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Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery

Fluid Machinery

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Home Topics Chapter 1 : General Concepts Chapter 2 : Pelton Turbine Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine Chapter 4 : Centrifugal Pumps Chapter 5 : Similarity Relations and Performance Characteristics Chapter 6 : Reciprocating Pumps Chapter 7 : Hydraulic devices and Systems

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Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine

Q. 1. Discuss briefly the guide mechanism in reaction turbines. Ans. It consists of a stationary circular wheel all round the runner of the turbine. The stationary guide vanes are fixed on guide mechanism The guide vanes allow the water t” strike the vanes fixed on the runner without shock at inlet. The width between two adjacent vanes of guide mechanism can be altered so that the amount of water striking the runner can be varied.

Q. 2. List the advantages of Kaplan Turbine over Francis Turbine. Ans. Advantages of Kaplan turbine over Francis turbine (i) Runner vanes are adjustable in Kaplan turbine while in Francis turbine run vanes are not adjustable. (ii) There is less resistance offered as the number of vanes are fewer in Kaplan turbine (in) Specific speed range 250-850 m Kaplan turbine In Francis turbine specific speed range is 5o—250.

Q. 3. Draw velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of typical Francis turbine vane. Ans. There are three types of velocity triangles for. inlet and outlet in Francis turbine. Triangles are made for slow runner, medium runner and fast runner.

Fig. Slow runner

ptumech.loremate.com/fluid-machinery/node/13

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Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery

Fig. Medium Runner

Fig. Fast Runner Q. 4. Define degree of reaction and Euler’s Head. Ans. The degree of reaction (R) is defined as a ratio of change of pressure energy in the runner to the change of total energy in the runner per kg of water.

Euler’s Head: It is defined as energy transfer per unit weight.

Q.5. Why is the efficiency of Kaplan turbine nearly constant irrespective of speed variation under load? Ans. Kaplan turbines has the concept of adjusting the runner vanes in the face of changing load conditions on the turbine, with proper adjustment of blades during its running the Kaplan turbine is capable of giving a constant and high efficiency for a wide range of load conditions. The pitch of the blades is also automatically adjusted by the governor through the action of a servo meter. Q. 6. Define specific speed of a turbine and write down its expression. Ans. The specific speed of a turbine may be defined as the speed of an imaginary turbine, identical with the given turbine which will develop a unit power under a unit head. It is given by N = Speed of the runner in r.p.m. H =Head of water P = Power produced. Q. 7. Sketch different types of draft tubes. Ans. Following are the important types of draft tubes which are commonly used. 1. Conical draft tubes

ptumech.loremate.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 2/26

9. thereby reducing the water hammer effect on penstock. To reduce the distance between the free water surface and turbine. (iii) Overall Efficiency—it is a measure f the performance of a turbine and is the 120 of power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied to the turbine.loremate. Ans. 4. Elbow with circular inlet and rectangular outlet.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 2. ptumech. thus eliminating water hammer possibilities.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 3/26 . Moody spreading tubes 4. 2. 10. Simple elbow tubes 3.e. 3. Differentiate between Francis and Kaplan turbine. Explain (i) Hydraulic efficiency (ii) Mechanical efficiency (iii) Overall efficiency of turbines. Surge tanks have the following functions: 1. (i) Hydraulic Efficiency-It is the ratio of work done on the wheel to the head of rater (or energy) actually supplied to the turbine i. To regulate the flow of water to the turbines. Q. Types of draft tubes Q. Q. 8. To control the pressure variations. Loremate. due to rapid changes in the pipeline flow. Fig.394 Ans.com Like 6. (ii) Mechanical Efficiency—it is the ratio of actual work available at the turbine to e energy imparted to the wheel. Ans. List the various functions of surge tanks. It protects up stream tuner from high pressure rises.

