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RAN15.0 Optional Feature Description

RAN15.0 Optional Feature Description

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05/21/2015

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RAN15.

0 Optional Feature Description

Issue Date

Draft B 2012-09-27

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions
and other Huawei trademarks are the property of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the commercial contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or partial products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchased scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise agreed by the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China Website: Email: http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Contents
1 Voice & Service............................................................................................................................ 12
1.1 VoIP ................................................................................................................................................................ 12 1.1.1 WRFD-010617 VoIP over HSPA/HSPA+ ............................................................................................. 12 1.1.2 WRFD-01061701 RAB Mapping ......................................................................................................... 13 1.1.3 WRFD-01061703 Optimized Scheduling for VoIP over HSPA ............................................................ 15 1.1.4 WRFD-010618 IMS Signaling over HSPA ........................................................................................... 17 1.1.5 WRFD-011501 PDCP Header Compression (RoHC) ........................................................................... 18 1.1.6 WRFD-010619 CS Voice over HSPA/HSPA+ ...................................................................................... 19 1.2 Crystal Voice .................................................................................................................................................. 21 1.2.1 WRFD-010613 AMR-WB (Adaptive Multi Rate Wide Band) ............................................................. 21 1.2.2 WRFD-020701 AMR/WB-AMR Speech Rates Control ....................................................................... 23 1.2.3 WRFD-011600 TFO/TrFO .................................................................................................................... 24 1.2.4 WRFD-140201 AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA ..................................................... 26 1.3 CBS ................................................................................................................................................................ 28 1.3.1 WRFD-011000 Cell Broadcast Service................................................................................................. 28 1.3.2 WRFD-011001 Simplified Cell Broadcast ............................................................................................ 29 1.3.3 WRFD-020127 Warning of Disaster ..................................................................................................... 30 1.4 MBMS............................................................................................................................................................ 32 1.4.1 WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package ...................................................................................... 32 1.4.2 WRFD-01061601 MBMS Broadcast Mode .......................................................................................... 34 1.4.3 WRFD-01061602 MBMS Admission Control ...................................................................................... 35 1.4.4 WRFD-01061603 MBMS Load Control............................................................................................... 36 1.4.5 WRFD-01061604 MBMS Soft/Selective Combining ........................................................................... 38 1.4.6 WRFD-01061605 MBMS Transport Resource Management ............................................................... 39 1.4.7 WRFD-01061606 Streaming Service on MBMS .................................................................................. 40 1.4.8 WRFD-01061607 MBMS 2 Channels per Cell .................................................................................... 41 1.4.9 WRFD-01061608 16/32/64/128Kbit/s Channel Rate on MBMS.......................................................... 42 1.4.10 WRFD-010660 MBMS Phase 2 .......................................................................................................... 43 1.4.11 WRFD-01066001 MBMS Enhanced Broadcast Mode ....................................................................... 44 1.4.12 WRFD-01066002 MBMS P2P over HSDPA ...................................................................................... 45 1.4.13 WRFD-01066003 MBMS Admission Enhancement .......................................................................... 46 1.4.14 WRFD-01066004 Inter-Frequency Neighboring Cell Selection for MBMS PTP Users ..................... 48

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 3 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 1.4.15 WRFD-010627 FACH Transmission Sharing for MBMS .................................................................. 49 1.4.16 WRFD-010626 MBMS FLC(Frequency Layer Convergence)/FLD(Frequency Layer Dispersion) ... 51 1.4.17 WRFD-010624 MBMS 8 Channels per Cell ...................................................................................... 52 1.4.18 WRFD-010625 256Kbit/s Channel Rate on MBMS ........................................................................... 53 1.4.19 WRFD-010628 MBMS 16 Channels per Cell .................................................................................... 54 1.4.20 WRFD-010661 MBMS over Iur ......................................................................................................... 55 1.4.21 WRFD-010662 Dynamic Power Estimation for MTCH ..................................................................... 56 1.4.22 WRFD-010663 MSCH Scheduling ..................................................................................................... 57 1.4.23 WRFD-010665 MBMS Channel Audience Rating Statistics .............................................................. 59 1.5 LCS ................................................................................................................................................................ 60 1.5.1 WRFD-020801 Cell ID + RTT Function Based LCS ........................................................................... 60 1.5.2 WRFD-020802 OTDOA Based LCS .................................................................................................... 62 1.5.3 WRFD-020803 A-GPS Based LCS....................................................................................................... 63 1.5.4 WRFD-020804 LCS Classified Zones .................................................................................................. 64 1.5.5 WRFD-020805 LCS over Iur ................................................................................................................ 65 1.5.6 WRFD-020807 Iupc Interface for LCS service .................................................................................... 69 1.6 PTT................................................................................................................................................................. 71 1.6.1 WRFD-020134 Push to Talk ................................................................................................................. 71

2 MBB ............................................................................................................................................... 74
2.1 HSUPA Prime Service .................................................................................................................................... 74 2.1.1 WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package...................................................................................... 74 2.1.2 WRFD-01061201 HSUPA UE Category Support ................................................................................. 75 2.1.3 WRFD-01061209 HSUPA HARQ and Fast UL Scheduling in NodeB ................................................ 77 2.1.4 WRFD-01061202 HSUPA Admission Control ..................................................................................... 79 2.1.5 WRFD-01061203 HSUPA Power Control ............................................................................................ 80 2.1.6 WRFD-01061204 HSUPA Mobility Management ................................................................................ 82 2.1.7 WRFD-01061208 HSUPA DCCC ......................................................................................................... 84 2.1.8 WRFD-01061207 HSUPA Transport Resource Management ............................................................... 86 2.1.9 WRFD-01061206 Interactive and Background Traffic Class on HSUPA ............................................. 88 2.1.10 WRFD-01061210 HSUPA 1.44Mbit/s per User.................................................................................. 89 2.1.11 WRFD-01061211 20 HSUPA Users per Cell ...................................................................................... 90 2.1.12 WRFD-01061212 HSUPA Iub Flow Control in Case of Iub Congestion ........................................... 91 2.1.13 WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2 ......................................................................................................... 93 2.1.14 WRFD-01061401 HSUPA E-AGCH Power Control (Based on CQI or HS-SCCH) .......................... 94 2.1.15 WRFD-01061402 Enhanced Fast UL Scheduling............................................................................... 95 2.1.16 WRFD-01061403 HSUPA 2ms TTI .................................................................................................... 97 2.1.17 WRFD-01061404 HSUPA 2ms/10ms TTI Handover ......................................................................... 98 2.1.18 WRFD-01061405 HSUPA 5.74Mbit/s per User................................................................................ 100 2.1.19 WRFD-010632 Streaming Traffic Class on HSUPA ......................................................................... 101 2.1.20 WRFD-010635 HSUPA over Iur ....................................................................................................... 102

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 4 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 2.1.21 WRFD-010640 Uplink Macro Diversity Intelligent Receiving ........................................................ 103 2.2 HSUPA Performance Improvement.............................................................................................................. 105 2.2.1 WRFD-010690 TTI Switch for BE Services Based on Coverage ....................................................... 105 2.2.2 WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission ................................................................................. 106 2.2.3 WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management ......................................................................... 108 2.2.4 WRFD-010692 HSUPA FDE .............................................................................................................. 109 2.2.5 WRFD-010712 Adaptive Configuration of Traffic Channel Power offset for HSUPA ....................... 111 2.2.6 WRFD-020136 Anti-Interference Scheduling for HSUPA ................................................................. 112 2.2.7 WRFD-020137 Dual-Threshold Scheduling with HSUPA Interference Cancellation ........................ 113 2.2.8 WRFD-010634 60 HSUPA Users per Cell .......................................................................................... 115 2.2.9 WRFD-010210 Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (CCPIC) ................................... 116 2.2.10 WRFD-140202 Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (Phase 2) ................................ 117 2.2.11 WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation ..................................................................... 118 2.2.12 WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA.................................................................................................... 120 2.2.13 WRFD-140222 Adaptive Adjustment of HSUPA Small Target Retransmissions ............................. 121 2.2.14 WRFD-150206 Turbo IC .................................................................................................................. 123 2.2.15 WRFD-150222 HSUPA Time Division Scheduling .......................................................................... 124 2.3 HSDPA Prime Service .................................................................................................................................. 126 2.3.1 WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package.................................................................................... 126 2.3.2 WRFD-01061017 QPSK Modulation ................................................................................................. 128 2.3.3 WRFD-01061001 15 Codes per Cell .................................................................................................. 129 2.3.4 WRFD-01061018 Time and HS-PDSCH Codes Multiplex ................................................................ 130 2.3.5 WRFD-01061009 HSDPA H-ARQ & Scheduling (MAX C/I, RR and PF) ....................................... 131 2.3.6 WRFD-01061005 HSDPA Static Code Allocation and RNC-Controlled Dynamic Code Allocation . 133 2.3.7 WRFD-01061004 HSDPA Power Control .......................................................................................... 135 2.3.8 WRFD-01061003 HSDPA Admission Control ................................................................................... 136 2.3.9 WRFD-01061020 Improvement of User Experience in Low Traffic Service ..................................... 138 2.3.10 WRFD-01061019 HSDPA Dynamic Power Allocation .................................................................... 139 2.3.11 WRFD-01061010 HSDPA Flow Control .......................................................................................... 141 2.3.12 WRFD-01061006 HSDPA Mobility Management ............................................................................ 142 2.3.13 WRFD-01061014 HSDPA Transport Resource Management ........................................................... 144 2.3.14 WRFD-01061008 Interactive and Background Traffic Class on HSDPA ......................................... 145 2.3.15 WRFD-01061002 HSDPA UE Category 1 to 28............................................................................... 146 2.3.16 WRFD-01061015 HSDPA 1.8Mbit/s per User.................................................................................. 149 2.3.17 WRFD-01061016 16 HSDPA Users per Cell .................................................................................... 150 2.3.18 WRFD-010620 HSDPA 3.6Mbit/s per User ..................................................................................... 151 2.3.19 WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation .......................................................................................... 152 2.4 HSDPA Performance Improvement.............................................................................................................. 153 2.4.1 WRFD-010631 Dynamic Code Allocation Based on NodeB ............................................................. 153 2.4.2 WRFD-010621 HSDPA 7.2Mbit/s per User ....................................................................................... 154 2.4.3 WRFD-010622 32 HSDPA Users per Cell .......................................................................................... 155

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 5 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 2.4.4 WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package ........................................................................................ 156 2.4.5 WRFD-01061103 Scheduling based on EPF and GBR ...................................................................... 157 2.4.6 WRFD-01061111 HSDPA State Transition ......................................................................................... 159 2.4.7 WRFD-01061112 HSDPA DRD ......................................................................................................... 161 2.4.8 WRFD-01061113 HS-DPCCH Preamble Support .............................................................................. 162 2.4.9 WRFD-010630 Streaming Traffic Class on HSDPA ........................................................................... 164 2.4.10 WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User ................................................................................. 165 2.4.11 WRFD-010651 HSDPA over Iur ....................................................................................................... 166 2.4.12 WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA.................................................................................................... 168 2.4.13 WRFD-010623 64 HSDPA Users per Cell ........................................................................................ 169 2.4.14 WRFD-030010 CQI Adjustment Based on Dynamic BLER Target ................................................. 170 2.4.15 WRFD-030011 MIMO Prime ........................................................................................................... 171 2.4.16 WRFD-030004 Adaptive Configuration of Typical HSPA Rate ....................................................... 173 2.4.17 WRFD-140221 HSDPA Scheduling Based on UE Location ............................................................ 174 2.5 HSPA+ Prime Service .................................................................................................................................. 176 2.5.1 WRFD-010680 HSPA+ Downlink 28Mbit/s per User ........................................................................ 176 2.5.2 WRFD-010681 HSPA+ Downlink 21Mbit/s per User ........................................................................ 178 2.5.3 WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 ............................................................................................. 179 2.5.4 WRFD-010689 HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User ........................................................................ 180 2.5.5 WRFD-010683 Downlink 64QAM ..................................................................................................... 181 2.5.6 WRFD-010684 2× MIMO ................................................................................................................ 183 2 2.5.7 WRFD-010693 DL 64QAM+MIMO .................................................................................................. 185 2.5.8 WRFD-010698 HSPA+ Uplink 11.5Mbit/s per User .......................................................................... 186 2.5.9 WRFD-010703 HSPA+ Downlink 84 Mbit/s per User ....................................................................... 187 2.5.10 WRFD-010699 DC-HSDPA+MIMO ................................................................................................ 189 2.5.11 WRFD-010694 UL 16QAM .............................................................................................................. 191 2.5.12 WRFD-010695 UL Layer 2 Improvement ........................................................................................ 192 2.5.13 WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA ............................................................................................................. 194 2.5.14 WRFD-140203 HSPA+ Uplink 23 Mbit/s per User .......................................................................... 196 2.5.15 WRFD-140204 DC-HSUPA ............................................................................................................. 197 2.5.16 WRFD-150207 4C-HSDPA .............................................................................................................. 199 2.5.17 WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA ............................................................................................................. 201 2.6 HSPA+ Performance Improvement .............................................................................................................. 203 2.6.1 WRFD-010688 Downlink Enhanced CELL-FACH ............................................................................ 203 2.6.2 WRFD-010700 Performance Improvement of MIMO and HSDPA Co-carrier .................................. 205 2.6.3 WRFD-010686 CPC - DTX / DRX .................................................................................................... 207 2.6.4 WRFD-010687 CPC - HS-SCCH less operation ................................................................................ 208 2.6.5 WRFD-010697 E-DPCCH Boosting .................................................................................................. 210 2.6.6 WRFD-010701 Uplink Enhanced CELL_FACH ................................................................................ 211 2.6.7 WRFD-010653 96 HSDPA Users per Cell .......................................................................................... 213 2.6.8 WRFD-010639 96 HSUPA Users per Cell .......................................................................................... 214

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 6 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 2.6.9 WRFD-010654 128 HSDPA Users per Cell ........................................................................................ 215 2.6.10 WRFD-010670 128 HSUPA Users per Cell ...................................................................................... 216 2.6.11 WRFD-010704 Flexible HSPA+ Technology Selection.................................................................... 218 2.6.12 WRFD-010713 Traffic-Based Activation and Deactivation of the Supplementary Carrier In Multi-carrier ................................................................................................................................................. 219 2.6.13 WRFD-010702 Enhanced DRX ........................................................................................................ 220 2.6.14 WRFD-150208 Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA ......................................................................................... 221

3 Smart MBB ................................................................................................................................. 224
3.1 Smart Phone Solution ................................................................................................................................... 224 3.1.1 WRFD-020500 Enhanced Fast Dormancy .......................................................................................... 224 3.1.2 WRFD-140205 Voice Experience Improvement for Weak Reception UEs ........................................ 226 3.1.3 WRFD-140206 Layered Paging in URA_PCH ................................................................................... 227 3.1.4 WRFD-150205 Layered Paging in Idle Mode .................................................................................... 229 3.2 Smart Pipe .................................................................................................................................................... 230 3.2.1 WRFD-020132 Web Browsing Acceleration ...................................................................................... 230 3.2.2 WRFD-020133 P2P Downloading Rate Control during Busy Hour ................................................... 231

4 Green ........................................................................................................................................... 234
4.1 Power Consumption Saving ......................................................................................................................... 234 4.1.1 WRFD-020116 Dynamic Power Sharing in Multi-Carriers ................................................................ 234 4.1.2 WRFD-020117 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on Traffic Load ....................................................... 235 4.1.3 WRFD-020118 Energy Efficiency Improved ...................................................................................... 236 4.1.4 WRFD-020119 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on Power Backup .................................................... 238 4.1.5 WRFD-020122 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on QoS .................................................................... 240 4.1.6 WRFD-020121 Intelligent Power Management .................................................................................. 242

5 Topology & Transmission ....................................................................................................... 244
5.1 RAN Sharing ................................................................................................................................................ 244 5.1.1 WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package .......................................................................... 244 5.1.2 WRFD-02130401 Dedicated Carrier for Each Operator ..................................................................... 246 5.1.3 WRFD-02130402 Flexible Network Architecture .............................................................................. 247 5.1.4 WRFD-02130403 Mobility Control and Service Differentiation ........................................................ 250 5.1.5 WRFD-02130404 Independent License Control ................................................................................. 252 5.1.6 WRFD-02130405 Independent Cell-level FM/PM/CM ...................................................................... 253 5.1.7 WRFD-02130406 Transmission Recourse Sharing on Iub/Iur Interface ............................................ 255 5.1.8 WRFD-021305 RAN Sharing Phase 2 ................................................................................................ 256 5.1.9 WRFD-02130501 Dedicated Iub Transmission Control ..................................................................... 257 5.1.10 WRFD-021303 IMSI Based Handover ............................................................................................. 261 5.1.11 WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package .................................................................................. 262 5.1.12 WRFD-02131101 Carrier Sharing by Operators ............................................................................... 264 5.1.13 WRFD-02131102 Dedicated NodeB/Cell for Operators ................................................................... 266 5.1.14 WRFD-02131103 MOCN Mobility Management ............................................................................ 268

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 7 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 5.1.15 WRFD-02131104 MOCN Load Balance .......................................................................................... 269 5.1.16 WRFD-02131105 MOCN Independent Performance Management ................................................. 270 5.1.17 WRFD-02131106 Routing Roaming UEs in Proportion ................................................................... 271 5.1.18 WRFD-140223 MOCN Cell Resource Demarcation ........................................................................ 272 5.1.19 WRFD-150213 MOCN Independent Iub Transmission Resource Allocation................................... 274 5.1.20 WRFD-150214 MOCN Independent CE Resource Allocation ......................................................... 276 5.2 Topology Enhancement ................................................................................................................................ 278 5.2.1 WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) ............................................................................. 278 5.2.2 WRFD-020111 One Tunnel ................................................................................................................ 280 5.3 ATM Transmission ....................................................................................................................................... 282 5.3.1 WRFD-050405 Overbooking on ATM Transmission.......................................................................... 282 5.3.2 WRFD-050105 ATM Switching Based Hub NodeB ........................................................................... 285 5.3.3 WRFD-050106 AAL2 Switching Based Hub NodeB ......................................................................... 287 5.3.4 WRFD-050406 ATM QoS Introduction on Hub NodeB (Overbooking on Hub NodeB Transmission) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 288 5.3.5 WRFD-050302 Fractional ATM Function on Iub Interface ................................................................ 290 5.4 IP Transmission ............................................................................................................................................ 291 5.4.1 WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface .......................................................... 291 5.4.2 WRFD-050411 Fractional IP Function on Iub Interface ..................................................................... 296 5.4.3 WRFD-050403 Hybrid Iub IP Transmission ....................................................................................... 297 5.4.4 WRFD-050404 ATM/IP Dual Stack NodeB ....................................................................................... 299 5.4.5 WRFD-050409 IP Transmission Introduction on Iu Interface ............................................................ 301 5.4.6 WRFD-050410 IP Transmission Introduction on Iur Interface ........................................................... 303 5.4.7 WRFD-050420 FP MUX for IP Transmission .................................................................................... 306 5.4.8 WRFD-050422 Dynamic Bandwidth Control of Iub IP ...................................................................... 307 5.4.9 WRFD-050408 Overbooking on IP Transmission .............................................................................. 309 5.4.10 WRFD-050107 IP routing Based Hub NodeB .................................................................................. 311 5.4.11 WRFD-011500 PDCP Header Compression (RFC2507) .................................................................. 313 5.4.12 WRFD-050412 UDP MUX for Iu-CS Transmission ........................................................................ 314 5.4.13 WRFD-140207 Iu/Iur Transmission Resource Pool in RNC ............................................................ 315 5.4.14 WRFD-140208 Iub Transmission Resource Pool in RNC ................................................................ 317 5.5 Satellite Transmission .................................................................................................................................. 320 5.5.1 WRFD-050104 Satellite Transmission on Iub Interface ..................................................................... 320 5.5.2 WRFD-050108 Satellite Transmission on Iu Interface ....................................................................... 321 5.6 Clock ............................................................................................................................................................ 322 5.6.1 WRFD-050501 Clock Sync on Ethernet in NodeB ............................................................................. 322 5.6.2 WRFD-050502 Synchronous Ethernet ................................................................................................ 324 5.6.3 WRFD-050425 Ethernet OAM ........................................................................................................... 325

6 Network Security ...................................................................................................................... 328
6.1 Reliability ..................................................................................................................................................... 328 6.1.1 WRFD-040202 RNC Node Redundancy ............................................................................................ 328

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

Page 8 of 474

RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 6.1.2 WRFD-040203 RRU Redundancy ...................................................................................................... 329 6.1.3 WRFD-021302 Iu Flex ....................................................................................................................... 331 6.1.4 WRFD-021306 Iu Flex Load Distribution Management .................................................................... 334 6.1.5 WRFD-140209 NodeB Integrated IPSec ............................................................................................ 336 6.1.6 WRFD-140210 NodeB PKI Support................................................................................................... 338 6.1.7 WRFD-141201 RNC User Plane and Control Plane Dynamic Sharing .............................................. 339 6.1.8 WRFD-150211 RNC in Pool Load Sharing ........................................................................................ 341 6.1.9 WRFD-150212 RNC in Pool Node Redundancy ................................................................................ 342

7 Network Performance .............................................................................................................. 345
7.1 Coverage Enhancement ................................................................................................................................ 345 7.1.1 WRFD-010203 Transmit Diversity ..................................................................................................... 345 7.1.2 WRFD-010209 4-Antenna Receive Diversity .................................................................................... 347 7.1.3 WRFD-021308 Extended Cell Coverage up to 200km ....................................................................... 348 7.1.4 WRFD-021309 Improved Downlink Coverage .................................................................................. 349 7.1.5 WRFD-020138 HSUPA Coverage Enhancement at UE Power Limitation......................................... 350 7.2 Spectrum Efficiency Improvement............................................................................................................... 351 7.2.1 WRFD-021001 Flexible frequency bandwidth of UMTS carrier ....................................................... 351 7.3 High Speed Mobility .................................................................................................................................... 353 7.3.1 WRFD-010206 High Speed Access .................................................................................................... 353 7.3.2 WRFD-021350 Independent Demodulation of Signals from Multiple RRUs in One Cell ................. 354 7.4 Intra-system Mobility Management ............................................................................................................. 356 7.4.1 WRFD-020302 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on Coverage ................................................ 356 7.4.2 WRFD-020304 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on DL QoS .................................................. 358 7.4.3 WRFD-020605 SRNS Relocation Introduction Package .................................................................... 359 7.4.4 WRFD-02060501 SRNS Relocation (UE Not Involved) .................................................................... 361 7.4.5 WRFD-02060502 SRNS Relocation with Hard Handover ................................................................. 362 7.4.6 WRFD-02060503 SRNS Relocation with Cell/URA Update ............................................................. 363 7.4.7 WRFD-02060504 Lossless SRNS Relocation .................................................................................... 364 7.5 Intra-system Radio Resource Management .................................................................................................. 365 7.5.1 WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)................................................................... 365 7.5.2 WRFD-01061501 Combination of Two PS Services .......................................................................... 367 7.5.3 WRFD-01061502 Combination of One CS Service and Two PS Services ......................................... 368 7.5.4 WRFD-01061503 Combination of Three PS Services ........................................................................ 369 7.5.5 WRFD-01061504 Combination of One CS Service and Three PS Services ....................................... 370 7.5.6 WRFD-01061505 Combination of Four PS Services ......................................................................... 371 7.5.7 WRFD-020103 Inter Frequency Load Balance ................................................................................... 372 7.5.8 WRFD-020114 Domain Specific Access Control (DSAC) ................................................................. 373 7.5.9 WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management ..................................................... 375 7.5.10 WRFD-020160 Enhanced Multiband Management .......................................................................... 378 7.5.11 WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package ...................................................................................... 380

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 7.5.12 WRFD-02040001 Intra System Direct Retry .................................................................................... 381 7.5.13 WRFD-02040002 Inter System Direct Retry .................................................................................... 382 7.5.14 WRFD-02040003 Inter System Redirect .......................................................................................... 383 7.5.15 WRFD-02040004 Traffic Steering and Load Sharing During RAB Setup ....................................... 384 7.5.16 WRFD-02040005 Inter-Frequency Redirection Based on Distance ................................................. 385 7.5.17 WRFD-020402 Measurement Based Direct Retry ............................................................................ 386 7.5.18 WRFD-020120 Service Steering and Load Sharing in RRC Connection Setup ............................... 388 7.5.19 WRFD-020124 Uplink Flow Control of User Plane ......................................................................... 389 7.5.20 WRFD-140211 Dynamic Target RoT Adjustment ............................................................................ 390 7.5.21 WRFD-140212 CE Overbooking ...................................................................................................... 392 7.5.22 WRFD-140213 Intelligent Access Class Control .............................................................................. 394 7.5.23 WRFD-140215 Dynamic Configuration of HSDPA CQI Feedback Period ...................................... 396 7.5.24 WRFD-140216 Load-based Uplink Target BLER Configuration ..................................................... 398 7.5.25 WRFD-140217 Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Based on Configurable Load Threshold ............. 399 7.5.26 WRFD-150201 Micro Cell Dynamic Rx Sensitivity Control ........................................................... 401 7.5.27 WRFD-150232 Multiband Direct Retry Based on UE Location ...................................................... 404 7.6 GSM and UMTS Radio Resource Management .......................................................................................... 405 7.6.1 WRFD-070004 Load Based GSM and UMTS Handover Enhancement Based on Iur-g .................... 405 7.6.2 WRFD-070005 NACC Procedure Optimization Based on Iur-g ........................................................ 407 7.6.3 WRFD-070006 GSM and UMTS Load Balancing Based on Iur-g ..................................................... 409 7.6.4 WRFD-070007 GSM and UMTS Traffic Steering Based on Iur-g ..................................................... 411 7.6.5 WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage .................................................................. 414 7.6.6 WRFD-020309 Inter-RAT Handover Based on DL QoS .................................................................... 416 7.6.7 WRFD-020307 Video Telephony Fallback to Speech (AMR) for Inter-RAT HO .............................. 417 7.6.8 WRFD-020308 Inter-RAT Handover Phase 2 ..................................................................................... 419 7.6.9 WRFD-02030801 NACC(Network Assisted Cell Change) ................................................................ 420 7.6.10 WRFD-02030802 PS Handover Between UMTS and GPRS ........................................................... 422 7.6.11 WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service.................................................................... 423 7.6.12 WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load ....................................................................... 424 7.6.13 WRFD-020401 Inter-RAT Redirection Based on Distance ............................................................... 425 7.6.14 WRFD-020310 3G/2G Common Load Management ....................................................................... 426 7.7 UMTS and LTE Radio Resource Management ............................................................................................ 428 7.7.1 WRFD-020126 Mobility Between UMTS and LTE Phase1 ............................................................... 428 7.7.2 WRFD-020129 Service-Based PS Service Redirection from UMTS to LTE ..................................... 430 7.7.3 WRFD-140218 Service-Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE ..................................................... 431 7.7.4 WRFD-140224 Fast CS Fallback Based on RIM ............................................................................... 433 7.7.5 WRFD-150215 SRVCC from LTE to UMTS with PS Handover ....................................................... 434 7.7.6 WRFD-150216 Load Based PS Redirection from UMTS to LTE ...................................................... 436 7.7.7 WRFD-150217 Load Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE ......................................................... 437 7.7.8 WRFD-150219 Coverage Based PS Redirection from UMTS to LTE ............................................... 438 7.7.9 WRFD-150220 Coverage Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE .................................................. 440

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description 7.7.10 WRFD-150231 RIM Based UMTS Target Cell Selection for LTE ................................................... 442 7.8 UMTS and Wi-Fi Radio Resource Management .......................................................................................... 443 7.8.1 WRFD-150229 Intelligent Wi-Fi Detection and Selection ................................................................. 443 7.9 QoS............................................................................................................................................................... 444 7.9.1 WRFD-010505 Queuing and Pre-Emption ......................................................................................... 444 7.9.2 WRFD-021103 Access Class Restriction ............................................................................................ 447 7.9.3 WRFD-050424 Traffic Priority Mapping onto Transmission Resources ............................................ 448 7.9.4 WRFD-020806 Differentiated Service Based on SPI Weight ............................................................. 452 7.9.5 WRFD-020131 Optimization of R99 and HSUPA Users Fairness ..................................................... 454 7.9.6 WRFD-011502 Active Queue Management (AQM) ........................................................................... 455 7.9.7 WRFD-020128 Quality Improvement for Subscribed Service ........................................................... 456 7.9.8 WRFD-020123 TCP Accelerator ........................................................................................................ 457 7.9.9 WRFD-010507 Rate Negotiation at Admission Control ..................................................................... 460 7.9.10 WRFD-020130 Videophone Service Restriction .............................................................................. 463 7.9.11 WRFD-020135 Intelligent Inter-Carrier UE Layered Management .................................................. 464 7.9.12 WRFD-150204 Platinum User Prioritizing ....................................................................................... 465

8 O&M Experience ....................................................................................................................... 467
8.1 Advanced Planning ....................................................................................................................................... 467 8.1.1 WRFD-140219 Micro NodeB Self-Planning ...................................................................................... 467

9 Site Solution ............................................................................................................................... 470
9.1 Supporting .................................................................................................................................................... 470 9.1.1 WRFD-140220 Intelligent Battery Management ................................................................................ 470

10 Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 473

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1
1.1 VoIP
Availability
VoIP over HSPA is available from RAN10.0. VoIP over HSPA+ is available from RAN11.0.

Voice & Service

1.1.1 WRFD-010617 VoIP over HSPA/HSPA+

Summary
VoIP over HSPA meets the requirements of growing VoIP users. Compared with CS voice over DCH, VoIP over HSPA or HSPA+ provides larger capacity through high spectral efficiency and capacity enhancement of HSPA or HSPA+. This feature is a trial feature in RAN10.0.

Benefits
VoIP over HSPA/HSPA+ has the following advantages:
 

Support evolution to all-IP network and decrease in the investment and maintenance cost Large voice capacity

Description
In the fixed network, VoIP has turned out to be an attractive and cost-effective solution to support PS conversational services. The rapid growth of VoIP users prompts cellular operators to use this feature for enhanced revenue generation. Moreover, from the viewpoint of evolution, VoIP helps operators converge their networks into an all-IP network and decrease the total OPEX accordingly. VoIP services can be carried over DCH or HSPA. When it is set up on the DCH, the capacity is not competitive because RTP/UDP/IP protocol head will consume more resource than CS voice service. However, HSPA has higher resource efficiency than DCH. Therefore, VoIP over HSPA is a better choice. Moreover, Robust Header Compression (RoHC) is also introduced to

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improve the overhead efficiency. In addition, the Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) technology in the HSPA+ helps expand the VoIP capacity. Compared with traditional CS voice over DCH, the capacity gain of VoIP over HSPA (HSUPA with 2ms TTI) is expected to reach 20%. With CPC, the capacity gain of VoIP over HSPA (HSUPA with 2ms TTI) is expected to reach 45%.

Enhancement
In RAN12.0, coverage-based TTI dynamic switching of VoIP over HSUPA is introduced. The coverage performance of the HSUPA 10 ms TTI is better than that in R99, whereas the coverage performance of the HSUPA 2 ms TTI is worse than that in R99. The 2 ms TTI, however, has a greater gain in capacity. Therefore, for VoIP users, smooth switching from the 2 ms TTI to the 10 ms TTI must be implemented according to the limitation on the uplink transmit power of the UE. This ensures seamless coverage and maximizes cell capacity.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support VoIP. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN should support IP multimedia subsystem (IMS). Dependency on Other Features When VoIP is over HSPA, the following features are required:
   

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA

When VoIP is over HSPA+, the following feature is required:

WRFD-010686 CPC-DTX/DRX

1.1.2 WRFD-01061701 RAB Mapping
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

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Summary
This feature enables a combination of multiple RABs to support rich service types.

Benefits
This feature enables VoIP over HSPA and more RAB combinations to be carried over HSPA to enrich service combinations of the operator.

Description
This feature enables VoIP over HSDPA and VoIP over HSUPA 10/2 ms TTI. The following RAB combinations are available:

1PS + 1CS Conversational (VoIP)/UL: EUL[Maximum rate depends on UE category] DL:HSDPA [Maximum rate depends on UE category] /PS RAB + UL: 3.4 kbit/s DL: 3.4 kbit/s SRB for DCCH

 

2PS + 1CS Conversational (VoIP)/UL: EUL DL: HSDPA/PS RAB + Interactive or Background/UL: EUL [Maximum rate depends on UE category] DL: HSDPA [Maximum rate depends on UE category] /PS RAB + UL: 3.4 kbit/s DL: DCCH. SRB 3.4 kbit/s. 3PS + 1CS Conversational (VoIP) /UL: EUL [Maximum rate depends on UE category] DL: HSDPA [Maximum rate depends on UE category] /PS RAB + Streaming/UL: EUL [Maximum rate depends on UE category] DL: HSDPA [Maximum rate depends on UE category] /PS RAB + Interactive or Background /UL:EUL [Maximum rate depends on UE category] DL: HSDPA [Maximum rate depends on UE category] / PS RAB + UL: 3.4 kbit/s DL: DCCH. SRB 3.4 kbit/s.

"SRB + 1 VoIP over IMS + 1 PS" over HSPA

The typical configuration of VoIP is different in 3GPP R5 and R6. In TS34.108 and TR25.99, 3GPP defines some VoIP configurations and related combinations as reference. Huawei RAN supports these services. As the RTP header is transmitted before RoHC is enabled, a higher rate is required. After RoHC is enabled, a lower rate can be used. RAN10.0 does not support the adjustment between a high rate and a low rate. The operator can configure VoIP over DCH or HSPA on the cell side. That is, when HSPA is preferentially selected as a bearer, VoIP is carried over HSPA as much as possible. If HSPA operations fail (for example, admission control), the period timer starts to trigger the configuration adjustment of HSPA operations.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support VoIP. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN should support IP multimedia subsystem (IMS). Dependency on Other Features When VoIP is over HSPA, the following features are required:
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

When VoIP is over HSPA+, the following feature is required:

WRFD-010686 CPC-DTX/DRX

1.1.3 WRFD-01061703 Optimized Scheduling for VoIP over HSPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
Based on the UL non-scheduling method and DL delay-sensitive scheduling algorithm, this feature can ensure the delay requirements of VoIP services and signaling carried over HSPA.

Benefits
This feature guarantees the delay requirement of VoIP services and enhances user experience when VoIP over HSPA is applied.

Description
In RAN10.0, VoIP over HSPA is supported. In order to guarantee the QoS of VoIP over HSPA, non-scheduling method is used during HSUPA scheduling in the uplink. In the downlink, delay-sensitive (DS) algorithm as an optimized HSDPA scheduling scheme is provided. VoIP service in 3G consists of two kinds of packets: SIP signaling and RTP packets. RTP and RTCP can be born on a single RAB.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

UTRAN

PS Domain Domain

IMS

PS Domain Domain

UTRAN

UE

UE
Session control Signaling (SIP / SDP) Media ( RTP)

UE

)

The preceding packets have different characteristics: Packet SIP signaling Characteristics Delay sensitive (call setup delay is affected). RLC retransmission is triggered due to packet loss. The delay is affected. VoIP-RTP Delay sensitive. No RLC retransmission is triggered due to packet loss. The delay and user experience are affected.

According to different characteristics, the MAC-hs scheduling algorithm should be enhanced to guarantee the QoS, especially the delay. DS scheduling algorithm for SRB and VoIP is always prior to scheduling algorithm for streaming and BE. This feature is for the RAB which bares the RTP voice packet to guarantee the delay in a certain range.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support VoIP. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN should support IP multimedia subsystem (IMS). Dependency on Other Features

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VoIP over HSPA rely on:
 

WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

VoIP over HSPA+ rely on:
 

WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package WRFD-010686 CPC-DTX/DRX

1.1.4 WRFD-010618 IMS Signaling over HSPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
IMS signaling over HSPA can shorten the setup delay of IMS services like VoIP to save network resources for the operator.

Benefits
 

Since IMS signaling is carried on HSPA, the utilization of code resource and transmission resource can be improved, compared with those carried on the DCH. Better performance (short time delay) and capacity of IMS services.

Description
The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an open and standardized architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia to mobile users. With this feature, operators provide network-controlled multimedia services by combining voice and data in a single packet switched network. IMS uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as the key control protocol, and implements service management in the UTRAN. Such SIP signaling will be indicated by the CN in the RAB Assignment Request message. The RAB should be an interactive QoS class service. Before RAN10.0, such IMS signaling service can only be carried on the DCH. With F-DPCH supported in RAN10.0, the service can be carried on HSPA, which brings better performance for IMS service. The type of channels carrying IMS signaling is configurable separately on the downlink and uplink at cell level. That is, when HSPA is chosen as the bearer with high priority, IMS signaling will be set up on it as much as possible. If the setup is not successful, for example, due to admission control, a periodical timer will be started to trigger the reconfiguration of the HSPA procedure.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN should support the signaling indication at Iu interface. Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

1.1.5 WRFD-011501 PDCP Header Compression (RoHC)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R4.

Summary
PDCP header compression (RoHC) mainly applies to VoIP services and it can decrease the overhead of IP data.

Benefits
 

Decrease the IP data overhead greatly from more than 60% to 10%. Saving air interface and backhaul bandwidth occupancy, saving CAPEX & OPEX

Description
Robust Header Compression (RoHC) is defined in RFC3095 (July, 2001). Such feature provides the IP data header compression mechanism which aims to save the bandwidth of air interface, which utilize less radio resources. The motivation for IP header compression is based on the following facts:
 

The multimedia payload is typically compressed at the application layer. The headers occupy a large portion of the packet for some services.

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The headers have significant redundancy.

The RoHC is implemented at the PDCP protocol layer between the RNC and UE; therefore, the Iub bandwidth can be saved. In RAN10.0, the following compress/uncompress profiles are supported:
   

RoHC Uncompressed RoHC RTP: RTP/UDP/IP header RoHC UDP: UDP/IP header RoHC ESP: ESP/IP header

Generally, RTP/UDP/IP header is used in packet of VoIP, so RoHC Uncompressed or RoHC RTP is used for VoIP. RoHC UDP and RoHC ESP are used in other scenarios when the hander of packet is UDP/IP or ESP/IP. Both IPV4 and IPV6 header compressions are supported.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the ROHC compression function. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010619 CS Voice over HSPA/HSPA+

1.1.6 WRFD-010619 CS Voice over HSPA/HSPA+
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. It is introduced in 3GPP R8.

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Summary
Compared with CS voice over DCH, CS voice over HSPA/HSPA+ provides a larger voice capacity through high spectral efficiency and capacity enhancement of HSPA or HSPA+.

Benefits
The use of the high spectral efficiency and capacity enhancement features of HSPA or HSPA+ increases the capacity of CS voice services. Compared with VoIP over HSPA or HSPA+, CS voice over HSPA/HSPA+ does not require the support of the IMS and its implementation is easier.

Description
Generally, CS voice services are carried over DCH. CS voice over HSPA is introduced in 3GPP Release 8 specifications. That is, UL CS voice packets are carried over E-DCH, and DL CS voice packets are carried over HS-DSCH. CS voice over HSPA refers to the Circuit Switched voice service based on legacy CS domain Core Network. Therefore, operators do not need to deploy the IMS for VoIP services. The following figure shows the difference in call routing between CS voice over HSPA and VoIP over HSPA/HSPA+.

To deploy CS voice over HSPA, the only needed update is the way of mapping for this service on the RNC. No additional modification is needed on the MSC or NodeB. CS voice over HSPA improves the spectral efficiency and cell capacity. Moreover, the CPC feature introduced in RAN11.0 HSPA+ package helps to extend the battery life of UEs through UL DTX and DL DRX functions. Compared with traditional CS voice over DCH, the capacity gain of VoIP over HSPA (HSUPA with 2ms TTI) is expected to reach 23%. With CPC, the capacity gain of VoIP over HSPA (HSUPA with 2ms TTI) is expected to reach 48%.

Enhancement
In RAN12.0, coverage-based TTI dynamic switching of VoIP over HSUPA is introduced. The coverage performance of the HSUPA 10 ms TTI is better than that in DCH, whereas the coverage performance of the HSUPA 2 ms TTI is worse than that in DCH. The 2 ms TTI, however, has a greater gain in capacity. Therefore, for voice call over HSPA users, 2 ms TTI is always configured to obtain high system capacity and smooth switching from the 2 ms TTI to

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the 10 ms TTI must be implemented according to the limitation on the uplink transmit power of the UE and the high BLER. This ensures seamless coverage and maximizes cell capacity.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must be Release-8 (or later) and support CS voice over HSPA/HSPA+ Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features When CS voice is over HSPA
   

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA

When CS voice is over HSPA+

WRFD-010686 CPC-DTX/DRX

1.2 Crystal Voice
1.2.1 WRFD-010613 AMR-WB (Adaptive Multi Rate Wide Band)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the operator to improve the quality of speech services if resources are allowed.

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Benefits
The AMR-WB provides improved voice quality especially in terms of increased voice naturalness.

Description
AMR-WB (Wide Band) is a new feature in 3GPP_REL 5 for the purpose to provide improved voice quality especially in terms of increased voice naturalness. This feature provides the AMR-WB service with the bit rate defined as follows: Codec Mode AMR-WB_23.85 AMR-WB_23.05 AMR-WB_19.85 AMR-WB_18.25 AMR-WB_15.85 AMR-WB_14.25 AMR-WB_12.65 AMR-WB_8.85 AMR-WB_6.60 Source Codec BitRate 23.85 kbit/s 23.05 kbit/s 19.85 kbit/s 18.25 kbit/s 15.85 kbit/s 14.25 kbit/s 12.65 kbit/s 8.85 kbit/s 6.60 kbit/s

The system will set up the AMR service according to the service request from the core network. The algorithm for AMR-WB is the same as that for the AMR service with narrow band.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding support capability. Dependency on Other Features None

1.2.2 WRFD-020701 AMR/WB-AMR Speech Rates Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature enables the adjustment of AMR/AMR-WB speech rates triggered by multiple factors. This feature can ensure a continuous service, expand the service coverage, and reduce the cell load.

Benefits
For the same transmit power, a lower-rate AMR codec can provide wider uplink coverage. When the radio environment is good, a high-rate codec can provide better speech quality than a low-rate codec. When the radio environment is poor, a low-rate codec can provide better speech quality than a high-rate codec. Therefore, the rate of the AMR codec should be adjusted in real time to ensure high-quality speech services.

Description
The AMR Mode Control (AMRC) is a feature that enables the RNC to control 8 types of speech rates, namely 12.2 kbit/s, 10.2 kbit/s, 7.95 kbit/s, 7.4 kbit/s, 6.7 kbit/s, 5.9 kbit/s, 5.15 kbit/s, 4.75 kbit/s, and wide band AMR 23.85 kbit/s, 23.05 kbit/s, 19.85 kbit/s, 18.25 kbit/s, 15.85 kbit/s, 14.25 kbit/s, 12.65 kbit/s, 8.85 kbit/s and 6.60 kbit/s. This improves speech quality and enlarges uplink coverage and reduces system load level. Before RAN5.0, the decision of adjusting the AMR rate considers the downlink transmitted power for DL and UE transmitted power for UL. If the transmit power exceeds the pre-defined threshold, it indicates that the link quality is poor. In RAN5.1, cell load is used for AMRC trigger, where RNC will monitor the cell loading continuously and dynamically to adjust the user’s speech code rate according to the change of the cell loading. When the loading is heavy, low bit rate of AMR speech CODEC is used to decrease the cell loading and when the cell loading is light, high bit rates of AMR speech CODEC is used to provide higher voice quality for users. The AMRC is one action to be done during the load reshuffling (LDR) procedure. The LDR is one of the congestion control mechanisms triggered when NodeB Common Measurement (TCP, Transmitted Carrier Power) for DL, and NodeB Common Measurement (RTWP) for

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UL, exceed the LDR threshold. The system will enter ‘basic congestion’ status. After the LDR is triggered, the AMRC serves as a method to decease the system load. The RNC will select the candidate AMR user according to the ARP and current user rate. Low ARP user will be selected first to adjust the rate and if ARP is the same, the user with high voice rate will be firstly selected to adjust the rate. After the user voice rate is degraded, it depends on the downlink transmitted power for DL and UE transmitted power for UL for rate increase, as the mechanism used for RAN5.0.

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, the AMRC is added as an action in basic feature WRFD-020106 Load Reshuffling. In RAN6.0, this feature can also be used to AMR-WB service which requires the optional feature WRFD-010603 AMR-WB (Adaptive Multi Rate Wide Band).

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the processing of TFC control procedure. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features If this feature is to be applied to the AMR-WB, then the Dependency is:

WRFD-010613 AMR-WB (Adaptive Multi Rate Wide Band)

1.2.3 WRFD-011600 TFO/TrFO
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0 This feature is introduced in 3GPP R4.

Summary
This feature enables the identification and processing of the IUUP V2 CN to support the TFO/TrFO service.

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Benefits
This feature can prevent degradation of the speech quality introduced by the interpretation between different codecs. The TrFO can also save the transmission resources.

Description
TFO/TrFO features are introduced in Release 4 and used to prevent degradation of the speech quality. This degradation is produced by the interpretation between the different codecs and is usually more noticeable when the speech CODECs are operating at low rates and in noisy conditions. Tandem Free Operation (TFO) removes the double speech encoding/decoding done in the TRAUs in MS-to-MS calls by "tunneling" the "compressed" speech through the 64 kbit/s PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) links of the core network. NO transmission resource will be saved. For Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO), there is no constraint to use PCM link on the Nb interface; therefore, in addition of the advantages proposed by TFO, it can also save the transmission resources. TrFO can also be used in mobile-to-fix calls. On the access network side, the RNC cannot really identify the TFO/TrFO service. The RNC can, however, identify the CN IUUP version and perform related processing of the IUUP V2 to support the TFO/TrFO service.

Enhancement
In RAN5.0, AMRC under TFO/TrFO is supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN node needs to support the feature at the same time. Dependency on Other Features None

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1.2.4 WRFD-140201 AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
AMR Voice Quality Improvement Based on PLVA improves adaptive multi-rate (AMR) voice quality by using Huawei Parallel List Viterbi Algorithm (PLVA) to decode convolutional codes, reducing the proportion of low and medium mean opinion scores (MOSs).

Benefits
This feature noticeably improves the quality of voice services, which in turn improves user experience. In simulations, the MOS of AMR voice services increases by about 0.35 when the block error rate (BLER) is greater than 10%.

Description
AMR is a speech coding standard widely used in GSM and UMTS communications systems. In UMTS, convolutional codes are used to perform channel encoding and a power control mechanism is used to ensure voice quality. Figure 1.2.4-1 Channel encoding and power control for AMR voice services in the uplink in UMTS

UE
Uu

NodeB
Iub

RNC
Iu

CN

AMR Speech Codec
Decoded Data

AMR Speech Codec

CC Encoder

CC Decoder
CRCI

Power Transmitter

Inner-Loop

Outer-Loop

Power Power Control Target Power Control Commander SINR Measured SINR

Currently, most vendors use the Viterbi algorithm to decode convolutional codes. The Viterbi algorithm selects the optimal path based on the maximum likelihood theory and exports the data decoded on the optimal path. If the data decoded on the optimal path fails the cyclic redundancy check (CRC), the AMR speech codec usually discards the data, and voice quality deteriorates as a result.

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Huawei uses the PLVA algorithm to decode convolutional codes. The PLVA algorithm is an enhanced CRC-assisted Viterbi algorithm. Instead of only selecting the optimal path, the PLVA algorithm selects the top N optimal paths and performs CRC on the data decoded on these paths. The PLVA algorithm only exports data that passes the CRC. If data decoded on these paths fails the CRC, the NodeB exports the data decoded on the optimal path. In simulations where the PLVA algorithm selects four paths, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0.2 to 0.8 dB better than that produced by the Viterbi algorithm. This feature increases the MOS of AMR voice services, including narrowband and wideband AMR voice services. Take 12.2 kbit/s AMR voice services as an example. In simulation, if the BLER is 1%, the MOS is increased by 0.08. If the BLER is greater than 10%, the MOS is increased by about 0.35. (The BLER increase is generally caused by UE power limitation, fast channel change, or strong interference.) Generally, the MOS increase produced by the PLVA algorithm is directly proportional to the BLER. In addition, MOS increase is generally the same under different channel fading conditions. Figure 1.2.4-2 Different MOSs for 12.2 kbit/s AMR voice services on TU50 channels with different BLERs

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware
   

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board. Currently, for baseband boards, only the EULPd, EBBCd, WBBPd and WBBPf boards support the PLVA feature. When the EULPd, EBBCd, WBBPd or WBBPf board is

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inserted together with the other types of baseband boards, AMR services cannot obtain the PLVA gain if the AMR services are set up on the other types of baseband boards. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

1.3 CBS
1.3.1 WRFD-011000 Cell Broadcast Service
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0 This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature supports the standard cell broadcast procedure as stipulated in protocols to assist the CBC for the cell broadcast service.

Benefits
The users can use the new services based on the CBS.

Description
The CBS service is analogous to the teletex service offered on television, in that like teletex, it permits a number of unacknowledged general CBS messages to be broadcast to all receivers within a particular region. CBS messages are broadcast to defined geographical areas known as cell broadcast areas. These areas may comprise of one or more cells, or may comprise the entire PLMN. The Iu BC interface connects the RNC in UTRAN with the broadcast domain of the Core Network, namely with the Cell Broadcast Center. It is used to define the Cell Broadcast information that is transmitted to the mobile user via the Cell Broadcast Service. The cell broadcast center (CBC) is part of core network in UMTS and up to 4 CBCs can connect to RNC via a routing node like WCDMA SGSN.

