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CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
. 1 being the most important. It is the language of business... learning vocabulary ... writing .... English is the most widespread language on Earth. Justify your order..What advantages does the adult have? 2.. Read books and newspapers.. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. reading . Speaking 1.... Work in groups. technology..... How do you learn languages? . This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.. Work alone... pronunciation practice 3.. Compare your lists......... This will no doubt continue. and the process is now being reversed.. Purists of the French.. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.What advantages does the baby have? . Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. we can talk about a round of golf... 4 ... learning grammar ....... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.... cards.. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY.. Prepositions too are flexible.. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance..... and aviation.. speaking and being corrected .. speaking and not being corrected all the time .... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd... Geographically..to be cleaned and dried.... ... 4. listening .. but remember that different people learn in different ways. or drinks. sport...What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ..
. they opened newsgroups. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. just kept on growing. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. no single computer that controls the rest of them. There will be no "command center".I. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. as it came to be called. invented e-mail. Instead of using the network strictly for business. Other networks joined in. and the Internet. the way they got there was unimportant. 1. 37. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. each machine will have equal status. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. 2. they sent each other games.. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. still the most popular use of the Net by far. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. then news and eventually gossip. But they weren't interested in science or academia. Amazingly. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. by 1972. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. in fact.). The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. Instead. Crude as they were. They had. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. it worked. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. uninvited but still welcome. they used it to swap gossip. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. They started mailing lists. to use the techy term. But then an odd thing started to happen. These packets could be sent independently over the network. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. 4. 3. 5 . The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. swapped them (via the net. Because of the way the messaging system worked. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. for it was they.
Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. cheaper and more reliable. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D.2. mailbox. Here are five types of computers. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. however. a series of bits being a part of message B. a set of related computers C. a person who tries to discover something E. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Over the last few years. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. Since then the computers (become) smaller. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . researcher A. network. Computer sizes. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. desktop computer 2. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. packet. supercomputer 4. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). but the market (saturate) to some extent. notebook 3. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Apple. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). along with IBM. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. mainframe 5. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. but transistors soon (replace) them.
Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. offered by mail. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". learn the material. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. 1. videotape of professor's lectures. rather than offering their own set of courses. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. all of which express personal opinions: 1. Using modern technology. the Net will be alma mater. For example. founder and president of University Online. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. Use the elements to make complete sentences. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. and the Americans. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. click on the course they want. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. Personally. the material would be available to students at their convenience. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. use a bulletin board.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. It's called distance learning. and interactive courseware. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Australia. and connect to a server that presents information. online environment. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Europe. Within a few months. visit the school's We site. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. Students can log onto the Internet. and as with mail order programs. There's a revolution happening in education. says Nat Kannan. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation.
scientist ... behavio(u)rism typist.. state condition. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. musician introduction.... several new courses have been offered. over two years.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. in 1992 2. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. University Online was originally tested over five years .. It was put on the market in 1994. to write a summary of 3. to give a linear form to 8.. condition belonging to act of.. 3. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. 5. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. execution.. withdrawal clearance. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. to make use of a symbol for something 3. state condition. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam.. operator voucher. four years .. we never believed it would be so successful... to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. to reduce to the minimum 7.. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. for and ago: 1.. connector childhood. kingdom employee. a few months . boredom. the beginning of the experiment. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom.5. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal... -or -hood -ian -ion. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er.... to take a material form 5. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. possession magnetism... 1992 and it is already known worldwide. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. addressee audience. to represent in a digital form 2. to give authority to 10. . independence employer.. This University has only existed . 6... 4. to arrange in an optimal way 6... From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. You have to follow a course .. To my mind. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. When we started..g. so it has been tested .
generally. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. Now. auto 8. tolerate shorten. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. short 7. -ical -ish -less -ous. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. tight 5. state condition. slavery. happiness. electric 17. action condition of quality. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. concentrate. transform the following words into verbs. computerize. rivalry friendship. stimulus 20. long 13. 1. soft 10. personal 15. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. mode 14. boldness labo(u)r. furiously 4. simple 4. lengthen classify.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. active 3. widen. broad 2. robot 6. logical. quality state. initial 12. interruptible environmental. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. using the verb-forming suffixes above. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. weak 19. condition place. analysis 11. loose 16. economical foolish useless porous. state electricity. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . reality achievement. standard 18. simplify customize. condition. behavio(u)r foundry. local 9. -ery -ship state. government business.
how it relates to other products and so on. A consultant is different. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. That's where the all-important experience comes in. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. and so on. C++. you've run big projects. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. However. They merely prove you can think. C++. a week there. By the age of 30. If you decide programming is really for you. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. an attention to detail. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. The same goes for NetWare Certification. University degrees are useless. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. as does Novell. more manageable pieces. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. For someone starting out. spend more money on a training course. Here's the road map. rolled out major solutions and are well known. so you have to be better than them. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. After a couple of hops like that. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. Java and Visual Basic developers. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. Qualifications are important. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. its positioning on the market. Delphi. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. Visual Basic and Delphi. 10 . Get a decent book on Windows programming. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. technology and people. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. And there are lots of people who know it too. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory.
into going away more than above too much beneath. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. location. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. misfortune nonsense unreal. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. semicolon . decode disagree. size. external foreground. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. bystander input.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). side in. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. involve output. foresee. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass.
not up to standard 10. size. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. after the war 4. a program that is part of a larger program 6. 1. to convey data from one place to another 8. to predict 3. to grow larger 5. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. Now use the prefixes of degree. location.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. half manual 7. half automatic. that is already programmed 2.
Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. For example. Besides content. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. and make necessary adjustments. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. you may group the FAQ.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. and visitors may not know how to 14 . the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. include descriptive ALT text captions. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. to find their way around. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. If you are committed to using frames on your site. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links.
add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". you can add the suffix "er". SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. Logical. up to date. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. on-line support. without wasting space. well laid out. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go.use yours effectively. 15 . if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. a visitor. 1. good reactivity. cluttered. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. Take notes on any special features. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. However. ease of use. compatibility. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. confusing. features. Visit a website of your choice. contact information. search facility. password protected. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). (hot) links. colorful. a user. structure connections. navigation. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. helpful graphics. For most sites. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. especially those ending in "y" (see above). accuracy. nice design. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing.
the comparative can be preceded by "the".. indicated by the symbols. "as . 2. 3.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. the better he feels. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. the slower the speed of execution. 2. John was the elder of the two boys. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. 2. when preceded by "X times". You will not find another processor as fast as this one. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. For the preceding sentence. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . The less sophisticated the software. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. When comparing two items.. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. 4. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 4. when buying a PC are often 5. as".. The higher the resolution. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. the more I feel depressed. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. resolution was 16 . the sharper the picture. 3. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. This computer is the cheaper of the two.. The less he works. 1.
fast chip 4. ugly picture 9. 3. With short adjectives. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . powerful computer 2. This is the most powerful computer available today. expensive card 6. reliable device 5. cheap computer 3. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. fuzzy image 8.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. big memory device 7. 1. inconsistent program 10.