is known as unit power: P =Power developed. 3. Q = Discharge. Francis turbines can not be used for very high heads because of cavitation. List the unit quantities as applied to turbo-machines. working under a head of 1 meter. Number of units—It is better to go in for a larger unit as far as possible. ptumech. working under a head of 1 meter. H = Head of water Unit Discharge-The discharge of a turbine.2/3/13 Ans. is known as unit discharge. Francis turbines run at higher speeds (50—250) than those of pelton wheels (8—50). Specific speed-Turbine having high specific speed is selected. but there must be at least two units at any particular site so that one unit is always available. 5. (i) Unit power (ii) Unit speed (iii) Unit discharge. 11. Pelton turbines are free from cavitation because the pressure at runner outlet is the atmospheric.loremate. Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Q. Overall cost—The plant should be designed for the minimum cost as cost is the prime consideration in designing a plant 6. Kaplan turbines are more efficient at low heads. is known as unit speed N = speed of turbine. Performance characteristics—Turbines should be selected in such a way that their efficiencies do not fall appreciably when operating under part load. High speed means a smaller size of the turbine. = Head of water Q. 4. Francis turbines operate efficiently between half and full load.50-400 m Kaplan turbine .Greater than 400 m Francis turbine . The selection of turbines depend on the following considerations. H =Head of water Unit Speed-The speed of turbine.Less than 50 m 2. Ans.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 4/26 . Operating Head— Pelton turbine . Q. What is the importance of a draft tube in a Francis turbine 7 Discuss different types of draft tubes. Cavitation. Or How to decide whether Kalpan. 12. 13. Unit Power-The powered developed by a turbine working under a head of 1 meter. Francis or a pelton type tupe turbine would be used in a hydro project? Ans. Kaplan turbine have the greatest specific speed (250—1000). 1. List the factors/criteria to choose a turbine.Cavitation occurs when the pressure at the runner outlet equals vapour pressure.

It makes the installation possible above the tail race level without the loss of head. The change from circular section to rectangular section take place in the bend from vertical leg to the horizontal leg. Draft tube prevents the splashing of water coming out of the runner. Draft tube has the following important function: 1. The hydraulic efficiency is 90%. If the tube is large in diameter.section at inlet and rectangular section at outlet. 14. A common form of section used is over or rectangular.loremate. Q. The maximum cone angle is 8° (a = 40°). Types of draft tubes (1) Conical Draft Tubes—This is known as tapered draft tube and used in all reaction turbines where conditions permit. through which the water exhausted from the runner. Different types of draft tubes used are: (1) Conical draft tubes (2) Simple elbow tubes (3) Moody spreading tubes (4) Elbow with circular inlet and rectangular outlet. The draft tube has efficiency around 85%. high. Power available at turbine shaft ptumech. (3) Moody Spreading Tubes-This tube is used to reduce the whirling action of discharge water when turbine runs at high speed under low head conditions. The efficiency is about 85%. (2) Simple Elbow Tubes-The elbow type draft tube is often preferred in most of the power plants. flows to the outlet channel. Water velocity at runner outlet is very. ‘it may be necessary to make the horizontal portion of some other section. Loss of kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy. It is preferred for low specific speed and Francis turbine.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 5/26 .2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Ans. which connects the turbine and outlet or tail race. 3. It is a pipe. Derive the expression for specific speed of turbine. What is the range of specific speed for reaction turbine? Ans. (4) Elbow with circular inlet and rectangular outlet—This tube has circular cross. It also act as a water conduit. 2. By using draft tube the velocity can be lowered. Fig. It has low efficiency around 60%.

2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Since and w are constant: … (1) the absolute velocity v The tangential velocity u. P power developed. So from (1) and (2) (ii) So Q = Area of flow x Velocity … (2) (iii) ptumech.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 6/26 . Ans. then (specific speed) Expression (ii) may be written as Specific speed. Q = discharge. 15. u tangential velocity. the flow velocity and the head H on the turbine are related as Now Also Substituting this value in expression (1) … (2) Where k is constant of proportionality Now taking H =1. Specific speed for Kaplan turbine = 250 — 850. (i) We know that Absolute velocity v … (1) Also tangential velocity. Q. Specific speed for Francis turbine = 50 — 250. P= 1.loremate. Show that in a given turbine v H = available head.

turbines and their performance Ans. the fluid in a propeller turbine turns through a right-angle into the axial direction and then passes through the runner. Kaplan Turbine The figure shows a schematic diagram of Kaplan turbine The function of the guide vane is same as in case of Francis turbine Between the guide vanes and the runner. Mathematically.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 7/26 . What is the function of scross casing in reaction turbines? Ans.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery so Q. governing of Kaplan characteristics. The angle with axis is greater at the tip that at the root.loremate. = = Q . Explain with neat sketch the operation of Kaplan turbine. concrete or concrete and steel. Q . is lost and draft tube is not used because the pressure value is just the atmospheric so there is no requirement of draft tube. Ans. Define draft tube (hence proved).19. E. In case of pelton turbine all the K. the blade velocity is directly proportional to the radius The take care of this different relationship of the fluid velocity and the blade velocity with the changes in radius. the flow approaching the runner blades can be considered to be a free vortex with whirl velocity being inversely proportional to radius. The efficiency of the draft tube is defined as the ratio of actual conversion of kinetic head into pressure head in the draft tube to the kinetic head at the inlet of the draft tube. ptumech. cast iron. the blades are twisted. 16. The runner usually has four or six blades and closely resembles a ship’s propeller Neglecting the frictional effects. efficiency. Scroll casing provides the limited area around the runner to maintain the constant velocity of water flow around the runner The material of scroll casing may be cost steel.17. Why the draft tube is not used for Pelton turbine? Ans.18. Q. while on the other hand. Give mathematical expression.