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Enhancement
RAN6.0 supports four CBCs instead of one CBC of the previous versions.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability to receive cell broadcast messages. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

1.3.2 WRFD-011001 Simplified Cell Broadcast
Availability
This feature is introduced in RAN11.1.

Summary
This feature offers a solution to broadcast some simple message to the UE while there is no Simplified cell broadcast is a function implemented in RNC that allows using SMSCB (Short Message Service Cell Broadcast) without the necessity of having a Cell Broadcast Center.

Benefits
With this feature, the most commonly used cell broadcast services are supported through a simple command in RNC. Which avoids investing in a Cell Broadcast Center and contributes to CAPEX saving.

Description
The Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) function enables the broadcast of short messages to all MSs in one or several cells, or even the entire PLMN. The MSs can receive the broadcast messages continuously or discontinuously according to the system configuration.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Usually there is a Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) responsible for managing and scheduling the SMSCB. Huawei Simplified Cell Broadcast function performs through a built-in cell broadcast processing module in the RNC without CBC, and reduces equipment costs. Huawei simplified cell broadcast function enables the broadcast of messages, such as the cell name, weather forecast, and social commonweal messages. The following describes the details of these functions:

Information broadcast function: broadcasting messages such as the NodeB name, cell name, weather forecast, or any character string. The maximum length is 100 ASC symbols. The messages are input manually by MML command. Information timing broadcast function: sending cell broadcast messages at specified intervals. Information management function: On the M2000 MML client, you can use the MML commands to start or stop sending the broadcast messages in specified cells or all cells, and stop sending a specified cell broadcast message. In addition, you can use the MML commands to query the cell broadcast status.

 

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability to receive cell broadcast messages. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features The Huawei simplified cell broadcast function cannot be used simultaneously with WRFD-011000 CBC cell broadcast function.

1.3.3 WRFD-020127 Warning of Disaster
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
The RNC can send a disaster notification to all the UEs in a cell through the simple cell broadcast function right after a disaster occurs.

Benefits
This feature enables the RNC to quickly (within four seconds) send the disaster information to all the UEs, reducing the impact of the disaster.

Description
When a disaster (such as earthquake or tsunami) occurs, a disaster pre-warning notification can help reduce the casualty and losses. Huawei RNC can perform simple cell broadcast through the built-in CBC. If no external CBC is deployed, Huawei RNC can run an OM command to inform all the UEs in the cell of the disaster information as soon as possible. The RNC can originate, modify, and release broadcast messages. The RNC can also predefine a broadcasting area. All the broadcast messages are triggered manually. When the RNC OM personnel know the disaster information, the personnel must send a broadcast command and the broadcast information is immediately sent to the RNC through an OM terminal. In RAN12.0, Huawei RNC shortens the delay of each channel in the system to ensure that all the UEs within the RNC are informed of the disaster information within a short period of time, generally four seconds.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-011001 Simplified Cell Broadcast

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

1.4 MBMS
1.4.1 WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature provides basic MBMS functions to meet the requirements of the operator for MBMS applications.

Benefits
This feature improves the network resource utilization, especially the utilization of resources on the Uu interface. It is an efficient way for the operators to deploy the point-to-multipoint services, such mobile TV.

Description
The multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) is a new important feature for the 3GPP Release 6 specifications. It is a point-to-multipoint service in which the data is transmitted from a single source entity to multiple recipients. Transmitting the same data to multiple recipients allows the network resources to be shared. The MBMS bearer service offers two modes:
 

Broadcast mode; Multicast mode.(Not supported by Huawei RNC)

The MBMS architecture enables the efficient use of the radio network and core network resources, with an emphasis on the radio interface efficiency. For one MBMS service, there is only one copy of data on the Iu interface, and the RNS distributes the data to all associated UEs. The MBMS is realized by a number of additional new capabilities in the existing functional entities and additional new functional entities. The whole MBMS architecture is as follows:

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description
PDN (e . g . Internet

)

HLR

Content Provider / Multicast Broadcast Source

Gr Content Provider / Multicast Broadcast Source

Gmb Uu Iu Gn /Gp

UE

UTRAN

SGSN

GGSN TPF
Gi

BM - SC

Iu /Gb Um

UE

GERAN

The introduction of the MBMS has the following impacts on the RAN:
    

Some new signaling procedures are added on the Iub/Uu/Iur/Iu interface. New physical channels (MICH) are added. New logical channels (MCCH/MTCH/MSCH) are added. MAC-c/sh is changed to MAC-c/sh/m in order to add the MAC-m to the MBMS. Soft/selective combination function of the common channels is introduced.

The common channels may be used over the air interface, and the UE may receive the service in idle mode. So the number of UEs is not limited in a cell and a group. The UE may receive the same MBMS service in the common channels from different cells. And by soft/selective combination, less power is needed for the common channels. The BSC6800 supports the MBMS services with the total traffic of up to 4096 kbit/s on the Iu interface and 64 sessions can be supported simultaneously. The BSC6900 supports the MBMS services with the total traffic of up to 8192 kbit/s on the Iu interface and 256 sessions can be supported simultaneously.

Enhancement
In the RAN10.0, the MBMS introduction package is enhanced. For details, refer to the enhancement of the features in the package.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on UE The UE should support MBMS functions. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

The existing PS Domain functional entities (GGSN, SGSN, UTRAN, GERAN and UE) need to be enhanced to provide the MBMS bearer service. A new functional entity, the broadcast multicast service centre (BM-SC) is added to provide a set of functions for the MBMS users Services.

Dependency on Other Features None

1.4.2 WRFD-01061601 MBMS Broadcast Mode
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
In MBMS broadcast mode, MBMS information is transmitted through common channels of a cell.

Benefits
With this feature, the operators can deploy rich multimedia services, such as mobile TV.

Description
The MBMS bearer service offers two modes:
 

Broadcast mode Multicast mode

The broadcast mode is the unidirectional point-to-multipoint transmission of multimedia data (such as text, audio, picture, video) from a single source entity to all users in the broadcast service area. It is expected that charging data for the end user will not be generated for this mode at the MBMS transport service layer. Charging data related to security procedures for the end user at the MBMS user service layer may be generated. The multicast mode allows the unidirectional point-to-multipoint transmission of multimedia data (such as text, audio, picture, video) from a single source entity to a multicast group in the multicast service area. Unlike the broadcast mode, the multicast mode generally requires a subscription to the multicast subscription group and the users joining in the corresponding multicast group. It is expected that charging data for the end user will be generated for this mode at the MBMS transport service layer.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

When receiving the MBMS services in the broadcast mode, the UE may stay in the URA_PCH/CELL_PCH/CELL_FACH and idle mode. If the capability allowed, the UE can receive the MBMS service even on the CELL_DCH. Huawei UMTS RAN6.0 only supports the broadcast mode.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the UE in URA_PCH, CELL_PCH, FACH, or idle mode supports the MBMS service.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.3 WRFD-01061602 MBMS Admission Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to admission control for the MBMS service.

Benefits
The cell power is allocated preferentially to the MBMS broadcast service with higher priority.

Description
Like the admission control for the R99 services, the following factors will be taken into account:

Cell available code resources

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description
  

Cell available power resources NodeB resource state, that is, NodeB credits Available Iub transport layer resources

Only when all of these resources above are available can a MBMS service be admitted. The MBMS broadcast service is established (PTM bearer) on the common channel. Two power levels (upper and lower levels) are defined for the MBMS broadcast service.
 

When there is enough power resources in the cell, the upper power level will be used; When the cell is in the basic congestion, the upper power level will be used for the MBMS service whose priority is higher than or equal to a configured priority threshold and the lower power level will be used for the MBMS service whose priority is lower than the configured priority threshold; When the cell load recovers from the congestion to normal, the RNC will automatically adjust the power level to the upper one for that MBMS service.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.4 WRFD-01061603 MBMS Load Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to load control for the MBMS service.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
The feature helps to decrease the cell load when the cell enters the congestion state and ensures the system stability.

Description
When the cell is in the basic congestion, reduction of the MBMS service power may be triggered when the downlink congestion is detected. The details are as follows:

The RNC selects all the MBMS broadcast services with priority lower than the configurable threshold named the MBMS priority threshold and sort them in the ascending order; When the cell is in the congestion, the RNC will check them one by one. If there is one service that is using the upper power level threshold, the RNC can move it to the lower power level threshold by common transport channel reconfiguration procedure. Then the action ends. If all the MBMS broadcast mode services are using the lower power level threshold, the action ends.

When the cell is in the congestion, the RNC can trigger the release of the MBMS broadcast mode service. Some MBMS services with the lowest priority will be released first. After that, a periodic reestablishment attempt timer for each service will be started.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

1.4.5 WRFD-01061604 MBMS Soft/Selective Combining
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to soft combination and selective combination for the PTM MBMS service.

Benefits
With this feature, the power of the S-CCPCH that bears the MBMS services can be saved.

Description
The common channel soft combination is a function introduced for the MBMS. It means that the UE receiver combines the signal from the multiple cells either in the RAKE receiver or after the RAKE receiver in the receiver chain prior to the decoding of the soft combination transport channel. The maximum time difference between the S-CCPCHs carrying the same service in different cells should be less than 1TTI+1slot. The soft combination normally improves the UE reception gain by 5 - 7 dB. The selective combination (SC) is an enhancement for the Release 6 PtM MBMS. The network is to simulcast the PtM MBMS contents on the S-CCPCH, and the UE receives and decodes the MBMS data from multiple radio links simultaneously. The selection of the radio link is to be performed on a transport block basis at the RLC, based on the CRC results and sequence numbers. The selective combination normally improves the UE reception gain by 3 - 5 dB. The RNC should ensure that the services data sent to the UE from different cells are synchronized.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.6 WRFD-01061605 MBMS Transport Resource Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to the transport resource management for the MBMS service.

Benefits
It is an essential feature to deploy MBMS broadcast mode services.

Description
For the same MBMS session in the same NodeB, a separate Iub transport bearer is established for each cell. An example is shown in the following figure assuming 3 cells in one NodeB. Three copies of exact same MBMS session data are sent through the Iub from the CRNC to the NodeB.
CN MBMS stream CRNC Iub transport bearers Node B

broad

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.7 WRFD-01061606 Streaming Service on MBMS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables the MBMS service to be carried on the PS streaming class, ensuring QoS.

Benefits
The feature can meet the QoS requirements of the service applications borne by the streaming class.

Description
Compared with the point-to-point bearer services, the following limitations for the MBMS services exist:
 

For the traffic class, only the background and streaming classes can be supported; For the SDU error ratio, only larger values are supported, such as the values describing higher numbers of the lost or corrupted SDUs (actual values for the background and streaming classes are 10-2 and 10-1); For guaranteed bit rates of the streaming traffic class: it depends on the radio resource usage by other services, some cells of the MBMS service area may not have sufficient resources available for a MBMS session. The RAN may decide not to establish the RB in the cells where requested resources are not available.

The MBMS bearer of the background class is most suitable for the transport of the MBMS user services such as messaging or downloading. The MBMS bearer of streaming class is most suitable for the transport of the MBMS user services such as mobile TV. The main difference between the background and streaming classes for the MBMS is the support of a guaranteed bit rate in the streaming case. The MBMS user services that normally use the background class may however decide to use a streaming class if the MBMS user service cannot cope with the high packet loss. The RAN 6.1 only supports the streaming class MBMS service.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
In the RAN10.0, a maximum of 2 PTP streaming RBs for the MBMS service can be established for the UE in enhanced broadcast mode.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.8 WRFD-01061607 MBMS 2 Channels per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, each cell supports up to two channels for the MBMS service.

Benefits
The feature is an essential function for the deployment of the MBMS service application.

Description
The MBMS two channels per cell are supported.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.9 WRFD-01061608 16/32/64/128Kbit/s Channel Rate on MBMS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to four MBMS channel rates: 16kbit/s, 32kbit/s, 64kbit/s, and 128kbit/s.

Benefits
The feature enables different channel rates and provides operators with more flexibility to deploy the MBMS services.

Description
The MBMS broadcast mode service bit rate can be 64kbit/s or 128kbit/s. The TTI for 64kbit/s is 80 ms and the TTI for 128kbit/s can be 40 ms or 80 ms.

Enhancement
In the RAN10.0, 16 kbit/s or 32kbit/s can also be supported for which only 80 ms is used by the TTI.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.10 WRFD-010660 MBMS Phase 2
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature supports the enhanced MBMS (PTP/PTM) to save cell resources.

Benefits
Compared with the broadcast mode, MBMS Phase 2 can effectively implement PTM services, for example, mobile TV. In PTP/PTM mode, cell resources can be saved.

Description
MBMS Phase 2 refers to enhanced broadcast mode introduced in 2006/09 3GPP specifications. Compared with broadcast mode, the main differences include:

The "Counting/re-counting" function used for multicast mode is introduced for enhanced broadcast. During the counting/re-counting procedure, the UE reports its selected services to the RNC directly over the Uu interface. Based on "Counting/re-counting" result, RNC can select optimum transfer mode: PTM (Point To Multipoint) or PTP (Point To Point). In PTM mode, FACH/SCCPCH is used to bear the MBMS services; in PTP mode, DCH or HSDPA is used to bear the MBMS services. If in a cell there is no user interested in one specific MBMS service, RAN can decide to cancel it.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the corresponding enhanced MBMS functions. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.11 WRFD-01066001 MBMS Enhanced Broadcast Mode
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature is related to the enhanced broadcast mode for the MBMS service.

Benefits
Compared to broadcast mode, it is a more efficient way to deploy the point-to-multipoint services, such mobile TV.

Description
MBMS enhanced broadcast mode is very similar to multicast mode on RAN side, but much modification on CN side and NAS procedures are avoided by introducing "counting/re-counting" function. To support it, the following functions on enhanced broadcast mode are introduced:

Counting/Re-counting. In "MBMS Modified Services Information" message RNC indicates UE to initiate counting/re-counting response and in "MBMS Access Information" message RNC gives the "Access probability factor" to UEs in Idle mode. For UEs in connected mode, it will report to RNC its selected services by "MBMS Modification Request" message. So RNC will get the number of UEs which are interested in one specific MBMS service. In addition, in order to simplify the counting/re-counting procedure, RNC keeps X UEs in the connected mode.

The dynamic switch between PTP and PTM transfer mode for one MBMS service. When deciding the optimum transfer mode for one service in a cell, some factors are taken into account: the load of cell, the number of UE, and the status of the MBMS neighboring cells.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The mobility management for UE.
− − − −

From a PTM cell to another PTM cell. In this scenario, UE will select to receive the MBMS services in the new cell. From a PTM cell to a PTP cell. In this scenario, PTP RB will be established for UE. From a PTP cell to a PTM cell. In this scenario, if PTM mode is used in the UEs’ best cell, PTP RB will be released. From a PTP cell to another PTP cell. Handover will be supported. When the MBMS service is in PTM mode, UE can decide whether to receive this service according to its capability; When MBMS service is in PTP mode, RNC will establish the separate PTP RB for every UE and treat it as an ordinary PS RB. And multiple RAB will be supported.

The combination of MBMS service and non-MBMS services for UE.
− −

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.12 WRFD-01066002 MBMS P2P over HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables MBMS P2P services to be carried on the HS-DSCH, saving cell resources.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
By HSDPA, the cell capacity will be improved.

Description
In enhanced broadcast mode, PTP and PTM mode can be selected to transport MBMS services. If PTP mode is adopted, RNC will establish the separate PTP RB for every UE. Like the non-MBMS service, HSDPA can be used to bear PTP MBMS RB and multiple RAB such as combination of P2P MBMS streaming and I/B PS over HSDPA.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.13 WRFD-01066003 MBMS Admission Enhancement
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature provides different admission policies for PTM and PTP MBMS services.

Benefits
MBMS PTM bearers should be treated differently so that they do not occupy too many resources to block non-MBMS connection admission. In addition, some resources should be reserved for the use of MBMS PTM.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
Besides PTM bearer, MBMS enhanced broadcast also supports PTP bearer, which can be carried on DCH or HS-DSCH. For MBMS PTP users, same admission, pre-emption and congestion criteria are applied as with normal non-MBMS HSDPA users. When performing pre-emption, all types of bearer are taken into account including MBMS PTM bearer, MBMS PTP bearer, normal non-MBMS bearer, which means every bearer type can pre-empt each other. Whether MBMS PTM bearer is allowed to pre-empt other services are controlled by parameter settings. In case PTM bearer is allowed to pre-empt other services, the following QoS rules are possible by parameter settings:
    

PTM streaming bearer can pre-empt other MBMS or non-MBMS services with traffic class interactive/background and less or equal ARP priority. PTM background bearer can pre-empt other MBMS or non-MBMS services with traffic background and less ARP priority. No services are allowed to pre-empt PTM with streaming traffic class. PTP or Non-MBMS guaranteed services are allowed to pre-empt PTM with background traffic class and lower ARP priority. PTP or Non-MBMS background services are allowed to pre-empt PTM with background traffic class and lower ARP priority.

While MBMS PTM bearer consumes less resource but serves for more subscribers, some special strategies are developed for it. 2 specific thresholds are introduced for only Power and Code: Treserved, Tmax.

When all the resources occupied by all MBMS PTM bearers in a cell are below Treserved, PTM bearers can NOT be pre-empted by non PTM bearers (that is, MBMS PTP bearers or normal non-MBMS bearers). When any resource occupied by all PTM bearers in a cell is above Tmax, PTM bearers are rejected by admission control and they can NOT pre-empted non PTM bearers (that is, MBMS PTP bearers or normal non-MBMS bearers). At this moment, they can only pre-empt other low priority PTM bearers. Other cases, the general pre-emption rules will be applied. When all the other priorities are the same, the final prioritization is: MBMS PTM bearer > non-MBMS bearer > MBMS PTP bearer.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.14 WRFD-01066004 Inter-Frequency Neighboring Cell Selection for MBMS PTP Users
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables the filtering and handover of a target cell based on the MBMS channel resources in the inter-frequency neighboring cells, ensuring the continuity of the MBMS service.

Benefits
With this feature, the neighboring cells which are not suitable for MBMS PTP users will be filtered. This maintains the service continuity of MBMS in a more reasonable and intelligent way.

Description
This function is applied when multi-carriers and single carriers are neighboring carriers. For MBMS PTP users, inter-frequency handover may interrupt MBMS services; therefore, service interruption should be avoided to ensure service continuity. This function is not intended for MBMS PTM users or PTP users with other services accompanied.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

As shown in the figure above, the f3 cell has inter-frequency neighboring cells f1 and f2. At the border between the f1 or f2 cell and the f3 cell, when an MBMS PTP user handover from the f3 cell to the f1 or f2 cell, the RNC shall select from the inter-frequency neighboring cell list according to the current service received by the user. If the currently received service is from channel 3, the RNC removes the f2 cell from the list; if the currently received service is from channel 1 or 2, the RNC keeps the f1 and f2 cells in the list. There can be more complicated cases.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package WRFD-010660 MBMS Phase 2

1.4.15 WRFD-010627 FACH Transmission Sharing for MBMS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1.

Summary
This feature enables the FACH carrying the same MBMS service on the Iub interface to share a transmission resource, saving the Iub bandwidth.

Benefits
This feature can save Iub transmission resources when the MBMS service is deployed.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
This feature improves efficient Iub transport for MBMS. In previous 3GPP Rel-6, for the same MBMS session in the same NodeB, a separate Iub transport bearer has to be set up for each cell. An example is shown in the following figure assuming 3 cells in one NodeB. Three copies of exact same MBMS session data are sent via Iub from CRNC to NodeB, which is a big waste of Iub bandwidth.
CN MBMS stream CRNC Iub transport bearers Node B

broad

To maximize saving of Iub bandwidth, the latest 3GPP Rel-6 provide FACH transmission sharing for MBMS solution to share transport bearers. RNC transports only single FACH data. NodeB transport module performs data duplication and distributes them to different FACH Channels, as shown in the following figure, where the common transport bearer is shared over Iub. Obviously, two-third of Iub bandwidth is saved by the improved Iub transport.
CN MBMS stream CRNC Iub transport bearer Node B

broad

The feature has optimization in the control plane. Bearer multiplexing information is carried by newly introduced NBAP signaling IEs. The advantage of this solution is that current MBMS FP structure is kept unchanged. However, due to lack of knowledge of NodeB's capability to share transport bearer, CRNC always sends message of bearer multiplexing request to NodeB no matter whether NodeB can/will share transport bearer or not. For NodeB which can not or would not like to share, non-shared transmission bearer will be setup as in the original way.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.16 WRFD-010626 MBMS FLC(Frequency Layer Convergence)/FLD(Frequency Layer Dispersion)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature supports the reselection procedure of the MBMS frequency layer initiated by the UE.

Benefits
With FLC, the user can acquire the information about MBMS services in time. With FLD, the cell load can be reduced when the MBMS session is stopped.

Description
Frequency Layer Convergence denotes the process where the UTRAN requests UEs to preferentially re-select to the frequency layer on which the MBMS service is intended to be transmitted. This layer preference could be done by an additional MBMS session related Layer Convergence Information (LCI) such as offset and target frequency. The FLC is supported by specifications for both networks utilizing HCS and for networks not utilizing HCS. Frequency Layer Dispersion (FLD) denotes the process where the UTRAN redistributes UEs across the frequencies. UTRAN can use FLD per MBMS session. When FLD is applied, the UE stores the frequency where it was camped previously. Upon session stop, the UE attempts to return to that frequency.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support this function. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.17 WRFD-010624 MBMS 8 Channels per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, each cell supports up to eight channels for the MBMS service.

Benefits
It provides the operator the flexibility to deploy more MBMS services in a cell.

Description
In RAN6.0, up to 8 channels are supported per cell if only the total bit rate of all channels is no more than 1024 kbit/s. The MBMS channel bit rate can be 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 kbit/s.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, up to 8 channels can be supported per cell if only the total bit rate of all channels is no more than 1792 kbit/s. The MBMS channel bit rate can be 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 kbit/s.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB

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None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package Enhanced MBMS

1.4.18 WRFD-010625 256Kbit/s Channel Rate on MBMS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, Huawei RAN can support an MBMS channel rate of 256 kbit/s.

Benefits
The operator can deploy high bit-rate services to provide better user experience.

Description
In RAN6.0, 256 kbit/s MBMS Broadcast Mode service is supported and one cell can support 4 such services. The TTI for 256 kbit/s service is 40ms.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the maximum number of 256 kbit/s channels is enhanced from 4 to 7 per cell.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None

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Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.19 WRFD-010628 MBMS 16 Channels per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
With this feature, each cell supports up to 16 channels for the MBMS service.

Benefits
It provides the operator the flexibility to deploy more MBMS services in a cell.

Description
In RAN10.0, up to 16 channels can be supported per cell if only the total bit rate of all channels is no more than 1792 kbit/s. The MBMS channel bit rate can be 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 kbit/s.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

1.4.20 WRFD-010661 MBMS over Iur
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature supports the MBMS service crossing the Iur interface to extend the application scope of the MBMS service.

Benefits
This feature provides completed functions of MBMS over Iur and keeps the MBMS service continuity and improves user perception.

Description

When CELL_PCH/CELL_FACH/URA_PCH UE moves into DRNC and Iur interface exists:
− −

if there is no non-MBMS services established for this UE, SRNC will indicate UE to release the RRC connection; If there has been non-MBMS services established for this UE, SRNS relocation with CELL/URA update will be triggered.

  

When CELL_DCH UE moves into DRNC and Iur interface exists, Iur soft handover will be triggered. When UE moves into DRNC and Iur interface does not exist, DRNC will indicate UE to release the RRC connection. DRNC informs SRNC through Direct Information Transfer: The MBMS service transfer mode in the cell during Session setup; The MBMS service transfer mode change in the cell during session transferring; The Preferred Frequency Layer information of MBMS service;

The Iur interface mobility management is enhanced in RAN11.0. For example, when the UE which has MBMS service in PTP mode in CELL_DCH state moves to DRNC from SRNC, it will setup a new RL through Iur interface. However, if the cell in DRNC is transferring the MBMS service through PTM mode, and the UE just has MBMS service, the UE will get the MBMS service through PTM mode in DRNC to save transmission resources.

Enhancement
In RAN11.0, the DRNC informs the SRNC about more MBMS service control information through the Direct Information Transfer message.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The neighboring RNC should support MBMS Iur function. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010660 MBMS Phase 2

1.4.21 WRFD-010662 Dynamic Power Estimation for MTCH
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the dynamic adjustment of the transmit power of the MTCH based on the number of neighboring cells in PTM mode.

Benefits
Cell power can be saved by making use of soft combining gain with neighbors.

Description
To guarantee the QoS at the cell boundary, power setting for MTCH (PTM bearer) is high in general, which means power waste. Simulation also shows that soft combining can provide quite high gain (4.6–6.6 dB), so it’s possible to set power dynamically. Dynamic Power Setting in PTM mode:

If more than a certain portion (operator accessible parameter) of neighbors adopt PTM mode, the power setting for the serving cell can be decreased by a specific offset (operator accessible parameter). If less than a certain portion of neighbors adopt PTM mode, the power setting for the serving cell would be recovered to the original one.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

This feature will not conflict with the two power levels (Upper and Lower) defined for MBMS Broadcast Service. Furthermore, this feature takes effect on the base of the latter feature because it only introduced a power OFFSET.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010660 MBMS Phase 2

1.4.22 WRFD-010663 MSCH Scheduling
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables the UE to perform DRX on the MTCH based on MSCH scheduling, saving the power consumption of the UE.

Benefits
MSCH enables the UE to perform DRX on the MTCH and saves power consumption of the UE.

Description
The RNC can send the MBMS scheduling information to the UE on the MSCH, which enables the UE in PTM reception mode to implement Discontinuous Reception (DRX) on the MTCH instead of continuous reception on the MTCH. This effectively reduces power consumption of the UE. The MBMS scheduling information is sent periodically and the

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

period is called "MSCH reception cycle". The MSCH reception cycle and its offset information are transmitted on the MCCH. When the MSCH is used, each S-CCPCH bearing the MTCH/FACH should carry an MSCH/FACH. The channel mapping is shown below:

RAN11.0 supports the MSCH as follows: One cell supports up to 8 MSCHs (in the case of 16 MTCHs and 8 S-CCPCHs) Restriction: If one S-CCPCH bears only one MTCH, then the MSCH should not be used.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package

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1.4.23 WRFD-010665 MBMS Channel Audience Rating Statistics
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables the statistics of the information on MBMS channels to help the operator obtain the audience rating of the MBMS channels.

Benefits
With this feature, the operator can obtain the audience rating statistics on MBMS channels and their occupation in system resources.

Description
This function takes traffic statistics based on MBMS channels. Up to five channels to be measured can be set on the M2000, then the channels ID will be sent to the corresponding RNC. The RNC takes statistics of the following counters:
   

Average number of users in PTP mode Average number of users in PTM mode Time for channels remaining in PTM mode Time for channels remaining in PTP mode

Based on the previous counters, the average time for each online user of the channel can be calculated.

Enhancement
Currently, general counters are measured on the basis of a cell. As the operator has a strong desire to obtain the counters based on MBMS channels, this feature is a very important function.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN The BMSC on the CN side shall identify the channels with a fixed TMGI when delivering the program source. Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010616 MBMS Introduction Package Domain Specific Access Control (DSAC)

1.5 LCS
1.5.1 WRFD-020801 Cell ID + RTT Function Based LCS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
With this feature, Huawei RAN supports location services based on Cell ID + RTT.

Benefits
This feature provides a location service for operators.

Description
Huawei RAN supports location service based on Cell-Id + RTT which locates the UE (CELL-DCH) position by computing the TOA. (Time of Arrive).

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The TOA can be derived by the NodeB RTT (Round Trip Time) measurement and the UE Rx-Tx time difference Type 2 measurement.

RTT Measurement NodeB

UE UE Rx-Tx time difference Type2 Measurement

In the CELLID+RTT positioning method, the simplest solution is to take the geometrical center of the reference cell coverage area as the positioning result. This solution requires no positioning-related measurement and provides the shortest response time. If the CN requires a positioning of high accuracy, the CELLID+RTT method must employ more measurements as follows:
 

The RNC asks all cells in the active set to perform the RTT measurement. The RNC asks the UE to perform the UE Rx-Tx type 2 measurement of the corresponding cell. If the UE does not support the UE Rx-Tx type 2 measurements, the RNC will ask the UE to perform the UE Rx-Tx type 1 measurement.

When the cell is located in different RNCs, the location over Iur is supported.

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Enhancement
Location over Iur interface is supported in RAN5.1.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE UE is needed to report the relevant measurement results. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN is needed to trigger the location request. Dependency on Other Features None

1.5.2 WRFD-020802 OTDOA Based LCS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
With this feature, Huawei RAN supports IPDL-OTDOA location services.

Benefits
This feature provides a location service for operators.

Description
Huawei supports the IPDL-OTDOA location services. In this feature, the RNC initiates and keeps tracing the GPS timing of cell frame measurements from the NodeBs, which are configured with a GPS card and support the GPS timing of cell frame measurement. In addition, the RNC initiates and keeps tracing the SFN-SFN observed time difference measurement from LMUs deployed in the network. By taking advantage of the latest measurement reports RNC can calculate the latest RTD (Relative Time difference) of cells that are involved in a positioning procedure.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

When RNC receives a LOCATON REPORT CONTROL message and the IPDL-OTDOA method is selected, it requests SFN-SFN observed time difference measurement from UE, and it calculates the UE's position after it receives the corresponding measurement report. To assist the position calculation, RNC may request RTT measurements from NodeB and relative Rx-Tx time difference measurements from UE.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The corresponding NodeBs should be equipped USCU card with GPS function. Dependency on UE UE is needed to report the relevant measurement results. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN is needed to trigger the location request. Dependency on Other Features None

1.5.3 WRFD-020803 A-GPS Based LCS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
With this feature, Huawei RAN supports network-assisted GPS location services.

Benefits
This feature provides a highest accuracy location service.

Description
Huawei supports the UE-based and UE-assisted location services. To support this method, RNC may deploy a GPS reference receiver to keep tracking the latest GPS data including

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ephemeris, almanac, and DGPS data, and calculates the fresh GPS assistance data for UE according to the latest GPS data and the UE's reference position. When RNC receives a LOCATON REPORT CONTROL message and the A-GPS method is selected, it sends a GPS measurement request to UE with the GPS assistance data calculated, and calculates the position of UE when it receives the GPS measurement report. For UE-based A-GPS method, RNC directly forwards the location estimate from UE to MSC/SGSN. When the cell is located in different RNCs, the location over Iur is supported. Enhancement RAN5.1 supports the positioning through the Iur interface.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC If the GPS receiver is located at the RNC, the RNC must be configured with a clock board that has a GPS module. Dependency on NodeB If the GPS receiver is located at the NodeB, the NodeB should be equipped with USCU card with GPS function. Dependency on UE UE is needed to report the relevant measurement results. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN is needed to trigger the location request. Dependency on Other Features None

1.5.4 WRFD-020804 LCS Classified Zones
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0 This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
This feature enables a classified zone set on the OAM to be mapped to a specific service area. When a classified zone of the UE is changed, the RNC sends a location report to the CN.

Benefits
The operator can provide the information and service for the subscriber actively according to the location of the subscriber. The subscriber in movement can obtain its location information quickly.

Description
The RNC supports mapping a classified zone set by OAM to a specific Service Area. When a mobile enters or leaves a classified zone, the RNC will generate a location report and send the location report to corresponding CN through Location Report procedure. In LOCATION REPORT message, the Service Area of the UE in the Area Identity IE will be included. The CN shall react to the LOCATION REPORT message with service vendor specific actions.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN node must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on Other Features None

1.5.5 WRFD-020805 LCS over Iur
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

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Summary
With this feature, Huawei RAN can provide location services through the Iur interface to extend the positioning area.

Benefits
As enhancement to location service, the positioning area is widely extended, and more reliable and precise positioning capability is achieved.

Description
Location service over Iur is supported for CELL ID+RTT and A-GPS positioning.

CELL ID+RTT CELL ID+RTT positioning is based on the cell position information and TOA (Time of Arrival), for which RTT (Round Trip Time), UE RxTx time difference measurements are needed. In case (illustrated in figure below) inter-RNC handover happened during the positioning with CELL ID+RTT, CELL ID+RTT positioning over Iur should be performed, including Iur interface dedicated measurement for RTT and information exchange for neighbor RNC cell reference position (Geographical Coordinates).

DRNC

Site 2

DS-RTx

MSC

SRNC

. …
DS-NoUrgent

Site DS-Urgent 1
DS-PQ

Acquisition of RTT over Iur Dedicated measurement over Iur for RTT Iur dedicated measurement procedure for acquisition of RTT is illustrated in figure below.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

SRNC
DEDICATED MEASUREMENT INITIATION REQUEST (Measurement Type: RTT)

DRNC

DEDICATED MEASUREMENT INITIATION RESPONSE

DEDICATED MEASUREMENT REPORT (Measurement Value: RTT)

Information exchange over Iur for cell reference position To get the neighbor RNC cell reference position, information exchange procedure should be performed, with "Information Type" IE set to "UTRAN Access Point Position", illustrated in figure below.
SRNC
INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION REQUEST (Information Type: UTRAN Access Point Position)

DRNC

INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION RESPONSE (Geographical Coordinates)

A-GPS

GPS information is required by A-GPS positioning. RNC maintains the updated GPS data from itself or neighboring RNCs. After the reference GPS receiver is configured, the GPS data should be obtained from neighboring RNCs and the information exchange procedure over Iub should be performed. During the positioning, if reference cell is located in DRNC, then GPS data from DRNC will be preferred, and information exchange over Iur for reference cell geographical position will be triggered. Information exchange over Iur for GPS information Information exchange procedure for neighboring RNC’s GPS information (with "Information Type" IE set to "GPS Information") is illustrated in figure below. To get the updated information, periodic information reporting is applied.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

RNC 1
INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION REQUEST (Information Type: GPS Information)

RNC 2

INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION RESPONSE

INFORMATION REPORT

Information exchange over Iur for reference cell geographical position To get geographical position of reference cell, information exchange procedure is triggered on demand, for every positioning.
SRNC
INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION REQUEST

DRNC

(Information Type: UTRAN Access Point Position)

INFORMATION EXCHANGE INITIATION RESPONSE

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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The neighboring RNC should support the information exchanging and related procedures. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-020801 Cell ID + RTT Function Based LCS WRFD-020803 A-GPS Based LCS

1.5.6 WRFD-020807 Iupc Interface for LCS service
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature supports to connect RNC and SAS (Stand-Alone SMLC) with Iupc interface which is fully compliant with 3GPP. In this way the LCS function is working under SAS-centric mode. This feature is usually employed when one SAS connects with many RNCs.

Benefits
This feature offers a SAS centric Position Service mode. The merits of SAS centric mode are: The deployed LCS algorithm and the accuracy for a certain LCS procedure are controlled by the SAS. The operator can conveniently do the LCS service maintenance without the technical support of RNC vendors. In SAS-centric mode, the SAS calculate the location data. In this way, the RNC does not need to reserve resource for LCS services.

Description
3GPP protocol offers SAS-centric mode and RNC-centric mode LCS functions. When it works in SAS-centric mode, SAS can receive location request via RNC from CN, it will initiate measurement request to RNC, RNC will trigger UE measurement and send the measure result to SAS, SAS calculate the location and send the location result to CN via RNC. The SAS-centric mode is illustrated in the network diagram below:

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

S AS SA

G P S I u P C n e t w o r k , f o r e x a m p l e :

S
U u I u b R N RC

I u

I u

U EU
E

U E

N o d e B

U E

N o d e

( NI S Cu M r L CR N )C R N C

M S C

G M L C

L C S C l i e n t

Huawei supports to connect RNC and SAS with Iupc interface. The Iupc interface is fullyW B compliant with the 3GPP protocol. The Iupc interface is available with IP connection. All A the R IP interface boards for Iu/Iur interface in RNC support Iupc with SCCP connection. N Huawei RNC supports the following functions: SAS-centric mode: LCS algorithm and process are controlled by SAS, the RNC only offers LCS measurement; In SAS-centric mode, RNC supports A-GPS and CELLID+RTT LCS method; If the operator needs to use other LCS algorithm or process, the RNC-centric mode is recommended.

S G S N

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC Only IP interface boards support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on Other Features

When the operator employs Cell ID+RTT algorithm, the feature WRFD-020801 Cell ID + RTT Function Based LCS is needed. When the operator employs A-GPS algorithm, the feature WRFD-020803 A-GPS Based LCS is needed.

1.6 PTT
1.6.1 WRFD-020134 Push to Talk
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature is a part of end-to-end PTT solution. PTT needs support from the UE, RAN, CN, and PTT server. In this feature, the RAN identifies PTT services and implements technologies to reduce the delay of PTT services.

Benefits
This feature supports PTT solution from RAN side. By reducing the delay of PTT service, this feature can also help to improve user satisfaction.

Description
PTT is a service option of conversing on half-duplex and point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication lines. A PTT connection connects instantly without ringing after a subscriber simply presses a key. In addition, a caller can speak to a group of persons with a single button press. Therefore, PTT is characterized by quick call establishment and convenient team communication. The following figure shows an application of PTT in a UMTS network.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

PTT services consist of start-up process and call setup process: Start-up process After a UE starts the PTT client, the startup process begins. The process includes the following actions: PTT UE registration In this process, UE registers itself in PTT server by message exchange. PTT UE identification In this process, RNC will identify the PTT UE when receiving a RAB Assignment with special QoS parameters and then keep the UE in CELL_PCH/URA_PCH state. Call setup process After a subscriber presses the PTT button, the call setup process begins. The network will setup channel for the PTT service. The delay of PTT call establishment should be short. To reduce the end-to-end delay, the following technologies are used in the call setup process. Always On: RNC retains the UE in CELL_PCH/URA_PCH state when there is no data activity, that is, the UE is always on in RNC. CN also has mechanism to keep UE always on. The Always On state allows when the UE has traffic, it need not to re-setup the RRC connection and perform activation procedure. P2D direct state transition: A PTT UE directly transfers its state from the CELL_PCH/URA_PCH state to the CELL_DCH state. This is to reduce the PTT transmission delay and improve the PTT call setup performance. Preferred paging: The RNC prioritizes PTT paging over paging of other lower priority applications to improve PTT call setup delay performance. Early Reception and Transmission: RAN supports the reception of PTT user data on E-DCH before receiving the Cell Update Confirm Response message from the PTT UE; RAN also supports transmit message to the PTT UE over the HS-DSCH channel without waiting for the Cell Update Confirm Response to reduce the delay. Fast L1 synchronization: The TS 25.331 in 3GPP Release 6 introduces the "Post-verification period" IE to indicate whether a UE uses fast L1 synchronization. This IE is included in the Radio Bearer Reconfiguration and Cell Update Confirm messages. Fast L1 synchronization allows PTT UEs to perform uplink and downlink L1 synchronization concurrently, reduces the PTT call setup delay for PTT UEs in CELL_PCH/URA_PCH state at the start of the call. Scheduling: PTT services are carried on the HSPA, NodeB schedules PTT as VoIP in the downlink, and NodeB applies non-scheduling policy for PTT in the uplink. Enhanced CELL-PCH: With E-PCH function, PCCH can be mapped to HS-DSCH when UE in URA_PCH state, PCCH/DCCH/DTCH can be mapped to HS-DSCH when UE is in CELL_PCH state, UE can directly receive data on HS-DSCH without any state transfer, so the data transmission delay will be reduced. With these technologies, the PTT call setup time can be reduced to about 1.1-1.3s.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features
   

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010688 Downlink Enhanced CELL_FACH WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA

Dependency on other NEs The UE, CN should support the PTT solution.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2
2.1 HSUPA Prime Service
2.1.1 WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

MBB

Summary
This feature package enables the system to process HSUPA services, improving the uplink rate and system throughput. This feature package provides basic functions of HSUPA to meet the basic requirements for operation of HSUPA services.

Benefits
HSUPA improves the performance of UMTS network by providing higher rate and higher throughput for the uplink and higher capacity for the system.

Description
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is an important feature introduced in 3GPP Release 6. A new uplink transport channel, E-DCH, is introduced. Like what is done for HSDPA, HSUPA improves the system capacity and throughout for uplink by maximizing power utilization and adjusting the uplink bit rate according to channel quality. The key functions used in HSUPA for maximizing resource utilization include 2 ms/10 ms TTI, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ), and fast scheduling in the NodeB. The basic principle behind HARQ for HSUPA is the same as that for HSDPA. After each transmitted TTI, the NodeB informs the transmitting UE of whether the uplink data was received correctly or not. The UE retransmits the packet if incorrect reception occurs. HSUPA HARQ either uses chase combing where each retransmission is the exact copy of the initial data or incremental redundancy where the retransmission only contains the redundancy bits. The fast scheduling algorithm in the NodeB enables the system to make the scheduling decision with the minimum latency as close to the radio interface as possible. Even though the

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

NodeB makes the scheduling decision, it is the UE that decides the transmitted power and the transmit format. In RAN6.0, only 10 ms TTI is supported and the maximum uplink rate is 1.44 Mbit/s (MAC layer) per user. Each cell can support up to 20 HSUPA users.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, HSUPA Introduction Package is enhanced. For details, refer to the enhancement of the features in the package.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The NBBI and NULP board cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE The UE should have HSUPA capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

2.1.2 WRFD-01061201 HSUPA UE Category Support
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables Huawei NodeB to support UEs of category 1 to category 7 defined in 3GPP.

Benefits
This feature supports HSUPA services for seven categories of UE so as to provide high bit rate services for different categories of UEs. The maximum bit rate that can be achieved by the UE depends on the UE specification.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
In order to provide services of multiple bit rates, seven HSUPA UE categories are defined in 3GPP specifications. The maximum number of codes over the E-DCH supported varies with the UE category. That is, different UE categories support different maximum bit rates. For example, in the following table, UE of category 3 supports two SF4 codes and the maximum data rate can be 1.44 Mbit/s. E-DCH Category Max. Capability Combination E-DCH TTI Max. Data Rate (Mbit/s) MAC Layer 10 ms TTI Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF4 + 2 xS F2 2 x SF4 + 2 xS F2 2 x SF4 + 2 x SF2 2 x SF4 + 2 x SF2 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms and 2 ms 2 ms 2 ms 0.71 1.44 1.44 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 MAC Layer 2 ms TTI – 1.40 – 2.89 – 5.74 11.50 11.50 23 0.96 1.92 1.92 3.84 3.84 5.76 11.52 11.52 23.04 Air Interface

RAN10.0 supports SF2 and 2 ms TTI. UEs of category 8 support only quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) when DC-HSUPA is enabled. UEs of category 9 support QPSK and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) when DC-HSUPA is enabled.

Enhancement
RAN6.0 supports only SF4 and TTI of only 10 ms. Therefore, UEs of categories 2, 4, 5, and 6 can support TTI of only 10 ms in RAN6.0. RAN10.0 supports SF2 and 2 ms TTI of UEs of categories 1 to 6. RAN12.0 supports UEs of categories 1 to 7. RAN14.0 supports UEs of categories 1 to 9.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA introduction package

2.1.3 WRFD-01061209 HSUPA HARQ and Fast UL Scheduling in NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
The operator can set different QoS parameters such as user priority, scheduling weight, and GBR. Based on the QoS parameters, this feature can ensure that different users enjoy differentiated QoS experience and higher cell throughput.

Benefits
HARQ scheme improves the data transmission efficiency and reduces the delay, thereby enhancing the users service perception. The MAC-e scheduling algorithm improves the UL throughput of the UE and increases the CE resource utilization in view of the limitations on the CE resources. The combination of the MAC-e scheduling and flow control algorithms further increases the bandwidth efficiency for each UE.

Description
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is an important feature introduced in 3GPP Release 6. HSUPA improves the system capacity and throughput for the uplink by maximizing power utilization and adjusting the uplink bit rate according to the channel quality.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The key functions used in HSUPA for maximizing resource utilization include 2 ms/10 ms TTI, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ), and fast scheduling in the NodeB. The basic principle of HSUPA HARQ is the same as that of HSDPA HARQ. In each TTI, the NodeB informs the transmitting UE of whether the uplink data is received correctly or not. The UE retransmits the packet if the uplink data is not correctly received. HSUPA HARQ either uses chase combining where each retransmission is the exact copy of the initial data or uses incremental redundancy where the retransmission contains the additional redundant information for correct decoding. The fast scheduling algorithm in the NodeB enables the system to make the scheduling decision with the minimum latency as close to the radio interface as possible. Even though the NodeB makes the scheduling decision, the UE shall decide the transmit power and the transmit format. RAN6.0 supports only 10 ms TTI and the maximum uplink rate of 1.44 Mbit/s per user (at the MAC layer). Each cell supports up to 20 HSUPA users. RAN10.0 supports 2 ms TTI and the maximum uplink rate of 5.74 Mbit/s per user (at the MAC layer). Each cell supports up to 60 HSUPA users. The users can also be categorized into three levels: gold, silver, and copper, which are mapped from the ALLOCATION / RETENTION PRIORITY. The mapping is configurable. Moreover, the DL/UL GBR is also a user-defined parameter for each priority level and is used for HSUPA scheduler algorithm. This feature also improves the mechanism for ensuring the QoS of HSUPA.

Enhancement
RAN10.0 supports 2 ms TTI. In RAN10.0, the MAC-e scheduling algorithm considers the limitation on CE resources during scheduling. In RAN11.0, the MAC-e scheduling algorithm is optimized by combining the flow control algorithm. Flow control determines each UE's primary rate and authorization indication according to the buffer status of the UE and the congestion indication from the RNC. The MAC-e scheduling algorithm performs scheduling based on the primary rate and authorization indication.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package.

2.1.4 WRFD-01061202 HSUPA Admission Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables HSUPA and R99 services to simultaneously access the network by using the remaining uplink cell load and other resources, improving the utilization of system resources and ensuring QoS.

Benefits
This feature enables HSUPA services to properly utilize system resources and enables HSUPA and R99 services to exist in the same cell. The system resources such as the Iub transport resources, cell load resources, and user number resources can be reserved to provide high bit rate services for users.

Description
HSUPA service admission control enables HSUPA services to access the network with other R99 services by using the remaining uplink cell load as well as other resources. It can fully utilize the system resources. In the HSUPA admission control procedure, the HSUPA users per NodeB and per cell are determined by the configuration on the RNC side. Besides the limitation of total HSUPA user number for best effort and streaming services, the sum of uplink cell radio load resources for both DCH and E-DCH should also be considered. The following two algorithms are available for uplink cell radio load:

Algorithm 1: uplink cell radio load admission decision based on Equivalent Number of Users (ENU) Based on the current equivalent number of users (including existing R99 and HSUPA users) and the access request, the RNC decides whether the equivalent number of users exceeds the threshold or not and whether to admit a new call. GBR is used to calculate the ENU of HSUPA services.

Algorithm 2: uplink cell radio load admission decision based on Provided Bit Rate (PBR) and power The RNC performs a check to ensure that the aggregated traffic at the provided bit rate exceeds the sum of all GBRs for existing traffic multiplied by a configurable threshold. If the condition of PBR is not fulfilled, RNC further performs a check of the power resource on the basis of Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) and Received Scheduled E-DCH Power Share (RSEPS) measurement.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Both Iub resources and NodeB credit resources should be checked during the admission control to enable the HSUPA services and other R99 services to be admitted under a certain guaranteed QoS. During the admission control, the RNC decides whether the service is mapped to E-DCH or not by setting service rate thresholds. The thresholds include a UL streaming service HSUPA threshold and a UL BE service HSUPA threshold. Only when the requested bit rate of the incoming call is higher than the threshold can the call be mapped on HSUPA. Queuing and pre-emption are considered for HSUPA if admission control fails due to limitation of user number or equivalent user number.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, Received Scheduled E-DCH Power Share (RSEPS) measurement is supported, and algorithm 2 is available.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.5 WRFD-01061203 HSUPA Power Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With the introduction of new physical channels, this feature improves the power efficiency of the system, reduce UL and DL interference, and increase the system capacity.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
This feature enables the system to provide reliable quality for HSUPA-related channels. It increases system capacity and reduces uplink interference and downlink power output.

Description
When HSUPA service is introduced, the E-DCH transport channel is used. Five new physical channels, namely, E-DPDCH, E-DPCCH, E-HICH, E-RGCH and E-AGCH are used. E-DPDCH is used to carry the E-DCH transport channel, and E-DPCCH is used to transmit control information related to the E-DCH. An E-DPCCH power offset related to the DPCCH is used to perform the power control on E-DPCCH. The power of DPCCH is adjusted by inner loop power control, and the E-DPCCH power is also controlled by the inner loop power control. The power offset can be set at the RNC. The scheme of inner loop power control is introduced in WRFD-020504. For the E-DPDCH, another power offset related to DPCCH is used and the same power control method as that of the E-DPCCH is used. The power offset is also configurable at the RNC. For the E-HICH and E-RGCH, there are two methods to control the transmit power: constant transmit power and DPCH-based dynamic power control. When a constant transmit power is used, the transmit power of E-RGCH and E-HICH is given by a power offset related to the transmit power on the P-CPICH. When DPCH-based dynamic power control is used, three different power offsets related to the DPCCH are used. For the E-AGCH, the methods of constant transmit power and DPCH-based dynamic power control can also be used. For the E-DCH, the initial power is controlled by open loop power control. On the uplink, outer loop power control for the E-DCH is also used to control link quality. E-DCH SIR target is adjusted by the E-DCH OLPC scheme, which is the same as that of the DCH. The DCH OLPC scheme is introduced in WRFD-020503. In addition, the reference E-TFCI power offset and HARQ power offset can also be adjusted by the E-DCH OLPC scheme through a reconfiguration procedure.

