SEMINAR ON CALENDERING

PRESENTED BY MARIA IMMANUEL RICHARD L II ND SEM M.Tech TOOL ENGINEERING R V COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

htm . http://www.Calendering  In the calendering process melted plastic is passed through heated rolls to form a sheet.com/manufact. and continues down a series of rollers with gaps of decreasing size until the required thickness is achieved. However.  The equipment for calendering cost more than the equipment for extrusion.plastiquarian. Afterwards the film is cooled on a chill roller. the process involves far less cleaning than the extruder. which must be flushed and cleaned post use.

The Machine .

Typical Calender Line .

Calender Roll Arrangements L I F Z .

. Due to vundulating motions in the melt bank from the center to edges. Structural Anomalies  Particulate and crystalline structure changes under the influence of high temperature and stress Mattness  Micro-irregularity or loss of surface gloss on the surface not in contact with the roll Microwhen leaving the calender gap.Calendering Sheet Defects      Dimensional Non-uniformities Non Thickness variations in the sheets due to roll bending with large separation forces. Compensated with crowned rolls ± larger diameter in center than at ends. Can be prevented from passing through the calender rolls through high pressure. Onsets at a wall shear stress value of 5x108 Pa. V-shapes  Surface thickness variations with vertex of v-shape at center of sheet. Air Bubbles  Captured in the melt bank.

Uses  Major plastic material is PVC  Also produced are:  Wall coverings  Upholstery fabrics  Reservoir linings  Agricultural mulching materials  Rubber sheet .

Rubber  Made by a combination of extrusion and calendering  ³roller die process´  Better quality products than single process .

Coating and Impregnating Fabrics  Industrial process used to produce: Car tires Conveyer belts Inflatable rafts Waterproof cloth tents  Rain coats     .

Limitations  Thickness  Generate film or sheet with a uniform thickness distribution  Precise dimensions of the rolls  Cost  Installation requires large capital investment  Extruder is fraction of cost of calender  Superior for product production due to high quality and volume capabilities .

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