.. It doesn't work. A bug . Put the words back in the right order: 1. may or could 1... Don't criticize others for their misspellings. You . buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. 4.. when to criticize and when to stay silent. be debugged before being executed. 3. on the Net or elsewhere. unwarranted abuse and long... (A whole quarter second in some cases).. if that happened. make sure you spell correctly yourself.. 2. and overzealous at that...... There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it... off-the-point arguments to see that... cause unexpected results. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. In practice. You .... documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. A flowchart . When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong..... The following sentences have been scrambled. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. Programs . and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.... asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. Don't cross-post messages. The reason for this is never given. read the FAQ). a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. This piece of software ... simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. 5. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. Conversely. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom.. rambling. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups... 1. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once.... This form of internal policing. sometimes be useful when designing a program... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can... have to.... Don't use a signature of more than four lines. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy.. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all... is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. because it wastes people's time.... 6.. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. 18 ..
.. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW . as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. 3. also known as "favorites" .. 10... Cind am incercat soft-ul. and diagonally top to bottom). de exemplu.... 5.. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . 6... picture. 3. a measure of visits to a website . am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus... 5...... 7... 7. opening page of a website . write this program in a high-level language.. 3.. and computing... 6... Ar fi putut.... They . paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei.. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului..... Daca as fi vrut.. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul..... 2. 8.... Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. Write them next to the correct definition.. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor... graphic ... 4... Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici..... Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet. If you do... 4. email.. You . it will take up too much space in the computer memory. the main.... H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .. 2. top to bottom..... a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. Cu toate acestea... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii........ Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text.. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . Translate the following sentences into English.7. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata.. 9... 8..... 19 ...... (You can find the words left to right.. photo..
..9.... email. 21... 12. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net . i...... Uniform Resource Locator.. abbreviation for the Internet ... a search engine..........e....... something that automatically connects you to another page ...... 11....... a way of showing emotion in an email......... 15. 13..... a location on the WWW . website address . unsolicited mail............. 19. a physical input / output point . the World Wide Web . 18. 16.. e. ............g.. etc.. 17... 22. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.. an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet . 20 ........ the Internet equivalent of post ............ 14... a software package generally used to start you up for a program ... 20........ a bug which infects data on your computer .............. :-) . 10. inappropriate use of a mailing list ...
Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. 1. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text.Choose the ending (A. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. All the hacker needs is a modem. and so. Robert Schifreen 21 .000. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. hacking is still easy. C. Triludan. Typically.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. MULTIPLE CHOICE . One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. For some teenagers. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. had knocked on this door. costing companies an average of $23. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. had not been in trouble with the law before. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. 1. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. The law was tightened up. which is readily available. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. Hackers have their own code of conduct. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. the computer companies would have you believe. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. B. Today's hacker is not so lucky. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. better known as Robert Schifreen. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. But according to those who practice. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. Admittedly. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise.000 a year to repair. a basic computer and a bit of patience. hacking has been criminalized. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. has the security.
Each MP3 file has a tag. 22 . f. D. d. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. 3. C. Cause 1. has eliminated all computer security. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. is popular because it is romantic. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. 8. MP3 players contain several devices.A. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. b. 33% of its members are hackers B. c. Hacking A. merely curious. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. This gives an enormous storage capacity. C. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. D. D. 3. totally unaware of what they are doing. g. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. is a form of escape from the everyday world. B. 2. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 5. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. This produces much smaller files. You can legally download some music. B. Match each cause and effect. 4. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. costs about 48p a time C. 2. 7. the survival of hackers is threatened. deliberately destructive B. has made hacking more difficult. D. Then link them with an –ing clause. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. e. h. 5. You can download single tracks. According to the NNC A. outlaws hacking. C. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 4. male criminals. Effect a. B. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. You can create your own compilation. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. You can download a skin program. 6.
Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. keyboard. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together.3. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 8. 3. 9. 7. 6. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 10. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 4. display. 2. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. 1. 5. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. mouse and hard drives only. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate.
. According to the market researcher Dataquest...... Applications are the key issue.. the applications are generally better.... Mainstream applications 3.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. word processor and database – comes on one CD.. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis...... Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity. 1.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. the equivalent of 300. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs.. For example.... Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. Review criteria 4. but are spread throughout business. with a further 1..... This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either..... As with other areas of the computer industry. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore... and because there's more space.. 24 . Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.... along with the conventional 3. or were vast collections of specific information. and justify the cost of a drive. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post.. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5..5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.. . The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. Put them back in the appropriate place. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space... floppy drive... Measuring drive performance 2.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).... A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. 1. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass..... literature and art....5in.. Price points . Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.. but it's not the only one.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format.
.. 2......... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future... .Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices.... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.. ...... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization... pie chart. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.. this excuse was taken too far... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware....... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time... 7... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality.. 4.. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. 8. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information.... Backing Store .. however advanced.. while still developing rapidly. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM. .... 1.... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing... The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information... more precise head positioning mechanism. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software..... disk 25 .... 2.. give reasons for your choice. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. access time.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false.... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more.. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are... 9. Increased competition has now reversed the trend.. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system.. is still a read-only product.. drawback. 10.. As a result of this market maturity.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use. 5...But CD-ROM.. files... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. 1... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks.. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. This is often confused with the average access searches. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase........... 3... TRUE OR FALSE? ...... more faster. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives... 6. The industry........
.... as opposed to a single-sided disk. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as . Before being used......... Hence files can be ... it is called a ...... that is extremely slow because of ..........." are also common.. Most users are more familiar with the . Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. old-fashioned........ In this way only a small part of a . on both surfaces. sequential access......... needs to be in main memory at any one time.. and . read-write head..... oxide-coated surface... Disk have the advantage of being serial or . i. address.... magnetic tapes.. This technology is cheap and easy to use.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems. but has the .. a track and a sector number).. directory...... Large systems often use cartridges or .e. Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years...e. 3. storage areas are marked on the magnetic. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. magnetic disks or diskettes........ Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta... 2.... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers. of all the files on the disk..drives...... direct-access. 8........... 26 . disk... You should write between 150 and 200 words.... The .. 10..... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb....... 7.... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a . Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. disk packs..... retrieved.. a disk must be ... De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara........ formatted (x3)........ floppy disk. erorile se pot corecta. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE). 6........ Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.... 9..... 5...... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS. both internal and external.... THE PASSIVE . database.. 3... If the disk is ..... Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta.. (i...... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors... 4.. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... double-sided.. media and . Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory. though these are becoming .Translate the following sentences into English: 1.. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta.............. so-called because of its flexibility... where only one surface is ..... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.. Hermetic data modules called ".