Enhancement
In RAN 6.0, the E-DCH OLPC algorithm is performed based on NHR and PROB. NHR is defined as the number of HARQ retransmissions, and PROB is defined as the probability of receiving packets whose retransmission times are more than the NHR target. In RAN10.0, the E-DCH OLPC algorithm based on residual BLER instead of PROB is provided. It is applicable to zero retransmission and delay-sensitive services. In RAN10.0, the E-DCH supports dynamic power control based on CQI and HS-SCCH. In addition, the E-DCH can also use the constant transmit power and DPCH-based dynamic power control in RAN6.0.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.6 WRFD-01061204 HSUPA Mobility Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is related to HSUPA mobility management. This feature can ensure that HSUPA services are continuous.

Benefits
This feature reduces user data interruption and improves perceived data transfer quality when UE moves with HSUPA services. It also provides a method to ensure the service continuity between R99 cells and HSUPA cells.

Description
HSUPA mobility management function enables the handover for an HSUPA user to an R99 cell or another HSUPA cell when HSUPA user is moving. The feature also enables the HSUPA user to change a cell with less chance of service interruption. The E-DCH can perform soft/softer handover on the uplink while the HS-DSCH cannot. Soft handover of the E-DCH is the HSUPA user mobility solution. The handover of the E-DCH and DCH are very similar. Both are based on the measurement report of the UE and are controlled by the network. If the downlink channel is DCH, soft handover is also used on the downlink as stipulated in Release 99. If the UE has both HSDPA and HSUPA, the HS-DSCH cell change procedure is used for the downlink. As the uplink and downlink are independent, the measurement and the handover decision are made separately.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Compared with DCH, the maximum E-DCH active set size is 4, but the maximum DCH active set size is 6. Therefore, the Active Set (AS) of E-DCH is independent of the AS of DCH. UL channel type selection is determined by whether the best cell in DCH AS can support HSUPA or not. For intra-frequency cells, soft/softer handover occurs when the HSUPA connection is moved from one HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell. The target HSUPA cell could be added into Active Set triggered by 1a, 1c, and 1d event report, or removed from Active Set trigged by 1b event report. The active set of E-DCH is independent of the AS of DCH. 1J event report is supported. A non-active E-DCH but active DCH primary CPICH becomes better than an active E-DCH primary CPICH. This non-active E-DCH cell is added into the AS of E-DCH. For inter-frequency neighboring cells, inter-frequency hard handover between HSUPA cells is triggered. The service is changed to E-DCH of target cell. The hard handover depends on the UE measurement.

Handover from an HSUPA Cell to an R99 Cell When the UE is moving from an HSUPA cell to an R99 cell (intra-frequency) and 1a event is triggered, the HSUPA connection between UE and HSUPA cell is not changed unless this R99 cell becomes the best cell. Then, this R99 cell is added into the active set of DCH because the active set of E-DCH is independent of the active set of DCH. If the neighboring cell of HSUPA cell is an inter-frequency cell and does not support HSUPA, hard handover, together with a channel switch from E-DCH to DCH, is performed. The HSUPA handover decision is based on the measurement report of the pilot channels of neighboring cells.

Handover from an R99 Cell to an HSUPA Cell When an HSUPA-capable UE accesses an R99 cell, only the DCH channel is used to carry the services. When the UE moves from an R99 cell to an HSUPA cell: If the R99 cell and the HSDPA cell are intra-frequency cells, this HSUPA cell is added to the AS of E-DCH since the active set of E-DCH is independent of the AS of DCH. If the R99 cell and the HSDPA cell are inter-frequency cells, inter-frequency hard handover is triggered when the quality of the signals of HSUPA cell becomes better. The UE changes from the R99 cell to the HSUPA cell and the PS services are switched from the DCH to the E-DCH.

Handover from an HSUPA Cell to a 2G Cell The handover from an HSUPA cell to a 2G cell is triggered by normal inter-RAT handover. See features of inter-RAT handover for detailed information.

Inter-RNC Handover for HSUPA For cell change between RNCs, inter-RNC soft handover over Iur for HSUPA is available. Compressed mode measurement for HSUPA Compressed mode measurement is available for E-DCH with TTI of 10 ms or 2ms in the case of inter-frequency and inter-RAT handover.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the AS of E-DCH is independent of the AS of DCH and 1J event report is supported. The 2ms TTI of the E-DCH can be measured in compressed mode.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.7 WRFD-01061208 HSUPA DCCC
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
HSUPA DCCC can dynamically adjust the minimum SF code of HSUPA based on the user throughput and flexibly switch the UE state based on the user traffic, improving the utilization of CE resources and system efficiency.

Benefits
This feature improves the utilization of CE resources and make it possible for the UE to enjoy the high-speed service. When the UE is in inactive state, this feature enables the UE to be handed over to the CELL_FACH to save system resources.

Description
HSUPA DCCC is comprised of rate re-allocation and UE state transition functions:

Rate re-allocation

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Rate re-allocation of HSUPA DCCC is based on traffic volume. According to traffic volume measurement report received from the RNC, rate re-allocation increases or decreases the uplink data rate for the best effort (BE) services (that is, interactive and background services) to a proper value to improve the CE resource utilization.

UE state transition With the introduction of HSUPA, a new RRC state of CELL_DCH (E-DCH) is provided, which means that the UE is in the CELL_DCH state with services mapping on the E-DCH channel.

Channel Switching Between CELL_DCH (E-DCH) and CELL_FACH If the E-DCH is carrying BE service or streaming service and there is no data to be sent for a long time, the transition from CELL_DCH (E-DCH) to CELL_FACH is triggered. Actually, this feature is supported in the same way as the state transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH. The switch from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH (E-DCH) is triggered by a request for higher bit rates on uplink. Channel Switching Between CELL_DCH (E-DCH) and CELL_DCH The channel switching between e-DCH and DCH is mainly triggered by mobility management. The transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_DCH (E-DCH) can be triggered by periodical retries and the traffic volume. The mobility trigger is described in WRFD-01061204 HSUPA mobility management feature. Traffic volume measurement report indicates that a higher bit service needs to be transferred. The UE in CELL_FACH is transferred to CELL_DCH (E-DCH) if it is in a HSUPA capable cell and the UE has HSUPA capabilities. This feature enables the UE to be served with high speed service. If a service of the HSUPA-capable UE is set up on the DCH due to some reasons, for example, admission to E-DCH fails, the periodical retry mechanism takes action, allowing the UE state to be transferred to CELL_DCH (E-DCH). The retry time is configurable.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

Professinal Serice
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

2.1.8 WRFD-01061207 HSUPA Transport Resource Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature covers the mapping and allocation of differentiated transmission resources for different HSUPA users and the admission control and congestion control of transmission resources. These algorithms implement QoS classification and differentiation in end-to-end, seamless mapping. This feature can greatly improve the utilization of Iub resources and ensure QoS and differentiation.

Benefits
Differentiated service is implemented by different traffic being carried on different paths, and optimizes the QoS and network performance. This feature improves transport resource usage efficiency and saves OPEX on Iub transmission.

Description
With HSUPA feature introduced, the throughput over Iub interface may be increased and varied greatly. This feature is used to optimize the usage of Iub transport resources for the HSUPA services. The following features are concerned.
 

Differentiated services mapping Transport resource load control

I. Differentiated services mapping The PS streaming and best effort services can be set up on HSUPA. Different services have different QoS requirements, and the Iub transport will be IP and/or ATM. Therefore, the traffic categories such as ATMHURT, ATMHUNRT, IPHURT, and IPHUNRT are added accordingly. Traffic Categories ATMHURT ATMHUNRT Traffic Type HSUPA streaming services HSUPA interactive services and HSUPA background services

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

IPHURT IPHUNRT

HSUPA streaming services HSUPA interactive services and HSDPA background services

Moreover, differentiated transmission must be applied according to the QoS requirements of services. The following table describes the mapping relationship. AAL2 Path Type ATMHURT, ATMHUNRT HSPA HSPA Service Type of ATM Traffic CBR, RTVBR NRTVBR, UBR

The mapping between traffic categories and path types is configurable. The following table provides an example on an ATM-based network. Traffic Category HSUPA streaming HSUPA interactive HSUPA background Primary Path Type ATMHURT ATMHUNRT ATMHUNRT Secondary Path Type None None None

The secondary path type configuration can be used as mutual backup of transmission resources especially in ATM and IP hybrid transmission solutions, that is, when IP transmission fails, the service can be mapped to the secondary ATM path to keep the services available, or vice verse. The following table describes such configurations. Traffic Category HSUPA streaming HSUPA interactive HSUPA background Primary Path Type ATMHURT ATMHUNRT ATMHUNRT Secondary Path Type IPHURT IPHURT IPHURT

By using this feature, different services are carried on corresponding paths, and the differentiated service is implemented. II. Transmission resource load control Transmission resource load control refers to admission control and congestion control. For the admission control, Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) is considered for HSUPA service admission, and it belongs to the optional feature WRFD-01061202 HSUPA Admission Control.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

For the congestion control, the load reshuffling strategy is applied in scenarios such as inter-RAT handover. This feature belongs to the optional feature WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load.

Enhancement
In RAN6.1, each traffic class mapped onto transmission resource can be configured separately.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package Optional feature WRFD-050402 IP Transmission (Iub interface), WRFD-050403 Hybrid IP Transmission, and WRFD-050404 ATM/IP Dual Stack NodeB should be required when the transmission resource management feature is applied for IP transmission resources in those scenarios.

2.1.9 WRFD-01061206 Interactive and Background Traffic Class on HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables interactive and background services to be mapped to the E-DCH to obtain a higher service rate and enhance user experience.

Benefits
This feature enables the system to support a higher speed RAB of the PS interactive and background services.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
This feature enables the best effort (interactive and background) services to be mapped onto the E-DCH if a UE is HSUPA capable. The system sets a switch to enable or disable the feature that BE traffic is mapped on to E-DCH. A service rate threshold is also set so that the requested service can be mapped on E-DCH only when the requested service bit rate is higher than the threshold. Otherwise, the requested service is mapped onto the DCH. The service rate threshold is configurable by the operator. When the best effort service is carried on the E-DCH, the maximum uplink bit rate is 5.74 Mbit/s (MAC layer). When a UE has BE service on E-DCH, it can use another DCH CS RAB or another DCH PS RAB simultaneously. If the UE capability is allowed, the UE can be served by two HSUPA RABs. GBR of HSUPA BE traffic is set and used to estimate whether the maximum available resource for HSUPA can satisfy the requirements of streaming services and BE services in admission control. The GBR of HSUPA BE traffic is configurable by operator. The HSUPA schedule algorithm also considers the configured GBR information of HSUPA BE traffic.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.10 WRFD-01061210 HSUPA 1.44Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
This feature enables the HSUPA rate per user to reach a maximum of 1.44 Mbit/s.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher peak bit rate and enhances user experience.

Description
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 6 that provides high speed service for uplink. With this feature, the UE with interactive or background services on the E-DCH can reach the peak bit rate of 1.44 Mbit/s (MAC Layer). Therefore, user experience is greatly enhanced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 3 (or later). Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN supports an uplink rate of at least 1.44 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.11 WRFD-01061211 20 HSUPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSUPA cell to simultaneously support 20 HSUPA users. If the number of HSUPA users exceeds 20, the DCH is attempted for service provisioning.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
This feature provides HSUPA services at a higher peak bit rate for up to 20 users per cell.

Description
Up to 20 HSUPA users can be admitted to a HSUPA cell.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.12 WRFD-01061212 HSUPA Iub Flow Control in Case of Iub Congestion
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature enables the monitoring of Iub transmission resources to dynamically adjust the uplink Uu throughput, greatly improving the resource utilization.

Benefits
This feature improves the transport resource usage efficiency greatly and reduce the throughput fluctuation in the case of the Iub congestion.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
The UL Uu throughput is controlled by the scheduler according to the UL load resource and the Iub bandwidth resource simultaneously. The schedule algorithm estimates the influence on the load resource and the Iub resource of the change of the serving grant (SG) and decides whether to assign the absolute grant (AG) or relative grant (RG) to UEs. The flow control algorithm maintains the Iub available bandwidth resource on the following principles: 1. The Iub buffer occupancy status:
 

If the Iub buffer occupancy ratio increases, the available bandwidth may be reduced by a step. If the Iub buffer occupancy ratio decreases, the available bandwidth may be increased by a step.

2. The transmission network congestion status (the NodeB detects it according to the transmission network layer (TNL)) indicator is indicated by the RNC:
 

If the transmission network is congested, the available bandwidth may be reduced by a step. If the transmission network is not-congested, the available bandwidth may be increased by a step.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

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2.1.13 WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
HSUPA Phase2 is an enhanced HSUPA feature that supports 2ms transmission time interval (TTI). Compared with 10ms TTI provided in the HSUPA introduction package, this feature can provide a higher uplink rate and lower delay. This feature provides a series of enhanced HSUPA functions to meet the commercial requirements of HSUPA services.

Benefits
HSUPA improves the performance of UMTS network by providing higher rate and higher throughput for the uplink and higher capacity for the system.

Description
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is an important feature introduced in 3GPP Release 6. In RAN6.0, only 10 ms TTI is supported and the maximum uplink rate is1.44 Mbit/s (MAC layer) /1.92 Mbit/s (physical layer) per user. Each cell supports up to 20 HSUPA users. In RAN10.0, the 2 ms TTI is supported, the maximum uplink rate is 5.74 Mbit/s (MAC layer)/5.76 Mbit/s (physical layer).

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EDLP, or EDLPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package The software dependency is described in each sub functions.

2.1.14 WRFD-01061401 HSUPA E-AGCH Power Control (Based on CQI or HS-SCCH)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the UE to report the CQI and HS-SCCH as a reference, effectively reducing the power consumption of the E-AGCH.

Benefits
E-AGCH power control based on CQI or HS-SCCH makes it more efficient to adjust the power of E-AGCH under the condition that HSDPA co-exists with HSUPA. By using E-AGCH power control based on CQI or HS-SCCH, the following advantages are introduced:
 

Less power consumption of E-AGCH Flexible power control for E-AGCH

Description
In 3GPP specifications, the serving cell of HSUPA should be the same with that of HSDPA. Meanwhile, E-AGCH belongs to the serving cell of HSUPA, so the power control of EAGCH can take advantage of the information of HSDPA, such as CQI and HS-SCCH, which can reflect the quality of transmission in the serving cell. The power control of E-AGCH is enhanced in HSUPA phase II when HSUPA coexists with HSDPA. At this time, CQI or HS-SCCH information is used to adjust the power offset of E-AGCH. Consequently, it can spare more power for the downlink transmission.
 

CQI reflects the channel quality of the serving cell. When the CQI information is available, it can be used to adjust the power offset of E-AGCH. The demodulation error probability of HS-SCCH can be adjusted by modification of the transmission power of HS-SCCH. Since the demodulation requirements for E- AGCH are similar to those for HS-SCCH, power offset of E-AGCH can be modified based on that of HS-SCCH.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.15 WRFD-01061402 Enhanced Fast UL Scheduling
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables comprehensive considerations of system resources and QoS parameters preset for different users to ensure accurate differentiated user experience and improve cell throughput.

Benefits
Enhanced UL scheduling makes it more efficient to accommodate different scenarios, such as hub NodeB, IP convergence, and RAN sharing. This feature enables more efficient usage of uplink resource by maximizing the uplink throughput of the cell under the condition that the QoS requirements of all UEs are met. This feature provides better fairness among users. If there are users with the same priority, the uplink resources allocated to them are similar. This feature provides flexible priorities among users. If a UE has a higher priority, it can obtain more uplink resources.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
In HSUPA phase II, the 2 ms TTI is supported. The UL scheduling is enhanced based on the shorter TTI. The Proportional Fair (PF) scheduling algorithm is enhanced in HSUPA phase II. PF is based on uplink load factor and takes advantage of downlink control channels (E-AGCH/E-RGCH) to influence the E-TFCI that the UE may use. Consequently, it can tightly control the uplink interference. When the scheduling period arrives, the PF scheduling algorithm performs the following operations:
   

Queue the HSUPA users based on the scheduling priority indicator, GBR, and data rate. Consider the CE resources and Iub transport resources. Assign absolute grant according to the Scheduling Information (SI) sent by the UE, which can control the maximum rate the UE may use. Assign relative grant according to the happy bit on the E-DPCCH.

Shorter TTI means more efficient schedule process. High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 6 that provides high speed service for the uplink. In order to provide multiple bit rate services, six UE categories are defined in 3GPP. Different UE categories support different maximum codes for E-DCH, which means that different maximum bit rates can be achieved.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management

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2.1.16 WRFD-01061403 HSUPA 2ms TTI
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
The 2ms TTI of HSUPA enables a single user to obtain a higher UL throughput and shorter delay.

Benefits
By using a shorter TTI on the Uu interface, HSUPA has the following advantages:
  

Faster data scheduling Higher UL peak data rate Lower latency

Description
There are two Transmission Time Intervals (TTIs) defined in the 3GPP protocol for HSUPA. 10 ms TTI is mandatory for all HSUPA capable UEs while 2 ms TTI is optional. Switching between the two TTIs is performed by UTRAN through L3 signaling. In RAN10.0, 2 ms TTI is supported. Therefore, all UEs of the six categories can be supported. E-DCH Category Max. Capability Combination E-DCH TTI Max. Data Rate (Mbit/s) MAC Layer 10 ms TTI Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF4 + 2 x SF2 2 x SF4 + 2 x SF2 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms and 2 ms 0.71 1.45 1.45 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 MAC Layer 2 ms TTI – 1.40 – 2.89 – 5.74 11.498 0.96 1.92 1.92 3.84 3.84 5.76 11.52 Air Interface

Compressed mode measurement is available for E-DCH 2 ms in the case of inter-frequency and inter-RAT handover.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with EBBI, EBOI, EDLP, or EDLPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSUPA Category 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.17 WRFD-01061404 HSUPA 2ms/10ms TTI Handover
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
As 2 ms TTI capable cells and 10 ms TTI capable cells coexist in the network and different TTIs are required for different throughputs, the handover between 2 ms TTI and 10 ms TTI is necessary. This feature can ensure that HSUPA users smoothly move between different cells and resources are allocated for throughput requirements.

Benefits
This feature supports mobility between 2 ms TTI capable cell and non-2 ms-scheduling capable cell. This feature maximizes the possibility for 2 ms TTI capable UE to get the best performance by using 2 ms scheduling feature.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
Both 10 ms and 2 ms TTI are defined in the 3GPP protocol for HSUPA. In the HSUPA network, when UE moves between cells that support HSUPA 2 ms TTI and those does not, the switching schedule between 10 ms and 2 ms TTIs is needed. Such switching generally occurs in the handover scenario as described below.

When the soft handover happens to an UE using HSUPA 2 ms TTI and the target cell does not support 2 ms TTI, the RNC first reconfigures the UE to 10 ms TTI and then performs the handover procedure. When the hard handover happens to an UE using HSUPA 2 ms TTI and the target cell does not support 2 ms TTI, the RNC performs the handover and reconfigures the UE to 10 ms TTI at the same time. When all the cells in active set using HSUPA 10 ms TTI support 2 ms TTI, a periodical retry to reconfigure to 2 ms TTI is implemented to make it possible to get better performance. On the other hand, a configurable bit rate threshold is triggered by such retry procedure, that is, when the RAB maximum bit rate assigned is lower than the threshold, it is unnecessary to use 2 ms TTI.

The RNC gets the 2 ms TTI capability from the audit message sent by the NodeB. For the neighboring cells that are not controlled by the RNC, such capability can be configured by the operator.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with EBBI, EBOI, EULP, or EULPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2

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2.1.18 WRFD-01061405 HSUPA 5.74Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the HSUPA rate per user at MAC layer to reach a maximum of 5.74 Mbit/s. The rate is a peak rate defined in 3GPP specifications.

Benefits
This feature greatly enhances user experience.

Description
Based on the 2 ms TTI and enhanced fast UL schedule, with 2 SF4 and 2 SF2 codes combination, the UE can reach the peak rate of 5.74 Mbit/s at MAC layer.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULP, EBBI, EBOI, or EULPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 6, 7, 8, or 9. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN supports an uplink rate of at least 5.74 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.1.19 WRFD-010632 Streaming Traffic Class on HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature enables the streaming service to be mapped onto the E-DCH, improving the utilization of cell resources.

Benefits
This feature enables the system to support higher speed RAB of the PS streaming traffic.

Description
This feature enables the streaming service to be mapped onto the E-DCH if a UE is HSUPA capable. The system sets a switch to enable or disable the feature by which the streaming traffic can be mapped onto the E-DCH. And a service rate threshold is also need to be set so that only when the requested service bit rate is higher than the threshold, the request service can be mapped onto the E-DCH. Otherwise, the requested service will be mapped onto the DCH. The service rate threshold can be set by the operators too. When the streaming service is carried on the E-DCH, the maximum uplink bit rate can reach up to 384 kbit/s. The UE with the streaming service on the E-DCH can use another CS RAB or another PS RAB simultaneously. One HSUPA BE RAB and one HSUPA streaming RAB can be served on one UE simultaneously if the capability of the UE is allowed. The GBR of the streaming traffic is used to estimate whether the maximum available resource for the HSUPA can satisfy the requirement of the streaming service in the admission control. The HSUPA schedule algorithm also considers the GBR information of the streaming traffic so that in all HSUPA streaming services that the bit rate is not less than the GBR can be guaranteed.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.20 WRFD-010635 HSUPA over Iur
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature enables HSUPA services to be carried on the Iur interface and provides continuous HSUPA services for UEs moving between RNCs.

Benefits
The HSUPA over the Iur provides continuous HSUPA services for mobile users moving between the RNCs. It enlarges the range of the HSUPA services to the RNCs which have the Iur connections with a certain RNC.

Description
The HSUPA over the Iur is the scenario that the DRNC cell is in the HSUPA E-DCH active state. The feature comprises the HSUPA service management over the Iur, the HSUPA mobility management over the Iur, and so on. The HSUPA capability of the DRNC cell is configurable.

HSUPA service management over Iur The HSUPA service management over the Iur includes the HSUPA service setup, modification, release, and the dynamic channel configuration control (DCCC). When the UE is in CELL_DCH state and the DRNC cell is in the E-DCH active state or the UE is in CELL_FACH state and the camps in the DRNC cell, the HSUPA service can be set up, modified and released over the Iur. The HSUPA DCCC over the Iur is similar to the WRFD-01061208 HSUPA DCCC and the difference is that some of the cells are in the DRNC.

HSUPA mobility management over Iur The HSUPA mobility management over the Iur includes the soft handover, hard handover, cell update (because of radio link failure), and serving cell change.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The process is similar to the corresponding mobility management described in the WRFD-01061204 HSUPA Mobility Management and the difference is that the cells change between the RNCs.

HSUPA static relocation If the HSUPA service is over the Iur and the radio links are provided only by the target RNC, the static relocation can be triggered by the Iur congestion.

HSUPA service pre-emption in DRNC When the new HSUPA service is not admitted to access the network, the CRNC may trigger the pre-emption of other HSUPA services with lower priorities. If the CRNC is the DRNC, it will send the radio link pre-emption required indication to the SRNC and the SRNC will release the HSUPA services indicated in the radio link pre-emption required indication. The other functions of this feature are the HSUPA E-DCH power offset adjustment over the Iur, and so on. The process is similar to that on the Iub interface.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The neighboring RNC must support HSUPA over Iur too. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.1.21 WRFD-010640 Uplink Macro Diversity Intelligent Receiving
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
Based on the resource occupation, this feature enables the dynamic selection of different macro diversity combination modes for high-speed non-real-time services (UL) and low-speed real-time services (SRB and VoIP). This feature can save Iub/Iur transmission resources and CE resources, affect the pre-emption policy, and improve the investment return.

Benefits
This feature can greatly save CE resources and transmission resources, improve the resource utilization, enhance the network performance, and reduce the TCO.

Description
The WCDMA system supports soft handover to control the power of the UE in the overlapped handover area and provides the MDC gain. The uplink receiving and processing resources and transmission resources, however, are consumed. With the introduction of HSPA+ in 3GPP R7, resources are further consumed. This feature can be used to preempt the resources on non-serving links for serving links to greatly improve the resource utilization and reduce CAPEX and OPEX. If some users in the NodeB require a higher rate, and Iub transmission resources or CE demodulation resources are insufficient, the NodeB can dynamically preempt the Iub transmission resources or CE demodulation resources occupied by non-serving links and then allocate them to the serving links requiring a higher rate. This feature can increase the total effective throughput and improve the utilization of Iub transmission resources or CE demodulation resources. To ensure normal uplink signaling transmission and power control, the NodeB dynamically preempts the CE demodulation resources and Iub transmission resources on only the data channels instead of those required by the uplink control channels on non-serving links.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-01061212 HSUPA Iub Flow Control in Case of Iub Congestion WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management

2.2 HSUPA Performance Improvement
2.2.1 WRFD-010690 TTI Switch for BE Services Based on Coverage
Availability
This feature is available since RAN12.0.

Summary
With this feature, the transmit power and the actual throughput of the HSUPA-based BE services are monitored. When the transmit power is insufficient, the Transmission Time Interval (TTI) is switched from 2 ms to 10 ms to reduce the requirements on transmit power. This ensures continuous network coverage.

Benefits
Generally, the TTI of the HSUPA-based BE services that require high transmission rate is set to 2 ms to ensure a high transmission rate in areas with good coverage; however, call drops are likely to occur at the edge of the cell. With this feature, the call drop rate of these services is greatly reduced in the areas with weak coverage.

Description
When the TTI is set to 2ms, the peak rate supported by a UE is higher than that when the TTI is set to 10 ms. Therefore, the TTI of the HSUPA-based BE services that require high transmission rate is generally set to 2 ms. When the UE is in an area with weak coverage, the transmit power of the HSUPA-based BE service with a 2 ms TTI is likely to be insufficient. This will increase the call drop rate. The reason for this is analyzed as follows: Data is sent in the RLC PDU form. If the size of one RLC PDU is 336 bits, for example, then the minimum transmission rates in the case of 10 ms and 2 ms TTIs are 32 kbit/s and 168 kbit/s respectively. Obviously, the minimum transmission rate in the case of a 2 ms TTI is greater than that in the case of a 10 ms TTI. Accordingly, the minimum transmit power required in the case of a 2 ms TTI is greater than that in the case of a 10 ms TTI. As a result, when the TTI is set to 2 ms, call drop is likely to occur due to insufficient transmit power in the area with weak coverage. In this case, the TTI should be switched to 10 ms to reduce the required transmission power, ensuring the network coverage. After this feature is enabled, the RNC monitors the uplink transmit power and the transmission rate of the HSUPA-based BE services with 2 ms TTI. When the uplink transmit-power is insufficient, the RNC switches the TTI to 10 ms to reduce the required transmit power, avoiding call drops.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support HSUPA 2ms TTI Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.2 WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
With comprehensive considerations of cell uplink power load, CE resources, and limited uplink coverage, this feature enables the adaptive adjustment of the number of target uplink retransmissions to improve the throughput per user and cell uplink capacity.

Benefits

In a limited uplink coverage scenario, a user’s uplink cell edge throughput can be increased, in order to enhance user experience. According to simulation results, single user throughput has been show to increase by 15%-60%. In a scenario where the cell uplink power load is limited, increasing the retransmission number can improve cell throughput and cell uplink capacity. Simulation results have shown an increase of 53% in cell throughput under multi-user scenarios.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
HARQ retransmission number is used as the target value of HSUPA uplink outer loop power control. When UE signal quality is good and uplink transmission power is not limited, a small retransmission can improve single user throughput. However, when capacity is limited and cell uplink power becomes a bottleneck, increasing retransmission number can improve cell throughput. Increasing retransmission number can also boost user cell edge throughput, where UE uplink power is limited. Therefore there’s a need to realize the adaptive adjustment of retransmission number. This feature is only effective in BE traffic. If a user, only has BE traffic (with the exception of SRB) on E-DCH, then dynamic adjustment of the target retransmission number is allowed. Adjusting the users target retransmission number to a relatively smaller value is permitted when the uplink power of all the cells belonging to the serving RLS is smaller than a certain threshold and the UE uplink power is not limited and/or uplink CE’s are limited. When the uplink power of any cell belonging to the serving RLS experiences congestion or UE’s uplink power is limited, then setting the users target retransmission number to a relatively larger value is permitted, as long as the uplink CE resources are sufficient.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP or EULPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

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2.2.3 WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
To improve the efficiency of CE resources, Huawei RAN introduces the dynamic CE resource management feature. Based on the GBR and actual rate, this feature enables the fast adjustment of CE allocation. When CE resources are preempted, this feature enables the proper allocation of CE resources to ensure the pre-emption fairness.

Benefits
The dynamic CE allocation can call back the CE resources in time when the user’s throughput decreases, saving the CE resources.

Description
A channel element (CE) is defined as the baseband resources required in the NodeB to provide capacity for 12.2 k AMR voice, including 3.4 k DCCH. The HSUPA shares the CE resource with the R99 services. The HSUPA aims at improving the uplink in terms of reducing delays, increasing data rates and increasing the capacity, but it requires a large CE consumption. If there is no dynamic CE resource management, the RNC will assign a maximum set of E-DPDCHs for every user when the radio link is set up or reconfigured, which is the maximum data rate that the UE supports. Accordingly the NodeB will allocate the CE resources according to the maximum set of E-DPDCHs, even if the user’s actual traffic is very low. So the utility of the CE resource is inefficient. Huawei adopts the dynamic CE resource management to save the CE resources. Each TTI, NodeB can call back the CE resources if the user’s throughput decreases, allocate the CE resources during the radio link setup or reconfiguration, allocate the CE resources for the AG(Absolute Grant) ‘UP’ users, and preempt the CE resources for the RG(Relative Grant)‘UP’ users. The dynamic CE resource management process is described in the following figure. For example, one user has the maximum bit rate at1.45 Mbit/s, but the actual throughput is always changed. With the dynamic CE resource management, the CE consumption is dynamically changed with the bit rates (blue line), not allocated according to the maximum set of the E-DPDCHs (red line).
Throughput (kbps) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.2.4 WRFD-010692 HSUPA FDE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
HSUPA frequency domain equalization (HSUPA FDE) is performed to equalize the spectrum in the frequency domain on the HSUPA E-DPDCH through the UL receiver of the NodeB to suppress the inter-path interference on the E-DPDCH. Therefore, the SNR on the E-DPDCH and the UL capacity of the HSUPA network are increased. The rate of HSUPA services initiated by UEs of categories 6 and 7 is also increased in the multi-path environment.

Benefits
This feature can suppress UL inter-path interference on HSUPA users and help HSUPA users get higher peak rate. In the case of multi-path, the higher the rate is, the larger the inter-path interference and the harder the rate increasing. HSUPA FDE can suppress the inter-path interference and help the real HSUPA peak rate closer to the theoretic value. HSUPA FDE can increase the real peak rate up to 20%.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
HSUPA is an important feature as defined in 3GPP Release 6 to provide UL high-rate services. Six categories of UEs that support services at several rates are defined in the 3GPP specifications. UE category 7, which supports the 16QAM mode and a UL peak rate of up to 11.5 Mbit/s in theory, is introduced in 3GPP Release 7. Multi-path effect is a major feature of the UMTS. The traditional RAKE receiver combines all searched paths through multi-path effect to obtain multi-path combination gain. It also increases the system throughput by improving the SNR of UL services. The inter-path interference, however, is lower than the gain caused by multi-path combination because the inter-path interference is insignificant when the UE moves at a low speed. Therefore, the traditional RAKE receiver can be used to obtain the gain. In contrast, when the UE moves at a high speed, the inter-path interference is significant, and inter-path interference increases with the UL service rate. In a specified channel environment, the peak rate of a user is limited by the inter-path interference and cannot be increased. HSUPA FDE is performed to equalize the spectrum in the frequency domain on the HSUPA E-DPDCH through the UL receiver of the NodeB. After the FDE, the inter-path interference on the E-DPDCH is suppressed, and the SNR on the E-DPDCH is increased. When supporting FDE feature, the NodeB cannot support 4 Rx diversity feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
  

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.5 WRFD-010712 Adaptive Configuration of Traffic Channel Power offset for HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature is applicable to the HSUPA Best Effort (BE) service. When an HSUPA UE is in the small retransmission state, this feature dynamically configures an optimal power offset for the data channel based on the changes in uplink load and throughput. This feature helps maintain the power of such UE on the uplink DPCCH at an optimal level, thereby increasing the capacity of an HSUPA cell with multiple HSUPA UEs.

Benefits
This feature significantly improves the capacity of HSUPA cells in a live network, where the feature WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission is unavailable or UEs cannot enter the large retransmission state due to CE limitation. This feature significantly increases the HSUPA capacity of cells where a large number of HSUPA UEs are processing low-speed uplink services. When there are a large number of UEs processing data services in hot spots in busy hours, this feature improves the HSUPA capacity of the cell by 5% to 20%, without increasing the cell load. This capacity improvement is indicated by the increase in average cell throughput, in the number of UEs that can simultaneously perform data transmission in the uplink, or in the decrease in Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP).

Description
The offset of E-DPDCH power relative to DPCCH power is one of the major factors that determine DPCCH power in the uplink. For an HSUPA UE in the small retransmission state, if the data rate is low, a high offset can be configured for the E-DPDCH. This decreases the power on the DPCCH and reduces the load on the uplink control channel. After the load is reduced, UEs can transmit more data in the uplink, thereby increasing the capacity of HSUPA cells. If the data rate is high, a low offset can be configured for the E-DPDCH. This increases the power on the DPCCH, thereby meeting the power requirements of multipath searching and channel estimation and ensuring the performance of HSUPA services. When the feature WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission is enabled, the offset of the E-DPDCH power relative to the DPCCH power is not adjusted. In such a case, the gain of the HSUPA Adaptive Transmission feature is not affected. Because the feature WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission enables HSUPA UEs to adjust to the large retransmission state, the capacity of the cell will be greatly increased, but with more CE consumption. This feature is independent from the feature WRFD-010641 HSUPA Adaptive Transmission, but these two features can be enabled together. Using these features together further increases the uplink capacity of the cell.

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Enhancement
Before RAN15.0, this feature is only applicable to the HSUPA 10 ms BE service. In RAN15.0, this feature is applicable to both HSUPA 10 ms BE service and HSUPA 2 ms BE service.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.6 WRFD-020136 Anti-Interference Scheduling for HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
Sites in a commercial network experience strong and random external uplink interference. This interference significantly reduces the HSUPA throughput in cells of the site and negatively affects user experience. This feature counteracts this interference, thereby ensuring high HSUPA throughput and improving user experience.

Benefits
This feature ensures high HSUPA throughput in the cells of sites that experience strong uplink interference from external sources. Under optimal conditions, applying this feature can raise the HSUPA throughput in a cell with strong external interference to the level of a cell with no interference.

Description
When a site in a commercial network experiences strong uplink interference from external sources, the Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) of cells of the site will increase significantly. Before the introduction of this feature, the HSUPA scheduling algorithm

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performs scheduling based on only the RTWP of the cell. As the interference reduces the load margin available for use, the HSUPA throughput in cells of the site drops significantly. With this feature, scheduling is performed on HSUPA UEs based on not only the RTWP of the cell but also the traffic volume of the R99 and HSUPA UEs in the cell with strong uplink interference. As long as the traffic volume is lower than the predefined threshold, sufficient resources can be ensured for the R99 and HSUPA UEs even if the RTWP of the cell increases to a very high value. This ensures high HSUPA throughput for the cell. The actual throughput improvement due to this feature depends on the strength of the interference and parameter configuration.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the HBBI, EBBI, HULP, EBOI, EULP, or EULPd board. The downlink services can only be set up on the EBBI, EBOI, or EDLP board. For the BBU3806, the downlink services can only be set up on EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.7 WRFD-020137 Dual-Threshold Scheduling with HSUPA Interference Cancellation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature is applicable to cells enabled with the WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation feature. With this feature, scheduling is based on the RTWP thresholds before

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and after HSUPA UL interference cancellation. This feature also raises the RTWP target value before interference cancellation. This can increase the HSUPA throughput of the cell.

Benefits
This feature further increases the HSUPA throughput of cells enabled with the HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation feature by around 5%-15%.

Description
In a cell enabled with the HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation feature, the RTWP after the interference cancellation is always lower than that before the interference cancellation. This feature dynamically raises the RTWP target value of the cell before interference cancellation while keeping the RTWP after interference cancellation lower than or equal to the RTWP target value of the cell with the feature not enabled. In this manner, the HSUPA throughput of the cell can be increased without compromising coverage or network KPIs such as call completion rate and call drop rate. To minimize the impact on neighboring cells, this feature adopts a predefined upper threshold for the increased RTWP target value before interference cancellation is performed.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E/AE must be configured with EULPd board, and all users of the cell should be established in one EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board in the UL resource pool which support IC feature, and slot 2 or 3 must be configured with at least one WBBPd or WBBPf board. The RRU3801C 20W and the MTFU for the BTS3812E and BTS3812AE do not support this feature. The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE configured with the 8U WRFU support this feature.

 

Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation

Dependency on other NEs None

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.8 WRFD-010634 60 HSUPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSUPA cell to simultaneously support 60 HSUPA users. If the number of HSUPA users exceeds 60, the DCH is attempted for service provisioning.

Benefits
Compared with the HSUPA introduction package, more HSUPA users are available in one cell.

Description
Up to 60 HSUPA users can be admitted to a HSUPA capable cell.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010614 HSUPA phase 2

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2.2.9 WRFD-010210 Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (CCPIC)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
The self interference in the WCDMA system greatly affects its capacity and coverage. This feature can effectively reduce UL interference and improve network performance.

Benefits
It can improve capacity so that the CAPEX is reduced.

Description
The control channels are always on and they are a substantial source of interference especially with lower data rate and lower activity services. CCPIC is a simplified and practical application of MUD technology for base station receivers. It cancels the uplink control channel signal, decreases uplink interference to improve the performance. The DPCCH demodulation is performed first. According to all valid paths’ time delay and fading information of received users, the received DPCCH signal can be reconstructed. All users’ data channels such as DPDCH, E-DPCCH, and E-DPDCH can be demodulated after the received DPCCH signal is subtracted from baseband signal. In the case of the urban macro cell, TU3 channel, and AMR12.2k user with a 50% load, the CCPIC will bring 11% capacity improvement; with a 75% load, the capacity improvement is 18%.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
 

The CCPIC depends on the EBBC board or EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EBBCd or EULPd. The BBU3900 needs to configure WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.10 WRFD-140202 Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (Phase 2)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature improves the efficiency of Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (CCPIC) by using the advanced regeneration cancellation algorithm. In addition, the benefits of CCPIC are shared across baseband boards.

Benefits
This feature significantly increases the uplink system capacity. When the DPCCH uses a large proportion of received total wideband power (RTWP) in a cell, this feature increases system capacity by up to 20%. This gain is possible when the uplink throughput is not high but there are a large number of UEs in the cell.

Description
This feature introduces the advanced regeneration cancellation algorithm, which makes DPCCH regeneration more accurate and improves CCPIC efficiency as a result. In addition, this feature allows the benefits of CCPIC to be shared across baseband boards. When multiple baseband boards form a resource pool, CCPIC gain for UEs carried on one board benefits UEs carried on other boards. Similarly, UEs carried on one board benefit from the CCPIC gain of UEs carried on another board.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None

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Dependency on NodeB hardware

The 3900 series base stations (except the BTS3902E) must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board. To support inter-board IC, the WBBPd or WBBPf board must be configured for the uplink resource group that supports inter-board IC. In addition, at least one WBBPd or WBBPf board must be configured in slot 2 or 3.

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010210 Control Channel Parallel Interference Cancellation (CCPIC)

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.11 WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
HSUPA UL interference cancellation (IC) is performed to offset the interference caused by the UL high rate E-DPDCH data of other users, improving the demodulation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and increasing the UL capacity of the UMTS system.

Benefits
The IC technology significantly decreases the UL interference and improves the UL capacity of the cell. In some scenarios, the gain of the IC technology is significant. For example, if in a cell there are a small number of HSUPA users with high throughput and a large number of HSUPA users with low throughput at the same time, IC technology allows canceling the high interference generated by high rate HSUPA users. If IC technology is not available, the cell might suffer from reduced capacity of low rate users, such as VoIP users, or/and decreased rate of high rate services.

Description
HSUPA is an important feature as defined in 3GPP Release 6 to provide UL high-rate services. Six categories of UEs that support services at several rates are defined in the 3GPP specifications. The maximum number of E-DCH codes varies depending on the UE’s category.

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That is, UEs support different peak rates, even up to 5.74 Mbit/s. UE category 7, which supports the 16QAM mode and a UL peak rate of up to 11.5 Mbit/s in theory, is introduced in 3GPP Release 7. Based on the wideband code division multiple access technology, the UMTS is a self-interfering system. With the increase of the HSUPA rate, the UL interference becomes more and more heavy. The UL interference is a major factor affecting the UL capacity of the UMTS. The IC technology supports different types of HSUPA users, including UEs of categories 1 to 7. The principle of the IC technology is as follows: The UMTS is a self-interfering system. The interference to a user comes mainly from signals of other users and from the background noise in the cell. Without the IC technology, signal demodulation is performed in high interference. Therefore, the capacity of the cell is highly reduced. With the IC technology, the signals over E-DPDCH from IC-enabled users are analyzed and reconstructed. Then, the interference from the reconstructed signals is subtracted from the total interference. As a result, the total interference of the cell is reduced and the system capacity increases. The IC feature of Huawei NodeB has the following benefits: IC can be performed to the HSUPA services at 2 ms TTI and 10 ms TTI simultaneously. The IC feature does not consume extra CE resources. The IC gain can be shared by all the UEs in a cell, including the IC-enabled UEs and IC-disabled UEs. During HSUPA scheduling, the actual load of the cell and the load of the cell after interference cancellation can be managed at the same time. While the stable operation of the system is ensured, the system capacity can be maximized. In addition, Huawei NodeB sets up an IC resource pool, which enables IC result to be shared between boards. The IC resource pool has the following functions: IC result is shared between IC-capable boards. That is, when multiple IC-capable boards exist in a NodeB, these boards can share the signals after interference cancellation. Therefore, each UE finally is demodulated from the signals whose interferences of E-DPDCHs from other users are cancelled, maximizing the system capacity. IC result can be shared by IC-incapable boards. That is, when the IC-capable boards and IC-incapable boards coexist in a NodeB, the IC-capable boards transmit signals after interference cancellation to the IC-incapable boards. Therefore, UEs carried by IC-incapable boards are also demodulated from signals whose interference is reduced rather than original signals. In this way, the demodulation performance of IC-incapable boards is improved and the IC gain maximized.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

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The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board, the downlink service cannot be established on HBBI/HDLP/NDLP, and the IC effect cannot be shared between BB boards. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board and the IC effect can be shared between the BB boards. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board, and only if slot 2 or 3 is configured with at least one WBBPd or WBBPf board, IC effect can be shared between the WBBPd or WBBPf boards.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

2.2.12 WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature enables UL SRBs to be carried over HSUPA. This feature can obtain a lower call delay and save transmission resources.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher signaling rate and reduces the call process delay. Since the SRB is carried on the HSUPA, the transmission resource can be saved, compared with that is carried on the DCH.

Description
The signaling over the SRB is delay sensitive and irregular. Compared with the DCH, it is more appropriate to set up the SRB over the HSUPA. The SRB over the HSUPA can be applied during the RRC connection setup or other procedures such as the mobility management.

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If the SRB is set up over the DCH, it can be reconfigured to be mapped onto the HSUPA in some cases such as the target cell of the handover supports the HSUPA while the source cell does not. Inversely, the SRB mapping on the HSUPA can also be reconfigured to be mapped onto the DCH if the target cell of the handover does not support the HSUPA. The SRB over the HSUPA is configurable. The operator can enable/disable the SRB over HSUPA function.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The 38XX series NodeB supports this feature, and the EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EULPd, EBBC or EBBCd is required. The 3900 series NodeB supports this feature, and the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf is required.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.2.13 WRFD-140222 Adaptive Adjustment of HSUPA Small Target Retransmissions
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature dynamically adjusts the target number of retransmissions based on the uplink throughput of UEs and the uplink load on the serving cell. The purpose is to improve the uplink throughput of the serving cell.

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Benefits
This feature improves the system capacity in cases where multiple HSUPA UEs with a 10 ms transmission time interval (TTI) are uploading data in a cell with a limited uplink load.

Description
When the uplink load is limited, a small target number of retransmissions will impose high requirements on the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) on the Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH), and the DPCCH must use higher power. This leads to a decrease in the power of available data channels, a lower UE throughput, and a lower HSUPA cell throughput. The adaptive adjustment of HSUPA small target retransmissions feature has been introduced to address these problems. This feature supports an alternative small target number of retransmissions for each typical type of service. The actual target number of retransmissions can dynamically shift between the original fixed number and the alternative number depending on the throughput of UEs and the uplink load on the cell. This improves the system capacity when the uplink load is limited. A cell can be simutaneouslly configured with the feature Adptive Adjustment of HSUPA Samll Target Retransmissions and the feature DC-HSUPA. However, if DC-HSUPA is enable for a UE, Adaptive Adjustment of HSUPA Small Target Retransmissions will not work for this UE.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other features This feature depends on WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package.

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2.2.14 WRFD-150206 Turbo IC
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
Turbo Interference Cancellation (IC) improves IC efficiency by regenerating decoded signals from the E-DPDCH. This feature also supports uplink E-DPCCH IC, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for demodulation and increasing system capacity in the uplink. This feature supports High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) UEs using the 2 ms transmission time interval (TTI) only.

Benefits
This feature improves IC efficiency and increases system capacity in the uplink. In addition to the uplink IC gains provided by HSUPA, this feature further increases the uplink system capacity by a maximum of about 10% in the following scenarios:
 

A large number of UEs use the 2 ms TTI for continuous data transmission in the serving cell. The throughput of HSUPA 2 ms TTI UEs is high.

Description
UMTS, which is based on the code division multiple access (CDMA) technology, is a self-interfering system. A UMTS UE experiences interference from other UEs' signals and the serving cell's background noise. In HSUPA, uplink interference increases along with the growing data rates and is now the main bottleneck for increasing UMTS uplink capacity. Turbo IC addresses this issue. This feature improves IC performance by regenerating decoded signals from the E-DPDCH to obtain more accurate signals. Turbo IC also supports uplink E-DPCCH IC. That is, this feature reduces the interference from regenerated signals on the E-DPDCH and E-DPCCH, decreasing the total interference in the serving cell and improving uplink system capacity. This feature:
  

Supports HUSPA UEs using the 2 ms TTI only Consumes no additional channel element (CE) resources Supports uplink IC resource groups:
− −

If all the boards configured in the uplink resource groups support Turbo IC, inter-board UEs can share centralized IC gains. If only a few boards configured in the uplink resource groups support Turbo IC, inter-board UEs can share only the HSUPA uplink IC gains and intra-board UEs can share Turbo IC gains only for the boards supporting Turbo IC.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations (except the BTS3902E) DBS3900, BTS3900, BTS3900A, and BTS3900L support this feature and must be configured with the WBBPf board. If the NodeB needs to support inter-board IC sharing, a minimum of one WBBPd or WBBPf board must be configured in slot 2 or 3 for an uplink resource group that supports inter-board IC sharing. Dependency on UEs The UEs must be of category 6 or higher. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-01061403 HSUPA 2ms TTI WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation

2.2.15 WRFD-150222 HSUPA Time Division Scheduling
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
In a cell with multiple high-speed 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs, this feature performs time division scheduling on these UEs to reduce interference caused by simultaneous data transmission of the UEs. This improves the uplink throughput for this cell.

Benefits
This feature enables a cell to provide a high HSUPA throughput, even when multiple 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs are simultaneously performing high-speed data transmission in the cell. With this feature, the throughput of the cell with two to eight 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs is nearly the same as that of the cell with only one 2 ms TTI HSUPA UE in optimal situations. For example, all UEs are static and time division scheduled and are performing stable and high-speed uploading services. This feature helps increase the cell uplink throughput by 15% if:

A cell has two receive antennas.

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 

Eight UEs are performing continuous FTP uploading in the cell. The cell is enabled with the WRFD-010691 HSUPA UL Interference Cancellation feature.

Description
WCDMA is a self-interfering system. Any UE in this system is an interference source for other UEs. The higher the data rate of a UE, the greater the interference this UE imposes on the uplink channels of the cell. When a cell has multiple high-speed 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs, the uplink channel interference is the main bottleneck for the cell uplink capacity. This feature applies to a cell with multiple high-speed 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs, especially a one-antenna cell where Uu-interface resources are insufficient. This feature allocates the eight Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) processes of 2 ms TTI HSUPA to different UEs to perform data transmission. During each 2 ms TTI, only one UE is transmitting data. This reduces the interference caused by simultaneous data transmission of the UEs and improves the cell uplink throughput. The following figure compares code division scheduling and time division scheduling.

