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Arceo, Chester Lim, Kyle Mabasa, Jojo Marquez, Avery Sonza, Ethan
Lourdes School of Mandaluyong St. Ignatius of Laconi
Armand John Yangat February 22, 2013
This study is dedicated to people who have curious minds that could devote their time, body, mind, money, and heart for the sake of Science and for the sake of the improvement of civilization. This study is also aimed for the sake of the prominent minds and bright futures of the future students of Lourdes School of Mandaluyong.
This study is also dedicated to the researchers’ prominent, outstanding, inspirational Physics teacher, Sir Armand John Yangat for being their light and guide in conducting the research.
indeed. the University of the Philippines' Institute of Civil Engineering for providing past. researching and printing the experiment and research such as the parents of the researchers for providing the materials. Sir Armand John Yangat. patience and perseverance he portrayed. studied and used this research for the greater good of the world. for giving them the opportunity to conduct this experiment and for the support. mainly the mussel shells. Lastly but certainly not the least. a true inspiration and role model to society. researches and for testing the components of the hollow blocks. similar.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers express their utmost gratitude to their Physics teacher. the researchers would like to thank the people who have whole-heartedly read. ii . encouragement. the High School Library of Lourdes School of Mandaluyong for providing useful and detailed information related to the research. Sir Yangat is. The researchers would also like to thank the people who have had helped them in conducting.
the researchers believe that mussel shells. leading to mussel shells used as an additive in hollow block making. Based on initial research. can offer extra strength and durability when used properly hence. better food. commercial hollow blocks that are deemed quite expensive in the current market. iii i i .ABSTRACT This study aims to develop with stronger and tougher hollow blocks by the means of adding mussel shells to the base composition of the hollow block so that it could withstand greater compressive strength. This will also serve as a substitute for the regular. The study is mainly for the betterment and improvement of civilization by killing two birds with one stone: addressing the pollution and solid waste problem by recycling mussel shells and by improving infrastructures by strengthening the foundations of it through improving the base which. is usually hollow blocks integrated with the famous cooking thought: Better ingredients. or rather a crustacean shell. in the Philippines.
..............................16 Summary ...........................11 ..............................Research Design ......................TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication ................................... Analysis and Interpretation of Data ....................................3 Significance of the Study ..........................15 ...........12 Research Diagram .....................14 Chapter V: Summary.. Conclusion and Recommendation .....15 .........................................................Sampling Procedure ................................4 Definition of Terms ............................10 11 11 Instrumentation ...........................................Bibliography ..................................13 ..........................................i Acknowledgement .......................ii Abstract ...............3 ..16 Recommendation ...........................................................iii Table of Contents ........1 Statement of the Problem .................................................................3 Scope and Limitations of the Study .............................................................................12 Chapter IV: Presentation....2 Hypothesis of the Study ...........................................5 ......................16 v iv .....................................iv Chapter I: Introduction .......9 Chapter III: Methodology ...15 Conclusion ......4 Chapter II: Review of Related Studies and Literature .........1-4 Background of the Study ...........11 Research Procedure ....
the assurance of the best possible service and materials available for the daily lives of man. An experiment revolving around a common building tool used in almost every infrastructure around the world: hollow blocks. Hollow blocks are large rectangular bricks used in construction. the researchers have decided to commit ourselves to a research that will do just that. the US and New Zealand. breeze blocks -breeze is a synonym of ash. In non-technical usage. 1 . in Portland.in the UK. It is a basic building tool. Those that use cinders -fly ash or bottom ash. Clinker blocks use clinker as aggregate. researchers and students has had experimented over the matter of what additive is suitable to increase the effectiveness of hollow blocks wherein lime soil. cement blocks and as foundation blocks. cement and either sand and fine gravel aggregates for high density-blocks or industrial wastes for low density-blocks. Hollow blocks in the Philippines and are also known as besser blocks or bricks in Australia.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The world progresses alongside civilization. innovation is a must. Lightweight blocks can also be produced using aerated concrete. discoveries and innovations hence. rice hull. As an attempt to 'innovate'. coconut coir. the terms cinder block and breeze block are often generalized to cover all of these varieties.are called cinder blocks in Canada. plastic and a few others were used as an additive. These are made in several different ways such as. culture and technology. man continues to make life 'easier' through inventions. This. It is also known as concrete blocks. Several environmentalist groups. As part of human nature.