3. At the time of the Renaissance A. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. Moreover. C. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. 1. beyond the straightforward museum visit. An overview of lost techniques. and industry. 27 . military. only aristocrats could go to museums. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. For many people. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. C. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. the patron goddesses of the arts. B. virtual museums A. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. 2. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. electronically. especially in distant lands. a basis for study for future generations. A museum can best be defined as A. science. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. With the internet. crafts. With reference to the information in the article. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. Within the last few years. Elizabeth Brown. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. will replace traditional museums. public museums did not exist. fashion. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. B. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks.
C.B. to establish 6. country 9. 5. object produced by human hands 3. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. museum A. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. C. vast 4. photo (taken quickly) 2. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. disadvantage 7. will show works of art that do not exist. article (in a magazine) 4. work of art. best work of an artist C. art work 2. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. The Web may transform our perception of art. honored 5. 6. will organize visits to its storage spaces. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. artefact 3. to see. Museums maintain and display great works of art. 2. to enjoy 10. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . masterpiece 4. 1. 4. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. Match the words and their definitions: 1. storehouse 8. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. 4. Put the following sentences into the passive form. 2. The National Museum of Art A. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. collection 5. something produced by creative talent E. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. 3. B. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. to admire 3.
The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. the name of the payer and the recipient. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. Checks. To execute a real-time transaction. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. In a credit system. a bank redeems each note number only once. and credit cards are credit systems. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. A person who receives (money. users can act as both customers and merchants. With such a system. currency. Using a public key.. 3. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. or a dedicated payment client. and a bank does the accounting. and the amount of money represented). In many cases. The customer pays. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. 5. Payment systems based on gold. A bank employee who pays out money. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. charge accounts.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. This might be a WWW browser. In a debit system. traveler's checks.e. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. for example). the date and time of the transaction. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. and the amount to be paid. In a peer-to-peer system. both exist in the digital world as well. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. A person who buys goods or services from you. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. paper currency. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. The customer runs client software. 2. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. 29 . a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. the merchant receives the payment. 4. you gather your money up front and then spend it. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. 1. For the purposes of this discussion. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction.
. The bank director... I met personally. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement....? The next day he got a bill for $0. of which. wanted to buy some shirts... D ... deposit...... The next month he got a bill for $0. to sign.... 3... whose. overdraft... 30 .. where.. is similar to traditional credit.. The first one has already been done for you. for their manager. Digital credit.. to open. The bank will send the company a weekly ..... to start... holder... name is on the check... to clear. will only be charged at 12%.. 1. 5... whom. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. 4. a current . You will not need to use them all! account.. loan. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday. He is the very man . He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it.. To add money (to an account).... The account will not produce any . . interest. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.. some .. .. accepts digital cash. The customer.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card... Stupid Computer Error A ... 3... A large number of banknotes.6.. For $20 a month. were still new. the company can have access to a .. cheques. remittance. However.. balance. The site. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake. bought her a typewriter instead. is used in electronic trade.. A computer that can access a server. he ignored it. 2.. will be $10.. receipt...? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0..00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt..... He ignored it and threw it away..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. statement.. withdrawal The Longstone company wish .... The initial .. 7. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. C ........... of account. Money used in a specific country.... 6.00 stating that payment was now overdue.......... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. He alone will be authorized .00. entered the virtual shop. . 8...... which... 2.. The man. safe. were found in the safe. agreed to honor my check... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament...000. we found CD-ROMs on sale... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who..
? Finally giving in.00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail.E . F .? In April he received another and threw that one too. He called them and talked to them.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 .? A week later. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.00 by return of post. G .
computing. "At telecom 91. networks. Dr. is high / low it is highly probable that . Next came.. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. And needless to say.. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. he said. satellite. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion... You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. So things have changed. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. one can predict / foretell that. Dr. smells. and the role of the providers. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. more controversially. Christian Huitema.. dumb terminals. As he pointed out. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. 32 . came the issue of virtual reality. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". well. And as for the taste. and. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. said. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. dipping even further into the future. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. he enthused. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. Huitema.. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. For sheer impact. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. that didn't keep the crowds away. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around".. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. 1. we'll have to work on that one".... What should concern us. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. he predicted. there was an inevitable blur of content. said Dr. Lastly. that probability that .. "Sight. futurologists forecast.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not.. for all intents and purposes.. sound and feeling will arrive. exist. the future. was how online commerce will evolve. the current issue of security will only be short. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. experts expect that.
there are scientific arguments for. 33 . 2... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer... that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.. Prepare to explain them to your partner. My boss is easygoing and . allow.. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.. me leave early every Friday afternoon. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. 3.. make. Sneaky. Keyword The word....00. me to get a better job. A security password .... indicated by a finger symbol.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. 2...... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete. me to stay out later than 11.. access to confidential files... When I was young my parents never .it is a well-founded supposition that. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. permit 1.. The term was first coined by William Gibson... Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let. 4....... enable.... Reading Read the article...... Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.. Being a single parent . 5. it hard for me to have a social life... 3.... there are grounds for believing that. I hope that doing the course ...... HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. it is reasonable to think that.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient.
If something cracks you up. a new idiom has been born. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. The solution is to abbreviate. It takes wit. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. FWIW (for what is worth). PBAB (please bring a bottle). America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. C-U-L8R 34 . sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). GTG. every night. concentration and agile fingers. Plenty of adults talk the talk.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. all day at work. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). sex and location. Well. It has an estimated 75 million users. or type the type. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. contract and condense. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). Across the world. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. There's neither time nor space for exposition.
It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. LANGUAGE FOCUS A.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system.II.cair@btinternet. Spanish. English. which sounds very strange indeed. e. Stonebridge. then write your own CV in the same way. degrees and other qualifications.w. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification.g. Computer Studies. For the purpose of this task. Geography. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. Science. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". EH21 3TZ email p.
Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.Windows 95 / 98 . IT Department.Sage line 50 & 100 . Novasystems 36 . 2000 .1st line customer telephone support .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .TCP / IP Networking .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification . Leith.network administration and implementation .database design . L..Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. Thin.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . Personnel Officer.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Office 97.Exchange Server 5.5 .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .
should you feel I could be of use to your firm . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. State when you are available for the interview 10. Make the information you give relevant to the job.am currently studying for . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1.am available to start as from June 15 . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. Reference number if there is one.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done .gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . Type your letter 6. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . State what job you are applying for 4. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.name and address of firm. and firm. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. and where to put the handwritten signature.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . 37 . the name and address of the addressee. B. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. how to end it. Write clearly 2.state where you saw the job advertised . how to begin a letter. the signatory's full name (typed).B. Use the person's name if you know it .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".1. Give all the information you are asked for 8."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.state you qualifications in brief .avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .
I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. Over the past year. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. through the British Council. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. Alan Bannister 38 . from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. for example. as well as students. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. My contact address until the end of July is as above. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. teachers and administrative staff. team leadership and team membership. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. In Malaysia I arranged. study tours for project personnel. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. Yours sincerely.
Don't let your clothes be too extreme. 2. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. set out early. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. experience. . so much the better. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. Describe your most recent accomplishments. .Do make a graceful exit.Don't smoke. .C. In the past year. interests and hobbies. . How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. Which is more important to you. . . 5. Thank your interviewer. . walk to the door. You are likely to be found in the end. . (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. 39 . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9.Do arrive in plenty of time. Dress in a business-like way. money or job satisfaction? 12. don't rush.Do sit still.
Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: ... working on Lingo. how has it changed your working life? 3. How are you? I bet you are ..not bothering to correct spelling mistakes . If you use email at work... Could you email me details? 40 ... or may not be able to open . written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.... To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . Yours sincerely..not making clear who you are and why you are writing . and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . My name is Monica Ciampi and I am ..D.sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.. I was wondering if . One letter is formal.S... if you might be able to help me..... Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A... How often do you use email? 2. I would be extremely . my recent paper. Monica Ciampi P. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. future.... the other informal.. Dear Sir.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.not answering all the points raised by the sender . working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.... Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1... I .. you in the .writing everything in UPPER CASE ..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to . What do you use email for? 4. . if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. Please find .. or in sentences that are too long ..writing too much.... which I hope you will find interesting. Dear James..Read these emails. B. if you intend your comments to be humorous) ....not telling the reader what you expect them to do.
couple b. Send my . to Peter 1. a. bracket 12. for b. lacking 10. so b.. enclosed c. respect d. beforehand b.. also b.. a.. too d. pair d.. early c. a. a. Best wishes. match c. a.. demand b. with d.. ask 2. currently b.S. a. pleases d topic d. love c. additionally 4. I am looking forward to hearing from 7.. concerns b.. attached b.In a . soon d. from c. a. dinner 14. thus d. together. a. glad 5. close 8. and 13. business b. supper d. by 11. topic d. of weeks I'll be in England. wonder d.. drink b. presently d. I look forward to hearing news from d. next c... as well c. request c. grateful b. actually 3. missing c. a. a. then c. Hope to hear from you . wishes 41 . matter c. I look forward to news from b... wasting d. a.. losing b.. a. happy c. a. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . annexed 9. Monica P. meal c. near b. and thank you for your help. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .. I look forward to hearing from c. now c.. before 15. a. included d. affair 6.. a.....
our profits have not increased at the same rate.. on those successes before we ...are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that..... Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. outline. that although turnover has risen. I'll quickly .. I've . Now I'd like to .... then. What makes a presentation effective? 4. achievement of objectives. interesting. interrupt... you all for being here..... priority. My . with our plans for Europe. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. I'll .. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. referring. some of the problems we are facing... humor Organization – coherence. of course. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.... Please feel free to . concluding. and.. Well.... audibility... expand. motivating Exercise ... handling Delivery – pace... finally.. sum up... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. variety. with some recommendations. I'll .. Overall – clarity of message. to start with... pronunciation... to Italy and Spain. I'd like to ... informative. pointed out "Good afternoon. indicate. me if you have questions at any time. rapport / eye contact. tell you..... on balance.... I think our first ... 42 . describe... What is a presentation? 2... talked. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5.. illustrate.. in conclusion.... intonation.... options. . recommend.. you will notice. . bring you up to date. Let me quickly .. confidence... more . .. draw your attention.. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. purpose. .... some of the problems we are having over the market share. what . today is to . . clarity.....E. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. accuracy.. about our current position in the UK and I've . fluency... enthusiasm. thank. clarity. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent.... before .. specifically.. enjoyable. I'm . to . I'd like to . relevance. appropriacy...... subject knowledge. . the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. body language Language – clarity.. move on.. everybody... There is no benefit in using difficult language.. research Approach – message support and reinforcement.. .
but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes.We should not forget the French market.. Spain and possibly Greece.. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. ... Admittedly our results there have been poor so far..... Are there any final questions?" 43 .... Thank you also for your pertinent questions.. . though... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.
Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. Like an essay.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . In part-time degrees. try it out with your supervisor. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. A member of staff will supervise progress. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. which you research by yourself. However. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. but there are a number of differences: . but it can also be very daunting. There are several criteria for your choice: . which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. called a dissertation or long essay. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. but is probably the most important. since you have more space.F.is the topic academic enough? . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. and be available to assist you.you can choose your own title .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. 44 .research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. This means you have a whole year to write it.
Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. Dissertations are usually 10. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. Introduction – 1. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. 000 words Conclusion – 1. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. It is longer. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. 000 words. the first thing to do. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. since you may need a few by your side.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. since you have more to say. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. As you are reading through the books on your topic. ask yourself: . This will be your title. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. as you are reading through the material you have gathered.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
49 . but you can never tell. 5. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. 4. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow.1. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. It's really cold.
. 5.... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ........Test B A.................. 1....................................... ....... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra........................ He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting..... Then I went swimming at . Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics...... local pool and saw Bob McGraw........................ .. Look at those clouds................... 5..................... lunch with Bob.... .............. so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid...................... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions... ............. Articles Complete this text with a / an.. 3............. 3........ I've done that for you..... 50 .... He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known......... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations.............. First I went to .... 9............................................................... professional musician and plays with .......... They wondered how we had managed to do it....... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon.... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details................................................. ... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup.... I had ............................ 6........ River Thames........ 8.............................. 7................................. He's ... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation................... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday................ 3........ .............................. Right.................. If you're too hot in here............... Grammar 1..................... 4.......... 2.............. 1.. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions.... ........................ lovely morning. and she said that she hadn't had a chance........... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything............................ 7.................................. bank to withdraw some cash............. In each case choose the most likely alternative..... After .................. I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year.... or no article... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.... ..... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............... I went for . 6...... long walk by .......... I booked it last week. the................................. 2....... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning......... years......... 4...........
.. EJ ... Goodbye.............. right.......................... So................ is that right? AK Yes..................... ...... P Yes......... EJ . AK Yes.............. is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski................ he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland.. yes............. .. a..... AK Hello...... 2... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest. 10...... 51 . c................... .......... OK. I'm busy on Thursday...... Sorry. which is why I thought ........... P OK..... EJ Oh................... Would Thursday morning at 10...............m........... EJ ..............................00 a........................ fine...............8.................... AK Exactly............. Functions 1............ The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily................ without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary................ AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.................. this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering... can I just interrupt you a second? b.... e........ d................... It sounds useful..... something for people who need English translations of words............ I'm not really with you.... OK. then.............. you're talking about................................. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase............................. He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software...00..... .............. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e..............00 ......... As we were leaving....... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.. I've got you............... ? C .......... is that Paula........ Good idea. ........................ EJ ...... let me give you an example............. B.. and they said they would get it to him by 10................. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert................... 9........... C Paula.. He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time................00 ? P .............. at the latest. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment........................... ... Wednesday at 9................... C Hello........... hello........ and we told him that we could do it next week......... AK ...................