The gain provided by this feature depends on the UE traffic model. A static UE performing stable and high-speed uploading has the highest gain. If all UEs in a cell are time division scheduled and transmit data using different HARQ processes, this feature provides the highest gain in cell throughput. As the number of time division scheduled UEs increases, however, the load of the uplink DPCCH increases. This reduces the available resources on the E-DPDCH, which slightly decreases cell throughput. The gain provided by this feature also depends on whether the transmitting intervals overlap. This feature does not apply to UEs performing soft handovers because mobility will cause the transmitting intervals to overlap. This feature provides higher gains in indoor environments than in outdoor environments because soft handover is less likely to occur in indoor environments and more UEs can be scheduled in time division mode. This feature does not apply to a cell served by multiple RRUs because Uu-interface resources are not shared by different RRUs.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations (except the BTS3902E) support this feature and must be configured with the WBBPf board support this feature. The downlink of the cell cannot be set up on the WBBPa board. Dependency on UEs The UEs must be of HSUPA category 6, 7, 8, or 9. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-01061403 HSUPA 2ms TTI WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA

2.3 HSDPA Prime Service
2.3.1 WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is one of the important features defined in 3GPP specifications. HSDPA can greatly increase the peak rate per user, shorten the round trip delay, and improve the system capacity. This feature package provides the basic functions of HSDPA to meet the requirements for test or trial operations of HSDPA services.

Benefits
HSDPA improves the performance of the UMTS network in the following aspects:
  

Providing high rate throughput Shorter round trip time Higher system capacity

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Description
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5. The maximum downlink throughput is achieved by sharing CE resources, power resources, and code resources with new physical channels and downlink shared transport channel for HSDPA. The physical channels are HS-SCCH, HS-PDSCH, and HS-DPCCH, and the transport channel is HS-DSCH. HD-PDSCH (SF = 16) will utilize the remaining TX power and codes in a cell, which enables the resource to be dynamically shared among users. Some key functions are also used in HSDPA for maximizing resource utilization, including 2 ms TTI, hybrid ARQ with soft combining (HARQ), Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), and fast scheduling algorithm. The application of 2 ms TTI greatly reduces the round trip time. At the same time, some functions are moved down to the NodeB that also contributes to reducing the round trip time. When compared with RLC re-transmission, HARQ provides a more highly efficient re-transmission mechanism. The UE can request for retransmission of only erroneously received data immediately and combine the retransmission data with original transmission data through soft combining. AMC enables the system to decide the Transport Block (TB) size and the modulation mode according to estimated channel condition indicated by the UE. When the UE is in favorable radio environment, the transmission can adopt 16 QAM modulation mode and large transport blocks to increase the capacity and data rate. The fast scheduling algorithm includes Max C/I, Round Robin, Proportional Fair (PF), and Enhanced Proportional Fair (EPF). EPF is based on the PF algorithm which can provide users with Guaranteed Bit Rate service for I/B services. HSDPA is mainly used for packet services and can bear the interactive, background, and streaming services. The HSDPA traffic can use a dedicated carrier or a shared carrier with R99. The system should be capable of handling both cases. The system should consider the mobility management of the HSDPA services, such as the intra-RNC handover, inter-RNC handover, and soft handover for the DCH.

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, RAN6.0, and RAN10.0, HSDPA Introduction Package is enhanced. For details, see the enhancement of the sub-features in the HSDPA Introduction Package.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB NBBI and NDLP do not support this feature. Dependency on UE The UE should have the HSDPA capability. Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

2.3.2 WRFD-01061017 QPSK Modulation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature is related to QPSK modulation. QPSK modulation is a basic downlink data modulation function that is used after HSDPA is introduced.

Benefits
This feature provides higher service bit rate to enhance the user experience.

Description
Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) The HS-PDSCH is used to carry the HS-DSCH data. HS-PDSCH can use QPSK or 16QAM modulation symbols. When the UE is in the unfavorable radio environment, the transmission can adopt the low-order QPSK modulation mode and small transport blocks to ensure communication quality. When the UE is in the favorable radio environment, the transmission can adopt the high order 16QAM modulation mode and large transport blocks to reach a high peak rate.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.3 WRFD-01061001 15 Codes per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature provides code resources occupied by Huawei HSDPA services. The HS-PDSCHs can use up to 15 codes in a cell.

Benefits
HSDPA with 15 codes makes it possible to introduce higher bit rate service from day one and improve system capacity.

Description
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5, which provides high speed downlink services. A new downlink shared transport channel, HS-DSCH, is introduced for carrying services. The transport channel HS-DSCH is mapped on one or several High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels (HS-PDSCHs) which are simultaneously received by the UE. In the 3GPP standard, there are up to 15 HS-PDSCHs per cell with the spreading factor fixed to 16. The number of HS-PDSCHs per NodeB is configurable and depending on the license, the NodeB can dynamically share codes licenses to HS-PDSCH between cells. The HS-PDSCHs can use up to 15 codes in one cell by which the supported peak rate of air interface can reach up to 14.4 Mbit/s. The system capacity is improved by supporting 15 codes.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.4 WRFD-01061018 Time and HS-PDSCH Codes Multiplex
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables the allocation of different codes in the same TTI to different users or the time division multiplexing of the same code in different TTIs for different users to provide the utilization of code resources and the system throughput.

Benefits
This feature improves the efficiency and performance of HSDPA service.

Description
The parallel data transmission of multiple users over HS-DSCH requires more HS-SCCH codes and HS-PDSCH codes within a single TTI. Code multiplexing is adopted and is found useful when the NodeB has more HS-PDSCH codes for allocation than those supported by the UE. For instance, the UE supports 5 codes and the NodeB has 10 codes available in a single TTI. The code multiplexing can increase the resource utilization and system throughput.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.5 WRFD-01061009 HSDPA H-ARQ & Scheduling (MAX C/I, RR and PF)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature is related to hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) and HSDPA scheduling algorithms. Huawei provides multiple HSDPA scheduling algorithms such as Max C/I, RR, PF, and EPF.

Benefits
This feature provides the flexibility for the operator to select the scheduling algorithm, after considering the system capacity and fairness among the users.

Description
HARQ For the HSDPA services at the physical layer, if errors occur in decoding, the HARQ reserves the data before the decoding and combines it with the retransmitted data. Compared with R99, HARQ retransmission is faster and more efficient than RLC retransmission. In this sense, the HARQ can be called a new technology and a combination of the Forward Error Correction (FEC) and ARQ. HARQ has a higher downlink performance gain. At every TTI (2 ms), the scheduling algorithm enables the system to decide the UEs for data transmission. This feature provides different HSDPA schedule algorithms, considering the tradeoff between system capacity and fairness among the users. Four scheduling algorithms are provided and the operator decides which algorithm to choose.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description
  

Max C/I RR (round Robin) PF (proportional fair)

During the scheduling procedure, the several aspects to be considered include CQI, user priority, channel quality, service bit rate, and re-transmission. All scheduling algorithms support the retransmission priority rule. If a UE requires retransmission at a certain scheduling time, the UE is scheduled at a higher priority. In addition, two factors may affect the accuracy of the CQI reported by the UE:
 

Channel environment of the UE Measurement error of a specific UE

If the CQI reported by the UE does not reflect the actual radio conditions, this will lead to the decrease of HS-DSCH transmission efficiency, because both scheduling and TFRC selection are performed on the basis of the reported CQI. To avoid the negative impact on the system caused by inaccurate CQI reports, the CQI adjustment algorithm can revise the reported CQI according to the ACK or NACK of initial transmission and the initial BLER target. The adjusted CQI is used for MAC-hs scheduling and TFRC selection.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the functionality of compressed mode tracing during scheduling is supported. That is, if a TTI is overlapped with a UE’s compression mode gap, this UE should not be scheduled in this TTI.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.3.6 WRFD-01061005 HSDPA Static Code Allocation and RNC-Controlled Dynamic Code Allocation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature is related to HSDPA static code allocation and RNC-controlled dynamic code allocation. When R99 and HSDPA services co-exist, this feature enables full use of channelized code resources to improve the efficiency and system capacity.

Benefits
The HSPDA static code allocation function helps to improve the system throughput of HSDPA service and achieve high code utilization. R99 service and HSDPA service can co-exist with less conflict of resources.

Description
Before the NodeB starts to transmit data on the HS-DSCH, the RNC shall allocate the channelization code for HS-SCCH with an SF of 128 and for HS-PDSCH with an SF of 16. Generally, the RNC allocates as many HS-PDSCH codes to the NodeB as possible to improve the system capacity and spectral efficiency. On the other hand, the channelization codes reserved for HS-PDSCH transmission cannot be simultaneously used for transmission of the R99 channel, and hence the allocation of many HS-PDSCH codes might eventually result in blocking of R99 users. Therefore, it is important for the RNC and NodeB to properly utilize the channelization code resources to improve both efficiency and system capacity. There are two strategies for allocating HS-PDSCH codes: static allocation and dynamic allocation. The two strategies have different effects on the HSDPA service. There defined two types of code strategy for HS-PDSCH code allocation, which can take different effects on the HSDPA service, static allocation, and dynamic allocation. Static allocation is generally used at the initial HSDPA deployment stage because there are less HSDPA users and more R99 users at this stage. The RNC reserves some codes for the HS-PDSCH and the DPCH while other common channels use the rest codes. The number of reserved codes for the HS-PDSCH is configurable.
Code reserved for common channel and HS-SCCH

Codes available for DPCH

Codes reserved for HS-PDSCH

SF=16

With the increasing demand for the HSDPA service, dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation is needed to increase code utilization efficiency. According to the code allocation controller, the

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

code allocation is of two types, namely the RNC-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation and the NodeB-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation. In the RNC-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation, the RNC determines the maximum number and minimum number of HS-PDSCH codes that NodeB can use and then informs the NodeB about the code information through the Physical Shared Channel Reconfigure Request signaling message. The code resources between the maximum number of codes and the minimum number of codes are shared codes. If the shared codes are available for HSDPA, the RNC increases the minimum number of HS-PDSCH codes and informs the NodeB about this information. The RNC is in charge of the code management.
Code reserved for common channel and HS-SCCH SF=16 Max number of codes Codes available for DPCH Min number of codes Codes reserved for HS- PDSCH

Shared codes

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, the RNC-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation is introduced.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.3.7 WRFD-01061004 HSDPA Power Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables the operator to properly configure the power control mode of the HS-SCCH, improving the power efficiency and obtaining higher system capacity and user experience.

Benefits
This feature enables the system to provide reliable reception quality for the HS-SCCH. It can increase system capacity and reduce the NodeB power output for the HS-SCCH, raising the total transmission power utilization.

Description
When the HSDPA service is introduced, the total transmit DL power resource per cell is divided into three parts, namely, common channel power, DPCH power, and HSDPA physical channel power (HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH). In order to achieve high HSDPA performance, the power resource, except for those reserved for common channel, is dynamically allocated between DPCH and HSDPA physical channel. In the case of the R99 service, the power of DPCH is adjusted through inner and outer loop power control. The power of HSDPA channel is allocated and adjusted dynamically among users through the NodeB scheduling algorithm. With dynamical power allocation, the NodeB estimates the power available for the entire HSDPA channel per TTI by using the following formula: P(hs) = P(total) - P(margin) - P(non-hsdpa). The P(total) is the maximum downlink transmission power for the cell that is configured in the RNC. The P(non-hsdpa) is the total transmitted carrier power of all codes not used for HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH. P(margin) is a configurable value which is used for the power increase caused by R99 power control at every 2 ms TTI. The NodeB then adjusts the power between HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH. Normally, there are two types of power control methods for the HS-SCCH:
 

Fixed transmitting power of the HS-SCCH Based on CQI report

In the NodeB, the fixed transmit power of the HS-SCCH can be configured by the operator. For the power control based on CQI report, the HS-SCCH transmit power is adjusted on the basis of the CQI report received from the user.

Enhancement
None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.8 WRFD-01061003 HSDPA Admission Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature implements admission control over HSDPA users in the aspects such as the number of HSDPA users, remaining power resources, Iub interface resources, and service rate thresholds. This feature can ensure QoS of the existing HSDPA users while fully utilizing the resources.

Benefits
This feature enables HSDPA services to properly utilize system resources and enables HSDPA and R99 services to exist in the same cell. The system resource can be reserved in terms of the Iub transport resource, power resources, and user number resources to provide high bit rate service for users.

Description
HSDPA service admission control enables HSDPA service to access the network with other R99 services by using the remaining power resource as well as other resources. It can utilize the system resources greatly. In the HSDPA admission control procedure, the maximum number of HSDPA users per NodeB and per cell is dependent on the configuration.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

If the downlink carrier power is dynamically allocated between R99 and HSDPA channels, the admission control will involve not only the limitation of total HSDPA user number for best effort services, but also the sum of downlink code transmission power for both DPCH and HS-PDSCH carrying streaming service. Iub interface resources check is performed during the admission control to allow HSDPA service and other R99 services to be admitted under a certain ensured QoS. During the admission control, the RNC will decide whether to map the service onto the HS-DSCH by setting service rate thresholds in the RNC. The thresholds include a DL streaming service HSDPA threshold and a DL BE service HSDPA threshold. The call can be mapped on HSDPA only when the requested bit rate of the incoming call is greater than the threshold.

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, GBR for BE (interactive/background) over HSPA can be configured, so the minimum throughput for BE over HSPA should be guaranteed. GBR is used to estimate whether the maximum available power for HSDPA can satisfy the requirement of interactive/background service in RAN5.1. In RAN5.1, the power available for HSDPA GBR services shall be guaranteed during the admission control. This part of the power shall not be pre-empted by R99 services, although the power is shared between R99 and HSDPA. In RAN6.0, queuing and pre-emption are considered for HSDPA if admission control fails.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.3.9 WRFD-01061020 Improvement of User Experience in Low Traffic Service
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature is implemented in the following procedure: NodeB identifies the characteristics of services carried on the HSPA channel to find the low traffic services, such as gaming service and chat service (MSN messenger for example), which have a small number of data to transmit each time. Then, improve the capability of services to obtain resources on the basis of the scheduling and flow control principles of HSPA, improving the low traffic service delay experience.

Benefits
UEs can obtain good delay experience when they use the services with burst low traffic.

Description
The HSPA provides higher bandwidth and supports more services. However, UMTS network is a radio network whose radio resources are shared by all the UEs in a cell. When the traffic volume in a cell is high, the QoS of low traffic services is easily impacted by other services, such as gaming and chatting. This feature identifies a burst service based on the traffic features, and then reallocates much higher bandwidth to it. Therefore, a larger bandwidth is available for the data transmission of the low traffic service, and the UE obtains better service delay experience. The priority of the UE can be considered in the feature to provide differentiated services to low traffic services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC Only the BSC6900 supports this feature. Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULP, EBBI, EBOI or EULPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package or WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.3.10 WRFD-01061019 HSDPA Dynamic Power Allocation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables R99 and HSDPA services to share the cell power. This feature can ensure the requirements of R99 users and make HSDPA users obtain a higher throughput, greatly improving the power efficiency.

Benefits
This feature enables HSDPA services to properly utilize system resources and enables HSDPA and R99 services to exist in the same cell. The system resource can be reserved in terms of the Iub transport resource, power resources, and user number resources to provide high bit rate service for users.

Description
The cell total transmit power is the constant resource. The DL power consists of the following three parts:
  

Power of the HSDPA DL physical channel (HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH) Common channel power DPCH power

Among the three parts, the second is reserved and the first is allocated by the NodeB. Except those reserved for the common channels, the remaining power resources of the cell are allocated dynamically between the DPCH and the HSDPA DL physical channels. The DPCH assumes higher priority with regard to using the remaining power resources.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Total Power

F u l l Power for HSDPA u s a g e o f

Power for DPCH Power for CCH Flexible scheme

Time p o w e r As shown in the figure above, the NodeB detects the R99 power load every 2 ms to determine

the available power for HSDPA. In this way, the cell load is more stable. To obtain the available power for HSDPA, a power margin must be set aside to handle the power increase caused by R99 power control every 2 ms.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.3.11 WRFD-01061010 HSDPA Flow Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables the resource information interaction between the RNC and NodeB to ensure that the data to be transmitted by the UE matches the scheduled one. In addition, this feature can minimize the buffer size and buffer time of the NodeB to avoid data loss probably caused by overtime data buffering.

Benefits
This feature can prevent packet loss and maximize the utilization of power and code resources. It enables the service scheduling and re-transmission functions in the NodeB and reduces the data transmission latency.

Description
HSDPA flow control ensures that the NodeB queue has enough data to be transmitted for a UE when this UE is scheduled. At the same time, flow control feature can minimize the buffer size and buffer time in the NodeB in order to avoid data loss probably caused by overtime data buffering. The RNC sends CAPACITY REQUEST control frame to the NodeB through the Iub interface. The NodeB will monitor the buffer status and measure the throughput when the UE is scheduled. Meanwhile, the NodeB considers the Iub interface throughput as well as the Iub bandwidth. A CAPACITY ALLOCATION message will be sent to the RNC after the NodeB decides how much data to send. The NodeB can also initiate the update of capacity allocation towards the RNC based on the buffer size of the queue and the available bandwidth on the Iub interface.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.12 WRFD-01061006 HSDPA Mobility Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature is related to HSDPA mobility management in different scenarios. This feature ensures that the HSDPA services are continuous.

Benefits
This feature reduces the service disruption of the UE in movement when performing the HSDPA service, enhancing user experience. In addition, this feature ensures that the services between R99 and HSDPA cells are continuous.

Description
The HSDPA mobility management function enables an HSDPA user to change the cell to an R99 cell or another HSDPA cell when the HSDPA user is in movement. The mobility feature also enables an HSDPA user to change the servicing cell with less service interruption. The difference in mobility handling is that the HS-DSCH cannot perform soft handover compared with the DCH. In addition, there is only one serving HSDPA cell or HSDPA connection for the HSDPA user. The HSDPA cell change procedure is used for the HSDPA user mobility solution. The associated DCH can undergo soft handover and maintain the Active Set as described in Release 99. The similarity in mobility handling is that both HS-DSCH and DCH handovers are based on the measurement report of the UE and controlled by the network. If the UE has both the HSDPA and the DPCH connections, the measurement and the handover decision are made separately.

Handover from HSDPA Cell to R99 Cell When the UE is moving from an HSDPA cell to a R99 cell (intra-frequency) and event 1B, 1C or 1D is triggered, the HSDPA connection between UE and HSDPA cell will be changed to the DCH connection between UE and R99 cell through DCH soft handover and HS-DSCH radio link reconfiguration. The HSDPA cell is no longer the best cell in the Active Set and the target cell does not support HSDPA. Therefore, the current HS-DSCH cell will be replaced or removed from the Active Set and the service will be changed to the DCH instead of the HS-DSCH for service continuity.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

If the neighboring cell of HSDPA cell is an inter-frequency cell and does not support HSDPA, a hard handover will be performed. The HSDPA handover decision is based on the measurement report of the pilot channels of neighboring cells.

Handover from R99 Cell to HSDPA Cell When an HSDPA capable UE with interactive/background/streaming service accesses the R99 cell, only the DCH is used to carry these services. And when the UE is moving from R99 cell to HSDPA cell (intra-frequency or inter-frequency), the system can change the service to HS-DSCH channel. For intra-frequency cell, the DPCH connection between UE and HSDPA cell will be set up first due to event 1A. When the HSDPA cell becomes the best cell and event 1D is triggered, the service will be switched from the DPCH to the HS-PDSCH of the HSDPA cell carrying the PS service. For inter-frequency cell, when the UE moves, an inter-frequency handover is triggered if the quality of the signals of HSDPA cell improves. The UE changes from R99 cell to HSDPA cell and the PS service will be switched from the DPCH to the HS-PDSCH.

Handover Among HSDPA Cells For intra-frequency cell, cell change takes place when the HSDPA connection is moved from one HSDPA cell to another. The source HSDPA cell is removed from the Active Set trigged by event 1D and target HSDPA cell is added to the Active Set as a best cell. For inter-frequency cell, an inter-frequency handover between HSDPA cells is triggered. The service will be changed to the HS-DSCH of the target cell. The hard handover depends on the UE measurement.

Handover from HSDPA Cell to 2G cell The handover from an HSDPA cell to a 2G cell is triggered by normal inter-RAT handover. For details, refer to the features of inter-RAT handover. Whether to downgrade the HSDPA service to the R99 service before handover can be configured by the operator.

Inter RNC mobility for HSDPA For cell change between RNCs, the Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment (DSCR) and SRNC relocation procedure will be used. The DSCR is used for the UE moving between RNCs without the Iur interface. The procedure is trigged by the UE which sends the RRC CONNECTION SETUP REQUEST message in the DRNC. At this time, the UE moves to the cell of the DRNC and no handover or relocation occurs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.13 WRFD-01061014 HSDPA Transport Resource Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0

Summary
This feature enables different HSDPA services to be mapped to different paths for classified management, optimizing the utilization of Iub transmission resources for the HSDPA services.

Benefits
Differentiated service is implemented on different paths and the QoS and network performance are optimized. Improve the transport resource utilization and save OPEX for Iub transmission.

Description
With the introduction of the HSDPA feature, the throughput over the Iub interface may be increased and varied greatly. This feature is used to optimize the usage of Iub transport resources for the HSDPA services. The features concerned are as follows:
 

Differentiated services mapping Transport resource load control

I. Differentiated services mapping The CS conversational, PS conversational, PS streaming and best effort services can be set up on HSDPA. Different services have different QoS requirements, in RAN11.0 HSDPA services are considered unified with common channel and R99 services in Transmission Resource Mapping. The details of unified Transmission Resource Mapping belongs to optional feature WRFD-050424 Traffic Priority Mapping onto Transmission Resources. By using this feature, different services are carried on corresponding paths, and the differentiated service is implemented. II. Transmission resource load control Transmission resource load control includes admission control and congestion control.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

For the admission control, the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) will be considered in the HSDPA service admission procedure. The GBR belongs to the optional feature WRFD-01061003 HSDPA Admission Control. For the congestion control, the load reshuffling strategies will be applied to inter-RAT handover which belongs to the optional feature WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load.

Enhancement
In RAN6.1, each traffic class mapped onto transmission resource can be configured separately.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features Optional feature WRFD-050402 IP Transmission (Iub interface), WRFD-050403 Hybrid IP Transmission, and WRFD-050404 ATM/IP Dual Stack NodeB should be required when the transmission resource management feature is applied for IP transmission resources in those scenarios.

2.3.14 WRFD-01061008 Interactive and Background Traffic Class on HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables interactive and background services to be mapped to the HS-DSCH to obtain a higher service rate and enhance user experience.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
This feature enables the system to support a higher speed RAB of PS background and interactive service.

Description
This feature enables the best effort service (interactive and background) to be mapped onto the HS-DSCH as long as the UE supports HSDPA. The system can set the service rate threshold and only when the requested service bit rate is higher than the threshold, the request service can be mapped onto the HS-DSCH. Otherwise, the requested service will be mapped onto the DCH. The service rate threshold can be configured by the operator. When the best effort service is carried on the HS-DSCH, the maximum downlink bit rate can be up to 1.8 Mbit/s (MAC layer). When a UE is performing interactive or background service, it can use another CS RAB or another PS RAB. If allowed, the UE can use two HSDPA BE RABs simultaneously.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.15 WRFD-01061002 HSDPA UE Category 1 to 28
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
This feature can provide suitable HSDPA services for the UEs of category 1 to category 28.

Benefits
This feature supports HSDPA services for 28 categories of UE so as to provide high bit rate services for different categories of UEs. The maximum bit rate that can be achieved by the UE depends on the UE specification.

Description
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5 which can provide high speed service for the downlink. In order to provide multiple bit rate services, 28 UE categories are defined in 3GPP. Different UE categories can support different maximum codes for the HS-DSCH, which means that different maximum bit rates can be achieved. HS-DSCH Category Maximum Number of HS-DSCH Codes Received 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 15 15 15 15 15 Minimu m Inter-TTI Interval 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum Number of Bits Maximum Bit Rate (Mbit/s) 7,298 7,298 7,298 7,298 7,298 7,298 14,411 14,411 20,251 27,952 3,630 3,630 35,280 42,192 23,370 27,952 35,280 23,370 3.649 3.649 3.649 3.649 3.649 3.649 7.2055 7.2055 10.1255 13.976 1.815 1.815 17.64 21.096 23.37 27.952 17.64 23.37

Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Category 13 Category 14 Category 15 Category 16 Category 17

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

HS-DSCH Category

Maximum Number of HS-DSCH Codes Received 15

Minimu m Inter-TTI Interval 1

Maximum Number of Bits

Maximum Bit Rate (Mbit/s)

Category 18

42,192 27,952

21.096 27.952 35.280 42.192 23.370 27.952 35.280 42.192 46.740 55.904 70.560 84.384

Category 19 Category 20 Category 21 Category 22 Category 23 Category 24 Category 25 Category 26 Category 27 Category 28

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

35,280 42,192 23,370 27,952 35,280 42,192 23,370 27,952 35,280 42,192

Note: In the "Maximum Number of Bits" column, the bits refer to bits received by the HS-DSCH transport block during a TTI on the HS-DSCH. In the preceding table, UEs of category 13 and category 14 are only required to support 64QAM. UEs of category 15 and category 16 are only required to support MIMO. UEs of category 17 and category 18 support 64QAM and MIMO, but not simultaneously. UEs of category 19 and category 20 support 64QAM+MIMO. UEs of category 21 and category 22 support 16QAM+DC-HSPA \. UEs of category 23 and category 24 support 64QAM+DC-HSPA. UEs of category 25 and category 26 support 16QAM+MIMO+DC-HSPA. UEs of category 27 and category 28 support 64QAM+MIMO+DC-HSPA.

Enhancement
In RAN11.0, UEs of category 13, category 14, category 15, category 16, category 17, and category 18 are introduced. In RAN12.0, UEs of category 19 to category 24 are introduced. In RAN13.0, UEs of category 25 to category 28 are introduced.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs None

2.3.16 WRFD-01061015 HSDPA 1.8Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables the HSDPA rate to reach a maximum of 1.8 Mbit/s for each user.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher peak bit rate and enhances the user experience.

Description
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5 which can provide high speed service for the downlink. With this feature, the UE with interactive or background service on the HS-DSCH can reach a peak rate of up to 1.8 Mbit/s (MAC layer), greatly enhancing user experience.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 12 (or later), that is, category 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must support a user rate of at least 1.8 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.17 WRFD-01061016 16 HSDPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSDPA cell to support 16 HSDPA users simultaneously. If the number of HSDPA users exceeds 16, the DCH is used for service provisioning.

Benefits
This feature provides operators with a maximum of 16 HSDPA users in an HSDPA capable cell.

Description
A maximum of 16 HSDPA users can be served simultaneously in an HSDPA capable cell with this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.18 WRFD-010620 HSDPA 3.6Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the HSDPA rate per user to reach a maximum of 3.6 Mbit/s.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher peak bit rate and enhances user experience.

Description
HSDPA is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5 that can provide high speed service for downlink. With this feature, the UE with interactive or background services on the HS-DSCH can reach the peak bit rate up to 3.6 Mbit/s (MAC layer). Therefore, user experience is greatly enhanced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 5 (or later), that is, category 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

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The CN must support a user rate of at least 3.6 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.3.19 WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
Compared with the QPSK modulation, the 16QAM modulation is a higher-order downlink data modulation mode. This feature enables the peak rate on the Uu interface to reach 14.4 Mbit/s.

Benefits
Provides higher peak bit rate HSDPA service for HSDPA users.

Description
The HS-PDSCH is used to carry the HS-DSCH data. The HS-PDSCH may use QPSK or 16QAM modulation symbols. When the UE is in the unfavorable radio environment, the transmission can adopt the low-order QPSK modulation mode and small transport blocks to ensure communication quality. When the UE is in good radio environment, the transmission can adopt the high-order 16QAM modulation mode and large transport blocks to achieve high peak rate. The UE of category 10 can support a maximum of 15 HS-PDSCH codes and 16QAM modulation mode. The supported peak rate on the air interface can reach 14.4 Mbit/s.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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The UE should have the capability of HSDPA besides Category 11 and Category 12:category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4 HSDPA Performance Improvement
2.4.1 WRFD-010631 Dynamic Code Allocation Based on NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature implements dynamic code allocation on the NodeB side. The NodeB adjusts the allocation of code resources in each TTI according to available code resources and scheduling algorithms. This feature can further improve the utilization of code resources.

Benefits
This feature increases the resource utilization and system throughput.

Description
In NodeB-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation, NodeB determines the HS-PDSCH code use according to the code availability and scheduling algorithm in each 2ms TTI. NodeB-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation is more efficient and flexible than RNC-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation. The resource can be scheduled and used in a short time in the NodeB, compared with signaling message transmission on the Iub interface using RNC-controlled dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation. HS-DSCH transmission to multiple users in parallel during a single TTI requires more HS-SCCH codes and more HS-PDSCH codes. Code multiplexing is adopted and is found useful in cases where the NodeB has allocated more HS-PDSCH codes than what is supported by the UE. For instance, the UE supports 5 codes and the NodeB has 10 codes available in a single TTI. The code multiplexing can increase the resource utilization and system throughput.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.2 WRFD-010621 HSDPA 7.2Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables the HSDPA rate per user to reach a maximum of 7.2 Mbit/s.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher peak bit rate and enhances user experience.

Description
HSDPA is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5 that can provide high speed service for downlink. With this feature, the UE with interactive or background services on the HS-DSCH can reach the peak bit rate of up to 7.2 Mbit/s (MAC layer). Therefore, user experience is greatly enhanced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

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None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 7 (or later), that is, category 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must support a user rate of at least 7.2 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010620 HSDPA 3.6Mbit/s per User WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation

2.4.3 WRFD-010622 32 HSDPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSDPA cell to simultaneously support 32 HSDPA users. If the number of HSDPA users exceeds 32, the DCH is attempted for service provisioning.

Benefits
This feature provides HSDPA services at a higher peak bit rate for up to 32 users per cell.

Description
Up to 32 HSDPA users can be admitted to a HSDPA cell.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.4 WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature provides a series of enhanced HSDPA functions to meet the commercial requirements of HSDPA services.

Benefits
Enhance the HSDPA performance by introducing the GBR-based QoS guarantee mechanism. Enhance the HSDPA networking capability to meet HSDPA networking requirements.

Description
HSDPA enhanced package is introduced on the basis of WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package, and provides enhancement features to meet the QoS and HSDPA network requirements. Related features include:
   

EPF and GBR Based Scheduling HSDPA State Transition HSDPA DRD (Direct Retry Decision) HS-DPCCH preamble support

Enhancement
In RAN6.0 and RAN10.0, this feature is enhanced. For details, refer to the enhancement of the features in the package.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the functions connected with HSDPA Enhanced package. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.5 WRFD-01061103 Scheduling based on EPF and GBR
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1.

Summary
The operator can set different QoS parameters (such as priority, weight, and GBR) for different users. Based on the QoS parameters, the EPF algorithm can accurately allocate resources by proportion. This feature can make different users obtain accurate differentiated experience.

Benefits
By satisfying quality requirements of different traffic types, the system capacity is maximized.

Description
Scheduling algorithm is to schedule UEs’ transmission every 2ms TTI. Considering a compromise between the system capacity and user fairness, this feature provides four HSDPA scheduling algorithms for the operators to choose from:
   

Max C/I Round robin algorithm Proportional Fair algorithm (PF) Enhanced Proportional Fair algorithm (EPF)

1. In enhanced proportional fair algorithm (EPF), HSDPA carrying services are divided into two categories: delay-sensitive and throughput-sensitive. Priority is given to delay-sensitive services during schedule ordering. 2. During uncongested periods in the cell, the EPF algorithm (which is based on the PF algorithm) can fulfill the latency requirements of delay-sensitive services, and also provide

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Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) to throughput-sensitive services. In this way fairness can be effectively guaranteed between the user and a low QoS priority requirement service. 3. During uncongested periods in the cell after fulfilling the basic QoS requirements of every user, the EPF algorithm can distribute surplus resources according to Scheduling Priority Indicator (SPI) weight, allowing throughput-sensitive services to attain higher speeds. In order to satisfy more users, once BE services have achieved Happy Bit Rate (HBR), the scheduling priority is reduced significantly, thereby letting the resources to be distributed among other users. HBR can be configured by the operator. 4. When a cell is uncongested, EPF algorithm will give priority to delay-sensitive services during resource distribution, thereby guaranteeing the networks basic traffic QoS. In case of surplus resources, remaining resources will be assigned to throughput-sensitive services. Moreover, the services will be provided with GBR speed services according to the traffic’s SPI sequence. 5. SPI weight depends on the traffic class, user priority and traffic handling priority (THP). 6. Users can be divided into Gold, Silver and Bronze categories, all mapped by ARP, which are configurable. Moreover, uplink and downlink GBR configuration is also based on user priority, and is used for HSDPA scheduling algorithms. Through this feature, HSDPA’s QoS guarantee mechanism is enhanced. 7. EPF algorithm was introduced in RAN5.1. Based on ARP, SPI mapping also receives further optimization. Moreover, the minimum throughput of GBR services including BE services can be configured. Minimal limitations during the scheduling process need to receive strict assurances.

Enhancement
In RAN6.0, the GBR for Gold/Silver/Bronze users can be configured, this enhances QoS guarantee mechanism. In RAN10.0, the scheduling function concerning the signaling RB is added to the EPF algorithm. In addition, the traffic is classified into delay-sensitive services and throughput-sensitive services. In RAN11.0 EPF algorithm increased the scheduling capabilities of CELL_FACH’s status queue, moreover it introduced HBR, in order to improve user satisfaction.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

2.4.6 WRFD-01061111 HSDPA State Transition
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables the handover between the DCH and HS-DSCH and makes it possible for the UE to enjoy the high-speed service. When the UE is in the inactive state, this feature enables the UE to be handed over to the CELL_FACH to save the system resources when there is no data transferred for a long time.

Benefits
This feature supports the switching between DCH and HS-DSCH and makes it possible for the UE to enjoy the high speed service. Meanwhile, the system resource is saved by moving the UE to CELL_FACH when there is no data transferred for a long time.

Description
This feature enables the UE to perform a state transition between CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH), CELL_DCH, and CELL_FACH. With the introduction of HSDPA, a new RRC state of CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) is provided. The following figure shows the RRC state relationship.
CELL_DCH

CELL_PCH

CELL_FACH

CELL_DCH
(with HS-DSCH)

Channel Switching Between CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) and CELL_FACH If the HS-DSCH is carrying BE service or streaming service and there is no data to be sent for a long time, the transition from CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) to CELL_FACH is

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triggered. Actually, this feature is supported in the same way as the state transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH. A UE on CELL_FACH will be switched to CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) due to a higher bit rates request on downlink.

Channel Switching Between CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) and CELL_DCH The channel switching between HS-DSCH and DCH is mainly triggered by mobility management. The transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) can be triggered by periodical retry and the traffic volume The mobility triggering is described in WRFD-01061006 HSDPA Mobility Management feature. The traffic volume report that indicates a higher bit service needs to be transferred. The UE in CELL_DCH will be transferred to CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) if it is an HSDPA capable cell and the UE has HSDPA capability. This feature enables the UE to enjoy high speed service. If an HSDPA capable UE is set up on the DCH for BE services for some reasons, for example, the admission of the HS-DSCH fails, then a periodical retry mechanism is triggered, allowing the UE to enter the CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH). The retry time is configurable.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

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2.4.7 WRFD-01061112 HSDPA DRD
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature enables HSDPA suitable service to be established on the HS-DSCH cell as much as possible if a UE is HS-DSCH capable, achieving better service performance.

Benefits
This feature enables HSDPA suitable service to be established on the HS-DSCH cell as much as possible if a UE is HS-DSCH capable, achieving better service performance.

Description
This feature enables HSDPA suitable service be mapped onto the HS-DSCH as soon as possible if a UE is HS-DSCH capable. When a UE camps on an R99-concentric cell and requests for a streaming or BE service which is HSDPA suitable, the service will be mapped onto the HS-DSCH of the HSDPA capable cell if allowed by the HSDPA admission control. In the case a UE camps on an HSDPA cell and requests for a streaming or BE service which is compatible with HSDPA, if the HSDPA admission fails on the current cell but another HSDPA capable cell which has the same center as the current cell is available, then the service will be mapped onto the HS-DSCH of the HSDPA capable cell that has the same center as the current cell if it is allowed by the HSDPA admission control. An HSDPA capable UE has an HSDPA suitable service but is currently mapped onto the DCH due to some limitations (for example, the current cell does not support HSDPA or the HSDPA admission control fails). If the UE moves around and the best cell begins to support HSDPA, the service will be re-mapped onto the HS-DSCH of the best cell if allowed by the HSDPA admission control. If the best cell does not support HSDPA, but there is an HSDPA capable concentric cell and the HSDPA admission control is allowed, the service will be re-mapped onto the HS-DSCH of that concentric cell. An HSDPA capable UE has an HSDPA suitable service, but is currently mapped onto the CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH (DCH only). In addition, there is a data transmission request on the downlink, and the concentric cell supports HSDPA instead of the current cell. In this case, the service will be re-mapped onto the HS-DSCH of that HSDPA capable cell.

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, in any condition, if an HSDPA capable UE has an HSDPA suitable service, but is currently not mapped onto the HS-DSCH, and if the current best cell or the concentric cell of the best cell is HSDPA capable, the RNC will periodically attempt to re-map the service onto the HS-DSCH until the service retry succeeds. In RAN12, to reduce the call drop rate, a punishment mechanism is implemented. The D2H DRD is forbidden for the users which encountered DRD failure at the RAB Setup procedure. This mechanism can be configured by operator.

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In RAN12 Periodically DRD based on measurement is introduced, RAB can be setup in the original DCH cell, and by following inter frequency measurement to chose a HSDPA cell to perform DRD, reduce the drop rate caused by blind handover. The Periodically DRD based on blind handover or based on measurement can be selected by operator.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

2.4.8 WRFD-01061113 HS-DPCCH Preamble Support
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the transmission of dedicated preamble subframes before ACK/NACK subframes are transmitted on the HS-DPCCH, improving transmission reliability.

Benefits
HS-DPCCH preamble mode technology enables the NodeB to distinguish between DTX and ACK/NACK without requiring high ACK transmit power The uplink coverage gain is about 0.2 dB to 0.9 dB with different accompanying DPCH services.

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Description
The High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) carries uplink feedback signaling related to downlink HS-DSCH transmission. The HS-DSCH-related feedback signaling consists of Hybrid-ARQ Acknowledgment (HARQ-ACK) and Channel-Quality Indication (CQI). If UE detects the HS-SCCH control message, it will reply with an ACK or NACK message based on the result of the decoding and it will inform the sender of the result to further request retransmissions. If the UE does not detect the HS-SCCH control message, it will reply with a DTX message. To reduce the probability that the NodeB decodes this DTX as ACK by mistake, the transmit power of the ACK/NACK message should be high. Huawei supports HS-DPCCH preamble mode detection. The proposed enhancement is to send special Preamble sub-frames in the uplink HS-DPCCH before an ACK/NACK sub-frame. This method reduces the probability of a DTX->ACK error in the NodeB, because the NodeB has to decode at least two successive timeslots erroneously before the earlier mentioned scenario can take place. Due to the prior preamble information detection, the same performance of the HARQ-ACK field detection can be sustained with lower power.
HS-SCCH N N+1 N+2 N+3

N HS-DSCH
Data Packet

N+1

N+2

N+3

HS-DPCCH

PRE

ACK or NACK

POST

N-1

N

N+1

N+2

PREAMBLE transmitted in subframe N-1 to indicate reception of relevant signalling information in sub-frame N on HS-SCCH

Normal ACK/NACK to indicate correct or incorrect decoding of packet

POSTAMBLE transmitted in sub-frame N+1 (unless a packet is correctly decoded from sub-frame N+1 on the HS-DSCH, or control information is detected in sub-frame N+2 on the HS-SCCH)

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB This feature also depends on the NodeB hardware:

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The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP, or EULPd board. The BBU3806 needs to configure the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 needs to configure the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 6 (or later) and support this feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.9 WRFD-010630 Streaming Traffic Class on HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the streaming services to be mapped onto the HS-DSCH, improving the utilization of cell resources.

Benefits
This feature enables the system to support a higher speed RAB of PS streaming service.

Description
This feature enables the streaming service to be mapped onto the HS-DSCH if a UE is HSDPA capable. The system sets a switch to enable or disable the feature that streaming service is mapped onto the HS-DSCH. A service rate threshold is also set only when the requested service bit rate is higher than the threshold. At this time, the requested service can be mapped onto the HS-DSCH. Otherwise, it will be mapped onto DCH. The service rate threshold can be configured by the operator. When the streaming service is carried on the HS-DSCH, the maximum downlink bit rate can reach 384 kbit/s. When a UE has a streaming service on the HS-DSCH, it can use another CS RAB or another PS RAB simultaneously. One HSDPA BE RAB and one HSDPA streaming RAB can be used by one UE simultaneously if the UE capability permits.

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Enhancement
In RAN5.1, GBR of streaming traffic is used to estimate whether the maximum available power for HSDPA can satisfy the requirement of streaming service and interactive/background service in admission control in RAN5.1. The HSDPA scheduling algorithm also considers the GBR information of streaming traffic so that all HSDPA streaming services are guaranteed when the bit rate is not less than GBR.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package

2.4.10 WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the HSDPA rate per user to reach a maximum of 13.976 Mbit/s.

Benefits
This feature provides a higher peak bit rate and enhances user experience.

Description
HSDPA is an important feature of 3GPP Release 5 that can provide high speed service for downlink. With this feature, the UE with interactive or background services on the HS-DSCH

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can reach the peak bit rate up to 13.976 Mbit/s (MAC layer). Therefore, user experience is greatly enhanced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC This feature requires WFMRc board in BSC6800. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should have the capability of HSDPA Category 10, 13 (or later), that is, category 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must support a user rate of at least 13.976 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010621 HSDPA 7.2Mbit/s per User

2.4.11 WRFD-010651 HSDPA over Iur
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables HSDPA services to be carried on the Iur interface and provides continuous HSDPA services for UEs moving between RNCs.

Benefits
HSDPA over Iur provides continuous HSDPA services for mobile users moving between RNCs. It enlarges the range of HSDPA services to the RNCs that have Iur connections with a certain RNC.

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Description
HSDPA over Iur is the scenario where the HSDPA serving cell is carried at the DRNC. The feature includes HSDPA service management over Iur, HSDPA mobility management over Iur, and so on.

HSDPA service management over Iur HSDPA service management over Iur refers to HSDPA service setup, modification, release, and state transition. When the UE is in the CELL_DCH state and the DRNC cell is in the active set or the UE is in the CELL_FACH state and camps in a DRNC cell, the HSDPA service can be setup, modified, and released over Iur. The service over Iur can be reconfigured between HSDPA and R99 with UE state transition between CELL_DCH and CELL_FACH.

HSDPA mobility management over Iur HSDPA mobility management over Iur includes hard handover, cell update (caused by radio link failure), and serving cell change. The process is similar to the corresponding mobility management described in WRFD-01061006 HSDPA Mobility Management, and the difference is that the cells change between RNCs.

HSDPA static relocation If the HSDPA service is over Iur and the radio links are provided only by the target RNC, the static relocation can be triggered by Iur congestion. HSDPA service pre-emption at the DRNC When the new HSDPA service is not admitted to access the network, the CRNC may trigger a pre-emption of other HSDPA services with lower priorities. If the CRNC is the DRNC, it sends RADIO LINK PREEMPTION REQUIRED INDICATION to the SRNC and the SRNC releases the HSDPA services indicated in the RADIO LINK PREEMPTION REQUIRED INDICATION. Other functions of this feature, such as HSDPA power offset adjustment over Iur and HSDPA radio link parameter update over Iur are similar to the processes realized on the Iub interface.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None

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Dependency on Other Network Units The neighboring RNC should also support HSDPA over Iur. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.12 WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
SRB over HSDPA enables the DL SRBs of multiple UEs to be carried over HSDPA through the FDPCH multiplexing technology, reducing the consumption of DL code resources and the call setup delay.

Benefits
 

This feature provides a higher signaling rate and reduces the call process delay. Compared with the scenario where the SRB is carried on the DCH, code resources are saved and cell load is reduced when the SRB is carried on HSDPA.

Description
The signaling over the SRB is delay sensitive and irregular. In some cases, the code may be limited prior to power and the cell capacity is affected. Therefore, it is more appropriate to set up SRB over the HSDPA rather than the DCH. When compared with SRB over DCH, SRB over HSDPA and F-DPCH multiplexing can save code resources. SRB over HSDPA can be applied during the RRC connection setup procedure or other procedures such as mobility management. If the SRB is set up over the DCH, it can be reconfigured to the mapping on HSDPA in some cases, for example, the target cell of handover supports HSDPA while the source cell does not. Inversely, the SRB mapping on HSDPA can also be reconfigured to the mapping on DCH if the target cell of handover does not support HSDPA. SRB over HSDPA is configurable. The operator can also configure whether SRB over HSDPA is applied to RRC connection setup or not.

Enhancement
Enhanced F-DPCH is supported in RAN11.0.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB This feature depends on the NodeB hardware:

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with EBBI board, EBOI board or EDLP board. The BBU3806 needs to configure EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE should support FDPCH/EFDPCH. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

2.4.13 WRFD-010623 64 HSDPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSDPA cell to simultaneously support 64 HSDPA users. If the number of HSDPA users exceeds 64, the DCH is attempted for service provisioning.

Benefits
This feature provides HSDPA services at a higher peak bit rate for up to 64 users per cell.

Description
Up to 64 HSDPA users can be admitted to a HSDPA cell.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010622 32 HSDPA Users per Cell HSUPA Introduction and HSUPA 1.44 Mbit/s per User

2.4.14 WRFD-030010 CQI Adjustment Based on Dynamic BLER Target
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0

Summary
In live networks, channel quality fluctuates constantly. To achieve the highest possible downlink throughput, an appropriate Block Error Rate (BLER) target is required. This feature helps select the optimum BLER target based on downlink channel quality fluctuations in real time.

Benefits
This feature increases the downlink throughput in HSDPA cells by up to 10%.

Description
In radio environments, many factors affect downlink throughput, such as multipath fading and UE movement speeds. To achieve the highest possible downlink throughput for HSDPA users in an ever-changing radio environment, the NodeB needs to dynamically adjust the BLER target. This feature enables the NodeB to do so. After adjusting the BLER target, the NodeB can then adjust the Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) to increase the downlink throughput. This feature supports CQI adjustment based on dynamic BLER target for non-MIMO mode UE in RAN13.0 and RAN14.0 when HSDPA is both deployed in network side and UE side.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
  

BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, or EDLP board. BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Downlink Capacity Improvement Service

2.4.15 WRFD-030011 MIMO Prime
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
MIMO Prime is one of Huawei's proprietary performance technologies. Based on dual-transmission RF modules, it can greatly improve spectrum utilization and increase network capacity.

Benefits
In the scenario of the large traffic in down link, MIMO Prime can increase the capacity of the cell in which MIMO has not been implemented by about 5% to 10%. The increase in the overall cell throughput helps to greatly improve the experience of users in medium and bad radio conditions. The trial test shows that this feature can increase the throughput of the single user in medium and bad radio conditions by about 15% and 20% respectively.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

MIMO Prime does not depend on the UE and is applicable to various services including HSDPA and 64QAM. Furthermore, it does not affect the performance of traditional UEs. When the penetration of MIMO-capable UEs is low, MIMO Prime can effectively protect the investments of operators who have already deployed MIMO-capable RF modules but haven’t implemented MIMO. As the number of MIMO-capable UEs increases, operators can gradually enable the MIMO feature to achieve the maximum benefits in terms of capacity and user experience.

Description
MIMO Prime is based on Virtual Antenna Mapping (VAM), which applies matrix processing to the original signal before sending it over the antennas. The original signal is allocated to the two antennas with equal power. After VAM is enabled, each signal is split into two signals. This results in a certain phase difference in the two received signals, which affects the strength of the signals after they are combined. MIMO Prime supports automatic phase adjustment based on the signal environment, thereby achieving increased UE throughput by enhancing the reception quality of the UE.

Figure2-6-14-1 Principles of MIMO Prime

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

This feature is supported only by the 40W RRU3801C, RRU3804, RRU3806, RRU3808, WRFU, RRU3805, WRFUd, RRU3828, RRU3829, RRU3928, RRU3929, MRFUd, MRFUe, as well as the RRU3908 V1 operating in 850 MHz, 900 MHz, and 1900 MHz. For RF modules providing only one transmit channel, two such RF modules need to be interconnected to support this feature. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE do not support this feature.

 

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description
 

The DBS3800 does not support this feature. RRU3908 V2 and MRFU V2 modules support this feature from RAN14.0.0

Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on UE None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Downlink Capacity Improvement Service

2.4.16 WRFD-030004 Adaptive Configuration of Typical HSPA Rate
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature is applicable only to PS best effort (BE) services over High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) channels. This feature enables the RNC to calculate the actual maximum traffic rate based on the maximum bit rate (MBR) assigned by the CN.

