# Gears Design and Simulation for

Gears Design and Simulation for
Car Transmission
Car Transmission
Jiting Li, Weidong Guo, Mileta M Tomovic
School of Technology
Mechanical Engineering Technology
Outline
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Strength Design of the Gear Mesh
Finite Elements Analysis of Gears
http://www.purdue.edu/discoverypark/PLM/SME/car_transmission.zip
The transmission is used to increase the driving torque of the engine.
It is connected to the engine through the clutch, and connected with
drive shaft through U-joint.
Driving System Illustration [1]
Transmission Graphic Illustration [1]
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
-999 -3.38:1 Reverse
3,375 1:1 4th
2,538 1.33:1 3rd
1,679 2.01:1 2nd
999 3.38:1 1st
RPM at Transmission Output Shaft
with Engine at 3375 rpm
Ratio Gear
Assume that the transmission is required to have five different gear
ratios, listed in the following Table.
Input Shaft
Output Shaft
Counter Shaft
Idler Gear Shaft
Z
23
Z
35
Z
27
Z
33
Z
40
Z
18
Z
25
Z
31
Z
20
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
To meet the requirement, the mechanism of the transmission is designed
as follows.
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Z
18
Z
20
Z
40
Z
25
Gear
33 Z
33
18 31 Z
31
20 27 Z
27
40 35 Z
35
25 23 Z
23
Tooth number
Tooth number Gear
And the tooth number of the gears is listed in the following table.
Note! The transmission mechanism comes from literature [2].
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Then the simulation is carried on to validate the kinematic design
result. All the gears and shafts are first modeled and assembled in
certain solid modeling software, such as Solidworks and
Unigraphics, and then imported into the kinematic and dynamic
analysis software ADAMS/View to do the kinematic simulations.
First Gear
Z
23
Z
35
Z
40
Z
18
38 . 3
18 23
40 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
18 23
40 35
1
=
×
×
= =
Transmission ratio
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
First Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Second Gear
Z
23
Z
35
Z
33
Z
25
01 . 2
25 23
33 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
25 23
33 35
2
=
×
×
= = Transmission ratio
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Second Gear Simulation
Third Gear
Transmission ratio 33 . 1
31 23
27 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
31 23
27 35
3
=
×
×
= =
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Z
27
Z
31
Z
23
Z
35
Third Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Fourth Gear
Connecting Shaft
Transmission ratio 1 GR
4
=
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Fourth Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Reverse
Z
23
Z
35
Z
40
Z
18
38 . 3
18 23
40 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
18 23
40 35
rev
− =
×
×
− = − =
Transmission ratio
Z
20
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Reverse Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
There are five pairs of gear mesh to be designed. Here we just take the first pair,
i.e., the gear mesh 1, for an example. The design method for others are same.
Note! All the Equations, Figures and Tables will be used are come from
literature [3].
Requirements: Design a 1.522:1 helical-gear reduction for a 18-hp, output shaft of
engine running at 3375rpm. The load is medium shock, providing a reliability of
0.95 at 10
9
revolutions of the pinion. Using through hardened steel, grade 1 material.
Solutions: Make the a priori decisions as
•Function:18hp, 3375rpm, R=0.95, N=10
9
cycles, K
o
=1.35
•Design factor for unquantifiable exingencies: n
d
=3
•Tooth system: Φ
n
=20°, helix angle: ψ=20°
•Tooth count: N
P
=23 teeth, N
G
= 35 teeth
•Quality number: Q
v
•Assume m
B
≥1.2 in Eq.(14-40), K
B
=1
Pitch: Select a trial diametral pitch of Pd=8 teeth/in. Thus, d
P
=23/8=2.875
in and d
G
=35/8=4.375 in. From Table 14-2,Y
P
=3.334, Y
G
=0.374. From
Fig. 14-6, J
P
=0.345,J
G
=0.375.