I: Performance characteristics of a reaction turbine in dimensionless parameters) Figure 2 is one of the typical plots where variation in efficiency of different reaction turbines with the rated power is shown. The guide blades of a reaction turbine are pivoted and connected by levers and links to the regulating ring. The regulating lever is keyed to a regulating shaft which is turned by a servomotor piston of the oil. it becomes important to know the performance of the machine under conditions for which the efficiency is less than the maximum It is more useful to plot the basic dimensionless performance parameters (Fig 1) as derived earlier from the similarity principles of fluid machines Thus one set of curves. Two long regulating rods. to run a machine at its maximum efficiency due to changes in operating parameters. Fig.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 8/26 . ptumech.loremate.Governing of reaction turbines is usually done by altering the position of the guide vanes and thus controlling the flow rate by changing the gate openings to the runner.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Performance Characteristics of Reaction Turbine: It is not always possible in practice. Fig. as shown in Fig 1. Therefore. are connected to a regulating lever at their other ends. is applicable not just to the conditions of the test. being attached to the regulating ring at their one ends. although desirable. but to any machine in the same homologous series under any altered conditions. 2 Variation of efficiency with load Governing of Reaction Turbines.

Location of surge tank: Theoretically it should be located close to a power or pumping plant. Ans. Functions of surge tanks: (1) To control the pressure variations by reliving the line of excessive pressure.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 9/26 . Q. thus eliminating positive water hammer effect by admitting in it a large mass of water which would have flown out of the pipe line. It is also used in a large pumping plant to control variations resulting from rapid changes in the flow. (3) Regulation of turbine speed. H = Head N = Running Speed P = Power Output The design Procedure is given as follows. 20. Ratio of width to diameter Flow ratio 2. Ans. 21. Find Discharge by using Shaft Power 3. Overall efficiency n.loremate. Suppose.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Q. Area through which water enters Where and are entrance diameter and width. Find tangential velocity ptumech. Types of surge tanks: (1) Single surge tanks (2) Restricted orifice type (3) Differential type. (2) Regulation of flow in power plants and pumping plants. relieves the pipe line of excessive pressure produced due to closing of the penstock. Write note on Surge tanks. Write short note on design of runner for reaction turbine. is effect for the vanes. Surge tanks. 4. A surge tank is a storage reservoir fitted at some opening made on a long penstock to receive the rejected flow when the penstock is suddenly closed by a value fitted at its steed end. Assume probable values of Hydraulic efficiency. 1. It is generally located at the junction of pressure tunnel and penstock or on the side of the mountain.

Solution.m.m.m.p. Unit power and unit speed Unit power: Unit speed: Specific speed of the turbine = 162. We know that ptumech.loremate. Power developed if the speed reduced to 100 r. H = (2) Hydraulic efficiency.p.p. (3) Discharge through Kaplan turbine: Problem 1.66 =163 r.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 5.p.p.m. 6. P= 3675 kW H=25m N = 150 r. Obtain and by using Assume Use continuity equation (1) Net Head. Find Flow Velocity.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 10/26 .m. A Francis turbine works under a head of 25 m producing 3675 kW at 150 r. Determine the (a) Unit power and unit speed of the turbine (b) Specific speed of the turbine and (c) Power developed by this turbine if the speed is reduced to 100 r.

A Kaplan turbine runner is to be designed to develop 7357.60 Using relation 0.50 m.5 kW shaft power. its speed and its specific speed. 2. The diameter of the boss is rd of the diameter of the runner.50m Speed ratio Flow ratio Overall efficiency.5 kW Head H = 5. Diameter of boss.09 and flow ratio is 0.68 and the overall efficiency is 60%.60 = We have ptumech. Solution: Given: Shaft power P = 7357.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 11/26 . The net available head is 5. Find the diameter of the runner. Assume that the speed ratio is 2.loremate.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Also Problem. = 60% = 0.