..... me......... He apologized ....... I had three jobs to choose .. 7.... my family when I was abroad on business for four months......... it. Do you take credit cards? 4..... A lot of company's resources are . I'm allergic .... Oh.. the beer festival... 5. Don't worry.. 2.. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss...... me.. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .... 1... We need to concentrate ... I've never . 1..... miss. opportunity! 5. my money.... 8.................... the UK market for the time being. Vocabulary 1. 4. the inconvenience caused..... 6. 3.. lose.. He is lacking ....... I can't eat seafood.... sensitivity........ 2........ or waste......... 52 ..... 2. 3... 10.............. lose...... no! I seem to have ...... Thank you for taking part . You can depend ....C.......... Please listen ........ The meeting coincided ..... I really .. because of inefficiency. 9. I am not accustomed . Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition....... my new job. . an important meeting in my life.... the discussion today.....
. some of B. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. 2. 2... you used to work? was also the year I got married. ... so please hurry up... c.... Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. is on the fifth floor.. 3. work opposite us are not very friendly. I give / will give you a bonus.. I'm doing many work at the moment. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. 9.. 5.. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday. 1. 4. he bought shares in the company. I like playing sport. or whom.. has just joined the company? b.... A. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). then correct the mistakes.. 6. that. This is the room . 2.. which.. anticipating an increase in value... Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. 2.... He gave us a lot of information about his company.. You can download software from many websites. d... have become good friends... There are quite a few billionaires in Europe... Grammar 1. There's not much news to tell you. 10... using where.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments..... Then complete them... 7.. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. 1.. the majority of ..... For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here.. is comfortable and spacious. My company does much business in Asia... is free. You need to invest in some more machinery. e.. we hold meetings in. Complete the sentences. who. As soon as / Until the merger was announced.Test C A.. she later married.. What's the name of the woman ...... I'm living in at the moment. Nothing happened yesterday.. a. 3.. The reception area. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). 3. 53 .
..... It's such a bad line........... because of a.............. and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things.... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'..... however f.. (indicate awareness of something) 3.. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets..... for example 2... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online....... He's not a very good team player.. is the answer to that........ fraud still occurs... a.. I had a day off work last week to make .............. (compensate for) 6........ whereas 6......... 1.............. To give you an example c............... such as 5...... Functions 1.... what you're saying... like e.... Let me explain what I mean. ... while d... so h... on the other hand 4.... The problems with her job are really starting to get her .............. ............................................ can we trust these servers to be secure? .. 2.... because c....... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server..B.. as a result of 8......... I can only just make . e... (disappoint) 2......... due to the fact that 7............. (be excited by) 4.. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e................. He's always letting his colleagues ..... working at the weekend. The point is d................g. thus C. Vocabulary 1....... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ... g............... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning........ e. trends..... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.. due to b...... ..... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem.... Explaining consequences..... 1... ..... I mean b... .. (make depressed) 5..... By secure... ..... on abusing the little power he has..................... as 3.. ...... ............... (understand) 54 ........... He really gets ...
.. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties..........................7.... She's very good at getting her ideas ...... (avoid) 2.. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it . ? (invent) 10....... the meeting.............................. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London. She called in sick so that she could get .... (communicate) 9..... 55 .. (became very successful) 8....... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics.. last year when we broke into the German market.... It's good news.... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview... The company really took ...
. ........................................ well top $150 million this year... 3......... I think we ............. According to Peter...................... He was only 42 years old. (knock) on your door at home ..... a.......... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning.... ...................................................................................................... ................................................................................ ............................... 6.................................. Use have / get something done where appropriate................................................................. 4............................. .......................................... 3... 1................. 8.............. He ........ 9............ If someone .. Somebody stole my laptop computer......... .... have left my keys in the restaurant............... Oh.................................. ........................Test D A........... (you open) the door immediately? 56 ............. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.................... but I'm not sure yet.................................... be wrong................... be a big shock.... What three things ....... have kept some of it for herself......................................................... no! I ........ Companies usually provide managers with language training.................................................................... 8.... We're locked out! 4..... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.. company profits ............... When I go to Barcelona I ........ have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months. 2.. The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.. .. ................. 2................. 10...................... (you save) if your house ......... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ....... ..... 5........................................ The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities......................................... The optician tested my eyes yesterday..................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me......................................... Conditionals 1......... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive. but I ................................................ The store manager had only just moved to the branch.................... 5. Grammar 1................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion.. We invite successful applicants to a second interview.... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. His colleague's death .................... 1.... 7... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb.................. 2................ 3.......................................................................... 7........................... (be) on fire? b........................................ be staying at the conference venue.........
. (you work) if you .. (be) you.............. (give) you a ticket......... 1............ To keep to the point 3.... b...... what .. (not study) your subject at school / university......................... A: Careful! If . Ella? 57 .......... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e...... (you do) ? e.... To ensure other people get to speak 4...... but I don't think they'd believe me..... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2....... Could you be more specific? b. Would you like to come in here..... To summarize a. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said... (be) good this weekend what ........ To ask for clarification 5. Where ... Then b. (go) to the police. d.......... . (be) you...... So........... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.... B: Yes.... B: Thanks for warning me........... (you study) ? f............ Explaining stages in a process Complete the description. firstly e... I know. What .............. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview.. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong..... Can I finish what I was saying? d. ... A: If you ...... what .... using the words a-e............ Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. I ... eventually d..... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards... 2........ c... (you choose) ? d................. If the weather . B. If you . .. (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs................. one candidate is chosen.. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's. (see) a UFO........ Functions 1....... (go) to the police........ c.. ultimately c.......... (happen) if ..... If you .. The interviews take place and .... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed...... I ..... after lengthy discussion.........c...... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion.. basically what you're saying is........... a. A: If I .... A: If I ... If you . (you park) your car there they .... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things .... (you change) ? g. However. To manage interruptions 2......... a. whose life .... (not get) a job with your current company? h.....
.....C..... Vocabulary 1. .......... legible 58 ..... interested 2..... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.. .... rely ..... credible 4.... ....... create ....... understand ..... 2......... connect 5........... 1.. ...................... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.......... replaceable 3. criticize .... 4... 2.. 5.. ...... humor .. 1. 3.