Benefits
This feature enables mobile operators to quickly and flexibly provide services with various traffic rates, facilitating new market expansion to increase revenue.

Description
To meet market requirements, mobile operators need to provide services with various traffic rates over HSPA. Typical traffic rates configured at the RNC, however, are fixed and separated, and may be inconsistent with the MBR required by mobile operators. Without this feature, the RNC selects a typical traffic rate closest to the MBR assigned by the CN if a traffic rate inconsistency occurs between the RNC and CN. This rate, not the MBR, is then used for calculating the actual maximum traffic rate of the UE. As a result, the rates propagated by mobile operators are unavailable for UEs, affecting brand image. With this feature, the RNC can use the MBR assigned by the CN to calculate the actual maximum traffic rate when the MBR cannot be mapped onto any typical traffic rate. Note that the MBR assigned to UEs with an HSUPA TTI of 10 ms must be higher than 32 kbit/s and the MBR assigned to UEs with an HSUPA TTI of 2 ms must be higher than144 kbit/s. Otherwise, these UEs cannot achieve traffic rates higher than corresponding MBRs.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP+EDLP, or EULPd+EDLP boards. Downlink services must be established on the EBBI, EBOI, or EDLP board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. Downlink services must be established on the EBBC or EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board. Downlink services must be established on the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

2.4.17 WRFD-140221 HSDPA Scheduling Based on UE Location
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
Developed on the basis of the EPF algorithm, this feature considers UE locations as the criterion for adjusting HSDPA scheduling weights. This feature gives more scheduling opportunities to UEs close to the NodeB and increases the cell throughput on the downlink.

Benefits
This feature increases HSDPA throughput for UEs close to the NodeB and thereby increases the average throughput of the cell. The amount of the feature’s gain is based on the actual services and the users’ location in the cell.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
Huawei provides five HSDPA scheduling algorithms: maximum C/I (MAXCI), round-robin (RR), proportional fair (PF), enhanced proportional fair (EPF), and EPF based on UE location (EPF_LOC). They are detailed as follows:

MAXCI This algorithm only considers the radio channel quality and sequences all UEs in a cell by carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I). This algorithm ensures a high throughput for the cell but cannot ensure equity among UEs.

RR UEs are sequenced in descending order of waiting time in the MAC-hs queue. UEs have equal scheduling opportunities but the cell capacity decreases.

PF UEs are sequenced in descending order of R/r, where R is the maximum rate corresponding to the CQI reported by a UE and r is the average rate of the UE at the MAC-hs layer. This algorithm provides each UE with an average throughput that is proportionate to the maximum rate corresponding to the CQI reported by the UE. This algorithm compromises cell capacity to increase equity among UEs.

EPF Developed on the basis of the PF algorithm, the EPF algorithm classifies services into different types. While ensuring guaranteed bit rates (GBRs), the EPF algorithm allocates resources based on scheduling priority indicators (SPIs). This balances service differentiation with equity among UEs.

EPF_LOC Developed on the basis of the EPF algorithm, the EPF_LOC algorithm considers UE locations as HSDPA scheduling weights. While ensuring GBRs, the EPF_LOC algorithm gives more scheduling opportunities and a higher throughput to UEs close to the NodeB.

In the EPF_LOC algorithm, the more weight given to UE locations, the more significantly UEs at different distances from the NodeB are differentiated between, the more scheduling opportunities and the higher throughput UEs close to the NodeB have, the fewer scheduling opportunities and the lower throughput UEs far from the NodeB have. It is recommended that GBRs be configured for all UEs to ensure service quality for UEs at cell edges.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

All 3900 series base stations support this feature. To support this feature, the 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. All DBS3800 series base stations support this feature. To support this feature, the DBS3800 series base station must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The BTS3812E/BTS3812A/BTS3812AE supports this feature. To support this feature, the BTS3812E/BTS3812A/BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EDLP or EBOI board.

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010611 HSDPA Enhanced Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Downlink Capacity Improvement Service and UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

2.5 HSPA+ Prime Service
2.5.1 WRFD-010680 HSPA+ Downlink 28Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature enables the HSPA+ MIMO rate per user to reach a maximum of 28 Mbit/s. This feature enhances user experience for high-speed data services.

Benefits
 

This feature improves the frequency utilization and increases the maximum downlink rate. This feature can provide end users with high-speed data experience.

Description
HSPA+ is introduced in 3GPP Release 7 to provide high-rate data services. With this feature, the downlink peak rate increases from 13.976 Mbit/s per user in R6 to 28 Mbit/s per user (MAC layer).

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
DC-HSDPA is available from RAN12.0. With DC-HSDPA and downlink 16QAM, the downlink peak rate also can increases from 13.976 Mbit/s per user in R6 to 28 Mbit/s per user (MAC layer). DB-HSDPA is available from RAN15.0. With DB-HSDPA, the downlink peak rate can reach 28 Mbit/s per user.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC This feature requires WFMRc board in BSC6800. Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI or EDLP board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. For the RF part, the RF module of Huawei NodeB supports one TX channel each, and two interconnected RF modules can provide two TX channels to support 2 x 2 MIMO

  

Dependency on UE The UE category must support cat16, cat18 (or later). Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must support a user rate of at least 28 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010684 2*2 MIMO WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User

or
 

WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User

or
 

WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

2.5.2 WRFD-010681 HSPA+ Downlink 21Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature enables the HSPA+ 64QAM rate per user to reach a maximum of 21 Mbit/s. With this feature, users can enjoy high-speed data experience.

Benefits
 

This feature improves the frequency utilization and increases the maximum downlink rate. This feature can provide end users with high-speed data experience.

Description
HSPA+ is introduced in 3GPP Release 7 to provide high speed data services. With this feature, the downlink peak rate increases from 13.976 Mbit/s per user in R6 to 21 Mbit/s per user (MAC layer).

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC This feature requires WFMRc board in BSC6800. Dependency on NodeB To support this feature, the following configurations are required:

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, or EDLP board. The BBU3806 needs to configure the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 needs to configure the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE category must support cat 14,18,20,24 or 28 Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The CN must support a user rate of at least 21 Mbit/s. Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010683 Downlink 64QAM WRFD-010650 HSDPA 13.976Mbps per User

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.3 WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
Downlink Enhanced L2 supports the variable PDU size, which eliminates the contradictions between the high-speed transmission that requires a large PDU size and the cell-edge coverage that requires a small PDU size. This feature enables the dynamic adjustment of the PDU size to improve the transmission efficiency on the Iub and Uu interfaces and increase the cell edge throughput and coverage radius.

Benefits
This feature is a prerequisite of the 64QAM, MIMO, and enhanced CELL_FACH, which also improves the transmission efficiency on the Iub and Uu interfaces.

Description
Downlink Enhanced L2 supports the variable PDU size, which eliminates the contradictions between the high-speed transmission that requires a large PDU size and the cell-edge coverage that requires a small PDU size. In addition, enhanced L2 reduces excessive overhead caused by the fixed PDU size, and improves the transmission efficiency on the Iub and Uu interfaces. Downlink Enhanced L2 is a prerequisite for 64QAM, MIMO and enhanced CELL_FACH. It removes the restrictions on the RLC window for users whose transmission rate is more than 14 Mbit/s. At the cell edge, small PDU size requires relative low SNR, better service coverage and throughput will be attained.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on other RAN software functions

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package Dependency on UE The UE must be Release 7 (or later) UE and support this feature.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.4 WRFD-010689 HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0. It is introduced in 3GPP Release 8.

Summary
This feature enables the peak rate of the data service over HSPA+ to reach 42 Mbit/s per user.

Benefits
 

This feature improves the frequency utilization and increases the maximum downlink rate. This feature provides end users with high-rate data services.

Description
HSPA+ is introduced in 3GPP Release 7 to provide high-rate data services. With the 2*2MIMO+64QAM or 64QAM+DC HSDPA technologies introduced in R8 and the enhanced performance of relevant NEs, the downlink peak rate per user reaches up to 42 Mbit/s. TCP protocol is widely used in data transmission. As a file is being downloaded, the TCP acknowledgment is sent in uplink. The higher the rate of download is, the larger the bandwidth is required in uplink. If the download rate reaches up to 42 Mbit/s, the rate of TCP acknowledgment in uplink is much higher than 384 kbit/s which is the highest rate supported by DCH. HSUPA bearer is required to provide high bandwidth in uplink to transmit TCP acknowledgment in time. DL 42 Mbit/s per user can be supported only in case of HSUPA being used.

Enhancement
DB-HSDPA is available from RAN15.0. With DB-HSDPA and downlink 64QAM, the downlink peak rate can reach 42 Mbit/s per user.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC To enable this feature on a BSC6900, you are advised to configure a DPUe board in the BSC6900 to support more peak-rate UEs. Dependency on NodeB

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, or BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI or EDLP board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd card. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. For the RF part which supports only one TX channel, two interconnected RF modules can provide two TX channels to support 2 x 2 MIMO. In terms of RF modules including 2 Tx channels, no additional RF modules is required for 2*2MIMO.

  

Dependency on other RAN software functions WRFD-010681 HSPA+ Downlink 21Mbit/s per User plus WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA plus WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package, or WRFD-010681 HSPA+ Downlink 21Mbit/s per User plus WRFD-010680 HSPA+ Downlink 28Mbit/s per User plus WRFD-010693 DL 64QAM+MIMO plus WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package or WRFD-010681 HSPA+ Downlink 21Mbit/s per User plus WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA plus WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package, Dependency on other NEs The UE should support category of 21(or later), that is, category: 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on CN CN needs to support sending RAB assignment with relate data rate.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.5 WRFD-010683 Downlink 64QAM
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
Compared with the 16QAM modulation, the 64QAM modulation is a higher-order downlink data modulation mode. This feature enables the peak rate on the Uu interface to reach 21 Mbit/s.

Benefits
Downlink 64QAM increases the peak rate per user and improves the local cell capability.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Operators attach great importance to data service and regard it as a growing point for profits. Many consulting companies predict that the data traffic volume will grow rapidly and accordingly raise higher requirements to the network throughput. If the bandwidth remains unchanged, 64QAM will increase the average throughput of the system by 7% to 16% and further improves the spectral efficiency of the system. In this way, the system provides users with higher throughput and ultimately increases operators' profits on the per bandwidth basis. On the other hand, 64QAM also raises the peak rate per user and provides a higher download data rate for users. This enhances not only user experience but also operators' competitiveness.

Description
3GPP R5 introduces 16QAM to increase the peak rate per user and expands the system capacity, whereas 64QAM introduced in 3GPP R7 protocols is a further enhancement of 16QAM. With downlink 64QAM, higher order modulation technology than 16QAM can be used when the channel is of higher quality. Theoretically, 64QAM supports a peak data rate of 21 Mbit/s and at the same time increases the average throughput of the system. Simulation shows that compared with 16QAM, 64QAM can increase the average throughput by 7% and 16% respectively in macro cell and in micro cell, if the UEs in the cells use the type 3 receivers. The 3GPP R7 protocols define the categories of the UEs that support 64QAM, and add the information elements (IEs) that support 64QAM in the reporting of local cell capability. The RNC determines whether the RL between the NodeB and the UE supports 64QAM according to the local cell capability reported by the NodeB and the UE capability. If the RL supports 64QAM, the MAC-hs scheduler of the NodeB determines every 2 ms whether to use 64QAM according to the following aspects:
 

Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) reported by the UE HS-PDSCH code resources and power resources of the NodeB

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with EBBI board, EBOI board or EDLP board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE category must support 64QAM. That is, the UE must belong to category 13,14,17,18,19,20,23, 24, 27, 28, as specified by the 3GPP protocols.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Enhanced L2

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.6 WRFD-010684 2×2 MIMO
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
Based on space dimension resources, MIMO uses the multi-antenna technology at the transmit end and receive end. This feature can double the transmission capacity of the wireless communication system in a high SNR environment without the transmit power added.

Benefits
2x2 MIMO increases the average throughput and peak rate of the cell. In the case of unchanged bandwidth, 2x2 MIMO increases the average throughput of the system by 14% to 23%. Theoretically, the peak rate per 2X2 MIMO user can be twice the original peak rate. In addition, MIMO has gains even under lower geographical factors (G = Ior/Ioc) and have more gains under higher Ior/Ioc. From the service point of view, MIMO has a similar driving force to 64QAM.

Description
2x2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) uses two transmit antennas in the NodeB to transmit orthogonal (parallel) data streams to the two receive antennas at the UEs. Using two antennas and additional signal processing at the receiver and the transmitter, 2x2 MIMO can increase the system capacity and double user data rates without using additional bandwidth. 2x2 MIMO adopts different modes in the 3GPP protocols, with QPSK and 16QAM in R7, and later with 64QAM in R8. With dual-stream dual-antenna mode and 16QAM modulation, the peak data rate per user is doubled to 28 Mbit/s and the average throughput of the system is enhanced. The 3GPP R7 protocols define the categories of the UEs that support MIMO, and add the information elements (IEs) that support MIMO in the reporting of local cell capability. The

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

RNC determines whether the RL between the NodeB and the UE supports MIMO according to the local cell capability and UE capability reported by the NodeB. If the RL supports MIMO, the MAC-hs scheduler of the NodeB determines every 2 ms whether to use MIMO according to the following aspects:
   

Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) reported by the UE Precoding Control Indication (PCI) HS-PDSCH code resources and power resources of the NodeB

For MIMO and HSDPA Co-carrier scenario, refer to WRFD-010700 Performance Improvement of MIMO and HSDPA Co-carrier.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with EBBI board, EBOI board or EDLP board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. For the RF part, the RF module of Huawei NodeB supports one TX channel each and two interconnected RF modules can provide two TX channels to support 2 x 2 MIMO. 20W RRU3801c can only support MIMO by using together with the same module (20W RRU3801c)

  

Dependency on UE The UE must belong to category 15 (or later), that is, category 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.7 WRFD-010693 DL 64QAM+MIMO
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
MIMO and 64QAM are introduced in 3GPP Release 7 and can only be used independently. In 3GPP Release 8, however, MIMO and 64QAM can be used in combination to increase the peak throughput of a single user.

Benefits
With 64QAM+MIMO, the peak throughput of a single user can reach 42 Mbit/s, compared to 28 Mbit/s with 16QAM+MIMO or 21 Mbit/s with 64QAM only.

Description

Channel bearer The SRB, CS service, IMS signaling, and PS conversational services are not carried on MIMO, 64QAM, or MIMO+64QAM because the data flow is small and the gain is insignificant. The PS streaming service, PS interactive service, PS background service, and the combined services with previous services can be carried on MIMO+64QAM.

Scheduling The user scheduling based on a new extended CQI table for the MIMO+64QAM user is supported.

Mobility management The UE can be handed over from an MIMO+64QAM capable cell to an MIMO+64QAM incapable cell and the MIMO+64QAM falls back. If UE moves in the opposite direction, the MIMO+64QAM can be reconfigured to the UE after handover.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The HBBI and HDLP of the BTS3812E and BTS3812AE do not support 64QAM+MIMO. To support 64QAM+MIMO, the EBBI or EDLP must be configured.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

The BBU3806 of the DBS3800 does not support 64QAM+MIMO. To support 64QAM+MIMO, the EBBC or EBBCd board must be configured. The 3900 series base stations support 64QAM+MIMO when the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board is configured.

Dependency on UE The UE must support HS-DSCH category 19, 20, 23, 24, 27 or 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010683 Downlink 64QAM WRFD-010684 2× MIMO 2

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.8 WRFD-010698 HSPA+ Uplink 11.5Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature provides an uplink peak rate of 11.5 Mbit/s for a single user through uplink 16QAM and E-DPCCH boosting or DC-HSUPA.

Benefits
This feature improves spectrum efficiency and increases the peak uplink rate, allowing end users to enjoy high-speed uplink data services.

Description
This feature utilizes 16QAM (introduced in 3GPP Release 7) and E-DPCCH boosting to increase the uplink peak rate from 5.74 Mbit/s to 11.5 Mbit/s.

Enhancement
None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware For uplink 16QAM+E-DPCCH boosting,
  

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

For DC-HSUPA,

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULP or EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on other RAN features For uplink 16QAM+E-DPCCH boosting,
  

WRFD-010694 UL 16QAM WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2 WRFD-010697 E-DPCCH Boosting

For DC-HSUPA,
 

WRFD-140204 DC-HSUPA WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2

Dependency on other NEs
 

The UE must support E-DPCCH boosting. The UE must be of HSUPA category 7, 8 or 9. The CN must support an uplink data rate of at least 11.5 Mbit/s.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.9 WRFD-010703 HSPA+ Downlink 84 Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
This feature provides a downlink peak rate of 84 Mbit/s for a single user through the simultaneous use of 64QAM, multiple-input multiple output (MIMO), and dual-cell HSDPA (DC-HSDPA).

Benefits
This feature enables end users to enjoy high-speed data services.

Description
3GPP Release 9 defines the scenario where MIMO and DC-HSDPA are used together. When the techniques 64QAM, MIMO, and DC-HSDPA are jointly used, a downlink peak rate of 84 Mbit/s can be achieved for a single user.

Enhancement
DB-HSDPA+MIMO can be used together with 4C-HSDPA or downlink 64QAM+MIMO from RAN15.0. With either feature group, the downlink peak rate can reach 84 Mbit/s per user.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware

To enable this feature on a BSC6900, the DPUe board must be configured for the data plane and the interface board FG2a (GE port), FG2c (GE port), GOUa, or GOUc must be configured. To enable this feature on a BSC6910, the interface board FG2c (GE port), GOUc, or EXOUa must be configured.

Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812AE/BTS3812E and DBS3800 cannot provide the downlink peak rate of 84 Mbit/s per user. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb3,WBBPb4,WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on other UE

The UE must be of category 28, 31 or 32 to support 84 Mbit/s in the downlink, according to 3GPP Release 9.

Dependency on other NE None Dependency on CN The CN must support a user rate of at least 84 Mbit/s. Dependency on other RAN features

WRFD-010689 HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User

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 

WRFD-010693 Downlink 64QAM+MIMO WRFD-010699 DC-HSDPA+MIMO or

 

WRFD-010689 HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User WRFD-150207 4C-HSDPA or

  

WRFD-010689 HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User WRFD-010693 Downlink 64QAM+MIMO WRFD-150227 DB-HSDPA+MIMO

Professional Service
It is recommended that this feature be used together with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service.

2.5.10 WRFD-010699 DC-HSDPA+MIMO
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
DC-HSDPA+MIMO is introduced in 3GPP Release 9. This feature combines DC-HSDPA (introduced in 3GPP Release 8) and MIMO (introduced in 3GPP Release 7). This feature allows the NodeB to send HSDPA data to a UE simultaneously over two adjacent carriers on the same frequency band within the same coverage area by using MIMO.

Benefits
This feature fully utilizes the advantages of dual-carrier and dual-antenna techniques of DC-HSDPA and MIMO respectively. It improves the spectrum efficiency and significantly increases the single-user peak throughput, cell-edge-user throughput, and cell capacity.

Increasing the single user peak throughput DC-HSDPA+MIMO achieves higher spatial multiplexing gain than DC-HSDPA. This feature doubles the single-user peak rate from 28 Mbit/s to 56 Mbit/s (When using 16QAM modulation) or from 42 Mbit/s to 84 Mbit/s (with 64QAM). DC-HSDPA+MIMO uses two carriers simultaneously while SC-HSDPA uses only one carrier. This feature doubles the single-user peak rate, as mentioned previously.

Increasing the cell-edge-user throughput DC-HSDPA+MIMO achieves closed-loop transmit diversity gain on the cell edge, compared with DC-HSDPA. DC-HSDPA+MIMO use two carriers and doubles the throughput, compared with SC-HSDPA+MIMO.

Increasing the cell capacity

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DC-HSDPA+MIMO improve the spectrum efficiency within 10 MHz bandwidth and Huawei simulation test shows that it can increase the system throughput by 10% to 20%, compared with DC-HSDPA.

Description
The following figure shows the basic principles of DC-HSDPA+MIMO.

The DC-HSDPA+MIMO feature brings together the performance enhancement benefits of the two different technologies DC-HSDPA and MIMO. RAN13.0 supports the configuration of MIMO on one or two carriers to reach the theoretical peak rate of 63 Mbit/s or 84 Mbit/s respectively. The PS best effort services are carried over DC-HSDPA+MIMO. DC-HSDPA+MIMO apply the same principles as DC-HSDPA in load control and mobility management.

Enhancement
In RAN15.0, non-adjacent carriers at the same frequency band can be used for DC-HSDPA.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI or EDLP board, and the uplink services cannot be set up on HBBI/HULP board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. In addition, the DBS3800 supports a maximum of DC+MIMOx1, that is, only one frequency in the DC-HSDPA cell can be configured with the MIMO feature. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

Dependency on other RAN features

WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA

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WRFD-010684 2x2 MIMO

Dependency on other NEs
 

The UE must be of HS-DSCH category 25, 26, 27, or 28. Differentiated Service Management

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.11 WRFD-010694 UL 16QAM
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
3GPP Release 7 introduces HSUPA UE category 7, which supports the 16QAM mode and a UL peak rate of up to 11.5 Mbit/s in theory.

Benefits
The UL system capacity of the HSUPA network is increased. The peak rate of HSUPA users (UE category 7) is increased.

Description
3GPP R7 introduces UE category 7, which supports the 16QAM mode and a UL peak rate of up to 11.5 Mbit/s in theory. This is a 100% improvement over the previous 3GPP release of HSUPA for which the maximum peak rate is 5.74 Mbit/s" The HSUPA 16QAM improves the UL data transmission performance and increases the system capacity of HSUPA cells.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
  

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board. The DBS3800 supports must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

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Dependency on UE The UE must be of category 7, category 9. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.12 WRFD-010695 UL Layer 2 Improvement
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
In RAN11.0 or earlier versions, the UL radio link controller (RLC) operates only in fixed PDU mode. The size of protocol data units (PDUs) is fixed. After UL layer 2 improvement is introduced, the UL RLC (in UM and AM modes) can operate in flexible PDU or fixed PDU mode, depending on the higher-layer configuration. When the RLC operates in flexible PDU mode, it can receive PDUs of flexible sizes so as to decrease the size of UL PDUs and increase the UL throughput in the case that the UL transmit power of the UE is limited.

Benefits
This feature improves the user peak throughput as well as the uplink throughput in weak coverage. When the UE moves from the center of the cell to the border of the cell and no layer 2 improvement is available, the transmit power of the UE is limited if the distance from the center of the cell reaches a specified value. In such a case, the throughput decreases sharply, and the transportation may be interrupted. After UL layer 2 improvement is introduced, the throughput can decrease smoothly because the size of PDUs transmitted by the UE decreases. Therefore, the transportation is more continuous.

Description
In 3GPP R7, in the downlink, MAC layer segmentation is introduced through the change from the fixed PDU size to the flexible PDU size for the RLC. Therefore, the DL supports the high rate, DL layer 2 evolution, and smooth evolution of old protocol formats to new formats. The UL has similar problems. The PDUs of a fixed size cannot support high rate services effectively because PDUs of a small size are not applicable to high rate services. Though PDUs of a large size are applicable to high rate services, the power at the border of the cell is

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limited. Moreover, the fixed PDU size may lead to additional padding bits, affecting the transmission efficiency.
  

UL layer 2 improvement has the following characteristics: RLC supports flexible RLC PDU sizes. The MAC layer introduces the MAC-i/is entity. The biggest difference between the MAC-i/is entity and the MAC-e/es entity is that the MAC-i/is entity supports data segmentation and concatenation at the MAC layer and can select an appropriate PDU size based on the air interface quality to improve the data transmission efficiency.

The RNC can determine whether layer 2 improvement is required according to the UE capability, cell capability, and active set capability. The network side supports the handover between the cells with UL layer 2 improvement and the cells without UL layer 2 improvement.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
  

For BTS3812E and BTS3812AE, EBBI/EBOI/EULP/EULPd is needed. For BBU3806, EBBC or EBBCd is needed. For BBU3900, WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf is needed.

Dependency on UE The UE needs to be compliant with 3GPP Release 8 (or later) to support the feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

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2.5.13 WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
The Dual Cell-HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) feature allows the UE to establish connections to two adjacent inter-frequency same-coverage cells. With this feature, the UE can use the resources in both cells that perform an operation on different carriers, increasing the peak throughput of the UE.

Benefits
This feature improves the single-user throughput and the cell throughput.

Single-user throughput

After DC-HSDPA is introduced, the throughput is doubled at the center and border of the cell. Theoretically, DC-HSDPA in 64QAM mode can provide a peak throughput of 42 Mbit/s at the center of the cell. The gain also shortens the data transmission delay and improves user experience.

Cell throughput

After DC-HSDPA is introduced, DC-HSDPA has the cell throughput gain of 5%–10% relative to the total throughput of the two inter-frequency co-coverage cells. The gain is inversely proportional to the number of UEs in a cell.

Description

Configuration of primary and secondary carriers

When two frequencies, for example, f1 and f2 are used in DC-HSDPA, one DL frequency serves as the primary carrier and the other as the secondary carrier, which is defined in 3GPP TR25.825. In the UL, only one frequency is used, which serves as the primary carrier. Both DC-HSDPA cells are configured with the PCPICH, SCH, PCCPCH, SCCPCH, and PRACH. Both cells have the basic common channel (CCH) configuration for retaining and initiating services. The single carrier (SC) UEs can camp or originate a call in each cell.

DC-HSDPA differentiated bearer policy

The CS service, IMS signaling, SRB signaling, or PS conversational service is carried on a single carrier instead of DC-HSDPA because the amount of data is small and the gain is insignificant when DC-HSDPA is used. The BE or streaming service can be carried over the DC-HSDPA. The BE/streaming combined service is carried over the DC-HSDPA preferentially.

Mobility management

The active set information and measurement reports are sent on the primary carrier during the handover of DC users. Whether to perform an intra-frequency or inter-frequency handover depends on the frequencies of the primary carrier and the neighboring cell.

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RAN12.0 supports handovers between DC cells, between the DC cell and the SC cell, and between the DC cell and the system using the other RAT, to ensure seamless roaming of DC terminals.

State transition in DC-HSDPA

The UE state transition in DC-HSDPA is performed in the same way as the state transition in SC mode.

Traffic steering in DC-HSDPA

In the original network, R99 services preferentially use f1 and HSPA services use f2. After DC-HSDPA is introduced, both f1 and f2 can be used for DL DC-HSDPA, and f2 is preferred for HSUPA. In this way, the UL load on f1 is reduced, without disrupting R99 services. If the R99 and HSPA services have the same priority on f1 and f2 in the original network, traffic steering is kept the same as that of HSPA after DC-HSDPA is introduced. STTD mode is not supported when activate DC-HSDPA.

Enhancement
In RAN15.0, non-adjacent carriers at the same frequency band can be used for DC-HSDPA.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The HBBI and HDLP of the BTS3812E and BTS3812AE do not support DC-HSDPA. To support DC-HSDPA, the EBBI or EDLP board must be configured. The BBU3806 configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board supports this feature. The 3900 series base stations support this feature when the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board is configured.

 

Dependency on UE The HS-DSCH capabilities are classified into category 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.14 WRFD-140203 HSPA+ Uplink 23 Mbit/s per User
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature allows a maximum uplink rate of 23 Mbit/s per user by using DC-HSUPA and 16QAM techniques.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
 

Improves frequency utilization and increases the uplink peak rate per user. Provides end users with a high-speed uplink data service experience.

Description
Based on the existing HSUPA peak rate of 11.5 Mbit/s, this feature increases the peak rate to 23 Mbit/s by using DC-HSUPA and 16QAM techniques.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware When the BSC6900 works in IP transmission, the BSC6900 must be configured with the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, GOUc, or POUc board. Dependency on NodeB hardware
  

All 3900 series base stations support this feature. The WBBPd or WBBPf board must be configured on these base stations. All DBS3800 series base stations support this feature. The EBBCd board must be configured on these base stations. The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE support this feature. The EULPd board must be configured on these base stations. Downlink services must be established on the EBBI, EBOI or EDLP board. When 4-way receive diversity is used, only the 3900 series base stations (except the BTS3902E) support this feature.

Dependency on the UE

The UE must support E-DPCCH Boosting and DC-HUSPA.

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The UE must be of HSUPA UE category 9.

Dependency on the other NEs None Dependency on the CN The CN is of 3GPP Release 7 or later to support a maximum uplink rate of 23 Mbit/s or higher, which is promised at service subscription time. Dependency on other RAN features
   

WRFD-010694 UL 16QAM WRFD-010697 E-DPCCH Boosting WRFD-140204 DC-HSUPA WRFD-010698 HSPA+ Uplink 11.5Mbit/s per User

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.15 WRFD-140204 DC-HSUPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
Introduced in 3GPP Release 9, the feature Dual-Cell High Speed Uplink Packet Access (DC-HSUPA) allows a UE in the uplink to use two adjacent 5 MHz carriers at the same time. This increases the peak rate per user for uplink data transmission and the average cell throughput.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:

Increased uplink peak rate per user and a higher possibility to achieve high rates with the same uplink received total wideband power (RTWP). High-speed uplink data service experience for end users.

Description
DC-HSUPA achieves a smooth evolution of HSPA by using uplink carrier aggregation. This feature enables a UE to perform E-DCH transmission simultaneously on adjacent carriers of two neighboring cells and therefore supports a higher transmission rate. With DC-HSUPA, one enhanced dedicated channel (E-DCH) is established on each of the two carriers. On both E-DCHs, only 2 ms transmission time interval (TTI) can be used. To use DC-HSUPA, the UE must also be enabled with DC-HSDPA, Uplink Layer 2 Improvement,

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SRB over HSUPA, and SRB over HSDPA. The F-DPCH must be used in the downlink and the DPDCH cannot be used in the uplink. The primary DC-HSDPA carrier, which carries the HS-DPCCH in the uplink, is also the primary DC-HSUPA carrier. Both carriers use the DPCCH in the uplink and F-DPCH in the downlink for closed-loop power control. DC-HSUPA can work with both or either of UL 16QAM and E-DPCCH Boosting. The two carriers must have the same feature configuration. For example, if the primary carrier is configured with DC-HSUPA and UL 16QAM, the secondary carrier must also be configured with DC-HSUPA and UL 16 QAM. The two DC-HSUPA carriers have separate uplink and downlink signaling control, for example, scheduling information (SI) and happy bit in the uplink and absolute grant (AG) and relative grant (RG) in the downlink. High-speed PS streaming and BE services can be carried over DC-HSUPA. SRB signaling, CS services, IMS signaling, PS conversational services, as well as combinations of SRB signaling and one of these three services are not carried over DC-HSUPA. This is because these services produce only a small amount of data and therefore using DC-HSUPA brings unnoticeable gains. Non-scheduling services can only be carried over the primary DC-HSUPA carrier.
DL: F-DPCH UL: DPCCH

Primary carrier

DL: HS-PDSCH, HS-SCCH UL: HS-DPCCH UL: E-DPDCH, E-DPCCH DL: E-AGCH, E-RGCH, E-HICH

HS-DSCH

E-DCH

NodeB DL: F-DPCH UL: DPCCH UE

Secondary carrier

DL: HS-PDSCH, HS-SCCH

HS-DSCH

UL: E-DPDCH, E-DPCCH DL: E-AGCH, E-RGCH, E-HICH

E-DCH

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

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  

All 3900 series base stations support this feature. The WBBPd or WBBPf board must be configured on these base stations. All DBS3800 series base stations support this feature. The EBBCd board must be configured on these base stations. The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP or EULPd board support this feature. Downlink services must be established on the EBBI, EBOI or EDLP board. When 4-way receive diversity is used, only the 3900 series base stations (except the BTS3902E) support this feature.

Dependency on the UE
   

The UE must comply with 3GPP Release 9 or later. The UE must be of HSUPA UE category 8 or 9. Category-8 UEs support only DC-HSUPA+QPSK. Their peak rate is 11.5 Mbit/s. Category-9 UEs support DC-HSUPA+16QAM. Their peak rate is 23 Mbit/s.

Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
     

WRFD-010614 HSUPA Phase 2 WRFD-010695 UL Layer 2 Improvement WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.5.16 WRFD-150207 4C-HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature, four-carrier HSDPA (4C-HSDPA), uses three or four carriers for the High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) transmission of a UE, which increases the UE downlink throughput.

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Benefits
This feature increases the single-user throughput by about 300% compared with HSDPA. The increase in the single-user throughput is noticeable even at the cell edge.

Description
This feature was first specified by 3GPP Release 10. This feature allows a UE to set up HSDPA connections with three or four carriers that use HSDPA and 64QAM. In the downlink, the UE simultaneously receives data from different carriers, increasing the single-user throughput. In the uplink, the UE uses Dedicated Channel (DCH), High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), or Dual-Carrier HSUPA (DC-HSUPA). The signaling radio bearer (SRB) for the UE is carried over DCH or HSDPA. The radio access network (RAN) schedules 4C-HSDPA UEs and other HSDPA UEs jointly for fast resource allocation and load balancing among carriers. The joint scheduling also increases the UE throughput and the fairness among UEs on different carriers. When a UE uses four carriers for HSDPA transmission, the four carriers must belong to one NodeB, cover the same area, and operate at two frequency bands. For details about the frequency bands that can be used for the HSDPA transmission of a UE, see 3GPP TS 25.104. When a UE uses three carriers for HSDPA transmission, the three carriers can operate either at one frequency band or at two frequency bands. Two of the three carriers must be adjacent, as shown in the following figure:
N x 5 MHz 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Band a

This feature applies to PS best effort (BE) services, streaming services, and combined services that include PS BE or streaming services. This feature does not apply to CS services, IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) signaling, PS conversational services, or SRB signaling, because the gains provided by this feature are not noticeable for services that have only a small amount of data to transmit.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812AE, and BTS3812A must be configured with the EBBI, EDLP+EULP, or EDLP+EULPd boards to support 3C-HSDPA. The three carriers must operate at the same frequency band.

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 

The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board to support 3C-HSDPA. The three carriers can operate at different frequency bands. The 3900 series base stations (excluding the BTS3902E) support this feature. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board to support 3C-HSDPA and must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board to support 4C-HSDPA.

Dependency on UEs The UEs must belong to HSDPA category 29, 30, 31, or 32. Dependency on other RAN features
  

WRFD-150208 Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA WRFD-010683 Downlink 64 QAM WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA In a cell group that uses 4C-HSDPA, if one cell in the group operates at a different frequency band from other cells, all cells in the group must support DB-HSDPA. (DB is short for dual band.)

WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA In a cell group that uses 4C-HSDPA, if multiple cells in the group operate at the same frequency band, all these cells must support DC-HSDPA.

2.5.17 WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0. It was first specified by 3GPP Release 9.

Summary
The Dual-Band HSDPA (DB-HSDPA) feature allows UEs to simultaneously establish connections in two inter-band same-coverage cells. With this feature, UEs can use the resources of two cells operating at different frequency bands, which increase the peak throughput of UEs.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits to multi-band networks:

Increased single-user throughput This feature doubles single-user throughput for multi-band networks. Specifically, this feature can provide a maximum single-user throughput of 42 Mbit/s in the cell center with 64QAM enabled. The increase in single-user throughput reduces transmission delay, which improves user experience.

Increased cell throughput This feature increases cell throughput by 5% to 10% for multi-band networks. The throughput gain is inversely proportional to the number of UEs that have data to send in the cell.

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Description
This feature is described as follows:

Primary/secondary carrier configuration in a DB-HSDPA cell group If a DB-HSDPA cell group consists of two cells, 3GPP Release 9 specifies that a DB-HSDPA UE must:
− −

Use the downlink frequency of one cell as the primary carrier and that of the other cell as the secondary carrier. Use the uplink frequency of the cell corresponding to the primary carrier only.

Two cells in a DB-HSDPA cell group are both configured with the P-CPICH, SCH, P-CCPCH, S-CCPCH, and PRACH. In addition, this feature enables UEs to camp on and initiate services in the two cells.

Application scope This feature does not apply to CS services, IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) signaling, PS conversational services, or SRB signaling because the gains provided by this feature are not noticeable for services that have only a small amount of data to transmit. This feature applies to services that may have a large amount of data to transmit, for example, streaming or best effort (BE) services.

Selection of DB-HSDPA or Dual-Carrier HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) cell groups In a network supporting both DB-HSDPA and DC-HSDPA, the two features have the same configuration priority because:
− −

A UE supporting DB-HSDPA also supports DC-HSDPA. DB-HSDPA and DC-HSDPA provide similar gains.

Therefore, the selection of DB-HSDPA or DC-HSDPA cell groups depends on the traffic steering or load balancing policy.

Mobility management The active set information and measurement results are based on the primary carrier when a DB-HSDPA UE is being handed over. If the frequencies of the primary carrier before and after the handover are the same, this handover is an intra-frequency handover. Otherwise, this handover is an inter-frequency handover. RAN15.0 supports handovers between DB-HSDPA cells, DB-HSDPA and DC-HSDPA cells, DB-HSDPA and Single-Carrier HSDPA (SC-HSDPA) cells, and DB-HSDPA and inter-RAT cells to ensure seamless roaming for DB-HSDPA UEs. (RAT is short for radio access technology.)

State transition for DB-HSDPA UEs The state transition procedure for DB-HSDPA UEs is the same as that for non-DB-HSDPA UEs. DB-HSDPA cannot be used with space time transmit diversity (STTD).

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None

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Dependency on NodeB hardware The RF modules must support the frequency bands on which DB-HSDPA carrier groups operate. The requirements for baseband modules are as follows:
  

The 3900 series base stations (excluding the BTS3902E) support this feature and must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. The BBU3806 of DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3806C does not support this feature. The BTS3812A, BTS3812AE and BTS3812E series base stations do not support this feature.

Dependency on UEs The UEs must be of HSDPA category 25 or higher and must support DB-HSDPA. Dependency on other features
  

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 WRFD-010629 DL 16QAM Modulation

2.6 HSPA+ Performance Improvement
2.6.1 WRFD-010688 Downlink Enhanced CELL-FACH
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature enables the FACH to be carried on the HS-DSCH. Based on this feature, the UE can receive data at a higher rate in CELL_FACH state.

Benefits
This feature enables the UE to transmit data at a higher rate in CELL_FACH state and shorten the state transition delay of the UE, thereby enhancing the experience of end users in online state.

Description
Enhanced CELL-FACH is a new feature introduced in R7. Based on this feature, the UE can receive data on the HS-DSCH at a higher rate in CELL_FACH state.

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After this feature is introduced, the UE is still in CELL_FACH state. This feature is used for downlink data transmission of the UE. The data carried on the BCCH, CCCH, DCCH, or DTCH can be mapped to the HS-DSCH and then transmitted to the UE through the HSDPA shared channel on the Uu interface. In this case, the UE in CELL_FACH state can share HSDPA code resources and power resources as the UE in CELL_DCH does, implementing downlink high-speed data transmission and shortening the state transition delay of the UE. This feature enhances the traditional CELL-FACH that is used for only low-speed (32 kbit/s) data transmission. In R7, the UE incapable of enhanced CELL-FACH uses the traditional CELL-FACH to receive data, and the UE capable of enhanced CELL-FACH uses the enhanced CELL-FACH to receive data if the cell on which the UE camps supports the enhanced CELL-FACH. To enable the UE to receive data from the HS-DSCH in CELL_FACH state, UTRAN adds HS-DSCH receiving parameters in CELL_FACH state to the system broadcast information. The parameters include HS-SCCH configuration, HS-PDSCH configuration, and common H-RNTI identifier. When the cell is configured with HS-DSCH receiving, the UE preferentially uses the HS-DSCH to receive dedicated signaling data carried on the FACH in CELL_FACH state instead of on the SCCPCH. The UE in CELL_FACH state keeps monitoring the HS-SCCH. If any data is available, the UE automatically receives data from the HS-DSCH without state handover from the FACH to DCH, avoiding the delay caused by the state handover.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The HBBI and HDLP of the BTS3812E and BTS3812AE do not support this feature. The EBBI or EDLP board must be configured for this feature. The BBU3806 of the DBS3800 does not support this feature. The EBBC or EBBCd board must be configured for this feature. The WBBPa of the 3900 series base stations does not support this feature. The WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board must be configured for this feature.

Dependency on other RAN software functions WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 Dependency on other NEs The UE must be Release 7 (or later) UE and support this feature.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

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2.6.2 WRFD-010700 Performance Improvement of MIMO and HSDPA Co-carrier
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
The performance of MIMO cells configured with Spatial Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) deteriorates obviously, because the receivers of legacy HSDPA-supportive UEs fall back from equalizer to rake. At an early phase of MIMO deployment, a large number of legacy HSDPA-supportive UEs are in use on networks. In the MIMO and HSDPA co-carrier case, the deterioration in system performance has become the greatest obstacle to commercial launch of MIMO. To solve the preceding problem and improve the MIMO and HSDPA co-carrier performance, Huawei develops PSP-based MIMO, where PSP refers to the Primary/Secondary common Pilot mode.

Benefits
This feature solves performance deterioration in networks where STTD is employed and legacy HSDPA-enabled UEs are used. This feature helps implement the MIMO and HSDPA co-carrier deployment. With this feature, MIMO and HSDPA can be properly deployed on the same carrier so that frequency resources are saved.

Description
MIMO-supportive UEs estimate the characteristics of channels transmitted from each antenna, based on the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH). In a cell, signals are transmitted over the CPICH in two modes: STTD on the Primary CPICH (P-CPICH) and PSP. In STTD mode, the receivers of legacy HSDPA-supportive UEs fall back from equalizer to rake. This causes obvious deterioration in the system performance. This feature adopts PSP-based MIMO to improve the MIMO and HSDPA co-carrier performance. The key techniques involved are PSP, Intelligent Interference Control (IIC), and Virtual Antenna Mapping (VAM).

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

PSP is applied in MIMO mode. The P-CPICH is configured on one antenna and the S-CPICH is configured on the other antenna so that diversity is prevented. The P-CPICH and S-CPICH are used for channel estimation of MIMO users. In this way, the receivers of HSDPA-supportive UEs do not fall back from equalizer to rake. If PSP is enabled, the signals transmitted from the secondary antenna are unknown to HSDPA-supportive UEs, and therefore the receivers of the UEs cannot suppress the multipath interface caused by the signals from the secondary antenna. In this case, the system performance deteriorates. To solve this problem, IIC is applied. IIC monitors the percentage of each type of UE in a cell in an intelligent manner and dynamically adjusts the available power that is allocated to MIMO users and HSDPA users. In this way, IIC controls the interference caused by the signals from the secondary antenna to the signals of legacy HSDPA-supportive UEs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

This feature is only supported by 40W RRU3801C, RRU3804, RRU3806, RRU3808, WRFU, RRU3805, WRFUd, RRU3828, RRU3829, RRU3928, RRU3929, MRFUd, MRFUe and 850M/900M/1900M RRU3908V1 The BTS3812E/AE cannot support this feature. The RRU3908 V2 and MRFU V2 modules support this feature from RAN14.0.

 

Dependency on UE The UE must be support 2x2 MIMO. That is, the UE category must be category 15, 16, 17, or 18 as defined by 3GPP Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package WRFD-010685 Downlink Enhanced L2 WRFD-010684 2x2 MIMO

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.6.3 WRFD-010686 CPC - DTX / DRX
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature is related to uplink DTX and downlink DRX. This feature can reduce the interference between UEs and improve the HSPA+ user capacity per cell.

Benefits
This feature improves the always online experience of end users, increase the system capacity, and save the battery consumption of the UE.

Description
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)/Discontinuous Reception (DRX) are the key features of the CPC, which consists of DTX in the uplink and DRX in the downlink. Uplink DTX means that the UE automatically makes discontinuous transmission on the DPCCH according to a certain pattern when there is no transmission on the EDCH and the HS-DPCCH in the uplink. The UL DPCCH DTX pattern is configured by SRNC to on one hand minimize the transmission on DPCCH and on the other hand maintain the physical uplink synchronization between NodeB and UE by periodically sending. Uplink DTX reduces the noise raised by the DPCCH in the uplink and also reduces the redundant signal on the DPCCH. Downlink DRX is implemented on the basis of Uplink DTX. Downlink DRX means that the UE receives data on the HS-SCCH according to the transport pattern that RNC configures, and the UE need not detect the HS-SCCH in the period when no data would be sent according to the pattern. In the scenario that multi-users continue to download with full of data in downlink, this feature can reduce uplink load by 30% to 40% as well as help to save UE’s battery in different level.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EULPd board (supporting uplink DTX), or EDLP board (supporting downlink DRX). The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on UE The UE must be Release-7 (or later) to support this feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA

2.6.4 WRFD-010687 CPC - HS-SCCH less operation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature is related to HS-SCCH less operation. This feature can increase the capacity of downlink data services.

Benefits
This feature can increase the capacity of downlink data services.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
The HS-SCCH Less HS-DSCH Transmission (HS-SCCH Less Operation for short) mechanism means that the HS-DSCH need not be accompanied by the HS-SCCH when sending the predefined small transport blocks, and the HARQ retransmission for the first HS-DSCH transmission requires the company of the HS-SCCH. This is one of the key features of the CPC. HS-SCCH Less HS-DSCH Transmission only applies to the UE in CELL_DCH state when the F-DPCH is configured but the DCH is not configured in the UL and DL directions (actually the uplink is more concerned). This mechanism can be initiated without DTX/DRX, that is, HS-SCCH Less HS-DSCH Transmission and DTX/DRX are independent of each other. In addition, HS-SCCH Less Operation has the following features:
    

Supports the QPSK modulation only. Supports only four predefined transport formats (MAC-hs PDU). Provides four semi-static transport formats for UEs. HS-PDSCH CRC is 24 bit and UE-specific (HS-PDSCH CRC is the same as HS-SCCH CRC; therefore, HS-PDSCH CRC contains a 16-bit H-RNTI). Allocates up to two predefined HS-PDSCH codes to each UE:
− − −

The predefined HS-PDSCH codes are allocated to the UE in semi-static state. The UE can receive HS-SCCH Less HS-DSCH Transmission at any time on one or two codes, and can perform blind detection in four formats. The UE must keep cyclic buffer for 13 continuous TTIs for blind detection of the HS-PDSCH codes.

The UE does not send the NACK for the first transmission but it sends the ACK/NACK for retransmission.

Limitations of HARQ:
− − 

Two retransmissions Predefined redundancy version (not configurable)

HARQ retransmission of HS-SCCH Less HS-DSCH Transmission should accompany the HS-SCCH by using the same channel codes and encoding modes between Release 5 and Release 6. Some bits, however, may change their meanings and inform the UE of the following information:
− − − −

The HS-SCCH is used for HS-SCCH Less Operation. The retransmission is the first or the second one. The channel codes and TB size used by HARQ. HARQ combined information, which uses the offset of current TTI to indicate the position where the information has been sent.

The UE keeps attempting to receive data from the HS-SCCH in a traditional sense.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must be Release-7 (or later) to support this feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA

2.6.5 WRFD-010697 E-DPCCH Boosting
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature uses the E-DCH dedicated physical control channel (E-DPCCH) instead of the DPCCH as the reference channel for channel estimation during HSUPA demodulation. This feature helps reduce the SIR requirement of the DPCCH and increase the rates of HSUPA services.

Benefits
This feature together with uplink 16QAM increases uplink rates to the theoretical peak rate 11.5 Mbit/s instead of less than 8 Mbit/s due to SIR target limitation of the DPCCH.

Description
  

E-DPCCH boosting is introduced in 3GPP Release 7. This technique is a prerequisite for uplink 16QAM to increase uplink rates because a higher rate requires more accurate channel estimation. Traditionally, the DPCCH is selected as the reference channel for channel estimation. The DPCCH, however, cannot meet the power requirement in the case of high-speed transmission bursts in the uplink. This is because the DPCCH power is affected by outer-loop power control, and therefore delay exists in the power adjustment. Also, the SIR target of the

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

DPCCH is limited. These limitations of the DPCCH adversely affect the accuracy of channel estimation.

To solve this limitation, the E-DPCCH boosting technique increases the transmit power of E-DPCCH and uses the E-DPCCH for channel estimation. The boosting technique can lower the requirement for DPCCH SIR. The E-DPCCH can increase the accuracy of channel estimation because its transmit power is not limited. In this way, this feature improves the reception quality of uplink high-speed services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd board, and the downlink services cannot be set up on HBBI/HDLP/NDLP board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on other NEs The UE must be Release-7 (or later) to support the boosting technique. Dependency on CN The CN must support a data bit rate of at least 11.5 Mbit/s. Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Downlink Capacity Improvement Service

2.6.6 WRFD-010701 Uplink Enhanced CELL_FACH
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature enables the random access channel (RACH) to be mapped onto the E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Control Channel (E-DPDCH). With this feature, UEs in the CELL_FACH state can transmit uplink data at higher rates.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Benefits
This feature improves the "always-on" experience by providing high-speed uplink data transmission for UEs in the CELL_FACH state and shortening the UE state transition and service setup delay. Compared with the traditional CELL_FACH state, the service setup delay for a UE to transit from idle mode to the CELL_DCH state and the UE state transition delay from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH can be shortened by more than 50%.

Description
Enhanced uplink for the CELL_FACH state is introduced in 3GPP Release 8. This feature enables UEs in idle mode or the CELL_FACH state to use the E-DPDCH for data transmission at higher rates. Higher rates are achieved because the RACH is mapped onto the E-DPCH instead of the physical random access channel (PRACH). In contrast to the PRACH, which provides 20 ms TTI and 8 kbit/s, the E-DPCH provides 2 ms or 10 ms TTI. This feature can increase the maximum transmission rate, theoretically, to 5.76 Mbit/s.