Solution: Flow velocity = =5.5 x 54. = 0.86 = 5.262 m velocity remains constant and the discharge is radial. x 0. Width of wheel at outlet.86 = 27.83m/s Width of wheel at inlet.486 cm.5 Flow ratio = 0. 3. Brake power = 275 kW Ratio of wheel width to wheel diameter at inlet = 0.loremate.66 m/s ptumech. Angles at inlet: Peripheral velocity at inlet.788 = 2. = 0. speed = 650 r. Neglecting area blockage by blades.m. Problem. = 0.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 6.10 Ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter = 0..5 d = 0.788m And Using = 61. Specific speed is given by = 622 r.08 r. = 0.83 = 0.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 12/26 .17. Diameter of wheel at outlet.p.85 Discharge through the turbine.1 d x 5.55 = Diameter of wheel at inlet. Hydraulic efficiency.5486m = 54.1097 m = 10. work out the main dimensions and blade angles of the turbine.95 and = 0.1 x 54.p. The following data pertains to an inward flow reaction turbine Net head = 60 m.p.43 cm Since the discharge of water at inlet and outlet tips is same. = 0.m.m.55 Also 0. The flow 6.86cm /s =5.83m/s Power available from the turbine shaft = w Q H x 275 x = (9810 x Q x 60) x 0.97 cm = 18.85.

25 kW Head = 7. It is working under a head of 7.96 and the . Solution: Overall efficiency.6248. Assume Radial discharge.62 m Peripheral velocity.p. determine (i) The guide blade angle (ii) The wheel vane angle at inlet (iii) Diameter of the wheel at inlet.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Hydraulic efficiency. = Power produced = 148. and the hydraulic losses in the turbine are 22% of the available energy.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 13/26 .62 m. The peripheral velocity = 0. The wheel runs at 150 r. Problem 4. = 11.26 radial velocity of flow at inlet are 0.loremate.179 m/s Velocity of flow at inlet. A Francis turbine with an overall efficiency of 75% is required to produce 14825 kW power.738 m/s ptumech. and (iv) Width of the wheel at inlet.9 5 Angles at outlet: 0.m. 0. = 3.

Diameter of wheel at inlet =0.64 0. Hydrauls losses = 22% of available energy Discharge at outlet = Radial Hydraulic efficiency is given as =0.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Speed. =0.644 Using ptumech. The guide blade angle.774 = 37.619° 2.4047m 4.78 =0.738 14/26 . The wheel vane angle at inlet.p.74 3.644 = x 0. Width of the wheel at inlet w.78 = 18.64 = 32.4047 x x 11.P.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 2.774 0.34 m/s 1. = 2. a =0.loremate.m. N = 150 r.

4. Speed of the runner 2. runner speed.p. Problem 6. =50m =20 kW =5 m Scale ratio = =90x6.8 cm inlet width. Power generated by the turbine and its specific speed.m. A hydro-turbine is required to give 25 mW at 50 m heat and 90 r. Solution. The turbine works with a net head of 35m and the loss of head in the turbine due to fluid n is 4m of water.738 = 0.4047 x x 11.m.29 =179r. Both these angles are measure from the tangent at runner periphery drawn in the direction of runner rotation. In an inward flow reaction turbine having vertical shaft. The flow velocity through the runner is constant. The runner has the dimensions of 40 cm external diameter and 3.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 2. water enters the runner from the guide blades at an angle of 155° with the runner blade angle at entry being 100°. water enters the draft tube from tile runner without whirl and the discharge from the draft tube into the tail race takes place with a velocity of 2. Draw vector diagrams and calculate: 1.177m Problem 5.loremate.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 15/26 . The laboratory facilities available permit testing of 20 kW model at 5m head. Velocities at inlet and exit are related by the expression: From the inlet velocity triangle ptumech.5 m/s.29x =6.p.644 = x 0. Inlet diameter of the draft tube.m. Runner blade angle at a point on the outlet edge where the radius of rotation is 9 cm.p. What should be the model runner speed and model prototype scale ratio? Solution: = 25 mW = 90 r. 3.

