and tiled and tall. Now somewhat fallen to decay. at Boston (17 47)." LONGFELLOW. the " hipped roof and the dentil cornice of the Queen Anne period the internal fittings resembling those of Adam and Sheraton. kind of old Hobgoblin Hall. as at Brandon. Paul.ARCHITECTURE " IN THE UNITED STATES. In the "New England" States wood was the material principally employed. And chimneys huge. new country. THE study of the progress of architecture in a . worn and crazy doors'. Ionic half-columns to its fa9ade. During the eighteenth century (1725-1775) buildings were erected which have been termed "colonial" in style. and largely affected the detail. S. corresponding " " to what is understood in England as Queen Anne or Georgian ' ' ' ' (page 578). Philadelphia (1729-1735). and Maryland. Cambridge It has elongated (1757). the designer of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford). many of the best examples of country houses were erected. the homes of the tobacco planters. " at erected after the manner of Sir Christopher Wren. is interesting than a cursory glance. And creaking and uneven floors. is typical of the symmetrical buildings. Shirley. With weather stains upon the wall And stairways. The early buildings were mainly churches or "meeting houses. Built in the old Colonial clay. A With ampler hospitality . The Spanish rule in Florida and California is responsible for . shuttered sash windows. Michael Charlestown (1752) (the probable architect being Gibbs. New York (1767). When men lived in a grander way." . Craigie House. S. were among the early churches. Independence Hall. In Virginia. Philadelphia (1727-1735). Christ Church. untrammelled with precedent and lacking the conditions obtaining but room is not available for more in Europe.

New York (1839-1846). Virginia University (1817). by Bullfinch. Harvard College (1870-1877). Upjohn the State Capitol at Hartford. The original Capitol at Washington (1793-1830). while such exhibitions as that at Philadelphia (1876). 599 mission houses. Albany City Hall. The Gothic Revival was confined principally to churches (1840-1876). Richardson. recently destroyed by and rebuilt in a similar manner by McKim. both by Renwick Trinity Church. New York. . worked in the non-academic French Romanesque manner. Boston (1877). Two architects. " Biltmore Carolina many city buildings. M. Philadelphia. Philadelphia (1876) Memorial Hall. and R. H. Hallet and Latrobe. Louis (1904) have aided in enlarging the national ideas. Patrick's Cathedral. and greatly influenced his contemporaries and successors. are his well-known examples. Among the buildings of importance a few only can be mentioned. Chicago (1893) an d S.ARCHITECTURE many forts. Richardson (1826-1886). owing to the erection of new State capitals. fire. Among the buildings were the Wings and Dome of the Capitol at Washington (1858-1873). and the additions to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. and many charming small libraries round Boston. H. . Pittsburgh County Buildings. the Town Hall. which became the model for many public buildings. by Jefferson. . M. recently enlarged and restored. Trinity Church. are examples of this revival. but produced similar results. M. several State capitols. Hunt has been specially employed in the erection of large town and country houses. Hunt (1827-1895) also helped the movement. Mead and White. by R. a country chateau in North Houses at Newport. New York (begun in 1858). New York (1871-1877). by R. Boston Custom House. . which bear resemblance Spanish Renaissance buildings. Philadelphia. including the Lennox Library. although a pupil of the Ecole des BeauxArts. by Walters. the United States Mint. churches and to the IN THE UNITED STATES. begun in 1871. and the devastating conflagrations of Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872) all helped to create greater interest in architecture. The Classic Revival (1812-1870) of Europe reached the States somewhat late. both^in very different ways. Grace Church (1845) and S. and the Capitol at Albany. and the Massachusetts State House at Boston (1795). "among which may be mentioned. The Customs House at New York. Between the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the war of 1812. by Thornton. R. The industrial activity which followed the civil war (1861-1865). work at Harvard University. a more monumental type was evolved. . Upjohn (1873-1878) the Museum at Boston (1876-1880) the Academy of Fine Arts. the . the Treasury at Washington. Recent Architecture.