In addition, this feature uses the E-AI (Extended AI) to support more signature sequences. As a result, the probability that UEs compete for uplink transmission resources is lower, and user experience is improved.

Enhancement
The feature enhancement in RAN15.0 allows UEs in the CELL_FACH state to send feedback on the High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) to NodeBs during simultaneous uplink and downlink data transmission. The UEs send ACK/CK responses and channel quality indicator (CQI) information to the NodeBs over the High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH). This improves the downlink average throughput for the WRFD-010688 Downlink Enhanced CELL_FACH feature. (The FACH is mapped onto the HS-DSCH.) Before this feature is enhanced, data is retransmitted to the NodeBs on the HS-DSCH regardless of whether the data is received. UEs only report the "Measured results on RACH" in the uplink. This is insufficient for evaluating downlink HS-DSCH transmission quality. After this feature is enhanced, UEs promptly report downlink channel transmission changes to NodeBs. This greatly improves data transmission efficiency in favorable channel environments. According to 3GPP protocols, the feature enhancement enables UEs in the CELL_FACH state to transmit data at a peak rate of 1.8 Mbit/s in the downlink. The feature enhancement improves the downlink average throughput by 60% to 360% for a cell with UEs in the CELL_FACH state if the following conditions are met:
   

The power is sufficient. The data source is sufficient. The channel environment is favorable, that is, the reported CQI is greater than 13. The percentage of the period during which data is transmitted in the uplink and downlink simultaneously is 50% to 80% for UEs in the CELL_FACH state.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd, EBBI, EBOI or EULP board. The downlink services must be set up on the EBBI, EBOI, or EULP board. The E-AI is not supported. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The downlink services must be set up on the EBBC or EBBCd board. To support the E-AI, the DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board. The downlink services must be set up on the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board. To support the E-AI, the 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on other RAN features
   

WRFD-010652 SRB over HSDPA WRFD-010636 SRB over HSUPA WRFD-010695 UL Layer 2 Improvement WRFD-010688 Downlink Enhanced CELL_FACH

Dependency on other NEs The UE must be Release-8 (or later) UE and support uplink for CELL_FACH enhancement state.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

2.6.7 WRFD-010653 96 HSDPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSDPA cell to simultaneously support 96 HSDPA VoIP or other low-rate users.

Benefits
This feature enables the system to serve more HSDPA users.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Description
In RAN11.0, a single cell can support up to 96 HSDPA users in VoIP or other low-rate applications. The UE must support CPC-DTX/DRX. With this feature, the operator can increase the voice service capacity per cell and provide services for more VoIP or low-rate users in dense areas.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB In order to support this feature
  

EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EULPd is needed for BTS3812E and BTS3812AE. EBBC, EBBCd is needed for BBU3806. WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf is needed for BBU3900.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010623 64 HSDPA Users per Cell WRFD-010686 CPC - DTX / DRX

2.6.8 WRFD-010639 96 HSUPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSUPA cell to simultaneously support 96 HSUPA VoIP or other low-rate users. This feature can increase the capacity of voice services or other low-rate services per cell.

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Benefits
This feature allows more HSUPA users in one cell and improves the system capacity.

Description
In RAN11.0, a single cell can support up to 96 HSUPA users in VoIP or other low-rate applications. The UE must support CPC-DTX/DRX.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB In order to support this feature
  

EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EULPd is needed for BTS3812E and BTS3812AE. EBBC, EBBCd is needed for BBU3806. WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf is needed for BBU3900.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010634 60 HSUPA Users per Cell WRFD-010653 96 HSDPA Users per Cell

2.6.9 WRFD-010654 128 HSDPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature enables a single HSDPA cell to support a maximum of 128 HSDPA users simultaneously.

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Benefits
This feature increases the maximum number of HSDPA users that can be supported in a cell. This is particularly useful when most calls use low rate services (such as VoIP over HSPA), as the number of such calls can be quite larger than with high data rate services.

Description
With this feature, a maximum of 128 HSDPA users can be supported in one cell. This can be especially useful to increase the system capacity for VoIP services or other low-rate services which can be established simultaneously over HSDPA. For such services, it is necessary to use the Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) feature to reduce the radio resources of each user. This feature improves the CS traffic capacity of a single cell and provides VoIP services or other low-rate services to more users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The feature is only available for 3900 series NodeB, 3900 series NodeB (except BTS3902E) requires WBBPd2/WBBPd3 board, which is one type of WBBPd or WBBPf. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010653 96 HSDPA Users per Cell WRFD-010670 128 HSUPA Users per Cell

2.6.10 WRFD-010670 128 HSUPA Users per Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

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Summary
This feature enables a single HSUPA cell to support a maximum of 128 HSUPA users simultaneously.

Benefits
This feature increases the maximum number of HSUPA users that can be supported in a cell. This is particularly useful when most calls use low rate services (such as VoIP over HSPA), as the number of such calls can be quite larger than with high data rate services.

Description
With this feature, a maximum of 128 HSUPA users can be supported in one cell. This can be especially useful to increase the system capacity for VoIP services or other low-rate services which can be established simultaneously over HSUPA. For such services, it may be necessary to use also the Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) feature, to reduce the radio resources required by each user. This feature improves the CS traffic capacity of a single cell and provides VoIP services or other low-rate services to more users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The feature is only available for 3900 series NodeB, 3900 series NodeB (except BTS3902E) requires WBBPd2/WBBPd3 board, which is one type of WBBPd or WBBPf. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-010639 96 HSUPA Users per Cell WRFD-010654 128 HSDPA Users per Cell

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2.6.11 WRFD-010704 Flexible HSPA+ Technology Selection
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature allows dynamic selection of DC-HSDPA or MIMO for newly admitted users according to the number of HSDPA users (including SC-HSDPA and DC-HSDPA users) and the downlink load status.

Benefits
This feature selects DC-HSDPA or MIMO for newly admitted users according to the number of HSDPA users and the downlink load status. This allows users to obtain the optimum bearer mode and the highest possible throughput.

Description
DC-HSDPA and MIMO provide differing benefits in different scenarios: Carrying traffic over DC-HSDPA when the number of HSPDA users is low and cell load is light provides relatively high throughput. Likewise, carrying traffic over MIMO when the number of HSDPA users is high and cell load is heavy also provides relatively high throughput. Under DC-HSDPA networking scenarios, one or two carriers may simultaneously support MIMO depending on the configuration by the operator. The number of HSDPA users and the downlink load carried on each carrier change over time. The optimum bearer mode varies in different circumstances. In scenarios supporting both of these technologies, this feature allows dynamic selection of DC-HSDPA or MIMO for newly admitted users according to the current number of HSDPA users and the downlink load carried on the two carriers. This allows users to use the best relative HSPA+ technology and experience high throughput in different scenarios, thereby improving the user experience.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on the RNC hardware None Dependency on the NodeB hardware

BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE should configure EBBI, EBOI, and EDLP boards. In addition, uplink services cannot be established on HBBI or HULP boards. The BBU3806 of the DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Huawei BTS RF modules support only one transmission channel. MIMO requires interconnection of two RF modules.

Dependency on the UE UEs must be HSDPA category 21 or higher. That is: HSDPA category 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, or 28. Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA WRFD-010684 2× MIMO 2

2.6.12 WRFD-010713 Traffic-Based Activation and Deactivation of the Supplementary Carrier In Multi-carrier
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature requires the downlink service of the user is carried on DC-HSDPA or DC-HSDPA+MIMO and the uplink service is carried on DC or SC-HSUPA. It can deactivate the supplementary carrier of a UE when the traffic volume to be processed by the UE is low. When the traffic volume rises, the supplementary carrier can then be activated, the user becomes dual-carrier user again.

Benefits
Compared with the dual-carrier transmission, because only prime carrier is demodulated by the UE, the transmission power of HS-DPCCH can be reduced, which decreasing the uplink transmission load as well. Taking DC-HSDPA as an example, in the scenario of a large amount of users and low traffic in the downlink, and the penetration rate of DC-HSDPA terminal is 100%, deactivating the secondary carrier can theoretically reduce the uplink load by 5% to 10%.

Description
The NodeB decides whether to deactivate the secondary carrier of a UE based on the amount of data to be transmitted by the UE and the throughput of the UE. Given a small amount of data and low throughput, the NodeB deactivates the secondary carrier and sends an HS-SCCH order to notify the UE of the deactivation. When the amount of data becomes large or the throughput becomes high, the NodeB activates the secondary carrier and sends an HS-SCCH order to notify the UE of the activation.

Enhancement
This feature applies to DB-HSDPA and DB-HSDPA+MIMO users after DB-HSDPA and DB-HSDPA+MIMO are introduced in RAN15.0.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other NEs The UE must support DC-HSDPA or DB-HSDPA. Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA or WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS HSPA+ Introduction Service

2.6.13 WRFD-010702 Enhanced DRX
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
The enhanced discontinuous reception (DRX) feature enables UEs in the enhanced CELL_FACH state to receive the high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) discontinuously. This feature helps UEs that process a small amount of services to save power, by changing the state of such UEs to the enhanced CELL_FACH state.

Benefits
In the enhanced CELL_FACH state, a UE that discontinuously receives the HS-DSCH consumes less power than a UE that continuously detects the HS-SCCH and continuously receives the HS-DSCH.

Description
Continuous connectivity (CPC) for packet data users is introduced in 3GPP Release 7. CPC incorporates the DRX technique that helps HSPA UEs in the CELL_DCH state save power. Enhanced DRX is introduced in 3GPP Release 8 to further save UE power when the UE is in enhanced CELL_FACH state. After this feature is enabled, the RAN and UEs in the enhanced CELL_FACH state transmit and receive data at a specified time. The UE detects the HS-SCCH at regular intervals instead of detecting the HS-SCCH continuously. When there is no data to transmit, the UE shuts down the receiver. As a result, the power consumption of the UE decreases.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

If enhanced DRX is enabled and the RAN has data to transmit to the UE, the data is transmitted only at user-specified times, which leads to a slight increase in transmission delay.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EULPd, EBBI, EBOI, or EULP board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

 

Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010688 Enhanced CELL_FACH Dependency on other NEs
 

The UE must be Release-8 (or later) UE and support Enhanced DRX. HSPA+ Downlink 42Mbit/s per User

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

2.6.14 WRFD-150208 Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA allows UEs to set up HSDPA connections with any two inter-frequency same-coverage cells under a NodeB. A pair of these cells is a DC/DB-HSDPA group. The RAN schedules services in all DC/DB-HSDPA groups, which improves the UE data rate and system capacity.

Benefits
This feature enables cells to form as many DC/DB-HSDPA groups as possible. The DC/DB-HSDPA groups dynamically use instantaneous idle frequency resources in a cell, increasing the UE data rate and system capacity. In the case of three carriers, this feature increases the UE data rate by about 20% when UEs are processing burst services.

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This feature supports smooth evolution to future technologies.

Description
This feature enables cells to form as many overlapping DC/DB-HSDPA groups as possible. With this feature, some cells may simultaneously belong to multiple DC-HSDPA groups, as shown in the following figure:
F2 F1 F3 MIMO DC-HSDPA 64QAM DC-HSDPA 64QAM F3 2.1 GHz 64QAM F1 900 MHz F2 2.1 GHZ 64QAM DC-HSDPA 64QAM DB-HSDPA F1 F4 64QAM DC-HSDPA 64QAM F3 F2 MIMO MIMO DC-MIMO DC-HSDPA

F1 and F2 form a DC-HSDPA group. F2 and F3 form a DC-HSDPA group.

F1 forms a DB-HSDPA group either with F2 or with F3. F2 and F3 form a DC-HSDPA group. Therefore, F2 or F3 belongs to DB-HSDPA and DC-HSDPA groups simultaneously.

4 carrier evolution

This feature applies to scenarios where one of the following features or any combination of them is enabled: DC-HSDPA, DB-HSDPA, or DC-HSDPA+MIMO. This feature has the same requirements for frequencies, bandwidths, and frequency bands as DC-HSDPA, DB-HSDPA, and DC-HSDPA+MIMO. This feature supports up to four carriers, which can operate at a maximum of two frequency bands. The four carriers may include a maximum of two adjacent MIMO carriers. The MAC-ehs entity on the RAN side jointly schedules DC/DB-HSDPA UEs. Based on the load of carriers in a DC/DB-HSDPA group, the MAC-ehs entity assigns as many resources of the lightly loaded carrier as possible to double-carrier UEs. In this way, more resources of the heavily loaded carrier are assigned to single-carrier UEs. The joint scheduling achieves fast resource allocation among carriers and prevents a temporary heavy load on a carrier from affecting UE experience, which increases system resource utilization and system capacity.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812AE, and BTS3812A must be configured with the EBBI, EDLP+EULP, or EDLP+EULPd boards to support a maximum of three carriers. The three carriers must operate at the same frequency band. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board to support a maximum of three carriers. The three carriers can operate at different frequency bands. The 3900 series base stations (excluding the BTS3902E) support this feature. Only the 3900 series base stations support a maximum of four carriers and MIMO. The 3900

 

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series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board to support. Dependency on UEs The UEs must belong to HSDPA category 21 or higher. Dependency on other RAN features

WRFD-150209 DB-HSDPA In a cell group that uses Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA, if one cell in the group operates at a different frequency band from other cells, all cells in the group must support DB-HSDPA.

WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA In a cell group that uses Flexible DC/DB-HSDPA, if multiple cells in the group operate at the same frequency band, all these cells must support DC-HSDPA.

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3
3.1 Smart Phone Solution
3.1.1 WRFD-020500 Enhanced Fast Dormancy
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Smart MBB

Summary
This feature is concerned with the impact of Fast Dormancy to the RNC. To reduce the signaling processing cost in the Fast Dormancy procedure, when receiving SCRI (signaling connection release indication) message from UE or UE inactivity timer expires, RNC can transfer UE state to CELL_FACH or through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH instead of IDLE mode which is in legacy Fast Dormancy processing.

Benefits
This feature can reduce the signal processing cost of RNC in a network comprised of intelligent UEs with FAST DORMANCY capable, avoid overflow of signaling processing unit in RNC caused by Fast Dormancy.

Description
Some intelligent UEs support Fast dormancy function. To save the power, when there is no PS data transfer, UE can send a SCRI message to require RNC release the RRC connection and then periodically send heartbeat message to the core network, without implementation of this feature, RNC will release the RRC connection, then each of the following heartbeat messages will cause RRC connection setup, authentication, encryption and RAB setup procedures. Comparing to normal PS call procedure, this Fast dormancy mechanism will greatly increase the signaling processing cost of RNC and may cause overflow of signaling processing unit in RNC. With this feature, when receiving SCRI from UE or UE inactivity timer expires, RNC will decided to transfer the state of the UE to CELL_FACH or through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH instead of IDLE mode. When UE periodically sends heartbeat message, RNC will reconfigure UE to CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH. The signaling procedure between UE and RNC will be limited to only a few message exchanges because the RRC connection

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keep existing, at least 40% signaling exchange can be reduced and RNC CPU resources can be saved significantly while UE battery consumption is saved as much as that in IDLE mode.

When receiving SCRI message, if one of the following condition is met, RNC will look the UE as FAST DORMANCY capable, initial this feature and transfer UE to CELL_FACH or through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state: IMEI of the UE belongs to the range of IMEIs defined by operator configuration RNC can get the IMEI of the UE by sending a "IDENTITY REQUEST" to UE and get UE response; Because the producer and model information are included in IMEI, operator can configure the range of IMEIs with FAST DORMANCY function. The cause value in SCRI message is "UE Requested PS Data session end." When UE inactivity timer expires, if IMEI of the UE belongs to the range of IMEIs defined by operator configuration, the UE will be transferred to CELL_FACH or through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state instead of IDLE state. Be aware that when SCRI without cause value was sent and smart phone will be transferred to CELL_FACH or through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state which might have the risk of incompatibility. In this case, we strongly suggest providing the feature together with Huawei professional services.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

3.1.2 WRFD-140205 Voice Experience Improvement for Weak Reception UEs
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
For UEs that are prone to CS voice service drops due to weak reception, this feature enables the radio network controller (RNC) to identify these UEs based on the International Mobile Station Equipment Identity Type Allocation Code (IMEI TAC) and assign them dedicated radio performance parameters. These parameters include radio link (RL) power control and handover parameters.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:

Reduces the call drop rate for weak reception UEs in weak coverage areas, improving the user experience for CS voice services. Enables weak reception UEs to perform inter-RAT handovers at a specified threshold. This prevents frequent compressed mode measurements and call drops caused by signal quality fluctuations.

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Description
On a live UMTS network, weak reception UEs may easily experience call drops because they are prone to downlink signaling radio bearer (SRB) failures. However, these UEs are likely to be used by high Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) users. To solve this problem, Huawei introduces the Voice Experience Improvement for Weak Reception UEs feature. This feature is implemented as follows:
  

The RNC identifies a weak reception UE based on its IMEI. The RNC configures dedicated power control and handover parameters for the UE. Based on the parameter settings, the UE obtains a high downlink power control threshold in a weak coverage area and performs a handover at a specified threshold.

This feature improves the user experience of CS voice services for weak reception UEs by performing power compensation on these UEs. This leads to more power consumption and reduces the cell capacity. Currently, this feature applies only to iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

3.1.3 WRFD-140206 Layered Paging in URA_PCH
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

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Summary
Due to the rapid rise of smart phone use in recent years, paging messages have been increasing. Conventionally, paging messages are sent to the entire UTRAN registration area (URA). Once Layered Paging in URA_PCH is activated, paging messages are first sent to the last camped-on cell of the UEs in the URA_PCH state and the neighboring cells of the last camped-on cell. When necessary, these messages will be sent to the URA. This reduces the number of paging messages and the possibility of PCH congestion, eliminates the need for manually dividing URAs, and reduces the number of URA updates.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:

Automatic generating of paging areas and therefore reduced costs for manual URA planning and optimization Reduce number of URA updates and signaling overhead.

Description
The RNC transits UEs processing PS services to the URA_PCH state instead of the CELL_PCH state to prolong the time users are online and reduce high signaling overheads caused by frequent state transitions from the idle mode to another state. However, the RNC must page a UE in the URA_PCH state in the entire URA because the RNC does not know which cell the UE camps on. This results in a large number of unnecessary paging messages, which can in turn lead to PCHs being congested, especially with the continuously increasing number of smart phones in use. With this feature, the RNC first pages the UE in the last cell on which the UE camped and the neighboring cells. If the RNC still does not receive any response from the UE, the RNC pages the UE in the URA.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on CN

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None Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS SmartPhone Solution Service

3.1.4 WRFD-150205 Layered Paging in Idle Mode
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
With the increasing penetration rate of smartphones, UE paging is triggered more and more by applications. Conventionally, the RNC directly pages a UE in idle mode in the entire location area (LA) or routing area (RA). This results in a large number of unnecessary Uu-interface paging messages, which increases PCH congestion. With this feature, the RNC first pages a UE in idle mode in the last camped-on cell and its neighboring cells. If no response is received from the UE, the RNC then pages the UE in the entire LA or RA.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:
  

Fewer Uu-interface paging messages Lower PCH congestion probability Eliminates the need to manually divide or split the LA or RA

For example, if there are 1200 cells in an LA or RA and the average number of neighboring cells configured for each cell is 43, this feature reduces the number of Uu-interface paging messages by 30% to 70% if the first-layer paging success rate is 90%.

Description
With the increasing penetration rate of smartphones, UE paging is triggered more and more by applications. However, the RNC must page a UE in idle mode in the entire LA or RA because the RNC does not know which cell the UE camps on. This results in a large number of unnecessary Uu-interface paging messages, which increases PCH congestion. To solve this problem, Huawei introduces the Layered Paging in IDLE Mode feature based on the mobility characteristics of UEs in idle mode. With this feature, the RNC first pages a UE in idle mode in the last camped-on cell and its neighboring cells, which is called first-layer paging. If no response is received from the UE, the RNC then pages the UE in the entire LA or RA. This process is second-layer paging.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

3.2 Smart Pipe
3.2.1 WRFD-020132 Web Browsing Acceleration
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature enables detection of web page accesses and allocation of higher downlink bandwidth, reducing delay in loading web pages.

Benefits
This feature decreases the time users spend waiting for web pages to load, significantly improving user experience.

Description
Web browsing is the most widely used data service. Users expect to be able to quickly load web pages at any time or place. In traditional mobile telecommunication systems, however, multiple services coexist and equally compete for limited bandwidth resources. Bandwidth is not allocated preferentially to web page access, making it difficult for users to enjoy

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high-quality, low-delay web browsing. During high-traffic hours, web access is frequently impacted by other services and users experience high levels of delay. This feature recognizes web browsing services by using service awareness technique and then preferentially allocates higher bandwidth to these services. As a result, the load time for web pages decreases and the user experience improves. This feature is applicable to web page access acceleration where HSDPA users take priority over other users and combined services over other services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
 

The BSC6900 must be configured with the NIUa board. The BSC6910 must be configured with the ENIUa board.

Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI or EDLP board. The HBBI and HDLP board cannot support this feature. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The HBBU cannot support this feature. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. The WBBPa board cannot support this feature.

Dependency on other RAN features None Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

3.2.2 WRFD-020133 P2P Downloading Rate Control during Busy Hour
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

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Summary
This feature enables the detection of P2P download services and rate restrictions on P2P services when the system load is high. When the system load is low, the rate of P2P download services is not restricted.

Benefits
As high-bandwidth mobile telecommunication systems grow rapidly, more and more users are using P2P services to download music or video. Due to its high volume and long duration, P2P traffic consumes a large amount of system resources. This significantly increases operating costs and adversely affects the quality of other delay-sensitive services. This feature restricts P2P traffic during busy hours, thereby reducing operating costs and improving the user experience of other delay-sensitive services. During non-busy hours, P2P downloads are not restricted and P2P users can enjoy high speeds and make full use of network resources.

Description
In the traditional P2P flow control scheme, the maximum rate restriction is set on the CN side. The limitation of this scheme is that radio resources cannot be fully utilized when the traffic load of the system is low. This feature recognizes the P2P download traffic by using service awareness technique. When the system load is high, rate restriction limits the rate of P2P download services to release the occupied resources for other services. When the system load is low, resources for P2P are unrestricted and P2P services are still able to engage in high speed downloads. This allows multiple users and services to fully utilize network resources. This feature is applicable to P2P rate restriction where HSDPA users take priority over other users and combined services over other services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
 

The BSC6900 must be configured with the NIUa board. The BSC6910 must be configured with the ENIUa board.

Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI or EDLP board. The HBBI and HDLP cannot support this feature. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The HBBU cannot support this feature. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. The WBBPa board cannot support this feature.

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Dependency on other RAN features None Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

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4
4.1 Power Consumption Saving
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Green

4.1.1 WRFD-020116 Dynamic Power Sharing in Multi-Carriers

Summary
This feature enables power sharing between carriers to improve the utilization of power resources. In RAN11.0, the NodeB allows the carrier carrying HSDPA services to share the unused power resources of another carrier carrying R99 services.

Benefits
This feature improves the network performance and the utilization of the existing equipment. The simulation shows that with dynamic power sharing of two carriers, the capacity of the HSDPA cell increases by 5% to 6%.

Description
Dynamic Power Sharing of Multi-Carriers means that among multiple carriers, the carrier bearing HSPA service can dynamically share the unused power resource of another carrier. This function increases the utilization of the power amplifier as well as the HSPA service rate of the cell. For asymmetrical power configuration, the carrier with higher emitting power can not share the unused power resource of the carrier with lower emitting power. RAN11.0 supports the power sharing of two carriers. When one carrier is for R99 and the other is for HSDPA, the HSDPA carrier can determine in real time the power to be used according to the power used by the R99 carrier. The simulation shows that with dynamic power sharing of two carriers, the capacity of the HSDPA cell increases by 5% to 6%.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

4.1.2 WRFD-020117 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on Traffic Load
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
When the network is idle or traffic load is very low, this feature enables the RNC to switch off one or more carriers in the same coverage area to reduce the power consumption of the NodeB.

Benefits
This feature optimizes the energy-efficiency by disabling the idle carriers; this feature brings the following benefits:
 

Reduce the negative impact on environment Save the TCO for operator

Description
In terms of power consumption assessment of the products in mobile networks, it shows that the radio access network (and particularly the Base Stations) is the highest contributor of power consumption and CO2 emissions in the use phase.

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If there are multi carriers running in the same coverage area, Huawei provides operators with adaptive carriers’ power management to reduce the power consumption. The traffic volume is different at different times. For example, the NodeB in the Central Business District (CBD) has relative high traffic volume in the daytime which requires more than one carrier to serve all the subscribers, but from midnight to early morning of the next day the traffic volume is relative low. In RAN10.0, during idle periods which are configurable for operator, the RNC can dynamically shut down the carrier which has no subscriber and the other carriers in the same area are in normal status. The carrier will be turned on again while the traffic volume in the other carriers enters into LDR status or the idle periods ends. The energy can be saved in this way.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

4.1.3 WRFD-020118 Energy Efficiency Improved
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
Based on the high efficient power amplification techniques, RAN11.0 introduces dynamic adjustment of the power amplification parameters to further improve the power amplification efficiency upon low load. The NodeB adjusts the Power Amplifier (PA) bias voltage based on the output power that varies with the traffic load, improving the PA efficiency and reducing the static PA power consumption.

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Benefits
The energy-saving and less power consumption feature of the system has become a major concern of the operators. The improved energy efficiency of the PA, the major component of the NodeB, reduces the power consumption of the entire NodeB. Therefore, this feature helps to save OPEX of the operator and is environment-friendly. In addition, it lowers the requirements for basic power supply and heat dissipation of equipment and reduces the difficulty in component selection. This greatly improves the reliability of equipment.

Description
Huawei provides operators with various effective solutions to reduce the power consumption, among which the key solution is to reduce the power consumption of the PA. The RF module uses the Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD) technology and A-Doherty technology. Therefore, the PA efficiency reaches 40%, and the power consumption of the entire NodeB is greatly decreased. Based on the high efficient power amplification techniques, RAN11.0 introduces dynamic adjustment of the power amplification parameters to further improve the power amplification efficiency upon low load. In the actual operation of the network, the traffic load changes constantly, and the PA output power of the NodeB is changed accordingly. Generally, the PA efficiency is proportional to the PA output power, that is, the efficiency is higher when the output power is greater. The PA bias voltage is also proportional to the PA output power. When the PA output power is great, a high bias voltage is required to protect the linearity of power amplification so as to reduce the signal distortion. When the traffic load is low, the PA output power decreases. However, if the bias voltage is not adjusted at this time, the PA efficiency will be decreased because the static power consumption is high. Therefore, the bias voltage can be decreased along with the PA output power so that the static power consumption can be decreased and the PA efficiency can be improved. To improve the power efficiency in low traffic load, Huawei NodeB supports the technology of dynamically adjusting the PA parameters. The PA dynamically adjusts the PA bias voltage according to the output power, improving the PA efficiency and reducing the power consumption when the output power is low. The NodeB may experience different traffic load in different periods of a day. For example, the NodeBs in the central business district (CBD), the traffic load is high in the day time but is very low in the midnight till the morning of the next day. The transmit power of the NodeB varies with the traffic load, and the output power of the NodeB is low when the traffic is light. The NodeB monitors the traffic load in real time and dynamically adjusts the PA parameters to improve the PA efficiency when the output power is low. Therefore, the energy can be saved.

Enhancement
RAN11.0 supports dynamical adjustment of the PA parameters only when there are no HSDPA services. In RAN11.0, the RF module does not support the dynamic adjustment of the PA parameters if there are any ongoing HSDPA services. RAN12.0 supports dynamic PA parameter adjustment when the HSDPA service is carried.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB MTRU for BTS3812E/AE and RRU3801C for Distributed baseband site cannot provide this function, whereas other RF modules support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

4.1.4 WRFD-020119 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on Power Backup
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
In case of mains failure, the backup power system starts to operate. In this case, this feature can achieve hierarchical carrier shutdown based on the shutdown duration and cell priority.

Benefits
This feature can reduce the NodeB power consumption and extend the up time of running batteries in case of mains failure. For batteries, long-time running leads to aging, decreasing the power backup time. This feature, however, can extend the up time of batteries, so that the aged batteries still meet the requirements of the NodeB for power backup time. In other words, the service life of batteries is prolonged.

Description
After this feature is enabled, the NodeB can assign priorities to carriers and then shut down carriers by priority. In case of mains failure, the batteries start to operate. Then, the NodeB is triggered to shut down the non-reserved and reserved local cells based on the preset shutdown durations (T1, T2). After the mains failure is rectified, the NodeB automatically restores all the cells that were shut down.

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Enhancement
In RAN 15.0, a parameter is added for specifying the RAT-specific power backup and energy saving policy. A mode of the multi-mode base station uses a specific set of shutdown durations based on parameter settings. RAT is short for radio access technology.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E does not support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

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4.1.5 WRFD-020122 Multi-Carrier Switch off Based on QoS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
In the preconfigured time segments, this feature enables some carriers to be shut down, ensuring the real-time rate of DCH and high Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) for HSPA users, and only the GBR rate for low ARPU HSPA users. The purpose is to save power. This feature is applied in the scenarios of multi-carriers with same coverage.

Benefits
According to an estimate on power consumption in mobile networks, power consumption and carbon dioxide emission from RAN, especially NodeB, account for the major part of total consumption. Telecom operators expect that the carriers with the same coverage be shut down during low-traffic hours (for example, at midnight) to reduce costs. However, with the rapid development of mobile broadband networks, an increasing number of low ARPU users often stay connected 24 hours a day to download video and audio files. Since their real-time rate is always ensured, the actual network load is still heavy even at midnight, and it is hard to trigger the shutdown of same-coverage carriers. After this feature is introduced, the real-time rates of DCH and high ARPU HSPA users are ensured, whereas only the GBR rate is ensured for low ARPU HSPA users. As long as the total load based on this requirement is below the specified threshold, the same-coverage carriers can be shut down. This reduces energy consumption and increases the profits of telecom operators.

Description
For multiple carriers with the same coverage, when the preconfigured time segment begins, the users in the serving carrier (F2 in the following figure) are handed over to the same-coverage neighboring carrier (F1 in the following figure). This can only happen if the available resources plus non-GBR resources of low ARPU HSPA users in F1 meet the load requirements of the real-time rates of DCH and high ARPU HSPA users as well as the GBR of low ARPU HSPA users in F2. Then, the F2 can be shut down.

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When F1 comes into the basic congestion state or the preconfigured time segment comes to an end, F2 is activated again. In this way, not only the experience of high ARPU users is ensured but also idle carriers can be shut down, and the profit of the operators is increased. The high ARPU and low ARPU users are configured by operators based on the SPI (Scheduling Priority Indicator), and the GBP (Guaranteed Bit Power) in the above figure means guaranteed power for GBR rate.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010610 HSDPA introduction package Dependency on other NEs None

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4.1.6 WRFD-020121 Intelligent Power Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature introduces the function of Power Supply Unit (PSU) intelligent shutdown. With this feature, certain PSUs can be powered on or off according to the power consumption of the NodeB, reducing the power consumption.

Benefits
The PSU intelligent shutdown function can save about 4% of the electricity expenses for operators in typical configuration.

Description
A NodeB with AC input is generally configured with multiple PSUs (converting AC into DC). The number of configured PSUs depends on the maximum power consumption of the NodeB. The purpose is to ensure that the NodeB operates properly even at the maximum load. In most cases, the NodeB does not operate at full load, and the PSUs do not operate at full power. Generally, the PSU conversion efficiency is proportional to its output power. In other words, the decrease in the conversion efficiency increases the overall power consumption of the NodeB. The following figure takes four configured PSUs as an example to show the relationship between the PSU conversion efficiency and the PSU output power. As shown in the figure, the total power of the four PSUs is 6,400 W and high PSU output power leads to high power conversion efficiency.

When the NodeB is powered by multiple PSUs, the PSU intelligent shutdown function enables shutting down one or several PSUs according to the actual load and the power supply

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need. This ensures that the NodeB is always working at the state when PSUs are in the best working efficiency. In this way, the remaining PSUs work in full load mode, ensuring their best level of efficiency. For MBTS scenario, because MBTS of GSM, UMTS and LTE are sharing one PMU, only one license of GSM, UMTS and LTE is required for MBTS, but if the corresponding network is down, this function will be deactivated for MBTS.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only when DBS3900, BTS3900AL or BTS3900A is used with APM30 and battery Dependency on other RAN features None Dependency on other NEs None

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5
5.1 RAN Sharing
Availability Summary

Topology & Transmission

5.1.1 WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

This feature is available from RAN6.0.

This feature enables multiple operators to share the same RAN equipment and have their own independent cells. The same RAN equipment can provide different operators with rich and personalized services.

Benefits
The most important and urgent factor for driving operators to share network is the substantial CAPEX and OPEX saving. Approximately 30%– 40% CAPEX and OPEX can be saved if RAN is shared. Another advantage is the increased roll-out speed and enlarged coverage-area that can result in a quick network deployment and a success of UMTS. On the other hand, reduced independency results in co-operation between operators and some restrictions when expanding.

Description
There is growing optimism among 3G license holders about the prospects of sharing 3G network infrastructures. The primary motivation for this sharing is to rapidly launch service and reduce the costs of deployment, thereby improving the overall financial health of the industry. Analysis of a typical 3G Capital Expenditure (CPEX) model reveals that a majority of the upfront costs are related to establishing coverage (that is, access related CPEX). As shown in Figure 2, approximately 70% of the CPEX involves acquiring the sites, access equipment, civil works (that is, construction of the site, installation of the equipment) and laying the transmission network. With 3G, these fundamental implementation issues will be further complicated by the lack of sites, tighter environmental regulations, and health concerns regarding the hazards of radiation. In view of these challenges faced by 3G license holders, shared network infrastructure solutions need to be explored in order to reduce the financial risks facing the industry, establish faster universal coverage and improve time-to-revenue.

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Since the deployment cost of RAN takes up the most among the total network, so RAN sharing would be a preferred approach to share the heavy deployment costs for mobile networks among operators in the roll-out phase and to increase the network utilization. It can offer advantages for all parties involved in UMTS. With this feature, all the RAN elements are physically shared, including the RNC, NodeBs, Sites, and transport equipment. By ‘soft-splitting’ a physical RAN into different logical RANs, multi-operators can cover the same area with their own frequency with only one physical RAN. Each operator deploys its own frequency including its own Mobile Network Code (MNC) and each operator has individually assigned cells. RNC routes the UE according the cell or MNC&MCC derived from the IMSI and the Network Resource Identify (NRI) derived from TMSI/P-TMSI, when Iu-Flex is used. The following figure shows the RAN sharing solution architecture.

Operator A CN

Operator B CN

Operator A OSS
Itf-N

Operator B OSS
Iu interface

RNC Iub interface

Shared Master OSS

Macro Node B

RRU

Shared RAN

In RAN sharing architecture, RNC is shared by multiple operators (maximum is 4), and the CN networks are supplied by operators separately. For the shared RNC, both shared and non-shared NodeB/RNC could be connected. For each operator’s CN network, Iu Flex may be applied, and the decision could be made independently. RAN sharing solution does not require any UE release dependency. The call traffic is routed to appropriate CN network belonging to the operator selected by UE. In the shared RAN, inter-system handover and intra-system handover within each operator are handled normally. A switch is supplied to indicate whether intra-system handover between operators would be allowed. For broadcast service such as CBS and MBMS, the traffics will be restricted in each operator’s dedicated cells.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features Cannot work with WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package at the same time.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.2 WRFD-02130401 Dedicated Carrier for Each Operator
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables the allocation of frequency resources to different operators for independent operation.

Benefits
For license holders, distinct cost saving would be achieved, including the CAPEX and OPEX, because all the RAN elements could be shared.

Description
RAN sharing solution is applicable for operators that have multiple frequency allocations, that is, all operators have their own licenses. In this scenario, the RAN elements but not the radio frequencies are shared between operators, as illustrated in the following figure.

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Operator one

Shared RNC

Shared Node B

Operator two

Frequency one

Frequency one

MNC one MNC two

Frequency two

Frequency two

In this solution, 3GPP Release 99 specific is applied. For multiple operators that share the RAN, their own PLMN codes are transmitted on their dedicated carrier, that is, unique PLMN code (composed by MCC and MNC) is broadcasted via system information within each operator’s dedicated cells.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.3 WRFD-02130402 Flexible Network Architecture
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

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Summary
This feature can meet the networking requirements of different operators.

Benefits
Various requirements can be met with the help of the flexible architecture. Differentiated service and effective cost are also achievable.

Description
In RAN Sharing solution, the flexibility of the network architecture is well supported. The involved interfaces are Iub, Iur, Iu, and Iu-BC.

Iu interface

CN network is supplied by operator separately. On Iu interface, each operator may employ Iu Flex or not independently. The maximum number of CN nodes (MSC or SGSN) that can be connected is the same between shared or non-shared RNC. For the shared RNC, the capacity will be divided by all operators. For example, as illustrated in the following figure, operator A adopts the Iu Flex while operator B does not.

Operator A SGSN 1

MSC 1 MSC 2 MSC 3

Operator B SGSN

MSC

SGSN 2

Shared RNC

Iu-BC interface To the shared RNC, maximum 4 CBCs can be connected, that is, each operator can have a dedicated CBC, shown below.

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SAs of Operator A Operator A CBC-A Shared RNC Operator B CBC-B SAs of Operator B With dedicated Iu-BC connection, each operator can independently deploy the Cell Broadcast Service.

Iub interface In the shared RAN, RAN elements could be shared by multiple operators, including RNC and NodeBs. However, there might be the case that shared NodeBs and non-shared NodeBs coexist. In this RAN sharing solution, both shared and non-shared NodeBs are allowed to connect to the shared RNC. See the following figure.

Operator A Shared RNC Shared by Operator A & B Shared by Operator A & B Operator B

Iur interface

The Iur interface is similar to the Iub interface. That is, both shared RNCs and non-shared RNCs can be connected to a shared RNC.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

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None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.4 WRFD-02130403 Mobility Control and Service Differentiation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature provides the configuration of different services for multiple operators to meet their personalized requirements.

Benefits
Based on the service differentiation mechanism, operators that share the RAN can deploy different service provision strategies to their subscribers.

Description

Initial NAS message routing In the dedicated carrier RAN sharing solution, each cell belongs to one operator. The initial NAS message (for registration or call setup) will be routed to appropriate target CN network, to which operator of the current cell (from which the call is initiated) also belongs. As shown in the following figure for example, if UE initiates a call from one cell belonging to operator B, then the initial NAS message will be routed to the CN network of operator B.

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Operator A Shared RNC CN Operator B CN Originated Cell Target CN network

If the Iu Flex is adopted, then the NNSF will be applied right after the selection of CN network, to decide which CN node should be the target of routing.

Differentiated and isolated CBS CBS information content is broadcasted with a set of CBS SAs (service areas), and each CBS SA is composed by a set of cells. In the dedicated carrier shared RAN, the CBS SA is also operator dedicated, that is, each operator’s CBS SA can be composed only by its own cell. Therefore, the CBS is isolated between operators in the shared RAN. Furthermore, since each operator can deploy a standalone CBS equipment, differentiated and independent service provision is also achievable.

Differentiated and isolated MBMS The MBMS is similar to the CBS. MBMS service is distributed in a set of MBMS broadcast areas, also called "MBMS SA". Each MBMS SA is composed of a set of cells. In the dedicated carrier shared RAN, the MBMS SA is also dedicated. MBMS service initiated from dedicated SGSN is distributed (p-to-p or p-to-m) within operator dedicated MBMS SAs, that is, operator dedicated cells. Furthermore, differentiated and independent MBMS service provision is also achievable. MBMS SAs of Operator A BM-SC SGSN Shared RNC Operator A

Operator B BM-SC SGSN MBMS SAs of Operator B

Mobility control

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Inter-operator handover is usually forbidden by operators, but sometimes it is allowed. A configurable flag is provided to indicate whether inter-operator intra-system handover is allowed or not. The default setting is not allowed. The inter-system handover is handled normally.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.5 WRFD-02130404 Independent License Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, operators can have their independent capacity and choose optional features, meeting different service and operation requirements.

Benefits
With independent license control, total capacity of the physical RNC will be shared by operators, and each can take specific proportion.

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Description
License control refers to the control of the capacity (Erlang, NodeB CE and PO) and optional features (except RAN Sharing feature itself). For multiple operators that share the RNC, independent capacity and optional features control for each operator is supplied. For independent capacity control, the total capacity could be split by multiple operators. Each operator can get specific proportion of the total capacity based on its requirement, and the actual capacity usage will be monitored and controlled. For independent optional features control, each operator may choose different set of optional features For example, one operator may choose some optional features but the others do not. Most optional features can be controlled separately by operators. For example, if the MBMS is chosen by operator A but not by operator B, then operator A can provide the MBMS, but operator cannot provide the MBMS.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.6 WRFD-02130405 Independent Cell-level FM/PM/CM
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

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Summary
With this feature, operators can monitor and maintain their own cells.

Benefits
Providing Independent Cell-level FM/PM/CM

Description

Independent cell-level Fault Management Most alarms are object related. For those alarms related to cells, they are contained only in the data collection of the corresponding instance set. For those alarms not related to cells or any objects, they are contained in all data collections of all instance sets. As each instance set corresponds to only one manager, the operator dedicated alarms can only be accessed by the owner FM manager. For operations originated from the FM manager (that is, alarm handling operations, setting operations), as the operated targets are alarms, they are processed in the same way. Each manager can only operate the alarms in the corresponding instance set, that is, the alarms dedicated to one operator.

Independent cell-level Performance Management All counters are object related. For those counters related to cells, their statistical results are contained only in the data collection of the corresponding instance set. For those counters not related to cells, their statistical results are contained in all data collections of all instance sets. As each instance set corresponds to only one manager, the operator dedicated results can only be accessed by the owner PM manager. For operations originated from the PM Manager (that is, job management operations, threshold setting operations), as the operated targets are objects, they are processed in the same way. Each manager can only operate the objects in the corresponding instance set, that is, the objects dedicated to one operator. For example, each operator can only create measurement jobs on his own cells. Dedicated cell-level measurement of each operator is supported including NodeB CE utilization and cell traffic throughput. RAN also supports non cell-level measurement, which is shared by operators. Items are RNC/NodeB utilization, PA utilization and Iub capacity & throughput.

Independent cell-level Configuration Management The configuration flows are the same in both sharing and non-sharing mode. The difference lies in data, and is embodied in cell-level configuration.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.7 WRFD-02130406 Transmission Recourse Sharing on Iub/Iur Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, operators can share Iub/Iur transmission resources to effectively use the transmission bandwidth and reduce the operation cost.

Benefits
Transmission resource is costly. Shared transmission resource management strategy leads to effective usage of the bandwidth, and will finally bring cost saving to all the operators sharing the RAN.

Description
In the shared RAN, shared transmission resource management strategy is adopted on both Iub and Iur interface.

Iub interface, The Iub interface is composed of NodeB control port (NCP), CCPs, ALCAP link (not applicable for IP transmission), OM path, and a number of user plan links. For each NodeB, only one unique NCP could exist. Generally multiple CCPs can exist, but they need to work in load sharing mode. In normal case, the ALCAP link is also unique for each NodeB. Shared OM path for one NodeB is also proposed, because the NodeB is shared, though multiple OM paths are allowable, but it brings no benefit. So, the control plane links (NCP, CCP, ALCAP link) should be shared by operators. To achieve effective transmission resource usage, user plane links are also shared by operators.

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Iur interface SS7 is adopted for Iur interface control plane. SS7 links work in load sharing and redundant mode, and all the SS7 links must be shared by operators utilizing the Iur interface. For the Iur interface user plane, it is handled in the same way as that for the Iub interface.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.8 WRFD-021305 RAN Sharing Phase 2
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature provides multiple operators with separated Iub transmission resource management to meet their QoS requirements.

Benefits
In the shared RAN, operator’s differentiated QoS requirement is guaranteed with this feature.

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Description
Based on RAN Sharing phase 1, dedicated Iub transmission control function was introduced in phase 2, in which separated Iub transmission resource management is provided for operators sharing the RAN. On the common Iub interface, separated Iub transmission resource management aims to guarantee the QoS for operators, and no interference between each other. In RAN sharing phase 2, dedicated Iub transmission control is not mandatory, that is, shared transmission resource in Iub is still applicable.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC When Iub over IP is applied, the BSC6910 does not support this feature. NoneDependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.9 WRFD-02130501 Dedicated Iub Transmission Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature provides multiple operators with separated Iub transmission resource management to meet their QoS requirements.

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Benefits
In the shared RAN, operator’s differentiated QoS requirement is guaranteed with this feature.

Description
Dedicated Iub transmission control refers to separated Iub transmission resource management for operators sharing the RAN. It is only applicable for user plane, but not control plane and OM path. Control plane must be shared by operators. Control plane links (including NCP, CCPs, ALCAP link) and bandwidth (occupied by these links) should be commonly used by operators. However, in user plane, each operator may use dedicated links (such as AAL2 paths / IP paths) and bandwidth (occupied by these links). Refer to the following figure (example in ATM transmission). NCP bandwidth CCPs bandwidth ALCAP bandwidth O&M bandwidth User plane bandwidth

Must be shared

Could be dedicated or shared

For user plane bandwidth, the shared mode is supplied in phase 1, while phase 2 supports dedicated mode. In dedicated mode, operator dedicated logical resource group is introduced, which aims to separate the user plane bandwidth between operators. For logical resource group, two different cases are applicable. In case 1, physical link is common to all groups. In case 2, physical links are dedicated to each group. Both cases will be supported. These two cases are illustrated as follows. I. Case 1

GROUP-A

Physical Link
GROUP-B

II. Case 2

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Physical Link

GROUP-A

Physical Link

GROUP-B

When creating a logical group, the operator to which bandwidth belongs and the maximum available bandwidth should be specified. To achieve the separate resource management, each operator’s dedicated group should contain some user plane links, which will also become operator dedicated. Based on the dedicated logical resource group, the operator can perform admission control and congestion control independently.

Admission Control

In this feature, admission control for transmission resource is performed separately to avoid conflict between operators. That is, for each operator’s call traffic, the required transmission resource (bandwidth) would only be allocated from this operator’s dedicated group. There is no difference whether the resource groups are carried by the shared physical link (case 1) or separated physical links (case 2). See the example in the following figure.

Congestion Control

In this feature, congestion control of transmission resource is also performed separately. Congestion is detected and reported independently for operator dedicated group, and only its own users are involved in the control process. As shown in the following figure for example, if congestion happens to Group-B (owned by operator B), only users that belong to operator B are involved.

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Besides the admission control and congestion control, the flow control for the HSDPA is also isolated between operators.

HSDPA flow control

As shown in the preceding figure, HSDPA flow control is performed separately for operator A and B. For example, available bandwidth for HSDPA within dedicated group is calculated as: Available bandwidth for HSDPA within Group-A =min {(maximum bandwidth of Group-A - total bandwidth allocated for R99 within Group-A), maximum bandwidth for HDSPA within Group-A} Where: Group-A is dedicated for Operator A.

Enhancement
In RAN12, the transmission resource management of different operators can be configured. Iub CAC and flow control can be configured as one of the following three modes: a. In Iub CAC, different users are admitted according to divided bandwidth of different operators, flow control algorithm is performed according to their individual bandwidth either. b. In Iub CAC, all the users are admitted according to total bandwidth instead of individual bandwidth, flow control algorithm is also performed according to total bandwidth. c. In Iub CAC, different users are admitted according to divided bandwidth of different operators, but flow control algorithm is performed according to total bandwidth. In these three modes, a. Different operators can have different QoS mapping scheme (ARP/TC/THP) b. The mapping between QoS attributes (TC/ARP/THP) and SPI/SPI weight/User GBR of BE service can be configured for each operator. c. The Iub CAC and congestion control to the users of different operators are performed according to their individual mapping configurations.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC When Iub over IP is applied, the BSC6910 does not support this feature . Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.10 WRFD-021303 IMSI Based Handover
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0.

Summary
This feature supports the configuration of SNA-related information on the RNC side. When the CN does not support the SNA function, this feature enables the UTRAN to provide limitations to mobile areas of the UE.

Benefits
With this feature, the RNC can prevent the UE in connected mode from being moved to an un-subscribed area without CN support. This feature can also be used as a supplement for implementing shared networks solutions.

Description
This feature is an alternate solution when the CN does not support the function of the shared network support in connected mode which is described in WRFD-021301 Shared Network Support in Connected Mode. That is, the following mappings must be configured on the RNC instead of informed by the CN.

The SNA that an LA belongs to

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The SNA that the UE is allowed to connect to

With this information, UTRAN can provide the same restrict mechanism for UE in connected mode without CN node support. The following procedures are affected in the IMSI-based handover and the process is the same as described in the feature WRFD-021301 Shared Network Support in Connected Mode:
     

RRC Establishment Cell Update URA Update Handover Relocation Handling Common ID

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package

5.1.11 WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

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Summary
With this feature, multiple operators can share a cell. This feature applies to the scenarios wherein multiple operators share a carrier or further sharing is required.