lbf 833 . 233
272 . 2540
18 33000
V
H 33000
W
ft/min 272 . 2540
12
75 π(2.875)33
12
n πd
V
t
p p
=
×
= =
= = =
From Eqs.(14-28) and (14-27),
404 . 1
72 . 70
272 . 2540 72 . 70
A
V A
K
72 . 70 ) 63 . 0 1 ( 56 50 ) B 1 ( 56 50 A
63 . 0 ) 8 12 ( 25 . 0 ) Q 12 ( 25 . 0 B
63 . 0 B
v
3 / 2 3 / 2
v
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
= − + = − + =
= − = − =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From Eq.(14-38)
885 . 0 ) 95 . 0 1 ln( 0759 . 0 658 . 0 ) R 1 ln( 0759 . 0 658 . 0 K
R
= − − = − − =
From Fig.14-14,
874 . 0 ) 522 . 1 / 10 ( 6831 . 1 ) 522 . 1 / N ( 6831 . 1 ) (Y
862 . 0 ) 10 ( 6831 . 1 N 6831 . 1 ) (Y
0323 . 0 9 0323 . 0
G N
0323 . 0 9 0323 . 0
P N
= = =
= = =
− −
− −
From Fig.14-15,
791 . 0 ) 522 . 1 / 10 ( 466 . 2 ) 522 . 1 / N ( 466 . 2 ) (Z
773 . 0 ) 10 ( 466 . 2 N 466 . 2 ) (Z
056 . 0 9 056 . 0
G N
056 . 0 9 056 . 0
P N
== = =
= = =
− −
− −
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From the recommendation after Eq. (14-8), 3p ≤ F≤5p. Try F=1.57 in.
From Eq.(a), Sec. 14-10,
061 . 1
8
334 . 0 57 . 1
192 . 1
P
Y F
192 . 1 K
0535 . 0 0535 . 0
s
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
From Eqs.(14-31), (14-33), (14-35), C
mc
=C
pm
=C
e
=1. From Fig. 14-11,
C
ma
=0.11 for commercial enclosed gear units. From Eq. (14-32),
037 . 0 ) 57 . 1 ( 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
) 875 . 2 ( 10
57 . 1
F 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
d 10
F
C
P
Pf
= + − = + − =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From Eq. (14-30),
147 . 1 )] 1 ( 11 . 0 ) 1 ( 037 . 0 [ 1 1 ) C C C C ( C 1 K
e ma pm pf mc m
= + + = + + =
From Table 14-8, for steel gears,
psi 2300 C
P
=
° = =
Ψ
Φ
= Φ 17 . 21
20 cos
20 tg
arctg
cos
tg
arctg
n
t
o
o
in 341 . 1 17 . 21 cos
2
875 . 2
cos r r
t P bP
= ° = Φ =
in 040 . 2 17 . 21 cos
2
375 . 4
cos r r
t G bG
= ° = Φ =
in 125 . 0
8
1
P
1
a = = =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
[ ] [ ]
581 . 0 17 . 21 sin )
2
375 . 4
2
875 . 2
(
040 . 2 ) 125 . 0
2
375 . 4
( 341 . 1 ) 125 . 0
2
875 . 2
(
sin ) r r ( r ) a r ( r ) a r ( Z
2 / 1
2 2
2 / 1
2 2
t G P
2 / 1
2
bG
2
G
2 / 1
2
bP
2
P
= ° + −
(
¸
(

¸

− + +
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
Φ + − − + + − + =
in 393 . 0
8 P
p
n
=
π
=
π
=
143 . 0
1 8
8
2
20 sin 20 cos
1 P
P
2
20 sin 20 cos
I =
+
=
+
=
o o o o
669 . 0
) 581 . 0 ( 95 . 0
20 cos 393 . 0
Z 95 . 0
cos p
Z 95 . 0
P
m
n n N
N
= =
Φ
= =
o
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
in 963 . 0
) 862 . 0 ( 40000
) 885 . 0 ( 1
345 . 0
) 1 ( 147 . 1
) 8 ( 061 . 1 ) 404 . 1 ( 35 . 1 ) 833 . 233 ( 3
Y S
K K
J
K K
P K K K W n ) F (
N t
R T
P
B m
d s v o
t
d bend
= =
=
Pinion tooth bending.
With the above estimates of K
s
and K
m
from the trial dimetral pitch, we
check to see if the mesh width F is controlled by bending or wear
considerations. Choose the hardness of steel through-hardened HB=350.