the researchers stumbled upon a common product that could strengthen materials with its high calcium carbonate that will supposedly strengthen cement. making its building options lesser for instance. specialized proteins are responsible for directing crystal nucleation. Statement of the Problem How will mussel shells used as an additive affect the hollow block's compressive strength? Would the ratio of sand to mussel shells affect it? o o o 40% Mussel Shells while 60% Sand 50% Mussel Shells while 50% Sand 60% Mussel Shells while 40% Sand Will a commercial hollow block be better than the home-made hollow block with mussel shells as an additive in terms of compressive strength? 2 i i . or structural properties. Mussel shells contain 95-99% calcium carbonate by weight. walls and fences were the only stable products. are considered waste for it is usually thrown out immediately after consumed. phase.however. electronic. and growths dynamics and ultimately give the shell its remarkable mechanical strength. did the opposite wherein the hollow block became less 'solid'. the common product. The application of biomimetic principles elucidated from mollusk shell assembly and structure may help in fabricating new composite materials with enhanced optical. morphology. After initial research. Mussel shells. The resulting composite has fracture toughness ~3000 times greater than that of the crystals themselves. while an organic component makes up the remaining 1-5%. In the biomineralization of the mollusk shell.
environment and the people. if successful. an easier and more common way to produce better hollow blocks. 40-60. one commercial hollow block and three with mussel shells as an additive but with different amounts of mussel shells and sand.Hypothesis of the Study There is no significant difference in the feasibility of the hollow block based on the amount of mussel shell-additives with the commercial hollow block. buildings. The research would have four set-ups. Stronger hollow blocks would mean a better. towers and the like. this would also beneficial due to the reuse of empty mussel shells because mussel shells are not easily decomposed. Burning these will harm the atmosphere. 3 . Feasibility of Mussel Shells in Making Hollow Blocks. more reliable foundation for infrastructures such as houses. Significance of the Study The chosen study. the researchers can reuse the shells as an additive instead of simply disposing them. bridges. Ecology-wise. This study can also help the construction industry in producing more efficient and stronger hollow blocks. Scope and Limitations of the Study The study was formulated to determine if using mussel shells as an additive to hollow blocks would either make the hollow block stronger or weaker. making this. 50-50 and 60-40 respectively. can help the society in its crisis in solid waste management because with the help of this study. This would also benefit the economy due to the geographical feature of the Philippines wherein it is surrounded by water.
but rather outside of its premises hence. Additionally. concrete or burnt clay hollow blocks used for construction of hollow-tile floors mussel. the hollow block would be homemade. maximum stress a material can sustain under crush loading hollow block. attached to rocks psi. Any form of building shall not be used either. making the conclusions and interpretations of this experiment solely based on the PSI. which can be mixed with water and poured to form a solid mass. The study will be tested at the University of the Philippines' Institute of Civil Engineering. a building material made by grinding calcined limestone and clay to fine powder. used as an ingredient in making mortar or concrete compressive strength. a statistical figure of the maximum weight a substance can withstand 4 . The study cannot be successful without seeking professional help due to the fact that compressive strength needs to be determined through thorough laboratory analysis. usually. a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. the research is only limited in determining the compressive strength of the hollow blocks. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch ultimate load. having a dark. slightly elongated shell and. any of various marine bivalves of the genus Mytilus and related genera especially medulis. edible mussel.The limitation of the study is that the researchers will not conduct the experiment inside the school. Definition of Terms cement.
They are often used for retaining walls and garden screens. They are cheaper and more utilitarian than traditional clay bricks. iron. This layer is interrupted by 5 . Concrete blocks are made from cement and aggregate blocks. The remainder of the shell is made up of organic material and trace amounts of manganese. The periostracum is poorly developed in crassostrea virginica and it is not round in old shells. The oyster creates its own environment by secreting a shell composed or ninety-five percent (95%) of calcium carbonate. scientists are now trying to develop a mussel-based adhesive for use in eye surgery. sulfate and magnesium. The structure or the shell of a mussel consists or four distinct layers: periostracum. Each prism consists or calcite crystals laid in a matrix of conchiolin. The concepts are organized around major topics that are derived from the variables that have been explained in the study. aluminum. A mussel is any bivalve mollusk. which is made up of bricklike prism units.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES This chapter deals with the concepts. research studies and literature of the study. especially and edible marine bivalve of the family Mytiliadae and a freshwater clam of the family Unionidae. although some blocks that mimic the colour and texture of store are widely used for dwellings. secreted by the cells located near the edge of the mantle. a tissue of organic material called conchiolin. The byssal threads of the mussel are so adhesive that they even cling to Teflon. prismatic layer. The conchiolin can be destroyed by boiling in potassium hydroxide and the prisms are separated. calcite-ostracum is a subnacreous layer consisting or foliated sheets or calcite laid between thin membranes of conchiolin.
