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2) Again, the method of connecting surface and underground surveys is similar to the method as employed in the case of level adit except with a little difference owing to the inclined route of traverse provided as entrance to the mine. The main difference lies in marking the position of survey stations. In case of moderate inclination of the shaft it may be possible to mark the survey stations in the roof. When the shaft is steeply inclined it is desirable to provide permanent stations to facilitate the work.
Fig. 2: Correlation by direct traversing To accomplish such work, a closed traverse is required to be run form surface control point to the underground base. In such a traverse, where stations are separated by short distances, centering error poses major threat to accuracy of the traverse. For instance, in a length of 10 m, a centering error of 3mm of the target gives rise to an error of 1 minute in the angle. dα = 3 mm____ x 206225 ” (1 radian = 206265) 10000 mm
= 3 x 20.6265 = 61,88 “ (=1’) Correlation by plumbing wires in the vertical shafts In the majority of the cases, correlation has to be carried out in one or two vertical shafts and this requires the suspension of plumb lines in the shaft or shafts. As this is common to a number of methods of correlation the problems of suspending the plumb lines are discussed in the beginning. Plumb Wire: Piano wire is often used for shaft standard. Other type of wire used successfully was a galvanized steel, wire, 1/8” dia, having breaking strength of 1 ton and a weight of 18 lb per 100yds. The breaking strength of a wire limits the weight of the plumb bob which can be hung on it, while an increase in the diameter of a wire increases its resistance to the air current and therefore possibility of deflection from the vertical. In correlation, where wires have to be observed through a theodolite, the diameter of the wire is an important factor since; the thicker the wire is the more difficult does it becomes to make accurate pointings to it. Although plumb wires are loaded usually well towards breaking point, they are still affected by air currents in the shaft. The magnitude of the deflection tends to vary as the square of the depth and therefore a wire would be deflected 25 times more at a depth of 500 m then at 100 m. The plumb wire itself offers the greatest resistance to air currents which is directly proportional to the diameter of wire. It is impossible to determine the probable amount of deflection in advance but a wire will only hang perfectly vertical with a plumb bob of infinite weight. As for the weight of plumb bob, a well known principle is that the amount of deflection at the base of a plumb wire is inversely proportional to the weight of the plumb-bob. It is a common practice to immerse the plumb bob in a drum or bucket containing liquid. Heavy oil may be used for this purpose. But the use of highly viscous liquid is very doubtful and this practice should be avoided. It is also a common that when two plumb wires are suspended in a shaft,
Hanging wires : It is desirable that the wires used in plumbing the shaft should be fine as well as strong to support the plumb bob so that a minimum surface is presented to outside influences. the wire illuminated by a lamp held behind it with a piece of white paper held between the lamp and wire. experiments should be carried out to try and establish before hand the validity of the methods which is proposed to be used.agreement in the width of plumb plane between at surface and in the underground is a satisfactory test for verticality. it should be bisected by the crosshairs of the telescope. To observe whether the plumb wire is at rest. Hence each shaft plumbing must be considered entirely on its merits and if any doubt exists. . It is essential that the wire should hang freely in the shaft which may be determined by letting a cut-ring on the wire to pass from surface to the shaft bottom. The large plumb bob may then be immersed in a drum of water or oil to dampen the oscillation of the wire. Fig. 3: Correlation by two shafts An underground traverse is then carried out between the two plumb wires using an assumed bearing. The length of the line between the plumb wires can be calculated and also the bearing of this line with reference to assumed bearing. coordinates of all the points are recalculated. Plumb bobs are normally made of lead which has a high density and unaffected by magnetic attractions. The plumb wire is lowered down the shaft with small plummet weighting 3 to 5 kg attached to it. After applying correction for bearing. 3) One plumb wire is suspended in each of the two shafts. Correlation by two shafts (Fig. The various methods of correlation using plumb wires and the method adopted will depend on the available shaft entry into the mine. When it reaches the bottom the small plummet is replaced by a larger one which may be of the weight up to 30 kg depending upon the breaking strength of the wire. the wire is wound on a small drum fitted with a brake to hold it in any desired position. Any convenient line in the traverse may then be used as a base line for all subsequent surveys. The difference between the assumed bearing of the line joining the two wires and the correct bearing (from the surface coordinates) gives the correction to be applied to each underground bearing. The wires at the surface connected by traverse with the surface triangulation and the length and bearing of the line joining them are calculated. a. They should be symmetrical in order to aid verticality of the wire and they may be fitted with vanes to dampen the twisting of the plumb bob when immersed in water or oil.