From Fig. 14-2
Equating Eqs. (14-15) and (14-17), substituting n
d
W
t
for W
t
and solving
for face with (F)
bend
necessary to resist bending fatigue, we obtain
kpsi 40 12800 77.3HB S
t
= + =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
psi 41800 1 00 91 2 HB 22 3 S
c
= + =
From Fig. 14-5,
Then
in 790 . 0
) 143 . 0 ( 875 . 2
) 1 ( 147 . 1
061 . 1 ) 404 . 1 ( 35 . 1 ) 833 . 233 ( 3
885 . 0 ) 1 ( 141800
) 773 . 0 ( 2300
I d
C K
K K K W n
K K S
Z C
) F (
2
P
f m
s v o
t
d
2
R T C
N p
wear
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Decision
Make face width 1.2 in. Correct K
s
and K
m
:
046 . 1
8
334 . 0 2 . 1
192 . 1
P
Y F
192 . 1 K
0535 . 0 0535 . 0
s
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
019 . 0 ) 2 . 1 ( 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
) 875 . 2 ( 10
2 . 1
F 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
d 10
F
C
P
Pf
= + − = + − =
129 . 1 )] 1 ( 11 . 0 ) 1 ( 019 . 0 [ 1 1 ) C C C C ( C 1 K
e ma pm pf mc m
= + + = + + =
psi 768 . 10115
345 . 0
) 1 ( 129 . 1
2 . 1
8
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233
J
K K
F
P
K K K W ) (
P
B m d
s v o
t
P
= =
= σ
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
The bending stress induced by W
t
in bending, from Eq. (14-15), is
psi 768 . 10115
345 . 0
) 1 ( 129 . 1
2 . 1
8
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233
J
K K
F
P
K K K W ) (
P
B m d
s v o
t
P
= =
= σ
The factor of safety in bending of the pinion, from Eq. (14-41), is
852 . 3
768 . 10115
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
) 862 . 0 ( 40000
) K K (
Y S
) S (
R T
N t
P F
= =
σ
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Decision.
Gear tooth bending. Use cast gear blank because of the 4.375-in pitch
diameter. Use the same material, heat treatment, and nitriding. The load-
induced bending stress is in the rotio of J
P
/J
G
. Then
psi 507 . 9306
375 . 0
345 . 0
768 . 10115
J
J
) ( ) (
G
P
P G
= = σ = σ
245 . 4
507 . 9306
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
) 874 . 0 ( 40000
) S (
G F
= =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Pinion tooth wear.
The contact stress, given by Eq. (14-16), is
psi 593 . 74914
143 . 0
1
) 2 . 1 ( 875 . 2
129 . 1
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233 2300
I
C
F d
K
K K K W C ) (
f
P
m
s v o
t
P P C
= =
= σ
The factor of safety from Eq. (14-42), is
653 . 1
593 . 74914
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 773 . 0 ( 141800
) K K (
C Z S
) S (
C
R T
H N C
P H
= =
σ
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
By our definition of factor of safety, pinion wear is
3 n 733 . 2 653 . 1 ) S (
d
2 2
H
P
= < = =
So make face width larger, F=1.57 in.
The factor of safety (S
H
)
P
is
863 . 1
551 . 66486
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 773 . 0 ( 141800
) K K (
C Z S
) S (
C
R T
H N C
P H
= =
σ
=
psi 551 . 66486
143 . 0
1
) 57 . 1 ( 875 . 2
147 . 1
) 061 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233 2300 ) (
P C
= = σ
3 n 471 . 3 863 . 1 ) S (
d
2 2
H
P
= > = =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
By our definition of factor of safety, both of pinion bending and wear are
larger than n
d
.
Gear tooth wear. The hardness of the gear and pinion are the same.
Thus the contact stress on the gear is the same as the pinion,
The wear strength is also the same, S
C
= 141800 psi. The factor of safety
of the gear in wear is
906 . 1
551 . 66486
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 791 . 0 ( 141800
) S (
G H
= =
psi 551 . 66486 ) (
G C
= σ
By our definition of factor of safety, both of gear bending and wear are
larger than n
d
.
634 . 3 906 . 1 ) S (
2 2
H
G
= =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Rim. Keep MB ≥ 1.2. The whole depth is
in 281 . 0
8
25 . 2
P
25 . 2
P
25 . 1
P
1
d d d
t
= = = + = + =
The rim thickness t
R
is
in 337 . 0 ) 281 . 0 ( 2 . 1 h m t
t B R
= = ≥
For other pinions and gears in this transmission, we can use the same
method and process to calculate their bending and wear stresses.
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Finite Elements Analysis of Gears
This will be done in a few days !
Reference
1. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/transmission.htm
2. Richard Stone and Jeffrey K. Ball, Automotive Engineering
Fundamentals. SAE International, 2004.
3. Joseph E. Shigley, Charles R. Mischke and Richard G. Budynas,
Mechanical Engineering Design (7
th
edition), Higher Education, 2003.
Acknowledgments
The authors wish to acknowledge the support from the
Society for Manufacturing Engineers - Education Foundation,
SME-EF Grant #5004 for “Curriculum Modules in Product
Lifecycle Management.”