It also participates in respiration. the common pallial artery. Rings are common to all bivalves’ shells. The mantle’s blood vessel are the circumpallial artery which sends out many branches. It is made up of soft and freshly tissue. The principal function of the mantle is the formation or the shell and its calcification. Depending on the shape of the shell. secretes large quantities of mucous and aids in excretion. The radial muscle contracts and pulls the entire mantle inside and throws its surface into ridges. This layer makes up the major part of the shell. The most obvious components of the mantle are the radial muscles. The mantle receives sensory stimuli. hypostracum layer is made or shell material under the abductor muscle. Shells grow by the accretion of material secreted at their edges. the animal inside the shell is covered by a mantle. In the crassostrea virginica the layer is pigmented and consists of aragonite. stores reserve materials. the rings are either circular or oval with a common point or origin at the extreme dorsal side near the umbo. blood vessels and nerves. blood vessels. The structure of the mantle consists of a sheet of connective tissue containing muscles. nerves and it is covered on both sides by epithelium. and a large pulsating vessel in the anteriorventral part of 6 . The radial muscles are large bands of fibers which extend almost the entire width of the mantle.soft chalky deposits which consist of amorphous material. The rings on the outer surfaces or a bivalve shell represent the contours of the shell at different ages. As the oyster grows the adductor muscle increases in size and the new areas or attachment become covered with aragonite. The rate of growth along the edge of the shell is not uniform and may actually change direction in response to environmental factors The mantle of the mussel. and conveys them to the nervous system and aid in the shedding and dispersal of eggs.
are prescribed in various doses as per the requirement of the patients. osteoporosis and acidity problems. calcium carbonate is used in construction of buildings. also known as agricultural lime. It helps in production of the best quality printing papers. An important use of calcium carbonate is in the building industry. Close nerve contact is maintained between the muscles and the organs of the mantle through a fine nerve network. It is used as a blackboard chalk and as pH correcting compound in swimming pools. which is used for neutralizing soil. rubber. Calcium carbonate is the most preferred mineral in the paper industry. it has been used as a building substance since ancient times. As per statistics. for example. Another notable monument made up of white marble is the Taj Mahal in India. Calcium supplements. Calcium carbonate is a primary component of garden lime. production of toothpaste and as an inert substance in tablets. oil refining. the Egyptians used limestone for building their pyramids. cement. plastic. used for filling and coating paper. Today. Besides construction. The nerve provides communication. ceramic. For example. Since calcium is essential for healthy bones and teeth. steel. iron ore purification and biorock creation for mariculture of sea organisms.the mantle called the accessory heart. calcium carbonate is also used in other industries like paint. about 200 tons of chalk is used every year. Calcium carbonate supplement is effective to treat certain ailments related to calcium deficiency. Acidic soils can be treated with garden lime to enhance 7 . roads and other engineering works. Calcium carbonate is used in homeopathy. glass. calcium carbonate is used as dietary calcium supplement. made from calcium carbonate. Due to its wide abundance and properties.
Concrete can be made to have high compressive strength. e. It provides data (or a plot) of force vs deformation for the conditions of the test method. Calcium carbonate sources such as limestone and chalk. many concrete structures have compressive strengths in excess of 50 MPa. However. and eggshells. whereas a material such as soft sandstone may have a compressive strength as low as 5 or 10 MPa. Calcium carbonate has various environmental applications. snails. It is used in the treatment of drinking water. Water bodies affected by acid rain can be neutralized by using calcium carbonate. coal balls. brittle materials are crushed. and is the main component of shells of marine organisms. When the limit of compressive strength is reached.the soil quality. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid. Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand axially directed pushing forces. along with other chemical compounds are used in preparation of garden lime. pearls. a small plastic container might have a compressive strength of less than 250 N. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.g. 8 . and is usually the principal cause of hard water. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime. By contrast. care has to be taken as it can increase the concentration of aluminum ions. but excessive consumption can be hazardous. desulphurisation of flue gas and waste water treatments. Garden lime when added in soil acts as a calcium source for plants as well as increases the pH and water retaining capacity of acidic soils.