No difficulty is experienced in identifying the wires. particularly in deep shafts as the shaft perimeter limits the length of the base line (i. even when it is exactly in line with them. At this distance the diverging rays of light from the far wire are not obscured and both wires can be observed by simply changing focus. as a single alignment may take from a few minutes to half an hour. prefer to estimate the amount of movement required to effect an alignment and proceed on the basis of trial and error. This is particularly easy if optical plumbing arrangement is incorporated in the instrument itself. it is necessary to set up close to the nearest wire. Fig.e. 4: Exact alignment method of correlation Before co-planing begins. as the nearest one will always appear to be the thicker. usually about 3 m away. Correlation by one shaft This should be avoided if possible. 4) In co-planing. It should be noted that with modern inverting telescopes the actual shift is always in a direction opposite to that apparent through the telescope. the instrument can be plumbed and the lateral shift measured from the plumbed mark at right angles to the plumb-plane. and it is unwise to try and observe the wires while the shift is being made. Many surveyors. the object is to set the theodolite in the line of the plumb-plane so that its azimuth can be transferred to a reference line by angular observations. Following are the few methods commonly employed: (i) Co-planarity or exact alignment (Fig. however. (ii) The Weisbach Method This method involves setting of two stations one at surface close to the wires suspended in the shaft and another at underground close to the wires in such a way that Weisbach triangle is formed as . This method needs an extreme care in fixing the position of the rest of the wires. The alignment is not always easily accomplished and much patience and manipulative skill are required. distance between two plumb wires). As both wires have to be seen through the telescope. even with the former method. and the final fractional movement has usually to be made on this basis.b.
5: Correlation surveys by forming Weisbach triangle Fig.shown in Fig. the station at underground. The instrument is set at Ws. the station at surface and Wg. Objections to the use of such mechanical method are associated with the impossibility of attaining undisturbed . Fig.5. The corresponding angles as required for transferring the bearing from surface line AB to underground line XY. 6: Calculation for transfer of bearing of line AB at surface to XY in underground ORIENTATION SURVEY WITH LASER-EYEPIECE AND NADIR PLUMMET Shaft plumbing with wires and heavy plumb bob is still the most frequently used method. are measured using the theodolite. The distances which are required for calculations as shown in figure 6 are measured with the metallic tape.
Figure 11 shows the picture of correlation survey being carried out through Nadir Plummet and laser eye piece in a shaft mine at a depth of 500m. . The use of lasers for shaft plumbing has been investigated. With increase in depth this may lead to incorrect correlation. 7) is an instrument which can be used for precise plumbing. This problem is solved by rotating the beam by rotating the telescope of the Nadir plummet about its vertical axis in four (x2) perpendicular directions. In conventional method the wire is suspended from top of the shaft to transfer the co-ordinates from surface to ground.14” in setting the laser vertical achievable. Laser is generated in the laser instrument and is passed to the nadir plummet through a glass fiber cable and laser eye piece. It consists of two pendulum compensators acting at right angles to each other. the intersection of which is the plumb line. The use of laser plummet has further improved the accuracy. The laser instrument (called laser intensity regulator) is connected to the Laser eye piece by means of a cable. Joining the diagonals (Fig. Thus lasers are used which are very precise even at large depths. The laser beam which is received at pit bottom as a red circular spot may not be exactly vertical below the surface point. 9 & Fig. The nadir plummet is leveled with the help of a circular level and fine leveling is taken care by a compensator fitted in the nadir plummet. Four positions of the laser spot will be obtained at the pit bottom on a white painted metallic sheet. The laser beam enters the nadir plummet horizontally and is diverted vertically downwards with the help of a penta prism (Fig.10) will give the exact position of a point vertically below the surface point. Experimental results have shown that a standard deviation of 0. 7: Nadir Plummet A laser Eyepiece is attached to the telescope of a Nadir plummet. Laser beam is sent to the shaft 0 bottom for 4 different positions of plummet at 90 apart.conditions. which automatically defines two vertical planes. A Nadir plummet (Fig. When GLO2 Laser eyepiece is attached to the Nadir plummet a laser beam is shot down in the shaft in a vertical line. Fig. 8).
8: Schematic diagram representing correlation survey using laser eye piece and nadir-plummet Fig.Fig. 9: Laser beam received at the bottom Fig. 10: Laser beams received at the underground on a plate .
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