.... Future Continuous. .... but ........... 4. Grammar 1. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary........ I ... 6.....m..... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d... 1..............? 3... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.. By the time I retire I hope I ... 2.. ......... thank you........00 p... (finish) their meeting by 7....... (think) of you.. I .. Must I really go to the meeting? f..... 7.... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. and obligation 1.. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. otherwise I may / must / can forget it.......m. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney. B: . (do) at 8... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9. I'm sure.....Test E A. (work) from home. 59 .... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics..... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase..... it's no problem............. I'm sorry.... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life........... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes........... 2.. Permission. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form..... a.. A: Great... b...... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b........ Look......... tomorrow? We . (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like..... so don't forget to take waterproofs.. I .... Future Perfect........................ In three months' time I . Match each question with an appropriate category... Call me sometime over the weekend..... if you'd like me to show you around Prague..... I've got two tickets! B...... Invitations.. possibility.... I'd like that......... Good luck with your exam tomorrow. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful.... requests.. (live) in space. c.... Will they .. necessity. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. 8.......... Functions 1.. 5. Do you think there ... d. e... Do you know what . Thank you... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2....00 p.. By 2050 people .. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a....
....... B: You too......... that .......... 2.... .... I hear this is your last day at work here... lead to. 5.. get........ Well.. B: . Yes..A: . lead to... carry.. .... 1...... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning............... C.... Mark... not too bad..... I'm glad you enjoyed it c. did you ... her? 3...... Vocabulary 1.. get... I don't think I ...... B: ............. you're welcome e.......... B: Yes... a....... I have to ............. A: .. Concluding....... Can I help you ... succeed 3.. I'm starting a new job next week... carry off c. the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4... employ (someone) 60 ......... begin (a hobby) 2....... thank you for that lovely dinner once again.............. bring... A: Oh.......... A: How did you ..... ... cash-flow problems for small businesses.. Thanks for coming.. 1............... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock.... Remember to ......... A: So.. or take..................... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ... too many mistakes... with everything.......... take up d...... 2.. keep in touch d... cause 4..... hope to see you again sometime 1. great.............. warm clothes.. some research for my thesis.... Late payment often . B: Thanks........... A: Have you ....... your bags? They look very heavy! 2....... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year..... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e........... bring about b.. and take Complete the sentences with bring......... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... 3. in your English test? B: Oh........... thanking......... 2...... I can't..... best of luck b..... take on a. A: I've had a lovely evening.. make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do................ carry. A: Well...........
competent 2. arrived / had left 7. always plays 7. hasn't stopped 1. c – 7 4.. have eaten 10. .. had read / started 5. had been having 4... saying 2. . . watch 3. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. seems 5. a .Answer key Test A A1 1. to entertain 3. had been sitting 6. have you been doing 6. woke up 1. d – 4 5. going 4.. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. meticulous 4. have never seen 8. for a week 5. b – 2 3. .. look like 2. all my life 4. at the moment 2. 1. 4. recently 3. have been having 9. going 1. . f – 6 7. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. outgoing 3.Tests . used to have a Porsche. stubborn 5.. was living 2. 2. a – 5 2.. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. to turn off 5. was traveling / witnessed 3.. 5. sounds like 4.. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. 3. e – 1 6. g – 3 1.
that's / That suits me 1. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. the 1. That would be / Yes. you're talking about . The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. B1 1. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. Sorry. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. 'Did you see anything?' 2. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. I'll just check / I'll call 5. lost 4. on 8. that / which / Ø d. the 3. the 8. in 5. I'm not really with you. wasted 2.' 7. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. 2. Ø 6. I've got you. a 7. an 5.2. which e. I'm playing 4. OK. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. Ø 9. from 7. I'll turn on 6. missed 3. 5. So. I haven't had a chance. wasted 5.. will win 9.. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. 62 . we can do it next week. to 10. Are you doing A3 2.' conditions. at the latest. I'm afraid 4. with 4.m. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. How about / What about 5. is going to rain 7. in 3. for 2. I'm going to spend 8. the 4.' 9. 3. to 9. a. I was wondering whether 2. a 10. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8.00 a. to 6. let me give you an example. a. 4. which 2. I'm going to 3. missed C2 1. OK. who / whom c.' 6. who / that b.
d. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. I've met a lot of people through work. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1.b. off 4. I mean 5. risen 3. A2 1. up for 1. arisen 2. rise 6. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. some of whom have become good friends. We started the company in 1999. The point is 4. I – a lot of good advice 1. Let me explain what I mean 2. C 8. raise 6. down 2. By secure. on 3. I – quite a few 5. 63 . I – plenty of 6. up 10. I – a lot of 7. C 4. across 9. I – a lot of 3. until / are 1. To give you an example 3. down 5. I – information 2. out 7. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. sharply 4. e. as soon as 2. substantial 5. by / will give 3. I – equipment 10. which was also the year I got married. off 8. C 9.
could / would you choose d. hadn't studied / would you have studied f.2. basically what you're saying is . A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. can't / couldn't 5. So. is / will you do e. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . happens. / I've had my laptop stolen. Excuse me. A2 1. I was in the middle of saying something. humorous 3. 5. reliable 2. 7. My eyes were tested yesterday. Can you be more specific? 5. should / must 6. had been / would have gone b. John? 4. must 4. Language training is provided for managers. might / may / could 3. could / might / may 1. 4. 1. / Managers are provided with language training.. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. 10. arrived 2. Applications are passed on to universities. 9. understandable 64 C2 1. I had my eyes tested yesterday. should 2. could / may / might 8. Would you like to say something about this. My laptop has been stolen. Candidates are recommended for promotion. a. creative 4. 6. a. must 7. was you / would go c. 3. were / would you change g. saw / would you do d. 2. would you save / was b. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. Miranda was asked to write the report. 8.. incredible 4. uninterested 2. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. would you work / hadn't got h. knocked / would you c. irreplaceable 3. would happen / arrive.
bring 4. made 4. Shall we say 5. will have earned 8. will have been working 4. take 5. I was wondering 2. will speak 7. will be working 5. best of luck 2. critical Test E A1 1. can 4.5. must 2. can't 5. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . get 3. illegible A2 1. will be living 6. 1. do 2. made 3. carry 2. You're welcome 5. can't 3. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. lead to 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. would be fine / suits me fine 1. Keep in touch 4. That's very kind of you 3. we will be doing / will be taking 1. will be 9. have finished 3. will be thinking 2. Hope to see you again some time 3. Shall 4.
He knows a lot about music. 2. He doesn't want to be in the school play. She's working here until Christmas. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. He's knowing a lot about music. 66 . Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term.IV. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. 2. I'm going to the cinema every day. 1. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. She works here until Christmas. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport.
Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 1. 5. (She isn't here now. Some are right and some are wrong. I'm wanting to go out for dinner.) Present perfect. To make regular past participles.3. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. 4. (I still live here now. 2. I have. present simple.) I've been to Brazil three times.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'.) I've lived here for three years. I want to go out for dinner. (I've got a new car now.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. 3. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. Vegetarians don't eat meat. 6. we add –ed to the infinitive. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. (Until now I've been there three times. You haven't lived abroad. 67 .) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. (He still works there now. and present continuous Look at these sentences.) I've bought a new car. He seems very tired. He's seeming very tired. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.
Her house is as big as mine. I'm working here since October. 68 . * I * have lunch in a restaurant *.. Sometimes. I don't usually get up late.3. Russia is bigger than Canada.00. I work here since October.. The train is always on time. but they usually go before the main verb. as . can be used to make comparisons. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. 5. We often go to the park.. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. He's never here at 9. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. as . The film was much better than I expected. normally.. in front of the main verb.
Alex 1. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. 1. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. as . all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.85m 1. The film was better than the book. 2. Silver isn't so expensive as gold..92m Alex's brothers 1.83m 1. is also possible. The film was better that the book. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. he was. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world.. 3.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. He's so tall as his brother. He's as tall as his brother. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. . 4. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. 6.. My exam results were worse than Andy's. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995.Silver isn't as expensive as gold.. In the negative so . Short answers Yes. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. We weren't here yesterday. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995.
For individual past actions. he was. It has no present form. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday.g. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. (We're interested in when the action took place. not the effect. only the past simple can be used. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. but he gave up five years ago. (She isn't here now. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes.) Before that I lived in Madrid.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. She's gone home. last week). We went to the cinema twice last week. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. you must use the past simple tense. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. 7. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. We didn't use to live in London. not the present perfect. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. I went there four years ago. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. I went out this morning. I've lived here for five years.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. I did. in 1993. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. or past actions which were not habits. (I still live here. She wasn't going to work. She used to be a teacher. I've been there four years ago.) She went at four o'clock. He used to smoke. (But I don't live there now. two days ago. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. which with things. (But she works in a bank. It might (not) rain today. I would. We use who with people. It'll probably rain today.) make polite offers.) She'd be a good politician. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It's likely to rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. He's the man who lives next door. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. If I had the money. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. I saw the man. Use Would has many uses. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. (But I haven't got the money. I'd buy a house. 74 least likely most likely . She's probably coming this weekend. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. It could rain today. It probably won't rain today. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. I saw the man who lives next door. impossible. It may (not) rain today. They wouldn't steal from a friend. or imaginary situations.
. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. didn't she? You like fish. can't she? NOT . we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. They aren't coming to the party. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. which. He lives next door. She married him. haven't you? It was raining. or that. It isn't very warm. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary..He's the man that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. You knew about this yesterday. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. You can swim. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. Look at these sentences. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man. don't they? 75 . did not you? She can speak Russian. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. He's the man (who/that) she married. does it? You've finished. She arrived yesterday. He's the man who/that lives next door. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag.. didn't you? NOT . This chair's French. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. will she? It doesn't matter. He's the man. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun.. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. 12. You're Italian. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who.
It can't be done. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. The car has been found. These houses were built in the 1930s. 76 . We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. This wine is produced in Portugal. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. The man wasn't sent to prison. The crime will be solved. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. She must be told. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). To make the negative of the passive. It is less direct than an ordinary question.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. we use the negative of the verb to be. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. 13. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. We can use the passive in any tense. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen.) and is followed by a question mark (?). The weapon hasn't been found. we don't know the agent. Fewer crimes would be committed. Someone has been arrested. Thousands of cars are stolen. These computers are made in Japan. Cars shouldn't be parked there. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb.
If we had more money. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event.. The suspect was identified by a witness. If I had enough money . We usually use a comma (. but not when tha main clause is first. but not when the main clause is first. I'd buy that house. we'd travel business class. If it rains. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.) 15. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus.) when the if clause is first. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause..) If I got the job I'd earn more money. The car has been found by some children.) We won't go if it rains. If I get the job I'll earn more money. If you get up late. NOT If it will rain.. we use by. she'll feel terrible. (There is a real chance that it will rain. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. we'll go to the cinema. we'll go to the cinema. you'll miss the appointment. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. We usually use a comma (. unlikely. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. NOT If I would have enough money . (I don't think I'll get the job. or imaginary situations. Use Second conditionals describe unreal.. If she eats all the ice cream. If I had enough money.) when the if clause is first.) 77 . 14. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future.If we want to show the agent. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.
17. Oil will run out in the next century. when she will arrive. or She switched the TV on. He saw the mouse and ran out. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs..16. e.. She switched it on. She switched on the TV. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. He took off his jacket. I'll phone you when she arrives.. She takes after her mother. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. look something up 78 . Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts.g. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object).. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. before. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. as soon as. (transitive) The plane took off. until Phil will get back. Time clauses As in clauses with if.. NOT . NOT . on. up. He heard a helicopter and looked up.. before we would go to the cinema. and after. NOT . I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. away. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. until. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. NOT She switched on it. in. the verb is separable.
Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. or about past actions which have present results. he has. I've lived here for ten years. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. I've been playing a lot of football this week.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. is not normally used with stative verbs. I've been waiting for an hour.) focus on the process of an activity.' emphasize the duration of an activity.I looked up the word in the dictionary. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. 18. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. the verb is inseparable. I've been writing a letter. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. You're late. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. (I haven't finished it yet. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. like other continuous forms. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. 79 . Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running.
We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. imagine. so we must provide one. decide. They live here. Compare these questions. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. have no idea. see. ask. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Do they live here? You saw her. a modal verb.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim.19. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question.questions. wonder. Can she swim? They've arrived. Did you see her? In Wh.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. remember. or an auxiliary verb.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. using do/does in the present or did in the past. know. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb.
? or Do you think you could tell me . football boots These are boots. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. we say clothes shop and sports shop. I don't know if he's coming. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer... With Wh. 81 . 2. What kind of software? Software for computers. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me .. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. 3. 've got. left.? Could you tell me where the post office is. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. The headword always goes at the end. Note: However. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. arrives. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. 1. a computer software shop This is a shop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. is.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. I've decided how much money I need. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. I've decided how much money do I need. 4.. I wonder why did he do that? 21.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. A shop that sells records is a record shop. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.
a bathroom a coffee cup. I read a fascinating book the other week.00. 82 . (New packets. a tennis racket a living-room. etc.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. 23. with after.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. (Empty packets. to describe what someone can sense (with see. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. when the subject of both clauses is the same. After I'd had a shower. hear. as adjectives. object I don't enjoy cooking. Unfortunately there are no rules. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. feel.). I could smell burning. watch. smell. and while to replace a clause. He was driving at 120mph. Others are written as two words. This is a really boring film. She's playing tennis. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. I can hear someone coming. notice. After having a shower. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. I got dressed. I got dressed. (Empty bottles. I've been working since 7. We saw them leaving the house. before. There were two people waiting for you. -ing form or infinitive A. stomach ache 22. a teacup. There's someone coming. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. I had the idea while driving home. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. or are hyphenated.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. I had the idea while I was driving home. Compare these sentences.