Training and Development Center rated set-ups in a scale of 1-10 with 1 being the lowest rating and 10 the highest. The texture. 950 degrees Celsius and 1000 degrees Celsius. Six kilograms of Vigan clay and 2.com. Tests on durability of the ceramics.Ms. air dried for four days and fired in a furnace. Three trials were made at different temperatures – 900 degrees Celsius. Powdered oyster shells were used instead of silica in the production of ceramics. the mixture was kneaded again and filtered. The solidified mixture was then rolled and compressed to let the air escape from the spaces inside the solidified mixture. focused on the possibility of replacing silica in ceramic production with oyster shells. the mixture was molded. Obrero’s study. The finished products were compared in terms of texture and color to those made using silica. After this. It was also found that the color of the experimental set-up is comparable to the control set-up. 9 . The mixture was placed over Plaster of Paris for the water to be absorbed. according to investigatoryprojectexample. The following day. This proves that oyster shell can be utilized in the production of ceramics. revealed that the experimental setup is more durable than the control set-up.5 kg of ball clay were mixed and soaked in water overnight. which were done at SLU College of Engineering Laboratory. It was found that the texture of the experimental set-up is better than the control set-up. Frances Monina M. Ten evaluators from the staff of the University of Northern Philippines – Ceramics Research. It also affirms that ceramics made using oyster shells are better than those produced using silica in terms of texture and durability. color and durability of the ceramics were compared to those made with silica.
the ultimate load and the quality of the hollow blocks while the independent variables would be the amount of mussel shell additives and the amount of sand additives and the constant variables would be the amount of cement. the dried mussel shells and the size of the hollow block depending on the mold or Tupper wear. Research Design Dependent Variable Independent Variable Constant Variable Compressive Strength of the Hollow Block Amount of Mussel Shell Additives Amount of Cement Amount of Water Dried Mussel Shells Size of the Hollow Block (Mold) Amount of Sand Additives Ultimate Load Quality of the Hollow Block Table 1.1.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The study used the experimental method of research. In this kind of research the investigations manipulate the experimental variables. Table of Variables The experimental method is used to determine the relationship of the variables wherein the dependent variable would be the compressive strength of the hollow block. 10 . amount of water.
first. The follow steps were taken by the researchers to complete their study. set-up D with 11 . The gathered mussel shells were sun dried for half a day on a sheet of foil. several tools and materials are required such as: a hammer to crush the shells. Their laboratory is a necessity and a must in this experiment. Instrumentation The researchers aim to make hollow blocks with mussel shells as an additive. These were then crushed with the hammer.Sampling Procedure This part of the study briefly discusses the procedures in conducting the study. As recorded by UP. Tupper wear. C and D. spatula. they sun-dried the shells then crushed them thoroughly. The study will be going to the University of the Philippines' Institute of Civil Engineering for the testing of compressive strength. To do so. Research Procedure This part of the study is a detailed procedure of the whole experiment. mussel shells. a spatula or a wooden rod for mixing substances and mixtures and. sand and water. shovel. mussel shells. cement. set-up B's additive composition had 60% mussel shells and 40% sand while. a Tupper wear or any molding material to mold the hollow block. they gathered all the required materials: a hammer. second. Testing would be done by people from the University of the Philippines due to the researcher's lack of equipment. third. prepare the four set-ups. there were 4 set-ups: A. a weighing scale to measure the materials like sand. Set-up A was a commercial block. B. The set-ups were made by the people from the University of the Philippines wherein the researchers only provided the materials. set-up C had 50% mussel shells and 50% sand and.
Sun dry them for half a day. Procedure Crush them.. Conduct the experiment by. The blocks were left to harden up and will be tested at their laboratories immediately after the completed hollow block making process. Flowchart 1. The laboratory tests would test the four blocks’ compressive through pound force per square inch or PSI. They also claim that similar students has had done this exact request before.. Research Diagram Gather the materials. Bring them to the laboratory. The results would be sent to the researchers for further analysis and interpretations that would lead to this experiment's conclusion.1. Observe and record.40% mussel shells and 60% sand. 12 . Let the professionals do their thing. Testing its compressive strength. making it easier for them. Clean the mussel shells.