Benefits
MOCN enables the operators to save Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (OPEX), especially in areas where a single carrier is sufficient to support subscribers from different operators. For operators involved in the fierce competition of the telecom industry, MOCN can help them to achieve capital gains as well as corporate soundness and competitiveness. Compared with other sharing modes that use independent carriers, MOCN can share carrier resources and better utilize resources.

Description
MOCN, introduced in the 3GPP R6 protocols, is known as one of the access network sharing modes. In addition to access nodes such as RNC and NodeB, MOCN also shares the carriers. The network architecture of MOCN is shown below:

Different from RAN Sharing that uses independent carriers, MOCN uses common carrier resources. Similar to RAN Sharing, the Core Network (CN) in MOCN is independent, that is, the CN nodes belong to different operators. When multiple operators share common carrier resources, the users of these operators have cell resources in common. In this respect, compared with RAN Sharing, MOCN can better utilize resources. Huawei does not offer the MOCN solution with RAN Sharing solution together. In MOCN solution, all the software features cannot be controlled separately by different operators. one optional feature needs be bought by all the customers before it is available. MOCN introduction package has the following features:
    

Common carriers shared by operators Dedicated NodeB or cell for operators MOCN mobility management MOCN load balancing MOCN independent performance management

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the MOCN function. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN should support the MOCN function. Dependency on Other Features Cannot work with WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package at the same time.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.12 WRFD-02131101 Carrier Sharing by Operators
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
With this feature, multiple operators can share a carrier.

Benefits
MOCN enables the operators to save Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (OPEX), especially in areas where a single carrier is sufficient to support subscribers from both operators. For operators involved in the fierce competition of the telecom industry, MOCN can help them to achieve capital gains as well as corporate soundness and competitiveness. Compared with the sharing mode that uses independent carriers, MOCN can share carrier resources and better utilize resources.

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Description
MOCN uses common carrier resources and enables multiple operators to share the RAN equipment and the same carriers. One cell can belong to and serve different operators. The basic functions of MOCN are as follows:

System information broadcast The RNC broadcasts the PLMN IDs of multiple operators in the Master Information Block (MIB) to send the UE the information about these operators. Based on the information, the UE performs PLMN selection.

Network selection MOCN network sharing specifies the following two types of UE:

Supporting UE: refers to the UE that supports network sharing. In MOCN network sharing, the RNC broadcasts the PLMN information of multiple operators through the Multiple-PLMN list IE in the MIB. The supporting UE can analyze the PLMN information and inform the RNC of the selected PLMN through the initial direct transfer message. The supporting UE should support the 3GPP R6 protocols.

Non-supporting UE: refers to the UE that does not support network sharing. The non-supporting UE cannot analyze the PLMN information of operators from the system information.

The RNC adopts different methods to select suitable operators for the two types of UEs. The supporting UE selects a suitable PLMN ID from the PLMN IDs of multiple operators as broadcast in the MIB, and reports the selected PLMN ID to the RNC through the initial direct transfer message. Accordingly, the RNC selects a suitable CN node for the UE based on the PLMN ID of the UE. If the operator enables the Iu Flex function, the RNC selects one of the CN nodes based on the NAS Node Selection Function (NNSF). The non-supporting UE does not report PLMN ID to the RNC through the initial direct transfer message. The RNC selects a CN node for the UE through the redirection function.

PS/CS consistency The CS/PS consistency is achieved by coordinating the RNC and the CN. It prevents the RNC from selecting two CN operators (for CS domain and PS domain respectively) for the UE. For a network with the Gs interface, the CS registration is forwarded from the PS domain; therefore, the SGSN is responsible for ensuring the CS/PS consistency. For a network without the Gs interface, the RNC ensures the CS/PS consistency.

In addition, to facilitate the implementation of MOCN, some UEs that support 3GPP R5 rather than 3GPP R6 may realize the MOCN-associated features of Release 6. The RNC supports these pre-R6 UEs which implement MOCN independently.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.13 WRFD-02131102 Dedicated NodeB/Cell for Operators
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables operators to independently control a NodeB or cell in MOCN scenarios.

Benefits
Through dedicated NodeBs/Cells, the operators can flexibly set the network sharing areas to meet various requirements for network sharing and scenarios.

Description
To satisfy the special requirements of different operators, the RNC can not only connect to a shared NodeB of multiple operators (known as MOCN NodeB), but also connect to a dedicated NodeB, namely, non-shared NodeB which serves one operator only, as shown below:

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The dedicated NodeB belongs to Operator A only; therefore, all the UEs that access the network from this NodeB will be connected to the CN node of Operator A. For MOCN NodeB, some cells of the shared NodeB can be dedicated to one operator and serve this operator only. The RNC supports the dedicated cell for an operator.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

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5.1.14 WRFD-02131103 MOCN Mobility Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature adapts to different MOCN mobility policies. Whether the UE can be handed over to a new cell depends on the PLMN ID of the target cell and the operator ID of the UE.

Benefits
This feature can ensure a continuous shared network service, improve user perception, and provide more flexible mobility management policies, meeting different network sharing requirements of operators.

Description
Generally, inter-operator handover is prohibited, but there are some exceptions. The RNC provides a flag implying that the inter-operator handover within the system is allowed. The flag can be configured by operators although the inter-operator handover is prohibited by default. If the flag is provided, it indicates that the UE movement is not limited by operators. The inter-RAT handover between operators is allowed no matter what the flag is. MOCN mobility management prevents the UE from being handed over to the cells that belong to a different operator when the inter-operator handover is prohibited. The handover of UEs include soft handover, hard handover, intra-frequency handover, and inter-frequency handover.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.15 WRFD-02131104 MOCN Load Balance
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables load balancing between multiple operators and ensures the network fairness.

Benefits
This feature ensures the balance of load and the fairness of network sharing between different operators.

Description
For a non-supporting UE, the RNC selects a suitable operator for the UE based on the redirection function. In some cases, multiple operators can serve one UE (for example, a roaming UE); therefore, the load balancing mechanism is required to ensure the balance of load and the fairness of network sharing between operators. The RNC supports the load balancing mechanism of MOCN. In the first and the following attempts of redirection, the RNC selects the operator with least times of success access. This allows multiple UEs to be evenly allocated to different CN operators and guarantees the load balance between operators.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.16 WRFD-02131105 MOCN Independent Performance Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables operators to independently obtain the information about network operation such as traffic and network quality.

Benefits
With this feature, operators can independently obtain the information about network operation such as traffic and network quality.

Description
The RNC supports independent performance management for different operators. That is to say, the operators can obtain their specific information about network operation, such as traffic volume and network quality. In addition, the performance counters related to MOCN, for example, the redirections with various causes are added to the RNC performance counters.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.17 WRFD-02131106 Routing Roaming UEs in Proportion
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
If an RNC is shared by several operators that support the Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN) and have a roaming agreement with each other, when UEs of another RNC enter the coverage area of this RNC, this RNC routes these UEs to the CNs of different operators according to the predefined routing proportion.

Benefits

With this feature, the telecom operators sharing one RNC can flexibly route roaming UEs to CNs.

Description
In a shared RNC, roaming relationships can be configured between the operators who share the RNC and other operators who do not. For the UEs of an operator that enter the coverage area of the shared RNC, the allocation proportions among the operators who share the RNC can also be configured. When UEs of other operators roam into the area served by the shared RNC, and the UEs are non-supporting (meaning they do not support network sharing, as specified in the optional feature WRFD-02131101Carrier Sharing Among Operators), the RNC randomly routes these UEs to a CN if the RNC does not receive the messages carrying IMSI information. If the CN rejects the UE access requests or indicates that CS/PS coordination is required, the CN returns the UE IMSI to the RNC. The RNC then obtains the PLMN from the IMSI and routes the UEs to the CN of the operators who share the RNC according to the predefined roaming relationships and proportions. If the roaming UEs are supporting-UEs (supporting network sharing), this feature is not applied.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Sharing Introduction Service

5.1.18 WRFD-140223 MOCN Cell Resource Demarcation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

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Summary
When the Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN) function is enabled, operation and maintenance (O&M) personnel can predefine the percentage of cell resources available to UEs of each operator involved. If a cell has idle resources, the UEs of each operator can use more resources than their predefined resource percentage. However, when the cell resource usage reaches a specified threshold, the percentage of resources occupied by the UEs of each operator needs to be controlled as follows:
 

During admission control, the RNC allows a new UE to preempt resources occupied by a UE whose operator exceeds the predefined resource percentage. During congestion control, the RNC preferentially selects UEs whose operator exceeds the predefined resource percentage the most.

Benefits
By sharing frequencies among operators, this feature maximizes resource utilization and keeps resource usage of each operator during busy hours close to their respective predefined resource percentage. This provides a mechanism for defining resource allocation among operators and prevents the UEs of an operator from occupying excessive resources.

Description
The percentage of downlink code resources assigned to R99 users (DL R99 code resources for short) available to UEs of each MOCN-enabled operator is configurable at the cell level. When the total DL R99 code resource usage in a cell reaches a specified threshold, the RNC allows a new UE to preempt resources occupied by a UE whose operator exceeds the predefined resource percentage during admission control, based on the code resource usage of each operator. As usual, the RNC preferentially selects the UE with the lowest priority for preemption. If the cell is congested, the RNC analyzes the cause of the congestion. If the congestion is caused by insufficient DL R99 code resources, the RNC preferentially selects UEs whose operator exceeds the predefined percentage of DL R99 code resources for load reshuffling (LDR). The percentage of HSDPA power available to UEs of each MOCN-enabled operator is configurable at the cell level. The RNC informs the NodeB of the percentage. The NodeB calculates the HSDPA power usage of UEs of each operator and adjusts the scheduling priority of UEs of this operator. The difference between the predefined percentage and the HSDPA power usage of UEs of an operator increases with the scheduling priority of the UEs of this operator. When HSDPA power usage in a cell reaches a specified threshold, the RNC allows a new UE to preempt resources occupied by a UE whose operator exceeds predefined HSDPA power percentage during admission control, based on the guaranteed bit power (GBP) usage of each operator. You are not advised to use this feature with WRFD-010696 DC-HSDPA. That is because enabling DC-HSDPA affects power measurement accuracy.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board support this feature. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package

5.1.19 WRFD-150213 MOCN Independent Iub Transmission Resource Allocation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature allocates Iub user-plane transmission resources to operators in multi-operator core network (MOCN) scenarios.

Benefits
This feature prevents one operator from occupying excess Iub user-plane transmission resources in MOCN scenarios and ensures that operators retain independent Iub user-plane transmission resources.

Description
Iub transmission resources can be logically divided into user- and control-plane transmission resources. In MOCN scenarios, this feature allocates user-plane bandwidth to each operator independently and enables operators to share control-plane bandwidth and the common channel bandwidth in a shared cell. The following figure shows the details.

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To allocate user-plane bandwidth to each operator independently, the RNC is configured with different logical ports, with each logical port corresponding to one operator; after identifying the UE's operator, the RNC sends the UE's user-plane data to the corresponding logical port. This feature applies to the following scenarios: Scenario 1: Operators share one physical link over the Iub interface.

Scenario 2: Each operator uses a dedicated physical link over the Iub interface.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware This feature does not support BSC6910 IP transmission. Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features This feature depends on WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package. This feature cannot be used with WRFD-02130501 Dedicated Iub Transmission Control or WRFD-140208 Iub Transmission Resource Pool in RNC.

5.1.20 WRFD-150214 MOCN Independent CE Resource Allocation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature allocates a NodeB's uplink and downlink channel element (CE) resources to operators in MOCN scenarios.

Benefits
This feature prevents one operator from occupying excess CE resources in MOCN scenarios. This ensures that each operator retains independent CE resources.

Description
This feature provides the following functions:

The M2000 allocates a NodeB's uplink and downlink CE resources to operators. When distributing CE licenses, the M2000 allocates a NodeB's uplink and downlink CE resources by configuring private and common groups. The CE resources in a private

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group belong to only one operator. The CE resources in the common group can be shared by all operators. The following figure shows the details.

After identifying a UE's operator, the NodeB allocates the CE resources in the operator's private group to the UE. After dividing the CE resources into different groups and identifying a UE's operator, the NodeB allocates the CE resources in this operator's private group to the UE. An operator can use the CE resources in the common group only after the CE resources in its private group are used up. The CE resources in the common group are used on a first come, first served basis.

The RNC relieves CE congestion for each operator separately. If the available CE resources for an operator are insufficient, the RNC relieves CE congestion for this operator by reducing the BE service rate for some users or adjusting the transmission time interval (TTI) for HSUPA users from 2 ms to 10 ms.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board support this feature. Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features This feature depends on WRFD-021311 MOCN Introduction Package. This feature cannot be used with WRFD-021304 RAN Sharing Introduction Package.

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5.2 Topology Enhancement
5.2.1 WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature complies with the hierarchical cell structure (HCS) as stipulated in 3GPP specifications. It enables the UE to be handed over to the relevant hierarchical cell according to its moving speed.

Benefits
  

Improve the conversation quality for fast-moving UEs. Improve the system capacity. Reduce the signaling load by decreasing the unnecessary handover.

Description
In 3G networks, the so-called hot spots in radio communications may appear with the increase of subscribers and traffic. This requires more cells to expand the network capacity. More cells and smaller cell radius indicate that more frequent handovers of UEs take place. For a UE at a fast speed, frequent handovers reduce call quality, increase uplink interference, and increase signaling load. In this situation, Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) is required to divide cells into different hierarchies and up to 8 hierarchies are supported. Cell Type Macro Cell Characteristics Large coverage Continuous coverage networking Low requirement on capacity Fast-moving environment Micro Cell Densely populated areas High requirement on capacity Slow-moving environment Pico Cell Indoor coverage Outdoor dead-area coverage

Where, the Pico cell has the highest priority and the macro cell has the lowest priority.

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Speed Estimation The speed estimation on each hierarchy of an HCS cell falls into one of the following types:
− − −

Fast speed Normal speed Slow speed

According to the number of changes of the best cell within time unit, speed estimation algorithm estimates the moving speed of the UEs. See details as follows:
− − − 

If the number of changes of best cell for a UE is above the fast-speed threshold, this UE is decided in fast speed; If the number of changes of best cell for a UE is below the slow-speed threshold, this UE is decided in slow speed; If the number of changes of best cell for a UE is between fast-speed threshold and slow-speed threshold, this UE is decided in normal speed.

HCS Handover Based on Speed Estimation After the moving speed of the UE is estimated, inter-hierarchy handover algorithm initiates the corresponding handover based on this speed decision. According to the results of speed estimation,
− − −

The UE in fast speed is handed over to the cell of lower priority. The UE in slow speed is handed over to the cell of higher priority. The UE in normal speed is not required to be handed over to any cell.

According to speed estimation, the RNC orders the fast-moving UE to handover to the cells of lower priority to reduce the number of handovers, and orders the slow-moving UEs to handover to the cells of higher priority to increase network capacity.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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Dependency on Other Features None

5.2.2 WRFD-020111 One Tunnel
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R7.

Summary
This feature works between the RNC and the GGSN on the UMTS core network. It is a feature defined by 3GPP R7. This feature has been enhanced in RAN14.0 so that it supports One Tunnel between the RNC and the S-GW on the evolved packet core (EPC). The S12 interface is used between these two network elements (NEs). The enhanced feature is defined by 3GPP R8.

Benefits
This feature further simplifies mobile packet data networks. By using the optimal lines on networks, this feature significantly reduces the number of the data links required and thereby achieves a flat user plane. This feature is particularly suitable for 3G networks. With this feature, telecom operators can make the most of their investments in network construction, easily expand their networks, and lower the operation and maintenance costs. In addition, evolution to LTE is convenient.

Description
Based on the traditional 3G network architecture, One Tunnel is an innovative technique for network optimization. The SGSN is responsible for establishing a direct tunnel from the RNC to the GGSN. User-plane data is transmitted over this direct tunnel instead of being transmitted through the SGSN. This achieves a flat user plane. On a traditional UMTS network, there is a tunnel between the GGSN and the SGSN, and there is another tunnel between the SGSN and the RNC, as shown in the upper portion of the following figure. Data on both the control plane and the user plane is transmitted between the RNC and the GGSN through the SGSN. This is known as Two Tunnel (two GTP tunnels). With Two Tunnel, user-plane data of PS services is forwarded to the GGSN by the SGSN. Amid the rapid increases in the PS traffic volume, the user-plane capacity of the SGSN is becoming a bottleneck. One Tunnel is the solution to this problem. With One Tunnel, a direct tunnel is established between the RNC and the GGSN for the user-plane data of PS services, as shown in the lower portion of the following figure. The SGSN works as the central control point for One Tunnel. Control-plane data is still transmitted between the RNC and the GGSN through the SGSN. User-plane data is directly transmitted between the RNC and the GGSN. One Tunnel between the RNC and the GGSN was first introduced in 3GPP R7. Figure 5.2.2-1 One Tunnel between RNC and GGSN

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Enhancement
One Tunnel has been enhanced in RAN14.0. Without One Tunnel, two tunnels are used for UMTS/LTE interoperability, one between the RNC and the SGSN and the other between the SGSN and the S-GW. One Tunnel between the RNC and the S-GW was introduced in 3GPP R8. The S12 interface is used to achieve One Tunnel between the RNC and the S-GW. With One Tunnel, a direct tunnel is established between the RNC and the S-GW. User-plane data is directly transmitted between the RNC and the S-GW. This way, the SGSN will not become a bottleneck for UMTS/LTE interoperability, and telecom operators do not need to upgrade the SGSN frequently. Figure 5.2.2-2 S12 between RNC and Serving Gateway

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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The serving gateway (S-GW) must support this feature. Dependency on CN The GGSN must support this feature. Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Network Design Service

5.3 ATM Transmission
5.3.1 WRFD-050405 Overbooking on ATM Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature improves the usage efficiency in ATM transmission scenarios.

Benefits
This feature provides a method for greatly saving OPEX on ATM transmission, especially on the Iub Interface, and when deploying HSDPA high speed service.

Description
Overbooking on ATM transmission is used to improve the usage efficiency on ATM transmission scenario, and this feature comprises of following two parts:
 

Overbooking on Call Admission Control and basic congestion control Fast inner loop backpressure on the interface board

I. Overbooking on Call Admission Control and Basic Congestion Control Transmission rate of the data service varies in different periods. For example, data flow is generated when you are downloading a webpage, but no data flow is generated when you are browsing the webpage. Therefore, there is a high peak/average ratio between the actual transmission rate and the channel transmission rate. And this can be represented by activity factor of each service type. Such activity factor can be configured as a network requirement. The thought of the Iub overbooking is that the transmission bandwidth of the Iub interface is allocated according to a certain activating ratio instead of 100% of the maximum traffic ratio when the admission is performed. As a result, the bandwidth shared by multiple users may not meet the requirements for peak rate transmission. In this case, efficiency of using the bandwidth on the Iub interface becomes quite low if no flow control is performed on the RNC.

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The reason for such a case is that random packet loss on the Iub interface leads to PDU re-transmission by the RLC and the transmission rate is degraded when the time delay for transmitting TCP packet increases and the TCP flow control starts. To solve this problem, packet loss on the Iub interface should be avoided and ensure that the time delay for transmitting TCP packets is not affected by the packet loss. To configure the re-transmission threshold and explain the Iub overbooking solution, two events are defined: event A and event B:
 

When the re-transmission rate is continuously greater than the high threshold, event A is reported from RLC to MAC-d and the latter one will inhibit the maximum current TFI. If the re-transmission rate is continuously smaller than the low threshold, event B is reported from RLC to MAC-d and the upper-level TFI inhibited previously is restored.

With this basic congestion control mechanism which applied in RLC and MAC player, the data rate will be decreased immediately, but since data loss has occurred, the gain of transmission resource usage efficiency and user feeling will be affected accordingly. Therefore, the second part of this feature is introduced to enhance the performance farther. II. Fast inner loop backpressure on the interface board Such fast inner loop backpressure mechanism is implemented in the interface board and it works as described below: The RNC monitors the Buffer Occupancy (BO) status of each physical port and VP (Virtual Port) or VC at the Iub transport network layer user plane continuously.

If the BO exceeds congestion threshold (TH2), the system enters congestion state and a congestion backpressure signal will be generated and sent to radio network layer user plane. Then the RNL UP will decrease the data sending rate to release the congestion. If the BO is lower than congestion release threshold (TH1), the system enters normal state and a congestion release backpressure signal will be generated and sent to the RNL UP. Then the RNL UP will increase the data sending rate. If the BO is higher than discard threshold (TH3), the system enters extreme congestion state and the data will be discarded at the TNL UP directly.
Buffer Occupancy

TH3 TH2 TH1

Time

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From CN

RNL User Plane

Iub TNL User Plane

To NodeB

Since this backpressure mechanism works in the 10ms level, generally data loss will not occur and Iub bandwidth usage efficiency is greatly increased accordingly. This mechanism depends on the ATM interface board on RNC like AOU/UOI/AUE, and NodeB must be connected to RNC directly through ATM interface board. It is not applied for Hub NodeB.

Enhancement
In RAN6.1, fast inner loop backpressure feature based on VC is supported for ATM transport. In RAN10.0, fast inner loop backpressure feature based on port and VP is supported for ATM transport.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The backpressure and VP shaping mechanism depends on the ATM interface board on RNC like AOUa/UOIa/AEUa/AOUc/UOIc. Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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Dependency on Other Features None

5.3.2 WRFD-050105 ATM Switching Based Hub NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN 5.1

Summary
With this feature, Huawei NodeB is capable of transmission convergence in ATM transport mode.

Benefits
This feature can provide the convergence gain and reduce the cost of transmission lines.

Description
The ATM switching based hub NodeB extends the tree topology, as shown in the following figure. The hub NodeB is connected to the RNC through the STM-1 or E1 port. The hub NodeB is connected to the cascaded NodeBs through the E1 port. The NodeBs are converged on the hub NodeB and then connected to the RNC. ATM transmission convergence implements the convergence gain on the Iub interface.

NodeB

NodeB

NodeB NodeB

Hub NodeB
NodeB NodeB

RNC

ATM transmission convergence consists of PVC convergence and AAL2 convergence. The following figure shows the topology of PVC convergence. PVC convergence is implemented on the basis of tree-link PVC and group bandwidth management technologies. The PVC convergence function of the hub NodeB can implement switching between PVC 1 and PVC A (NodeB 1), between PVC 2 and PVC B (NodeB 2), and between PVC 3 and PVC C (NodeB

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3). The RNC provides the group bandwidth management function to ensure that downstream NodeBs and hub NodeB can share the transmission bandwidth of the Iub interface.

Physical link
PVC A

PVC

Physical link

NodeB 1 PVC B PVC 1 PVC 2 NodeB 2 PVC C PVC 3

NodeB 3

Hub NodeB

Group bandwidth management is an improvement of the CAC algorithm based on AAL2 path. This algorithm can ensure that the total bandwidth for UE admission is smaller than that of physical ports and the total bandwidth of all configured AAL2 paths is greater than that of physical ports. In PVC convergence mode, the hub NodeB can support four-level connections of downstream NodeBs and up to 16 downstream NodeBs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

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5.3.3 WRFD-050106 AAL2 Switching Based Hub NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
With this feature, Huawei NodeB is capable of AAL2 transmission convergence in ATM transport mode.

Benefits
This feature can provide the convergence gain and reduce the cost of transmission lines.

Description
The AAL2 switching Based Hub NodeB is a feature in ATM transport mode. It is the extension of the tree topology. The hub NodeB topology has two solutions: PVC convergence and AAL2 Convergence. In order to achieve better congregation efficiency, the AAL2 convergence is introduced. The AAL2 convergence is implemented through AAL2 switching. As shown in the following figure, the bandwidth that the RNC allocates to the AAL2 paths of the NodeBs (NodeB 1, NodeB 2, and NodeB 3) is converged and switched on the AAL2 path of the hub NodeB. Therefore, all the NodeBs share the Iub bandwidth of the AAL2 path.
Physical link AAL2 Link
NodeB1

Physical link

NodeB2

NodeB3

PVC

Hub NodeB

PVC

The hub NodeB supports connections to 4 level downstream NodeBs in AAL2 convergence mode. The hub NodeB supports up to 16 downstream NodeBs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB
 

The DBS3800 cannot support this feature. The BTS3902E cannot support this feature.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050105 ATM Switching Based Hub NodeB

5.3.4 WRFD-050406 ATM QoS Introduction on Hub NodeB (Overbooking on Hub NodeB Transmission)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0 in BSC6800. This feature is introduced from RAN10.0 in BSC6810.

Summary
With this feature, the RNC can detect each virtual port through the VP shaping mechanism to share the bandwidth of the Iub interface.

Benefits
This feature provides a method for greatly saving OPEX on ATM Hub NodeB transmission, and when deploying HSDPA service.

Description
The Iub transmission aggregation is a very important method to save operator’s CAPEX. The figure below shows an example.

SDH Backhaul

NodeB1 (Hub 1) RNC

NodeB2 (Hub 2)

NodeB3 (Leaf)

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When the hub NodeB transmission is applied, the RNC can be connected to more NodeBs with only one physical port. In this case, the RNC may send out data with a high bit rate, and if all the data is sending to one NodeB, for example, NodeB 3 in upper figure, congestion may happen at NodeB 2 and data will be lost accordingly. In order to avoid the possible data loss, Iub Overbooking on Hub NodeB Transmission is introduced in the RNC. Iub Overbooking on Hub NodeB Transmission feature uses Iub Overbooking CAC (Call Admission Control) algorithm and VP (virtual Port) shaping mechanism. The Iub Overbooking CAC algorithm is the same as that in feature WRFD-050405. In VP shaping mechanism, all PVCs connected to one NodeB are considered as one virtual port; if one NodeB is a hub NodeB, all PVCs connected to it and PVCs connected to its leaf NodeBs are considered as one virtual port only. The VP shaping mechanism is almost the same as backpressure mechanism in feature WRFD-050405. The difference is that the RNC monitors the buffer occupancy status of each virtual port but not physical port when the VP shaping is applied. With the VP shaping mechanism, data loss will not happen and Iub bandwidth can be fully used.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-050405 Overbooking on ATM transmission

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5.3.5 WRFD-050302 Fractional ATM Function on Iub Interface
Availability
This feature was first available from RAN2.0.

Summary
This feature enables ATM cells to be transmitted on some timeslots of the E1/T1 bearer and other data to be transmitted on other timeslots. It applies to the scenario where 2G and 3G data is transmitted simultaneously.

Benefits
ATM on Fractional supports:
  

Sharing of transmission links between 2G and 3G systems Reduced time in market at initial rollout Reduced transmission costs when 2G and 3G are co-sited

Description
The Fractional ATM mode is an ATM transport mode in the TC sub layer of ATM physical layer. In fractional ATM, ATM cells are transmitted by using some of the 32 E1 timeslots. ATM cells are mapped to some of the E1 timeslots, instead of all of the timeslots. At the peer end, the ATM cell stream is recovered from these E1 timeslots. The timeslots that are unavailable for ATM cell transmission can transmit other information.

The E1/T1 boards can be configured for a fraction of a full E1/T1. For example, the GSM system can share the transport links with the WCDMA system. This feature is both used for small sites where one 2G BTS and one WCDMA BTS can share one link and when for example 0.5 links are needed for the WCDMA BTS and there is 0.5 link free capacity for the 2G BTS. This will in many cases save the cost for installation of one link.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC
  

The BSC6900 must be configured with the AEUa or AOUc board. The BSC6910 must be configured with the AOUc board. The BSC6910 does not support fractional IMA.

Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

5.4 IP Transmission
5.4.1 WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the Iub interface to be carried on the IP network.

Benefits
This feature provides a new Iub transport solution for operator. With IP transmission, transport cost will decrease greatly with HSDPA/HSUPA service compared with ATM transport cost.

Description
Huawei RNC provides the following physical port types on Iub IP transmission solution to support different networking requirements:

E1/T1

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   

FE GE (with LAN Switch in BSC6800) STM-1/OC-3c(POS (Packet Over SDH), BSC6900 only) Channelized STM-1/OC-3(CPOS (Channelized POS), BSC6900 only)

Huawei NodeB provides the following physical port types on Iub IP transmission solution to support different networking requirements:
    

E1/T1 Electrical FE Optical FE (3900 NodeB only) Electrical GE (3900 NodeB only) Optical GE (3900 NodeB only)

The following features are also included:
       

Compliance with 3GPP R5 TR25.933 Support GE/FE/E1/T1/channelized STM-1/channelized OC-3/STM-1/OC-3c physical interface Support Diffserv mechanism and IEEE802.1P Support IPV4 Support IP head compression Support ML-PPP and MC-PPP, RAN11.0 NodeB support ML-PPP combined two transmission card Support DHCP, PPP Mux and VLAN Support 1+1 and 1:1 MSP

The following figure shows the IP networking on the Iub Interface.

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Besides the transport layer change (for example, M3UA, SCTP), the Iub IP brings about some changes in CAC as well as service differentiation. In CAC, IP PATH is defined as the connection between RNC and NodeB. Each IP PATH is configured with the maximum DL PATH bandwidth and the maximum UL PATH bandwidth by operators. When a new call is coming, RNC will compare the required service bandwidth with the available IP PATH bandwidth for UL and DL. If the IP PATH bandwidth available for use is insufficient, the call is rejected. If the call is admitted, RNC will reserve the bandwidth and mark it as being used. The Iub IP adopts the DiffServ for QoS differentiation, similar to the differentiated ATM PVC. PHB is defined according to the traffic type, each PHB having a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) and priority.
Traffic Type Common Channels SRB CS PS Conversational PS Streaming PS Interactive PS Background PHB(Per Hop Behavior) EF EF EF AF4 AF3 AF1 BE

PHB EF AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 BE

DSCP B'101110 B'100110 B'011110 B'010010 B'001010 B'000000

Prior Queue # 1 2 3 4 5 6

RAN14.0 supports the whitelist, VLAN-based packet filtering, and malformed packet attack defense functions.

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Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the BSC6810 supports the POS/CPOS interface (UOIa and POUa). RAN10.0, when the gateway or peer entity is faulty, this feature enables the RNC to detect the link fault and then trigger IP re-route or board switch, avoiding packet loss and call drop. RAN11.0 NodeB support ML-PPP combined two transmission card. RAN13.0 Iub support RNC and NodeB integrated firewall RNC integrated firewall include the following factions: The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the OM interface and provides the following functions: IP address filter. This technique allows only the IP data from authorized IP addresses and network segments. Safeguard against attacks of ICMP ping, IP fragments, low TTL, smurf, and DDos. Safeguard against attacks of TCP sequence prediction, and SYN flood. The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the Iub, Iur, and Iu interfaces and provides the following functions: Intelligent white-listing: With this function, only data from permissible peer IP addresses and ports and data of permissible protocol types can access the RNC. Safeguard against ARP and ICMP flood Safeguard against malformed packets Limiting speed of the broadcast messages NodeB integrated firewall include the following functions: The internal firewall inspects incoming all the IP data including maintenance data, control plane data and user plane data and provides the following functions:

White-listing: With this function, only data from permissible peer IP addresses and ports and data of permissible protocol types can access the NodeB. Ping denial function will be supported; NodeB will drop the ICMP packets in this mode. Maintenance data, control plane data and user plane data of 3900 series NodeB and Maintenance data and control plane data of BTS3812E/AE and DBS3800 will filter by White-listing function. Safeguard against Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) flood Since RAN14.0, white-listing, VLAN packet filtering, and tool-based protection against malformed packets are supported. Broadcast-message speed limiting The BSC6910 supports 10 GE interface boards from RAN15.0.

  

From RAN15.0 onwards, IP paths do not need to be configured, simplifying the transmission network configuration. When IP paths are not configured, each adjacent node is configured

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with a transmit bandwidth and a receive bandwidth, which are configurable for operators. When a new call is initiated, the RNC compares the required service bandwidth with the available transmit bandwidth and receive bandwidth of the adjacent node. If the bandwidth available for use is insufficient, the call is rejected. If the call is admitted, RNC reserves the bandwidth and marks it as in use.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC BSC6900
 

Only the PEUa, POUa, and POUc boards support IP head compression. Only the DOPRA Linux operating system supports the RNC integrated firewall for the OM interface. Only the FG2c and GOUc boards support the RNC integrated firewall. Only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, and GOUc boards support BFD. 10 GE interface boards are not supported.

  

BSC6910
      

All IP interface boards support the RNC integrated firewall and BFD. 10 GE interface boards are supported. IP over E1 is not supported. IP head compression is not supported. PPP, MC-PPP and PPP Mux are not supported. IP paths and IP-path-based bandwidth configuration are not supported. Trunks support the active/standby mode, but ports do not support it.

Dependency on NodeB
 

NUTI board is needed with BTS3812E/AE to support this feature. Only the 3900 series NodeB supports inter-board ML-PPP.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP RAN Evolution Service

5.4.2 WRFD-050411 Fractional IP Function on Iub Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1.

Summary
This feature enables IP packets to be transmitted on some timeslots of the E1/T1 bearer and other data to be transmitted on other timeslots. This feature mainly applies to the scenario where the 2G Abis interface shares the 3G transport network.

Benefits
  

Sharing of transmission links between 2G and 3G systems Reduced time in market at initial rollout Reduced transmission costs when 2G and 3G are co-sited

Description
In fractional IP, IP packages are transmitted using some of the 32 E1 timeslots. IP packages are mapped to some of the E1 timeslots, instead of all of the timeslots. At the peer end, the IP package is recovered from these E1 timeslots. The timeslots that do not use for IP package transmission can transmit other information.

The E1/T1 boards can be configured for a fraction of a full E1/T1. This is for instance useful when a 2G system, like GSM, shall share the transport links with the WCDMA system. This feature is both used for small sites where one 2G BTS and one WCDMA BTS can share one link and when for example 0.5 links are needed for the WCDMA BTS and there is 0.5 link

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free capacity for the 2G BTS. This will in many cases save the cost for installation of one link.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
 

The BSC6900 must be configured with the PEUa, POUa, or POUc board. The BSC6910 does not support this feature.

Dependency on NodeB hardware The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iub Interface

5.4.3 WRFD-050403 Hybrid Iub IP Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1.

Summary
This feature enables the transmission of real-time services and non-real-time services on different paths to meet the requirements of UMTS services.

Benefits
This feature provides a method for saving OPEX on Iub transmission, especially when deploying HSDPA/HSUPA service.

Description
The hybrid IP is a kind of innovative transmission solution provided by Huawei to meet the requirements of different services in UMTS. That is, it transmits real-time service and

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non-real-time service on different paths. Two kinds of hybrid transmissions are available: FE+E1/T1 and FE+FE. With the introduction of HSDPA technology and the capacity increase over the air interface, the demand on Iub transmission bandwidth increases greatly. If E1 LL (Lease Line) is adopted, the operator would need to rent a large amount of circuit, and it may be very expensive to rent and maintain the transport network. The requirement of different service in 3G is quite different in transport bandwidth, BER and timing delay. Considering the requirement of cost and QoS, the Iub hybrid transmission is introduced with Iub IP transmission. The Iub hybrid transmission considers the service difference and select different transport physical layer or transport path for different services. Real-time services such as voice and streaming data services are transported on IP over E1/STM-1, while non-real-time services such as interactive and background services are transported on IP over Ethernet, as shown in the following figure.

In RAN10.0, Resiliency Hybrid Iub IP Transmission solution is introduced. Iub user plane traffic and Iub NBAP signaling can be carried over hybrid networks on backup mode. When one path fails, all the new coming traffic is carried on another path.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, Resiliency Hybrid Iub IP Transmission solution is introduced.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP RAN Evolution Service

5.4.4 WRFD-050404 ATM/IP Dual Stack NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature enables Huawei NodeB to support hybrid transmission based on ATM and IP. With this feature, the services with different QoS requirements can be carried on the links of different protocols. In addition, transmission backup can be implemented by this feature.

Benefits
This feature provides smooth upgrading from ATM transmission to IP transmission on the Iub Interface. It helps protect operator’s investment and provide flexible networking.

Description
This feature helps protect operator’s investment and provide flexible networking. For existing ATM network expansion, operator can overlay IP network in the existing ATM network. The RNC can support IP NodeB or ATM NodeB, so you can add IP NodeB in the existed ATM network. Moreover, the NodeB can support ATM and IP dual protocol. You can add an interface card or modify the configuration to get Iub IP network with existed ATM network, which has no effect to the existed configuration. For example:
 

You can add a NUTI board to support IP transmission in a ATM NodeB which has only NDTI board; You can upgrade NodeB configuration to support IP transmission in a ATM NodeB has NUTI board;

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In RAN10.0, Resiliency solution is introduced. Iub user plane traffic and Iub NBAP signaling can be carried over ATM network and IP network on backup mode. When one path fails, all the new coming traffic is carried on another path.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, Resiliency ATM/IP dual stack NodeB Transmission solution is introduced.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support load balance based on the admission bandwidth. Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP RAN Evolution Service

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5.4.5 WRFD-050409 IP Transmission Introduction on Iu Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the Iu interface to be carried on the IP network.

Benefits
This feature provides a new Iu transport solution for operator. With IP transmission, transport cost will decrease greatly compared with ATM transport cost.

Description
This feature provides Iu over IP transport solution including the following features:
              

Compliance with 3GPP R5 TR25.933 Support IP over FE electrical interface Support IP over GE electrical interface and GE optical interface Support IP over STM-1/OC-3c optical interface (POS (Packet Over SDH)) (BSC6900 only) Support IP over channelized STM-1/OC-3 optical interface(CPOS (Channelized POS)) (BSC6900 only) Support IuCS over IP over E1/T1 physical interface (BSC6900 only) Support Diffserv mechanism and IEEE802.1P Support IPV4 Support IP head compression Support ML-PPP and MC-PPP Support PPP Mux and VLAN Support FE/GE 1+1 backup redundancy Support FE/GE load share redundancy Support STM-1/OC-3c 1+1 and 1:1 MSP Support channelized STM-1/OC-3 1+1 and 1:1 MSP

IP networking solution can be L1, L2, L3 networking on Iu interface similar to that on the Iub Interface. Besides the transport layer change, Iu IP brings some changes in CAC as well as service differentiation In CAC, IP PATH is defined as the connection between RNC and CN. Each IP PATH is configured with the maximum DL PATH bandwidth and the maximum UL PATH bandwidth by operators. When a new call is coming, RNC will compare the required service bandwidth with the available IP PATH bandwidth for UL and DL. If available IP PATH bandwidth is

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insufficient, the call is rejected. If the call is admitted, RNC will reserve the bandwidth and mark it as being used.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the BSC6810 supports the POS/CPOS interface (UOIa and POUa). In RAN10.0, when the gateway or peer entity is faulty, this feature enables the RNC to detect the link fault and then trigger IP re-route or board switch, avoiding packet loss and call drop. In RAN13.0, RNC integrated firewall is supported, which include the following functions: The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the OM interface and provides the following functions: IP address filter. This technique allows only the IP data from authorized IP addresses and network segments. Safeguard against attacks of ICMP ping, IP fragments, low TTL, smurf, and DDos. Safeguard against attacks of TCP sequence prediction, and SYN flood. The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the Iub, Iur, and Iu interfaces and provides the following functions: Intelligent white-listing: With this function, only data from permissible peer IP addresses and ports and data of permissible protocol types can access the RNC. Safeguard against ARP and ICMP flood Safeguard against malformed packets Limiting speed of the broadcast messages The BSC6910 supports 10 GE interface boards from RAN15.0. From RAN15.0 onwards, IP paths do not need to be configured, simplifying the transmission network configuration. If IP paths are not configured, each adjacent node is configured with a transmit bandwidth and a receive bandwidth, which are configurable for operators. When a new call is initiated, the RNC compares the required service bandwidth with the available transmit bandwidth and receive bandwidth of the adjacent node. If the bandwidth available for use is insufficient, the call is rejected. If the call is admitted, RNC reserves the bandwidth and marks it as in use.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC BSC6900

Only the DOPRA Linux operating system supports the RNC integrated firewall for the OM interface. Only the FG2c and GOUc boards support the RNC integrated firewall. Only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, and GOUc boards support BFD. 10 GE interface boards are not supported.

  

BSC6910

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     

All IP interface boards support the RNC integrated firewall and BFD. 10 GE interface boards are supported. IP head compression is not supported. PPP, MC-PPP, and PPP Mux are not supported. IP paths and IP-path-based bandwidth configuration are not supported. Trunks support the active/standby mode, but ports do not support it.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

CN should support IP transportation.

Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP RAN Evolution Service

5.4.6 WRFD-050410 IP Transmission Introduction on Iur Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature enables the Iur interface to be carried on the IP network.

Benefits
This feature provides a new Iur transport solution for operator. With IP transmission, transport cost will decrease greatly compared with ATM transport cost.

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Description
This feature provides Iur over IP transport solution including the following features:
               

Compliance with 3GPP R5 TR25.933 Support GE/FE/E1/T1 physical interface Support IP over FE electrical interface Support IP over GE electrical interface and GE optical interface (BSC6900 only) Support IP over STM-1/OC-3c optical interface (POS (Packet Over SDH)) (BSC6900 only) Support IP over channelized STM-1/OC-3 optical interface(CPOS (Channelized POS)) (BSC6900 only) Support IP over E1/T1 physical interface (BSC6900 only) Support Diffserv mechanism and IEEE802.1P Support IPV4 Support IP head compression Support ML-PPP and MC-PPP Support DHCP, PPP Mux and VLAN Support FE/GE 1+1 backup redundancy Support FE/GE load share redundancy Support STM-1/OC-3c 1+1 and 1:1 MSP Support channelized STM-1/OC-3 1+1 and 1:1 MSP

IP networking solution can be L1, L2, L3 networking on Iur interface similar to that on the Iub Interface. Besides the transport layer change, Iur IP brings some changes in CAC as well as service differentiation. In CAC, IP PATH is defined as the connection between SRNC and DRNC. Each IP PATH is configured with the maximum DL PATH bandwidth and the maximum UL PATH bandwidth by operators. When a new call is coming, RNC will compare the required service bandwidth with the available IP PATH bandwidth for UL and DL. The call will be rejected if no enough IP PATH bandwidth is available. After the call is admitted, RNC will reserve bandwidth as in use. The Iub IP adopts the DiffServ for QoS differentiation, similar to the differentiated ATM PVC. PHB is defined according to the traffic type, each PHB having a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) and priority.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, packet over STM-1/OC-3c is supported. In RAN10.0, packet over channelized STM-1/OC-3 is supported. In RAN10.0, when the gateway or peer entity is faulty, this feature enables the RNC to detect the link fault and then trigger IP re-route or board switch, avoiding packet loss and call drop. In RAN13.0, RNC integrated firewall is supported, which include the following functions:

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The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the OM interface and provides the following functions: IP address filter. This technique allows only the IP data from authorized IP addresses and network segments. Safeguard against attacks of ICMP ping, IP fragments, low TTL, smurf, and DDos. Safeguard against attacks of TCP sequence prediction, and SYN flood. The internal firewall inspects the incoming IP data over the Iub, Iur, and Iu interfaces and provides the following functions: Intelligent white-listing: With this function, only data from permissible peer IP addresses and ports and data of permissible protocol types can access the RNC. Safeguard against ARP and ICMP flood Safeguard against malformed packets Limiting speed of the broadcast messages The BSC6910 supports 10 GE interface boards from RAN15.0. From RAN15.0 onwards, IP paths do not need to be configured, simplifying the transmission network configuration. If IP paths are not configured, each adjacent node is configured with a transmit bandwidth and a receive bandwidth, which are configurable for operators. When a new call is initiated, the RNC compares the required service bandwidth with the available transmit bandwidth and receive bandwidth of the adjacent node. If the bandwidth available for use is insufficient, the call is rejected. If the call is admitted, RNC reserves the bandwidth and marks it as in use.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC BSC6900

Only the DOPRA Linux operating system supports the RNC integrated firewall for the OM interface. Only the FG2c and GOUc boards support the RNC integrated firewall. Only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, and GOUc boards support BFD. 10 GE interface boards are not supported.

  

BSC6910
    

All IP interface boards support the RNC integrated firewall and BFD. 10 GE interface boards are supported. IP head compression is not supported. PPP, MC-PPP, and PPP Mux are not supported. IP paths and IP-path-based bandwidth configuration are not supported.

Trunks support the active/standby mode, but ports do not support it.

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The neighboring RNC should also support IP transportation. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP RAN Evolution Service

5.4.7 WRFD-050420 FP MUX for IP Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the multiplexing of FP packets on the IP network to improve the transmission efficiency.

Benefits
 

Save IUB IP transport resource to provide higher transport efficiency for IUB IP transport. Without FP MUX, the efficiency for voice packet is less than 50%; with FP-MUX, the efficiency for voice packet is up to 80%.

Description
When IP transport is adopted for Iub interface, the packet of user plane is encapsulated within UDP/IP/L2, the UDP, IP and L2 encapsulated head is too large for short packet, which leads to the low transport efficiency. Packet multiplexing is adopted to enhance the transport efficiency. Using FP MUX feature, multiple FP packets with same source IP, destination IP and DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) are packed into one UDP/IP packet, with compressed UDP information. Since less packet head, higher transport efficiency is achieved.

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FP MUX is Huawei proprietary protocol. RNC and NodeB must support this feature simultaneously.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware

The BSC6900 supports this feature when the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, GOUc, or POUc board is used.

Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface

5.4.8 WRFD-050422 Dynamic Bandwidth Control of Iub IP
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to adjust the available transport bandwidth according to the packet loss rate and jitter on links detected by IP PM.

Benefits
When the packet loss or jitter increases, RNC will reduce the transmitting throughput to alleviate and eliminate congestion. Therefore, there is less packet loss and jitter, less packet retransmission rate, and the transport efficiency is enhanced.

Description
Following scenarios need dynamic bandwidth control:

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1. ADSL and ADSL 2+ are adopted for Iub IP and the bandwidth of Iub interface is influenced by line quality. 2. IP traffic convergence. There is congestion when multiple nodes transmit packets with large throughput simultaneously. This will become normal when HSPA service is large deployed. When IP transport is adopted for Iub transport, the packet is transmitted in UDP/IP format, so there is no congestion detection and congestion elimination mechanism. If there is congestion in the network, the delay will arise, even packet will lose. This will trigger RLC retransmission and decrease the transport efficiency. The dynamic bandwidth control of Iub IP adjusts the available transport bandwidth according to the packet loss rate of link and jitter detected by IP PM (Performance Monitor). When the packet loss rate or jitter increases, the available bandwidth decreases. When the packet loss rate or jitter decreases, the available bandwidth is increases. The principle of IP PM is similar to that of ATM OAM PM. One end sends an FM (Forward Monitoring) message periodically, the other end responds to the PM with the BR (Backward Reporting) message as soon as it receives the FM message.

With FM and BR, packet loss rate of link and jitter could be calculated accordingly. IP PM is Huawei proprietary protocol. RNC and NodeB must support this feature simultaneously. FG2a/FG2c, GOUa/GOUc of BSC6900, WFIE of BSC6800 and NUTI of NodeB support this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC
 

The FG2a/GOUa/FG2c/GOUc support this feature for BSC6900. The BSC6910 does not support this feature.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface

5.4.9 WRFD-050408 Overbooking on IP Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN 6.1.

Summary
Overbooking on IP transmission can save Iub transmission resources.

Benefits
This feature can save many Iub transmission resources, reduce the transport CAPEX and OPEX of the operator, and improve the perception of end users.

Description
Iub Overbooking on IP Transmission feature comprises of the following three parts:
  

Iub Overbooking CAC algorithm on Iub IP transmission Fast inner loop backpressure mechanism. IP shaping and policing

The data rates of many services vary with time during transmission in UMTS RAN. For example, the rate of voice service is 12.2 kbit/s during conversation, but very low during silence because only a few data frames are transmitted. If the RNC allocates the maximum bandwidth for each service, many Iub transport resources will be wasted. For example, downloading a 50 KB page takes only about one second, but reading this page needs tens of seconds. In this case, over 90% of the Iub transport bandwidth is wasted which means a lot of service rejections and a small Iub bandwidth usage. Service actually occupied bandwidth can be estimated through the activity factor of the service. Based on the activity factor, the RNC allocates a proper Iub transport bandwidth for the service to make the RNC admit service as much as possible. More traffic is admitted, more statistics multiplexing gain could be get. This is called Iub Overbooking CAC algorithm. With Iub Overbooking CAC algorithm, more services are admitted than without overbooking CAC. However, a potential problem is: if all services transmit with data rate higher than admitted bandwidth simultaneously, congestion on the Iub Interface will happen and packets will lose. As a result, the end user perception is bad and Iub bandwidth usage is not optimal. Also, this will disable the Iub overbooking CAC algorithm.