48 m/s = = 1. Head supplied runner) 3.p. Discharge through the turbine. 5 x 0. = 1.1663= = 794 r.4035 x 0.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery = (180—155) =25° = (180 — 100) = 800 Since the discharge is in radial direction.968 1.43 = (work done) + (kinetic heat at exit) + (losses in the N= 2.45 = l6.4035 x 0.4 x 0.98 = 119.5 + = 8.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 16/26 .5 kW Assume a mechanical efficiency of 98% 4.5 x W = 121.038 x 8. Q 3.07 Specific speed of the turbine. Power developed by the turbine.77 ptumech. From outlet velocity triangle: =8. .loremate.m.63 x = 7.45m/s = 1.13 . Power available at turbine shaft = 121. Work done = From the energy balance.45 = 9810 x 0.43 121.63m/s +4 = 0. Ns = 101.968 x 8. = 0. vane angle at outlet.45m/s Peripheral velocity of the outer edge at 9 cm radius = 16.

An inward flow reaction turbine discharges radially and the velocity of flow is constant and equal to the velocity of discharge from the turbine.5 m.74m/s Heat gained = xO.04775 d= =0.30 x 5) =12773W=12. From the inlet velocity triangle ptumech. speed and discharge remain constant.loremate. =0.14 m = 0. Show that the hydraulic efficiency can be expressed by Where a and are respectively the guide vane angle and wheel vane angle at Intel. Inlet area of draft tube = = If d is the inlet diameter of the tube.9 = 0.7. the draft tube being cylindrical and of diameter 2.89m/s velocity of water at outlet of draft tube =0. What increase in power and efficiency of the turbine would you expect if a tapered draft tube having an inlet diameter of 4m and efficiency of conversion of 90% is substituted for the cylindrical one? It maybe presumed that head. Francis turbine develops 365 kW at an overall efficiency of 80%.04775 5.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 17/26 .8.028 = 2. When working under a static head of 5 m.8% Increase in efficiency = Increase in power = increase in efficiency x original power = 0.8 Q= When the draft tube is tapered one velocity of water at inlet to draft tube =1.028 x (9810 x 9.77 = 0.246m Problem. Ns Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery = 101.77kW Problem. Solution Power available = wQH× 365 x = (9810 x Q x 5) x 0.2/3/13 Specific speed of the turbine. Solution.

22 ) m/s and the velocity ) m/s. The of flow at exit is (0.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery For radical discharge at outlet Thus Or Substituting the value of .9. we get Now = Or = Or Problem. From inlet velocity triangle.6 times the outer diameter. The velocity of whirl at exit is ) m/s in the same direction as at inlet and the velocity ) where H is the head in meters. we get Also substituting the value of u from above.05 (0.loremate. compute the angles of the runner vanes at inlet and exit. Assuming hydraulic efficiency of 80%. Solution. The velocity of whirl at inlet to the runner of an inward flow reaction turbine is (3.15 of flow at inlet is (1.83 inner diameter of the runner is 0. we have ptumech.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 18/26 .

= 90° = 25° a = 30° Flow area.loremate. a = Runner blade angle at inlet is radial As velocity of flow is constant so ptumech. Assuming that the velocity of flow is constant throughout. The speed of the turbine 30 rpm. The inlet guide vane angle is 30°.10.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 1.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 19/26 .p. The inlet and the outlet runner blade angles of a propeller turbine are and 25° respectively to the tangential direction of the runner.9091 = 62°21’ From outlet velocity triangle. determine (1) Discharge (ii) Power developed (iii) Hydraulic efficiency (iv) Specific speed. =3.6m N =30 r.6 m and the area of flow is 30 .6194 =31°46’ Problem.m. Solution. we have =0. The mean diameter of the runner blades is 3.

65 = 1.loremate.81 x 97.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 20/26 .104 m (1)Hydraulic efficiency is given by =0.65 m/s Also = 5.86 = 2378 kW (4)Specific speed is given by 355.65xtan30° =3. Q = Area of flow x Velocity of flow =30x3262=97.08 rpm Problem. In a Francis turbine of very low specific speed.65 = = 7 . If the turbine discharges radially.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery = 5. (2)Discharge through turbine.65 m/s From inlet velocity triangle =5. tan 25° + 5.11.47 + 0.262m /s =5. show that the ptumech.35 x 5.65 x 5. the velocity of flow from inlet to exit of the runner remains constant.529 m/s We have.634 3.65] =7 m/s H = 2.798 = 79. [5.35 m/s =3.5.65m/s From outlet velocity triangle.86 (3)Power developed by turbine × Weight of water x 1000 x 9.65 — 1.8%.