supporting masonry brick or terra-cotta inclosing walls. the staircase. . by Messrs. wood being largely employed in the country districts. President Grant's Tomb. by Library." and an exposition of architecture on the wilds of the western prairie turned out to be a collection of well-studied Parisian designs. Mead and White. New York . by Petz. which has had a good deal of influence in the designing of recent library buildings. and the Boston Public Library. Adler and Sullivan. In some the walls have been constructed of a framework of steel. and a picturesque grouping of steep Among later buildings of note are 5. Columbia University at New York. Among the most important are the Garrick (Schiller) Theatre. Providence. Smithmeyer and Green New York Public the State House. and the enormous buildings of the leading newspapers. It is to be hoped that the imitative element will not cause these great Classic designs to be reproduced elsewhere for town halls. . or perhaps wood alone. roofs. The plan of these houses often shows great originality. Mead and White University of Pennsylvania. already advancing so rapidly along certain new lines of departure. . Madison Square Theatre in Neiv York. being main features. a modern Renaissance design by McKim. by Carrere and Hastings McKim. museums and other buildings. York Chicago Public New . the general use of lifts and fireproof construction and the cost of land has caused the erection of many important town buildings of great height. The Monadnock Building and the Masonic Temple at Chicago. The Ames Building and Tremont Temple in Boston. Burnham and Root. by Shepley. sitting-hall. insurance offices and trusts are notable. The same architects have erected very scholarly and refined buildings at the Library. Many looked for some new development in either iron or terra-cotta. piazza. Such buildings are essentially modern in character. a most successful and chaste design as applied to a high building. being in a country which is the centre of the lumber market but " extremes meet. by Cope and Stewardson Libraries at Washthe Ponce de Leon ington and Atlantic City. in the Spanish Renaissance style. but that American architects . by Carrere and Hastings. 264). . Chicago (No. at Philadelphia (various buildings). Domestic Architecture. John the Divine. 6oi The abnormal progress of American industries during the last 25 years.ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. Rutan. which is in reality a tower. and Coolidge Congressional Library at Washington. but are not necessarily ugly in design. by Messrs. will value the lessons they teach without copying their exact . . by Ross and Ackermann Hotel at Florida. . The designs of the various buildings for the Chicago Exposition (1893) differed largely from expectation. Riverside Drive. The houses of small type have been very successfully treated.

not for the forms with which they abound. needs. If architecture is thus studied a good result will be assured. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and aspirations of the life and character of the age in which he lives. it is certain if American Architecture . and the architect will produce works reflecting the hopes. constituting a retrogressive movement. In conclusion. as much as possible. much in the same way that the literature of the past is studied in order to acquire a good literary style. express themselves in the language of their own times. if not there will be another great American Classic revival French type which will go far beyond any craze such as has occurred in England and do a great deal to retard the true progress of the of art in America. but for the principles which they inculcate. as has been done in certain cases. No advance can be made by the copying of ancient buildings. The great historic styles must of course be well studied. that there is a great future for only the architects will. and showing a sad want of the appreciation of the true value of art.602 forms .

and need not interrupt the story of the evolution of European Historical Architecture dealt with in Part I. it will make for greater clearness to the student. but by utilizing the vast amount of material brought to light by General Cunningham and a score of others. He was the first to piece together the story of Indian and Eastern architecture.. however. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. which would probably be the case if they were placed in their chronological order. They can thus be studied independently. and is the one which has been followed. Mention should be made of the late Mr.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. since it presents many novel forms to which one is . The study of Indian and indeed of all Eastern art enlarges the view. Fergusson's chronology is founded on his own labours and such investigations. a matter of doubt. Chinese and Japanese and Central American are those which developed mainly on their own account and exercised little direct influence on other styles. PART II. Fergusson's investigations on the subject. The position which they should occupy in a History of Architecture is. who had been working mainly in connection with government departments. Saracenic architecture is also placed in Part II. THE non-historical styles Indian. THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. as its connection with European architecture is not generally considered important. although it certainly influenced it to some extent.. not only by his own patient researches. but it is thought that by keeping them quite separate from the historical styles. Mr.