hate. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. B. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. but it didn't work. consider.) stop He has stopped smoking. but I couldn't. but she still wouldn't listen. I began to realize how he felt. begin. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive.like. but I didn't. Some of the most common are finish. (British) I like to lie in bed late. enjoy. Smoking is bad for your health.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. She's considering emigrating to Australia. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.) I tried speaking to her about it. (he was doing something. (I had to meet her and I did. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. give up. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. imagine.) I remembered to meet her. continue It's just started raining.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. (I wanted to speak to her. start. feel like.) He stopped to have a cigarette. It's just started to rain. I'm beginning to learn the piano. I'd like to live abroad. suggest. but she wasn't there. In British English.) C.) try I tried to speak to her about it. remember. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. -ing forms Look at these sentences. 83 . I enjoy doing the gardening. (I spoke to her. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. then he stopped in order to smoke. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. 1. I like lying in bed late. love. forget I remember meeting her. and can't stand. (I had met her before and I remembered it. (I was supposed to dance with him.
A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. I'd love to go to New Zealand. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. neither to agree with a negative statement. B So do I. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. I must remember to post this letter. I made a phone call. I would. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. B Me. Stop to make so much noise. Before leaving the office. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject.) I + negative auxiliary verb. may. Stop making so much noise.2. too to agree with a positive statement. 7. B Oh. To smoke is bad for your health. ought to. might. I began to understand the problem. A I really love pizza. 5. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can.) I + positive auxiliary verb. A I couldn't read until I was seven. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. 4. There's someone coming up the stairs. I'd love going to New Zealand. B Nor/Neither have I. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. I could. 3. should. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. shall. There's someone that comes up the stairs. must. will. I begun understanding the problem. could. B Me. I made a phone call. 6. neither. 24. 84 . need. Before to leave the office. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. too. I must remember posting this letter. 25. and Me. B Oh. would. A I've never been to Ireland.
They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). Can and could become be able to in other tenses. For example.) I must remember to post this letter. Modal verbs have no tense forms. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. I can swim. He mights come later. 3. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. we can use could to talk about ability. You shouldn't do that. I couldn't believe what he told me. possibility. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. will: I'll be able to find a new job. I must to remember to post this letter. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. and permission. She should see a doctor.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. would: I'd be able to find a new job. 4. Present: He can speak four languages. or You don't need to come. You don't should leave your car there. 1. They ought to be more careful. They have no infinitive or participle form. Past: He could speak French when he was four. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. 85 . He might come later. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. They might not come to the party. You might go to London. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. (or I could find a new job. 2. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.
You ought not to carry so much cash. it is 'my' obligation./You don't need to wear a suit. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. The firemen could save everyone. Have to is used to describe general obligation.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. (I want to. I have to work on Saturday this week. (It is a general obligation.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. would: I'd have to find a new job.30. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. will: I'll have to find a new job. Passengers must show their boarding cards. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. I must start taking more exercise.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. The firemen were able to save everyone. (It is and 'outside' obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. 86 . To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. Past: I had to find a new job. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. You don't have to come if you don't want to. though could is more common. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. The firemen managed to save everyone. from my doctor. was/were able to. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. I could drive when I was sixteen. we use was/were able to or managed to. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. The party's informal.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past.Could. You need to be at the station by 8. Have to is also used. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. a driving instructor. You needn't wear a suit. Note: Must has no tense forms. You shouldn't work so hard.
This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. and may are used to ask for permission. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. 3. and may is the most polite and formal. Compare these sentences. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. with we and I. This means that I painted the room myself. Some are right and some are wrong. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I had my hair cut. 2. 87 . I'll be able to go swimming every day next week.Probability May. Could is more polite than can. could. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. 26. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. might. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. She might not be here tomorrow. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. I painted my room. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. I had my room painted. 4. Permission Can. She could not be here tomorrow. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. 1. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. 5. I will can go swimming every day next week. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. I had the car fixed.
said or told).g. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. David's father lets him use the car. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. and modal verbs do not change. because a different person is now speaking. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Need + -ing is more informal. We can also use need with to be + past participle. The car's really dirty. 28. I got the garage to service my car. The judge made the man apologize. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. It needs cleaning. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. would. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. 88 .27. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. 29. It needs to be cleaned. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. The car's really dirty. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. Direct speech: I like cooking.
Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Luke: I'll be away till March. She told (them) jokes all night. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed.. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Monica: I might phone you later. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. the reported question starts with whether or if. NOT Andrea said me . particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting.. Zoran: I had never been there before. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. we make the following changes. Tom: I don't want to stay here. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. 31. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Monica said (that) she might phone us later.. With Yes/No questions. 30. They told (us) a story. When we report questions. NOT Andrea told (that) . Zoe said that they saw a great film. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.. Helen: I'd like a coffee. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. say and tell We say something. The word order changes to a statement word order. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. and verbs have a statement form. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. We tell somebody something. 89 . Andrea: I'm going out.
and command. an imaginary situation in the past. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. but not when the main clause is first. 'Please sit down. she wouldn't have left. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. (You were driving too fast. you would have failed. They told me that the exam was very hard. 'Don't worry. 2. warn. 3. She asked me where I lived. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. They said me that the exam was very hard. 1. 4. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. beg. 3.) Conditionals Look at these sentences.' The doctor asked me to sit down. but other verbs can also be used. (I didn't work hard. Reported speech Look at these sentences. I would have passed if I'd worked harder.' He told me not to worry. Some are right and some are wrong. We usually use a comma (. 90 . If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. If I had told the truth. If you hadn't studied so hard.) when if clause is first.32. 33.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. persuade. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. and I didn't pass the exam. order. such as advise. 2. The instructor told me not to do that. The instructor told me that I don't do that. I'd lend you some money if I had any. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. and you crashed. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 1.
) 91 . Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. 34. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast.4. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map.) They should have bought the house. We shouldn't have stayed in bed.
Life Lines. Eric H. Writing for the Internet. & John McGwan. 8. 92 . 2001. Computer Studies Through Applications. 2001. International Express. Oxford English for Information Technology. 1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Tom. 2001. 7. 2002. Jane. 6. Steve & Peter Fox. Dorner. Brooks. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kennewell. Wallwork. 5. Glendinning. Hutchinson. Engleza pentru informatica. All Stars. 2002. 2001.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 4. Oxford University Press. Driscoll. Engleza pentru internet. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Oxford. Chris Mitton. 3. 2. Gabriel. Ian Selwood. Otman.
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