2/3/13 constant. Problem. introducing these values in equation (i) above and simplifying it.m. 92% 4m 1m 21/26 .p. we get (for radial discharge) Where and are the pressure heads at the inlet aid the exit of the runner respectively. show that the degree of reaction p can be expressed as Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery where a and are the guide and runner vane angles respectively and the degree of reaction p is equal to the ratio of pressure drop to the hydraulic work done in the runner. Solution.loremate. A Francis turbine supplied through a 6 m diameter penstock has the following particulars.12. we get. Output of installation Flow Speed Hydraulic efficiency Mean diameter of turbine at entry Mean blade height at entry ptumech. If the turbine discharges radially. assuming that the losses in the runner are negligible. Applying Bernoulli’s equation between the inlet and exit of the runner and neglecting the potential difference. Thus pressure head drop due to hydraulic work done in the runner is given by Now Or Or For radical discharge Also … (1) Or And u =V [cos a-sin a cot ] Thus.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 63500 kW 117 150 r.

=2.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 2m =8.4m/s 22/26 . The pressure head at entry to the draft tube. we get 2.92 17.2 m Velocity in tail race 2. Determine: 1.52 m/s The direction of flow relative to the runner at inlet is given by =0. Solution. The point of measurement is 3 m above the level of the tail race.4 m/s.4 m.98 m The overall efficiency is given by = 0. 3.7% (b) Neglecting the vane thickness.42 m/s Or 0.6698 (c) The pressure head at entry to the draft tube is given by equation ptumech.2/3/13 Mean blade height at entry Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 1m Entry diameter of draft tube 4. The overall efficiency. The exit plane of the runner is 2 m above the tail race an the flow leaves the runner without swirl. The loss in the draft tube is equivalent to 30% of the velocity head at entry to it. The direction of flow relative to the runner at inlet. 2.907 or 90. we get = 9. = 60. and D=4m Thus by substitution. the velocity of flow at inlet i given by equation B=1m. (a)The net head H for the turbine is given by equation And Thus by substitution.4 m/s The static pressure head in the penstock measured before entry to the runner is 57.44m/s.loremate.31 m/s 31.

Solution: (a) For the same efficiency of the model and the prototype Or =109.44m/s. we get =1.loremate.p. under a head of 1. Further Or =433.77 m.090—4.09 m +1. =2.09 kw ptumech.13.p.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 23/26 .m.25m Problem. Or Or =114.m.7 m.4m/s And Thus by substitution.43kW (b) According to Moody’s equation. develops 3 kW at 306 r. (b) the efficiency of the model turbine is 76% and the scale effect is considered.m.8 r. Find the speed and power of full size turbine operating under a head of 5.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery 2m =8. A model of Francis turbine one-fifth of full size. if (a) the efficiency of the model and the full size turbine are same. We know that Or =491.p.5 r.

5 m and with overall efficiency 87 percent. Problem. Show that in a turbine. the pressure head 24/26 ptumech. Assume the flow velocity to remain constant.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery Problem.14. The draft tube has a diameter of 2. the hydraulic efficiency is given by: Where is the guide blade angle. the energy balance gives: Head supplied = (work done or head utilized) + (kinetic head at exit) For radial vanes at inlet and outlet Hydraulic efficiency. Neglecting losses with in the runner.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 .15. with radial vanes at inlet and outlet. In order to avoid cavitation. Solution.loremate.8 m at its inlet and has an efficiency of 78 percent. A Kaplan turbine develops 2250 kW under a net head of 5.

87. the pressure head at entry to the draft tube must not drop more than 4. In order to avoid cavitation.79 m/s Given: = 4. Power available from the turbine shaft.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery of 78 percent. Determine correct speed for runner and absolute velocity of water at point of discharge if diameter at entry is twice that at discharge and width at entry is 0. Fig. Q = 47.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 In outlet velocity triangle 25/26 .5m =4.5 m below atmosphere.78 = 2.93 Now =7. Solution.087 Problem. Solution. 0.16. Input and outlet velocity triangle Given =15° = 24 m/s ptumech.6 times that at discharge. The guide vanes are inclined at 15° to tangent at inlet and velocity of water leaving the guides in 24 m/sec.5- Draft tube efficiency. An inward flow pressure turbine has runner vanes which are radial-at the inlet and inclined backward at 45° to the tangent at discharge.78 = = 4. Calculate the maximum height at which the runner may be set above the tail race level.5 x 0.loremate. P = wQH x 2250 × = (9810 x Q x 55) x 0.

28 m/s (For radial discharge) = 105.94 x 33.94 m/s Ans.loremate.94 = 28. We know x33. ptumech.2/3/13 Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine | Fluid Machinery In outlet velocity triangle = m/s Ans.com/fluid-machinery/node/13 26/26 .

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