doubtless because of their unusual It is. unaccustomed. no other style was such patient care and labour bestowed on the minutest detail.604 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and which. or whether such forms would not be considered beautiful if sanctioned by custom. and models of temples. monuments and houses. 265. The student should visit the Indian Museum at South Kensington. " " Use is second and Indian architecture was no doubt nature. . From an architect's point of view. casts of details. In India and the East. often strike one as ugly or bizarre. however. as was the case in Europe from the Classic period to that of the Renaissance. these non-historical styles can scarcely be so interesting as those which have progressed on the solution of constructive problems. decorative schemes seemed to have It is certain that in outweighed any such problems. beautiful to those who were engaged on it and to whom it was meant to appeal. which possesses a most valuable collection of portions of original buildings. resolutely met and overcome. character. a question of taste and education as to whether this impression is really due to this unusual character.

and on the East by the heights of Southern Assam. as the Nerbudda. as London is of England. Geographical fifteen an area good harbours.INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. and Jumna. Persia. Delhi (the " Rome of India "). For she was prophesying of her glory And in her wide imagination stood Palm-shaded temples and high rival fanes By Oxus or on Ganges' sacred isles. Krishna. and were utilized for rafting down timber used for building from the immense forests. INFLUENCES. that from the Lower Ganges. boatmen. the Hindu Koosh. Delhi is therefore the centre of India. Its architectural importance was probably gained through being at the junction of four historic roads. were important as affording employment to thousands of deficient in . covers nearly 50 square miles. Indus. The rock-cut temples on the Western Ghats are attributed by some to the influence of Egypt. The coasts. the Indus Valley and the Gulf of Cambay. i. a collection of ruins of different cities. : i. the remaining portion is bounded by the sea. By forming trade routes or cheap highways they assisted in the formation of great cities. and Assyria. The rivers. Ganges. The Ganges-Jumna Valley contains some of the principal cities of architectural importance. It was the capital of the Mogul Emperors (page 671)." KEATS. viz.West by the Suleiman mountains. primarily of the : . as they contain capitals and columns of similar design. may have helped to keep the people aloof from extraneous influences but by her position she was destined to receive the human overflow from the ancient breeding grounds of Central Asia. India a three-cornered country occupies times greater than Great Britain. The proximity of the Greek Bactrian Kingdom in the north-west had considerable classical influence on the architecture. Bounded on the North by the Himalayas on the North. More thought than woe was in her dusky face.

and may have influenced later work in producing the exuberance of ornament. " Histoire de 1' ArchiThe map 265) taken from Choisy's Gandhara On (No. At Mahavellipore and Ellora. uniform in texture and of considerable thickness. the ancient dynasties of Southern India fixed their capitals there. being comparatively open. being found in large forests on the Eastern and Western Ghats. which had considerable influence on Indian architecture from the earliest Mention should be made of the pink marble of Rajputana. as in Egypt (page 29). iii. wet and dry. being composed of horizontal strata of trap formation. and thence over Northern India generally. The genera) use of the great fan or punkah in the hot season A . predominate. Thus. rendered easy by the pressing of plastic clay into moulds. flat terraced roofs. so close grained as to take a polish. Teak is the principal wood of the country. used for coolness. a narrow strip of lowland only intervening between the Ghats and the seaboard caused the inhabitants to remain to this day aloof from civilizing movements. tecture. Palms (which afford food. In West India. wooden origin is traceable to nearly all the Buddhist architectural forms. a nodular form of impure lime found in most river valleys." were hewn out of the Indian amygdaloidal trap formations of these districts. Two principal seasons. Climate. the east coast the country. and in the Himalayas. and from shells plentifully found in the marshes. Other woods are ebony. Lime for building is obtained by burning limestone and Kankar. times. India lies mostly within the tropics. brick was used to some extent. divide the year. Assyria and Persia. was accessible to the spread of civilization. into the face of which the temples were cut. Terracotta seems to have been employed in early times. or sleeping." indicates the differen