000 pounds resulting to a 1. had the load of 51.500 pounds 1. 60/40.500 pounds 1. 40/60. 50% Sand 54. 60% Sand 51. set-up C.089 psi D 40% Mussel Shells.023 psi (Pounds per Square Inch) while. leading to a 1. had an ultimate load of 50. it is clear that the amount of mussel shells does indeed affect the compressive strength of the hollow blocks and.1.500 pound load.CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION.500 pounds with the compressive strength of 1. set-up D. had a 54. affects it in a more positive way wherein its compressive strength is somewhat higher and better than 13 .023 psi A Commercial Block 50. 50/50.045 psi. set-up B. As seen in the table and by analyzing the results. 40% Sand 65.19 psi C 50% Mussel Shells.089 psi and. Table of Data As presented in the table.000 pounds B 60% Mussel Shells.19 psi. the results of the compressive strength test from the University of the Philippines' tests is as follows: set-up A.000 pounds 1. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Set-Ups Ultimate Load Compressive Strength 1. as it seems. had an ultimate load of 65.000 pounds resulting to a 1.045psi Table 2. the commercial block.
the more mussel shells there is. Additionally.95 1 1. As observed in the testing.2.25 Table 1.05 1.that of a commercial hollow block. Ratio of Mussel Shells to Sand Setup B Setup C Set-up D Set-up C Set-up B Setup D 0.1 1.1. the ratio of mussel shells to sand also affects the results.2 1. refer to the presented graph below: Set-up B Set-up C Mussel Shells Sand Set-up D 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Table 1. To emphasize and to clarify the interpreted data regarding the effects of the hollow block-to-sand ratio to the hollow block’s compressive strength. Compressive Strength of the Set-Ups with Mussel Shells 14 . the higher compressive strength and the less mussel shell there is. the lesser the compressive strength.15 1.
000 lbs. Comparing it to set-up A: the commercial hollow block.089 psi and 1. is a clear result that more mussel shells would make the hollow block stronger in terms of compressive strength and ultimate load.045 psi.029 psi while Set-B.CHAPTER V SUMMARY. As seen at the results of the tests. difference with 1. comparing Set-C and Set-D respectively to Set-A: 4. tests and summary of findings. ultimate load compared to Set-A. had more than 15. With that. concluding that mussel shells used as an additive in hollow block making does in fact make the hollow block’s compressive strength greater which can be basically summed up to: mussel shells additives increase the compressive strength of hollow blocks. the compressive strength does too. considering the compressive strength and the additional results of the ultimate load: Set-A. the research’s statement of the problem can be claimed that the percentage of mussel shells is directly proportional to the ultimate load which is also directly proportional to the compressive strength hence. difference with 1. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary of Findings The results from the conducted tests show that blocks with mussel shells as additives are indeed more effective wherein. having 60% mussel shells. as the ultimate load increases. the amount of clam shells. with 1. the commercial block.500 lbs. The results deem that the compressive strength is directly proportional to the ultimate load hence. set-up B would 15 . particularly set-up B: the 60% mussel shell additive. Conclusion By observing the analysis.000 lbs.500 lbs. had an ultimate load of 50.
as did in this experiment. plastic or other Mollusks such clams. it is rather a tedious act. Proper testing. lime soil. oysters. as the original plan of this experiment. qualities and compositions such as. ultimate load and compressive strength. coconut coir. by theory. 500 Pesos. Therefore. Additionally. however. as mentioned in the introduction. the testing laboratory at the University of the Philippines is highly recommended for testing various quantities. in this experiment’s case. a scheduled appointment is a must. in this case. highly recommended due to the fact that the people at the University of the Philippines are quite busy. Recommendation The researchers would like to recommend: planning ahead of time is highly recommended for the next batch of researchers for collecting a sizable amount of mussel shells poses to be an easy task but in reality. rice hull. should make the hollow block even stronger. also. Same goes to set-up C: 50% mussel shell additive and set-up D: 40% mussel shell additive in contrast with set-up A. It is also recommended that instead of using mussel shells. the conclusion: mussel shells used as an additive in hollow block making would make the hollow block stronger in terms of compressive strength and. However. additionally. 16 .appear superior. ultimate load. sand. crabs. It is also recommended to. would cost at least 2. making the experiment only 100% mussel shells or 100% chosen additive which. These set-ups support the statement that the more mussel shell additive added to the hollow block would make the hollow block’s compressive strength greater wherein these set-ups determined that the less mussel shell additives made the hollow block’s compressive strength lower. several other additives may be used such as. Another recommendation would be seeking professional help in making the hollow block to secure the best and most accurate results. lobsters and the like. planning the tests ahead of schedule would be. try pure additives without the mix of others such as.
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