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To solve possible data congestion, a fast inner loop backpressure mechanism is also implemented in system. It is described as follows: RNC monitors the buffer occupancy situation of each physical port and logic port at the Iub transport network layer user plane continuously. If the BO exceeds congestion threshold (TH2), the system enters congestion state and a congestion backpressure signal will be generated and sent to radio network layer user plane. Then the RNL UP will decrease the data sending rate to release the congestion. If the BO is lower than congestion release threshold (TH1), the system enters normal state and a congestion release backpressure signal will be generated and sent to RNL UP. Then the RNL UP will increase the data sending rate. If the BO is higher than discard threshold (TH3), the system enters extreme congestion state and data will be discarded at the TNL UP directly.
Buffer Occupancy

TH3 TH2 TH1

Time

From CN

RNL User Plane

Iub TNL User Plane

To NodeB

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With the backpressure mechanism, data loss will not occur and Iub bandwidth usage is optimal. IP shaping and policing feature is also supported and provides the virtual port traffic shaping function. All data between RNC and NodeBs are classified and put into separate queues by different service type. With IP shaping, RNC builds several logical ports on one physical port. Each logical port has its queues for buffering and all logical ports are scheduled as a whole for IP transmission. RNC monitors the buffer occupancy of each virtual port as well as total buffer occupancy of physical port. With this feature, transport congestion and packet loss could be effectively eliminated in the scenario of limited transport bandwidth. For example, FE or GE is used in RNC side and E1 is adopted in NodeB side, the bandwidth for such NodeB is limited by E1. Without IP shaping, RNC will transmit the traffic at the physical bandwidth of FE or GE, the throughput to the NodeB would exceed the bandwidth of Iub interface, and cause congestion and packet loss. The transport efficiency will degrade due to packet loss and retransmission.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, fast inner loop backpressure based on logical ports is supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC
 

All IP interface boards in the BSC6900 support the backpressure mechanism. The BSC6900 supports IP shaping when the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, GOUc, or UOIa interface board is used. The EXOUa interface board in the BSC6910 does not support the backpressure mechanism and IP shaping based on logical ports.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface

5.4.10 WRFD-050107 IP routing Based Hub NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0

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Summary
With this feature, Huawei NodeB is capable of transmission convergence in IP transport mode.

Benefits
Reduce costs in transmission lines with the obtained convergence gain.

Description
The IP routing Based Hub NodeB is a feature in IP transport mode. It is the extension of the tree topology, as shown in the following figure. The downstream NodeBs connect to the RNC after the convergence at the hub NodeB. The convergence gain is obtained from this topology.

NodeB

NodeB

NodeB NodeB

Hub NodeB
NodeB NodeB

RNC

The hub NodeB supports connections to 2 level downstream NodeBs and provides IP routing for downstream NodeBs. The different IP path convergence at the hub NodeB and multiplex the Iub bandwidth. The hub NodeB supports up to 8 downstream NodeBs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
 

Only 3900 series NodeB can support IP routing Based Hub NodeB. BTS3902E does not support this feature.

Dependency on UE None

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Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
 

WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface Hub NodeB Based ATM QoS Management

5.4.11 WRFD-011500 PDCP Header Compression (RFC2507)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature complies with the header compression function of packet data as defined in RFC 2507. It enables the deletion of redundant information such as TCP/IP header. The system compresses the redundant protocol header before the data is transmitted on a link. In addition, the system can decompress the received data.

Benefits
This feature can decrease the throughput of the Uu interface and improve the efficiency of radio links.

Description
For TCP packets in telecommunications, many fields are constant and others change with small and predictable values. Depending on whether the fields remain constant or change in specific patterns, some fields can be either excluded from each packet or represented in a smaller number of bits. This is described as header compression. Header compression uses the concept of packet stream context. A context is a set of data about field values and value change patterns in the packet header. For each packet stream, the context is formed at the compressor and the de-compressor. After the context is established on both sides, the compressor can compress the packets. For packet data, TCP/IP header always takes up too many bytes in the whole packet. By compressing the header of the TCP/IP contexts, the radio link efficiency can be greatly improved. Meanwhile, small packet data due to header compressed can shorten the data latency as well as the RTT. The algorithm for header compression includes:
 

Compressible Chain of Sub-header Judgment Algorithm Packet Stream Judgment Algorithm

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   

Twice Algorithm for TCP Packet Streams Header Request Algorithm for TCP Packet Streams Compression Slow-Start Algorithm for Non-TCP Packet Streams Periodic Header Refresh Algorithm for Non-TCP Packet Streams

Enhancement
In RAN5.0, IP V6 header compression is supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the compression function. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

5.4.12 WRFD-050412 UDP MUX for Iu-CS Transmission
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables multiple RTP units to be encapsulated in one UDP packet on the Iu-CS interface to improve the transmission efficiency.

Benefits
This feature improves the utilization of Iu transmission resources, protect customer investment, and reduce operation cost.

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Description
After IP transport is introduced to the Iu-CS interface, packets on the user plane are encapsulated with RTP/UDP/IP header, which reduces the transport efficiency, especially when short packets are concerned. UDP multiplexing (MUX) can be used to solve the problem by adding a shorter UDP MUX sub header which makes it possible to encapsulate multiple RTP units in one UDP packet, therefore, less overhead and higher transport efficiency can be achieved. Such feature can be applied no matter RTP compression is on or not. Generally, the feature improves the Iu CS transport efficiency by 30% to 40%.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

The BSC6900 supports this feature when the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, GOUc, or POUc board is used.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The feature requires the CS CN element (MGW) to support UDP MUX. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050409 IP Transmission Introduction on Iu Interface

5.4.13 WRFD-140207 Iu/Iur Transmission Resource Pool in RNC
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
With this feature, multiple Iu or Iur interface boards form a transmission resource pool. A network element (NE) interconnected with the RNC, such as a neighboring RNC (NRNC), the MGW, the SGSN, or the GGSN, can access all boards in this pool. This helps balance the load shared by these boards.

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Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
  

The board and port utilization is increased. RNC capacity expansion can be easily implemented. Transmission configurations on the RNC side do not need to be modified and load is dynamically balanced on the RNC side when capacity expansion or adjustment is performed on an interconnected NE.

Description
Before this feature is introduced, Iu or Iur interface boards and their ports are configured to work in active/standby mode. This increases the transmission reliability, but decreases board and port utilization and expanding the RNC capacity is a difficult process. The following figure shows the networking of an Iu/Iur transmission resource pool: Figure5.4.14-1 Networking of an Iu/Iur transmission resource pool
Interface board 1 Interface board 2 Interface board 3 Interface board 4
IP1

CE

IP2

IP/MPLS
IP3

Core Network

IP4

CE

After this feature is activated, a transmission resource pool is set up between multiple Iu or Iur interface boards and an NE interconnected with the RNC can access all boards in this pool. The RNC preferentially assigns new services to a lightly loaded interface board in this pool based on the load sharing mechanisms. With this feature, IP addresses in an Iu or Iur transmission resource pool are connected to a fixed gateway. Therefore, IP route configurations for the RNC do not need to be modified if either of the following conditions is met:
 

New user-plane IP addresses are assigned to an interconnected NE. Existing user-plane IP addresses of an interconnected NE are modified.

In addition, SCTP links on the control plane are carried by two interface boards in this pool using dual homing to ensure stable link connectivity. In an Iu or Iur transmission resource pool, interface boards can work in active/standby mode or independent mode. When interface boards work in active/standby mode, the transmission reliability is high and ongoing calls are not interrupted even if an interface board becomes faulty. When interface boards work in independent mode, the board utilization is high but ongoing calls are interrupted if an interface board becomes faulty. This feature requires that IP routers be used between the RNC and an interconnected NE and that the interconnected NE be able to access all boards in the Iu or Iur transmission resource pool.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
  

The BSC6900 supports this feature when the FG2c or GOUc board is used. All IP interface boards in the BSC6910 support this feature. The BSC6910 supports the active/standby mode for trunks, not for ports.

Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs An NE interconnected with the RNC must be able to access all boards in the Iu or Iur transmission resource pool. Dependency on CN None Dependency on other RAN features

WRFD-050409 IP Transmission Introduction on Iu Interface

or

WRFD-050410 IP Transmission Introduction on Iur Interface

Dependency on professional services Deploying this feature on RNC transmission ports that work in active/standby mode requires Huawei professional services.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:
 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP Transmission Resource Pools Migration Service

5.4.14 WRFD-140208 Iub Transmission Resource Pool in RNC
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

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Summary
With this feature, multiple Iub interface boards form a transmission resource pool. Each NodeB interconnected with the RNC can access all boards in this pool. This helps balance the load shared by these boards.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
 

Improved board and port utilization. Easy RNC capacity expansion. Base stations do not need to be moved from one interface board to another when new transmission ports or boards are added. Dynamic load balancing across Iub interface boards without moving base stations from one interface board to another. IP path configuration free. This improves maintainability.

Description
Before this feature is introduced, Iub interface boards and their ports are configured to work in active/standby mode. This increases the transmission reliability but decreases board and port utilization. In addition, because each NodeB is connected to a fixed GE port on an Iub interface board, expanding the RNC capacity is a difficult process, especially for NodeBs with heavy traffic. Figure 5.4.15-1Networking of an Iub transmission resource pool
Interface board 1 Interface board 2 Interface board 3 Interface board 4
IP1

CE
IP2

NodeB

IP/MPLS
IP3

IP4

CE

NodeB

After this feature is activated, a transmission resource pool is set up between multiple Iub interface boards and each NodeB interconnected with the RNC can access all boards in this pool. The RNC preferentially assigns new services to a lightly loaded interface board in this pool based on the load sharing mechanisms. With this feature, the IP addresses in an Iub transmission resource pool are connected to a fixed gateway. Therefore, IP route configurations for the RNC do not need to be modified when an interconnected NodeB is undergoing capacity expansion or configuration modification. In addition, SCTP links on the control plane are carried by two interface boards in this pool using dual homing to ensure stable link connectivity. In an Iub transmission resource pool, interface boards can work in active/standby mode or independent mode. When interface boards work in active/standby mode, the transmission reliability is high and ongoing calls are not interrupted even if an interface board becomes

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faulty. When interface boards work in independent mode, the board utilization is high but ongoing calls are interrupted if an interface board becomes faulty. This feature requires that IP routers be used between the RNC and interconnected NodeBs and that these NodeBs be able to access all boards in the Iub transmission resource pool.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
  

The BSC6900 supports this feature when the FG2c or GOUc board is used. All IP interface boards in the BSC6910 support this feature. The BSC6910 supports the active/standby mode for trunks, not for ports.

Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations support this feature. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs The RNC can communicate with an interconnected NE by any route using their respective user-plane IP addresses. The requirements for the routers on the RNC side are as follows:

If the RNC boards work in active/standby mode, dynamic routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (ISIS) must be configured on the RNC, and policy-based routing must be configured on routers. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) must be configured for static routes on routers. In addition, configuring fast reroute (FRR) is recommended to implement second-level fast reroute.

Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface Dependency on professional services Deploying this feature on RNC transmission ports that work in active/standby mode requires Huawei professional services.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with following services:

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 

New construct scenario: UMTS RAN Network Design Service, Re-construct scenario: UMTS IP Transmission Resource Pools Migration Service

5.5 Satellite Transmission
5.5.1 WRFD-050104 Satellite Transmission on Iub Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
This feature enables the transmission through satellite links on the Iub interface.

Benefits
This transmission feature is provided to support certain difficult types of geographical application environments, such as islands, deserts or places where there is a lack of terrestrial transmission facilities available for the operator. In this case, the operator may propose to use satellite transmission support for Iub interface connection to the rest of the UMTS network.

Description
This function supports satellite transmission on the Iub interface, which is useful to cover remote districts, such as an island. When satellite transmission is applied over the Iub interface, the delay increases and the timer in SAAL/NBAP/ALCAP should be adjusted to avoid data or link error due to transmission delay and to meet satellite transmission requirements.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

5.5.2 WRFD-050108 Satellite Transmission on Iu Interface
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.1.

Summary
This feature allows operator to set up the Iu interface connection with Satellite Transmission.

Benefits
This transmission feature supports certain difficult types of geographical application environments, such as islands, deserts or places where lack of terrestrial transmission facilities available for the operator. In this case, the operator may propose to use satellite transmission support for Iu interface connection to the core network.

Description
Satellite communication is a special form of microwave trunk communication and functions as the supplementary and standby means of common communication methods. Satellite communication features wide coverage, little impact by terrains, good mobility performance, and flexible link scheduling. However, the equipment cost and link rental cost are high, and the transmission quality is likely to be affected by environments. The extra loopback delay of satellite transmission is usually 500 ms to 700 ms. Generally, the delay is about 600 ms. The delay depends on the distance between the Earth station and the satellite and the satellite technologies. This function is available for satellite transmission on the Iu interface and can be used to cover remote areas, such as islands. When satellite transmission is used on the Iu interface, the transmission delay prolongs. In addition, the SAAL/UP timers should be adjusted to avoid data error or link failure due to transmission delay. The related parameters can be set to meet the requirements of satellite transmission.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

5.6 Clock
5.6.1 WRFD-050501 Clock Sync on Ethernet in NodeB
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1.

Summary
This feature is introduced to provide a solution for clock synchronization in all-IP networking mode. With this feature, the operator can keep clock synchronization for NodeBs without changing the existing data network and adding QoS requirements of the transport network.

Benefits
The IP clock is one of the major features of the Iub interface in an all-IP network. The NodeB supports Ethernet clock synchronization and obtains timing signals from the IP network. This feature provides a low-cost clock solution.

Description
In ATM networking, the NodeB obtains timing signals from GPS, BITS, TDM, and so on. In IP networking, however, there may be some problems. GPS is still available in an all-IP network but causes inconvenience because the GPS antennas and feeders have to be presented. Only a few NodeBs can obtain timing signals from BITS, and TDM cannot be used in all-IP networks. Therefore, the NodeBs need to obtain timing signals from the IP network, which is called clock synchronization on Ethernet. The clock servers generate time stamps and send the time stamps to NodeBs, which act as clock clients in this case. Because there is great delay in packet networks, NodeBs use an adaptive method to get rid of the delay and restore the timing signals. The time stamps are set

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in packets at the UDP layer, and then transmitted at physical layer after related packet head is added so there will be an extra spending in bandwidth. The following figure shows an example of networking.

Note the following information:
     

There are clock servers and clock clients. The servers can be placed in the network independently, and the clients are integrated into the NodeBs. An adaptive algorithm is taken in the system. The clock servers send time stamps, and clock clients receive time stamps to restore the frequency. One clock server serves a maximum of 512 NodeBs. Two or more clock servers can be used together to improve reliability. This is optional. The required Iub transmission bandwidth of time stamps in unicast mode is from 5 kbit/s to 100 kbit/s for each clock client. In most cases, 25 kbit/s is recommended. Frequency accuracy obtained in the NodeB complies with 3GPP.

Enhancement
RAN11.0 supports IEEE 1588V2. RAN13.0 support the G.8265.1 frequency synchronization protocol which was defined based on 1588V2 in 2010 by ITU. NodeB can work with the 3rd party’s time server if the standard protocol was supported by the server.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units Huawei clock server should support this feature. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iub Interface

5.6.2 WRFD-050502 Synchronous Ethernet
Availability
This feature is available from RAN 11.0

Summary
This feature is introduced to provide a solution for clock synchronization in all-IP networking mode. It enables the clock to be extracted and recovered from the Ethernet physical layer (PHY). As no additional hardware is required on the NodeB and RNC sides, this feature is a convenient solution for clock synchronization.

Benefits
The synchronous Ethernet technology is one of the key features in the solution for network over all IP solution. It is an economical, convenient solution.

Description
The synchronous Ethernet technology extracts clock signals from the Ethernet link code flows. It is a physical layer based clock synchronization technology. A highly precise clock is used by the Ethernet physical layer (PHY) for data transmission. The receiving end extracts and recovers the clock from data stream, and the high precision can be maintained. This is the basic principle of synchronous Ethernet technology.

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In NodeB, there is no extra synchronization equipment or hardware needed to realize synchronous Ethernet technology.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC Only the BSC6900 supports this feature. Dependency on NodeB It is only applicable in 3900 series NodeB. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The synchronous Ethernet technology requires that all the equipment on the clock relay path must support the synchronous Ethernet. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iub Interface

5.6.3 WRFD-050425 Ethernet OAM
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature is related to point-to-point and end-to-end Ethernet OAM. It provides an effective solution for Ethernet link management and fault detection.

Benefits
 

The Ethernet OAM helps the operator to manage user access in terms of detection, monitoring, and rectification of Ethernet faults. This feature achieves reliability and high availability of Ethernet services, enables the service provider to provide economical and efficient advanced Ethernet services, and ensures that the services have high quality and reliability that are required by telecommunications services.

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This feature is implemented at the RAN equipment, minimizing the impact of Ethernet bandwidth fluctuation or faults on RAN.

Description
With the introduction of IP RAN to the WCDMA system, the Ethernet as a type of transport bearer is widely applied. As a L2 protocol, Ethernet OAM can report the status of the network at the data link layer, monitoring and managing the network more effectively. The functions of Ethernet OAM consist of fault detection, notification, verification and identification. The faults involve the hard faults that can be detected by the physical layer, such as broken links, and the soft faults that cannot be detected by the physical layer, such as memory bridging unit damage. Ethernet OAM plays a significant role in reducing CAPEX/OPEX and complying with the Service Level Agreement (SLA). RAN supports two types of Ethernet OAM: point-to-point Ethernet OAM (802.3ah) and end-to-end Ethernet OAM (802.1ag). The two types are described as follows:

Point-to-point Ethernet OAM The point-to-point Ethernet OAM complies with IEEE 802.3ah. What the point-to-point Ethernet OAM takes into consideration is the last mile, rather than the specific services. The OAM implements point-to-point maintenance of the Ethernet through mechanisms such as OAM discovery, loopback, link monitoring, and fault detection.

End-to-end Ethernet OAM The end-to-end Ethernet OAM complies with IEEE 802.7ag. With regard to the OAM domain as a whole, it establishes end-to-end detection to perform maintenance of the Ethernet based on the services.

Enhancement
RAN12.0 the end-to-end Ethernet OAM complies with IEEE 802.8ag. In RAN 15.0, NodeBs support ITU-T Y.1731, which has incorporated the following functions specified by IEEE 802.1ag:  Continuity checking  Loopback testing  Link tracing  End-to-end monitoring on packet loss, delay, and delay variation Therefore, ITU-T Y.1731 can be used to replace IEEE 802.1ag. When using ITU-T Y.1731, users do not need to enable IEEE 802.1ag.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC The RNC does not support ITU-T Y.1731.. Dependency on NodeB

RAN11.0, BTS3812E/AE and DBS3800 can only support IEEE 802.1ag draft 7; 3900 series NodeB can support IEEE 802.3ah and IEEE 802.1ag draft 7. RAN12.0, BTS3812E/AE, DBS3800, 3900 series NodeB can support both IEEE 802.3ah and IEEE 802.1ag draft 8. Only the 3900 series base stations (except BTS3902E) support Y.1731 and mus be configured with the UMPT or UTRPc board to support Y.1731..

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iub Interface, or WRFD-050409 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iu Interface, or WRFD-050410 IP Transmission Introduction on the Iur Interface

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6
6.1 Reliability
Availability Summary

Network Security

6.1.1 WRFD-040202 RNC Node Redundancy

This feature is available from RAN11.0 and is only applicable to the BSC6900.

With this feature, NodeBs can be connected to multiple RNCs and heartbeat detection is performed on the interfaces of the active RNC. When the active RNC is faulty, the NodeBs can be fast switched to the standby RNC for service provisioning.

Benefits
This feature improves the reliability and robustness of RAN and shortens the time of service interruption due to single-point failure of the RNC. Therefore, the quality of service is improved.

Description
An RNC controls the radio resources of an RNS. If the RNC incurs faults, all the NodeBs within the RNS cannot access the network and the communication in the entire area covered by the RNS is disabled. Aiming to avoid the above-mentioned situations, the RNC node redundancy provides a backup scheme of network element level. The RNC supports 1+1 backup mode. The principle of the 1+1 backup mode are as follows: Two sets of transport links are configured for the NodeB. One set of links are connected to the master home RNC, and the other to the slave home RNC. (All the data related to NodeBs, cells, and neighboring cells have backup on both RNCs.) In normal cases, the master home RNC serves as the CRNC that controls the NodeB. If the master RNC fails, the NodeB tries to use the slave RNC as its CRNC and resumes work.

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The NodeB has two Iub interfaces (two sets of control plane, user plane and maintenance plane links) and has two RNCs that can serve as the CRNC. Therefore, the cold backup (call not protected) is implemented and the reliability is improved. The master and slave RNCs have no active/standby relationship with each other. Both are in working state under normal conditions, which maximizes the utilization of the equipment. If one of the RNCs incurs faults, the other RNC can take over all the NodeBs controlled by the faulty RNC. This prevents the NodeBs from being out of service and prevents the single-point failure of RNC equipment level.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC The BSC6910 does not support this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

6.1.2 WRFD-040203 RRU Redundancy
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

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Summary
RRU redundancy improves the reliability and robustness of the RAN, shorten the service disruption time caused by RRU failure, and guarantee QoS.

Benefits
This feature improves the reliability and robustness of the RAN, shorten the service disruption time caused by RRU failure, and guarantee QoS.

Description
In some rural area wherein the environment is unfavorable, the maintenance of the RRU is inconvenient. RRU redundancy provides the receiver and transmitter backup solution. In the case of the RRU redundancy, a local cell is configured with two RRUs: one active RRU and one standby RRU. When the active RRU fails, the standby RRU resumes work. In the case of the transmit diversity cell or MIMO cell, the cell will drop down to NON-diversity mode or NON-MIMO mode, which can keep the network operating normally. In the case of the non-transmit diversity cell, when the active RRU fails, the cells on the active RRU will be re-allocated to the standby RRU. In the case of the transmit diversity or MIMO cell, when one transmit path of RRU fails, the cells on the RRU will be re-established with non-transmit diversity or non-MIMO mode. Meanwhile NodeB will keep the same transmitter power as far as possible. The cell will attempt to switch to the cell with transmit diversity or MIMO mode until the transmit path fault is rectified. The cell re-establishment will cause service interruption, wherein interruption time is less than 30s.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB The BTS3902E cannot support this feature. Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None

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Dependency on Other Features None

6.1.3 WRFD-021302 Iu Flex
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
This feature allows one physical RNC to connect to multiple MSCs and/or SGSNs, and these CS/PS domain nodes can form different pools to serve the same pool area.

Benefits
Iu Flex greatly enhances the serviceability of the whole network including:
    

Enhancing the flexibility of the Iu interface Increasing the total capacity of CN nodes Enhancing the disaster tolerance capability of CN nodes Reducing the signaling traffic of the CN Enhancing the system utilization

In conclusion, the Iu Flex greatly enhances the serviceability of the whole network.

Description
This feature allows one physical RNC to connect to multiple MSCs and/or SGSNs, and these CS/PS domain nodes can form different pools to serve the same pool area. The pool area has the following characteristics:
    

A pool area is a collection of one or more MSC or SGSN serving areas. A pool area is served by one or more CN nodes in parallel that share the traffic of this area between each other. The pool areas may overlap. The RAN Node belongs to all the overlapping pool areas. In one pool area, the UE roams without needing to change the serving CN node. The pool areas of the CS domain and of the PS domain are configured independently.

Therefore, the pool area enhances the flexibility of the Iu interface, and the typical structure of Iu Flex is shown as the figure below.

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MSC 3 MSC 2 MSC 1

MSC 6 MSC 5 MSC 4 MSC 7

CS poolarea 1 RAN node Area 1 RAN node Area 2

CS poolarea 2

RAN node Area 3

RAN node Area 4

RAN node Area 5

RAN node Area 6

RAN node Area 7

RAN node Area 8

PS pool-area 1

PS pool-area 2

SGSN 1 SGSN 2

SGSN 3 SGSN 4 SGSN 5

SGSN 6

The Network Resource Identity (NRI) identifies uniquely an individual CN node that serves a pool area. Each CN node that supports the Iu Flex is configured with one or more specific NRIs. The CN node allocates the route information to the UE. If the CN node supports the Iu Flex, the TMSI (or P-TMSI) allocated by the node contains the NRI. Then UE encodes the route information which consists of 10 bits according to the TMSI (or P-TMSI), and sends the parameter to the RNC through the INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER message. Such a message contains an IE "Intra Domain NAS Node Selection (IDNNS)" which consists of not only the route parameter but also an indication about from which identity (TMSI/PTMSI, IMSI, IMEI) the route parameter is derived. Then RNC will use NAS Node Selection Function (NNSF) to select the proper CN node (MSC or SGSN) for the UE. That is, if the NNSF finds the CN node that the NRI derived from the initial NAS signaling message identifies, it routes the message or frame to that CN node. Otherwise, the NNSF selects an available CN node according to the signaling load balancing. The UE encodes the route information according to the following rules:
  

The UE preferentially encodes the route information identified by the TMSI or P-TMSI. If the TMSI or P-TMSI is unavailable and the UE contains the USIM or SIM card, the UE encodes the route information identified by the IMSI. If the TMSI or P-TMSI is unavailable and the UE does not contain the USIM or SIM card, the UE encodes the route information identified by the IMEI.

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Accordingly, RNC selects the route based on the route parameter in the IDNNS of the INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER message as follows:

When the route parameter is derived from the TMSI or P-TMSI The RNC derives the NRI from the parameter according to the configured length of the NRI. Then the RNC selects the CN node according to the configured corresponding relationship between the NRI and the CN node. If no NRI is configured to the CN node, the RNC selects a CN Node based on the load balancing.

When the route parameter is derived from the IMSI The parameter is an integer within the range from 0 through 999. The value can be derived by (IMSI/10) MOD 1000. When route parameter is derived from the IMSI, it should be indicated by the "IDNNS" IE that the current call attempt is an originating or terminating call (response to paging). For originating call, RNC would select the CN node according to either the IMSI V value (the corresponding relationship between the IMSI V value and the CN node should be preconfigured) or load balancing. For terminating call, RNC should attempt to get the previously stored IMSI and Global CN-Id. If succeeded, the CN node identified by the found Global CN-Id will be selected. Otherwise, CN node will be selected as originating call.

When the route parameter is derived from the IMEI The RNC selects the CN Node based on load balancing.

CS domain IMSI Paging handling To increase the success rate of routing the paging response message to the CN node that issues the paging request, the Iu-Flex-capable RNC needs to process the IMSI paging message as follows: In R5 protocols, an optional IE "Global CN-ID" is added to the RANAP PAGING message. If RNC provides the Iu Flex feature and the paging message contains only the IMSI rather than the TMSI, the paging message must contain Global CN-ID. The NNSF in the RNC temporarily stores the IMSI and Global CN-ID upon reception of the paging message. When the NNSF receives the INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER message (a paging response with an IMSI), it directly forwards the paging response to the CN node identified by the Global CN-ID. If the CN node is set to Mode 1 which indicates the Gs interface existing, the paging message of the CS domain might be delivered on the Iu-PS interface. In this case, the SGSN adds the Global CN-ID of the CS domain into the paging message. Load Balancing Criteria When the mapping between UE and CN node is not found, RNC will select a proper one based on load balancing. The criteria is to select the lightest load CN node according to the OVERLOAD indication from Iu interface and when the loads are the same, they will be selected in turn. The NRI length and the mapping relationship between IMSI route parameters in IDNNS and CN Node can be configured as needed. Load balancing based on the capacity of CNs can also be used in the case that NNSF cannot get right NRI from the initial NAS signaling message. The traffic will be distributed to CNs according to their capacity ratio.

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Enhancement
In RAN6.1, load balancing based on the capacity of CNs is supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN Require MSC or SGSN support such feature at the same time. Dependency on Other Features None

6.1.4 WRFD-021306 Iu Flex Load Distribution Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1.

Summary
This feature enables load balancing between multiple CN nodes in Iu Flex scenarios.

Benefits
Improving the performance and meeting the operator’s load distribution strategy in Iu Flex networking scenario.

Description
This feature includes enhanced load balancing and load re-distribution. It's applicable for both CS domain and PS domain. Enhanced load balancing According to 3GPP TS 23.236, when IMSI V value is carried by UE, RNC may route the IDT message based on the pre-configured IMSI routing parameters, that is, the mapping relationship between IMSI V value and CN-Id. Actually, it is hard work for operators to configure these parameters.

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In this feature, the configuration for IMSI routing parameters is optional. For each IMSI V value, load balancing is performed if routing parameter for this V value does not exist. Load balancing in proportion based on the capacity of CN nodes is also introduced in this feature. Because the capacity of the connected MSCs (CS domain)/SGSNs (PS domain) differ from each other, the capacity of each MSC/SGSN should be take into account to balance the load between MSCs/SGSNs, and the capacity of each MSC/SGSN can be configured by operator or informed by MSC/SGSN through the messages INFORMATION TRANSFER IND and INFORMATION TRANSFER CONFIRM with Huawei private extension IE. RNC will distribute the UE according to the CN capacity ratio, this will avoid the impact for the low capacity CN when too many UE in the system cannot get the CN relationship mapping. Load Re-distribution This feature is introduced from 3GPP R6, and is used to off-load traffic for MSC/SGSN. It's helpful for some specific cases, such as the safely preparing for MSC/SGSN migration, quickly restoring the load of MSC/SGSN that is recovered from failure, and so on. For load re-distribution, two important identities are introduced, namely, "null-NRI" and "Non-broadcast LAI/RAI". This procedure is initiated from the MSC/SGSN, and the cooperation from the RNC is required. During the load re-distribution phase, "Non-broadcast LAI/RAI" will be allocated to UE by MSC/SGSN, which will trigger the Location/routing area updating procedure. "Null-NRI" will be carried in the subsequent IDT message. The RNC will then route such IDT message to MSCs/SGSNs which are not in "off-load" state. The "off-load" state should be preconfigured on RNC for MSCs/SGSNs to off-load. In RAN10.0, new counters related to load balancing are added including: 1. VS.LdBalRt.IMSI: The user number that was routed to CN node according to IMSI during the load balance procedure. 2. VS.LdBalRt.InValidNRI: The user number that was routed to CN node, where the user’s NRI is invalid, during the load balance procedure. 3. VS.LdBalRt.IMEI: The user number that was routed to CN node according to IMEI during the load balance procedure.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, following features are enhanced:

The capacity of each MSC/SGSN can be informed by MSC/SGSN through INFORMATION TRANSFER IND and INFORMATION TRANSFER CONFIRM messages with Huawei private extension IE. New counters related to load balancing are added. CN node status is reported to M2000 when the CN node status is changed.

 

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021302 Iu Flex

6.1.5 WRFD-140209 NodeB Integrated IPSec
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature enables encrypted transmissions between the NodeB and the Security Gateway (SeGW) to ensure data confidentiality, integrity, and anti-replay protection. With this feature, operators can deploy a secure end-to-end network.

Benefits
This feature ensures network reliability and security by establishing a virtual dedicated transport network on a public IP network. This feature costs less than external IP Security (IPSec) solutions.

Description
The evolution towards IP-based networks improves network performance and reduces network deployment costs. However, the inherent vulnerability of the IP network leaves it open to security threats. Before IPSec is introduced, a base station transmits control plane data, user plane data, and management plane data in plaintext. Packets transmitted on an insecure network are vulnerable to unauthorized access or malicious modification. To ensure transmission network security, Huawei base stations incorporate the IPSec function, by which IPSec tunnels are established for secure data transmission. As defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), IPSec is a set of protocols supported at the IP layer. These protocols are Authentication Header (AH), Encapsulation Security Protocol (ESP), and Internet Key Exchange (IKE). IPSec provides transparent end-to-end security services for IP networks, which protects IP packets from cyber attacks. With IPSec, two communication parties (also known as IPSec peers) gain four advantages by encrypting and verifying IP packets:

Confidentiality. An IPSec entity encrypts user data and transmits the data in ciphertext to protect the data from being disclosed on the transmission path. The IPSec entity refers to the network element (NE) or network device that uses IPSec for communication.

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  

Integrity. The IPSec entity verifies the received data to ensure that it has not been tampered with. Authenticity. The IPSec entity authenticates the data origin to confirm the sender of the data. Anti-replay. The IPSec entity identifies packets and prevents malicious users from repeatedly sending captured packets.

In secure networking scenarios, IPSec tunnels between the base station and the SeGW can provide protection for data transmission between the base station and the radio network controller. Following figure shows secure networking for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). Figure6.1.5-1 Secure networking for WCDMA

This feature cannot be used with the Automatic Address Configuration Protocol (AACP) function in the WRFD-031101 NodeB Self-Discovery Based on IP Route feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations equipped with the UTRPc or UMPT board support this feature on Ethernet ports. Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs In a UMTS network, the S-GW must support the IPSec function on the RNC side. Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features

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 

WRFD-050402 IP Transmission Introduction on Iub Interface WRFD-140210 NodeB PKI Support

This feature depends on the NodeB PKI Support feature when a digital certification is used for IPSec authentication.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Network Design Service

6.1.6 WRFD-140210 NodeB PKI Support
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature enables the NodeB on a live network to use the Certificate Management Protocol version 2 (CMPv2) to automatically obtain a device digital certificate signed by the operator's certificate authority (CA). With the device digital certificate, the NodeB and other network elements authenticate each other according to IPSec and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Benefits
This feature enables network elements to authenticate each other and ensures network security.

Description
PKI is the foundation and core of contemporary network security construction and provides information security based on the asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. A digital certificate identifies a piece of equipment and authenticates the equipment identity during network communication. The digital certificate includes the following information:
  

Equipment information Validity period of the certificate Public key

Digital signature of the organization that issues the certificate A trusted certificate authority (CA) digitally signs the equipment information and public key to create a digital certificate. During digital certificate authentication, asymmetric keys are used to authenticate equipment identity. The sender uses a private key to sign data, and the receiver uses the public key in the certificate to check signature validity. Huawei base stations support PKI-based certificate management solutions, which include the certificate-preconfiguration phase, deployment phase, and operation phase. This phased approach facilitates use of the certificates. Certificates in Huawei base stations are managed by using Certificate Management Protocol (CMPv2).

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For Huawei products, digital certificates are applicable in either of the following scenarios:

Authentication during the setup of an IPSec tunnel between a base station and a SeGW in a radio bearer network Authentication during the setup of an SSL-encrypted operation and maintenance (O&M) channel between a base station and the M2000

To use this feature, the peer device, such as a SeGW, must also support the PKI function.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the UTRPc or UMPT board to support this feature. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs The operator's CA must be deployed in the network. Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS RAN Network Design Service

6.1.7 WRFD-141201 RNC User Plane and Control Plane Dynamic Sharing
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
A new service processing board Evolved General Processing Unit REV:a (EGPUa) is introduced in the BSC6910 to simultaneously process user-plane data and control-plane data.

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The RNC can automatically adjust the ratio of resources split between processing user-plane data and control-plane data.

Benefits
This feature increases the hardware usage and reduces the maintenance cost.

Description
The RNC automatically monitors the user-plane load and control-plane load. When the difference between user-plane load and control-plane load reaches a specified threshold, the RNC automatically adjusts the ratio of resources split between processing user-plane data and control-plane data.

The services on the CPU resources adjusted will drop from the network. The operator can specify the time for automatic adjustment. It is recommended to perform the automatic adjustment during off-peak hours to minimize the impact on services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware Only the BSC6910 supports this feature. Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UE None Dependency on other NEs The M2000 and CME versions must be compatible with the BSC6910. Dependency on the CN None

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Dependency on other RAN features None

6.1.8 WRFD-150211 RNC in Pool Load Sharing
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables load sharing among RNCs in an RNC pool.

Benefits
RNC hardware capacity may not meet signaling capacity requirements because of the sharp increase in smartphones. Without this feature, operators must split the RNC when the signaling capacity requirement is over RNC hardware capacity, which may require complex network reconstruction and affect ongoing services. With this feature, RNCs in an RNC pool can share the control-plane load. The split of RNC may be avoided and the impact on the network KPIs may be minimized when the bursting signaling capacity requirement is over RNC hardware capacity.

Description
This feature enables RNCs in an RNC pool to share the control-plane load. When the average CPU load on the control plane of an RNC exceeds a specified threshold, this feature allocates new services from this RNC to other RNCs in the pool. The RNCs communicate with each other over the Iur-p interface, which is private. The IP transmission is used for Iur-p interface.

This feature does not affect other NEs or interfaces.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware The BSC6900 must be configured with IP interface board GOUc or FG2c to support Iur-p interface. The BSC6910 must be configured with IP interface board GOUc, FG2c or EXOUa to support Iur-p interface. Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs Parameters must be configured consistently on the CME for the RNCs. When configuring one RNC on the LMT, you must synchronize the configuration to other RNCs using the CME. Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

6.1.9 WRFD-150212 RNC in Pool Node Redundancy
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables RNC redundancy in an RNC pool. When an RNC in the pool fails, the backup RNC takes over the services.

Benefits
Without this feature, if an RNC fails, all NodeBs under that RNC stop providing services. RNCs may fail because of natural disasters, power outages, and software and hardware faults. This feature solves this problem and improves service reliability.

Description
This feature enables RNCs in an RNC pool to work as backups for each other. The RNCs communicate with each other over the Iur-p interface, which is private.

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The backup mechanism is as follows: In RNC pool networking, a NodeB that requires a backup RNC is configured with transmission links to the master and backup RNCs. In normal situations, the master RNC provides services for the NodeB, and the backup RNC periodically checks the running status of the master RNC. Once the master RNC fails, the backup RNC takes over the NodeB services. A BSC6910 in the pool can work as the master RNC for some NodeBs and as the backup RNC for other NodeBs simultaneously.

The IP transmission is used for Iur-p interface.
NOTE

If the master RNC fails and the idle hardware capacity of the backup RNC is less than the hardware capacity of the master RNC, the quality of services that are taken over by the backup RNC may deteriorate.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware The BSC6900 must be configured with IP interface board GOUc or FG2c to support Iur-p interface. The BSC6910 must be configured with IP interface board GOUc, FG2c or EXOUa to support Iur-p interface. Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series base stations and 3803E support this feature.

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Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs Parameters must be configured consistently on the CME for the RNCs. Dependency on the CN A route from the backup RNC to the master RNC must be configured on the CN. Dependency on other RAN features None

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7
7.1 Coverage Enhancement
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Network Performance

7.1.1 WRFD-010203 Transmit Diversity

Summary
TX diversity enables the NodeB to provide twice the number of RF DL channels compared with no TX diversity. This feature can support STTD, TSTD, and CLD1 to effectively improve the reception performance of the UE. In TX diversity mode, the UE must support diversity reception.

Benefits
TX diversity can improve terminal performance in special circumstances, especially when there is less valid multi-path effect and the UE speed is low. In this case, capacity and coverage can be obviously improved and investment can be reduced while the same QoS is guaranteed and the CAPEX and OPEX can be cut down by operators.

Description
There are several transmit diversity modes adopted in WCDMA 3GPP, namely the Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) mode, Space Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) mode, and Closed Loop Transmit Diversity Mode1 (CLD1). The TSTD and the STTD are open loop transmit diversity, which do not need feedback information compared with the closed loop diversity. The following table summarizes the possible application of open and closed loop transmit diversity modes on different types of downlink physical channels.

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Physical channel type

Open loop mode TSTD STTD X – X X X X X X X X X X

Closed loop mode Mode 1 – – – X – – X – – – – –

P-CCPCH SCH S-CCPCH DPCH PICH MICH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH E-AGCH E-RGCH E-HICH AICH

– X – – – – – – – – – –

If a cell works in TX diversity mode, the CPICH, PCCPCH, and SCH of the cell must also work in TX diversity mode. There are two types of physical channels that can use the Closed Loop Transmit Diversity Mode1 (CLD1), that is, DPCH and HS-PDSCH. Huawei RAN6.0 supports this feature.

Enhancement
In RAN5.0, after the HSDPA feature is deployed, STTD for HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH is supported. In RAN6.0, after the HSUPA feature is deployed, STTD for E-AGCH, E-RGCH and E-HICH is supported. Closed Loop Transmit Diversity Mode1 is a new feature of RAN6.0.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB TX diversity requires the NodeB to provide two times RF channel resources compared with no TX diversity mode. In TX diversity mode, the UE must support diversity reception, STTD, TSTD, and CLD1.

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Dependency on UE The UE must support diversity reception, STTD, TSTD, and CLD1. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.1.2 WRFD-010209 4-Antenna Receive Diversity
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
The 4-antenna RX diversity technology enables the NodeB to provide twice the number of RF UL channels compared with the 2-antenna RX diversity technology. In this way, the system can obtain a higher UL coverage gain.

Benefits
It can improve receiver sensitivity and uplink coverage, so that the CAPEX is reduced.

Description
Receive diversity refers to a technique of monitoring multiple frequencies from the same signal source, or multiple radios and antennas monitoring the same frequency, in order to combat signal fade and interference. Receive diversity is one way to enhance the reception performance of uplink channels. It does not involve RNC or UE. Huawei NodeBs support both RX diversity and none RX diversity. In RX diversity mode, the NodeB can be configured with 4 antennas (4-way), and 4 antennas for economical purpose (4-way economical) through the Antenna Magnitude parameter. The only difference between 4-way and 4-way economical modes is that in the latter mode signals on the random access channel are received from two antennas, but the signals on the dedicate channel are received from four antennas. In RX diversity mode, the NodeB does not require additional devices and works with the same algorithms. The 4-way RX diversity requires twice the number of RX channels compared with 2-way RX diversity. The number of RX channels depends on the settings of the antenna connectors on the cabinet top.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

The RX diversity requires the NodeB to provide enough RF channels and demodulation resources that can match the number of diversity antennas. The BTS3902E cannot support this feature.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.1.3 WRFD-021308 Extended Cell Coverage up to 200km
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
With this feature, the operator can use less NodeBs to extend the cell coverage.

Benefits
Improve the cell coverage to enable the ultra coverage with the minimal site number.

Description
This feature is helpful for scenarios of low capacity and ultra coverage (such as seas, deserts, and rural areas). The cell coverage will extend to 30–200 km. Before RAN10.0, the increase in cell range up to 180 km does not require additional hardware from a functional perspective, as long as the HBBI (macro NodeB BTS3812E and BTS3812AE) or HBBU (Distributed NodeB DBS3800) board is used. For cell ranges above 30 km hardware dimensioning is required for RACH, that is, one HBBI or one HBBU board per cell-carrier is needed. In RAN10.0, if the NodeB supports remote cells whose radius is greater than 30 km, a remote cell group can be set so that the baseband board supports the same number of remote cells as that of common cells and no additional baseband resources are required by the remote cells.

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Enhancement
In RAN10.0, Extended Cell Coverage is up to 200 km.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

All types of baseband boards support this feature. However, only the WBBPb, WBBPd, WBBPf (3900 series NodeB), EBBI, EBOI, EULP, EULPd (BTS3812E/AE), and EBBC or EBBCd (DBS3800) support remote cell groups. The BTS3902E cannot support this feature.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.1.4 WRFD-021309 Improved Downlink Coverage
Availability
This feature is available from RAN 6.1.

Summary
This feature supports the deltaqrxlevmin parameter introduced in 3GPP R5. It can extend the DL coverage of a cell.

Benefits
   

Improves the downlink coverage and UE access capability Improves the cell capacity by adjustment of PCPICH power in indoor scenario Improves the access capability in long distance coverage scenario Reduces the sites number required.

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Description
With supporting the parameter deltaqrxlevmin introduced in 3GPP Release5, UE is allowed to camp on the cell and access the network with CPICH RSCP that is -119 dBm, therefore, improve the downlink coverage compared to the original -115dBm. Such parameter deltaqrxlevmin can be configured by operator.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-021308 Extended Cell Coverage up to 200km

7.1.5 WRFD-020138 HSUPA Coverage Enhancement at UE Power Limitation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This technique is introduced in 3GPP Release 8 to improve the coverage performance for HSUPA services on the HSUPA cell edge.

Benefits
This feature improves coverage at the HSUPA cell edge for BE services and voice services. The emulation results show that the coverage can be increased by about 10%.

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Description
 

This feature improves the HSUPA coverage performance through HSUPA power control enhancement at UE power limitation introduced in 3GPP Release 8. When a UE detects that its transmit power is limited, the UE enters power scaling mode. In this mode, the transmit power on uplink physical channels is reduced proportionately to improve coverage quality. In the traditional power-scaling technique, the power offset of E-DPDCH relative to DPCCH is not the most appropriate value, and therefore scaling mode offers only limited gains. In the enhanced power scaling technique, the network side provides optimized transport block size and the power offset of E-DPDCH relative to DPCCH. The UE uses these optimized settings when its power is limited at the cell edge. In contrast to the traditional power-scaling technique, the enhanced technique allows for more appropriate transport block size and E-DPDCH power-offset settings, improving coverage performance at the HSUPA cell edge.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package Dependency on other NEs The UE needs to support 3GPP Release 8 or later. It also needs to support improved EUL power control at UE power limitation.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

7.2 Spectrum Efficiency Improvement
7.2.1 WRFD-021001 Flexible frequency bandwidth of UMTS carrier
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Summary
Huawei provide flexible frequency bandwidth range from 4.2MHz to 5MHz with algorithm enhancement. Therefore, Huawei can support the frequency separation range from 2.2MHz to 2.6MHz in UMTS and GSM co-site scenario. And Huawei also can support the frequency separation range from 4.2MHz to 5MHz in UMTS and UMTS co-site scenario.

Benefits
It will increase the frequency utilization and provide UMTS mode even the frequency resource is not enough for 5MHz. This feature can solve the problem that frequency is rare resources for operators.

Description
Usually, the frequency bandwidth of UMTS must be 5MHz. With the development of 3G service, the frequency resource is become more and more rare. The conflict is evident on the high quality frequency band. Many operators cannot refarm 5MHz for the limited frequency resource, but they want to deploy the new services on 850/900MHz for the competition pressure. Through algorithm enhancement, Huawei can support frequency bandwidth less than 5MHz. The feature only can be used in GU or UU co-site scenario. However, KPI is impacted even with carefully network planning and optimization when frequency bandwidth is less than 5MHz. The impact on the KPI can be reduced with Huawei professional service, but it cannot get rid of the impact thoroughly. Therefore, operator must balance between the KPI and bandwidth utilization. Due to the sensitivity of KPIs, it is recommended that operators purchase Huawei's network optimization services when using this feature. This ensures accurate setting and fine tuning of different parameters to obtain optimum KPIs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
 

For 4.6 MHz to 5 MHz (including 4.6 MHz), all the RF modules can support this feature. For 4.2 MHz to 4.6 MHz (excluding 4.6 MHz), only 850/1900 MHz RRU3804, 850 MHz WRFU, MRFU v1/v2 and RRU3908 v1/v2, WRFUd, RRU3828, RRU3829, RRU3928, RRU3929, MRFUd, and MRFUe can support this feature.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Non-standard Bandwidth Features Introduction Service

7.3 High Speed Mobility
7.3.1 WRFD-010206 High Speed Access
Availability
This feature is available from RAN 5.1.

Summary
With the advent of higher-speed vehicles, how to provide mobile communication services on a high-speed moving vehicle becomes a challenge for the operator. This feature is one of the major high-speed coverage solutions.

Benefits
High speed access is one of the key features in the differential solution for high speed coverage. The NodeBs using high speed access supports coverage under which the moving speed of UEs can exceed 400 km/h.

Description
Currently, the high-speed trains in some countries and regions can reach speeds of 200 km/h to 300 km/h. The maglev train in Shanghai can reach a maximum speed of 430 km/h. High-speed access is one of the key features in the high-speed coverage differentiation solution. With this feature, the NodeB can provide the coverage for the UE moving at a speed of up to 450 km/h. When the UE moves at a high speed, Doppler shift occurs. As Doppler shift affects the signal reception on the baseband unit of the NodeB, automatic frequency control (AFC) should be implemented on the RAKE receiver. The NodeB supports AFC for UL DPCH and PRACH. The parameter "High Speed Movement Mode" can be used to activate AFC on the PRACH. The frequency offset can be mapped to the maximum moving speed through the parameter "Speed Rate (km/h)" on the LMT. When this feature is enabled, the Extended Cell status will not be supported any more. The capability of the HULP, HBBI, and HBBU carrying access channels falls (each board can carry access channels for only one cell). In addition, this feature is not supported when 4-antenna RX diversity is configured.

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The WBBP, EBBI, EBOI and EBBC are added to support this feature without compromising the performance.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, the WBBP, EBBI, EBOI and EBBC are added to support this feature without compromising the performance.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with High-Speed Train Feature Introduction Service

7.3.2 WRFD-021350 Independent Demodulation of Signals from Multiple RRUs in One Cell
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
The feature of independent demodulation of signals from multiple RRUs in one cell enables the signals from multiple RRUs to be demodulated independently and combined within a BBU. It effectively reduces the number of handovers between cells for users.

Benefits
This feature introduces independent demodulation of signals from multiple RRUs in one cell. Different RRU coverage areas in the same cell can reduce the number of handovers between

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cells and increase cell capacity and throughput. Multiple RRU coverage areas can also be used to flexibly form wire-shaped coverage areas. Using a relatively small number of cells, the coverage needs of transportation routes can be met.

Description
This feature provides independent demodulation of signals from multiple RRUs in one cell. In uplink, the NodeB performs independent demodulation and combination of the multiple RRU receiver signals within a BBU. In downlink, the NodeB copies the signal of a cell and outputs it to multiple RRUs. A cell can be divided into multiple coverage area, each coverage area has independent RRU, and multiple RRUs belong to the same cell and have the same scrambling code.

Baseband combination technology is used. Therefore, multiple RRU combined signals will not introduce signal background noise or influence uplink receiver sensitivity. In RRU cascade scenario, one 1.25G CPRI can support independent demodulation of maximum 4 RRU in a cell; a 2.5G CPRI can support independent demodulation of maximum 6 RRU in a cell. Similarly, if there are 2 frequencies in one RRU, then one 1.25G CPRI can support independent demodulation of maximum 2 RRU in a cell and a 2.5G CPRI can support independent demodulation of maximum 4 RRU in a cell. This feature is suitable for coverage in special locations with high speed motion such as highways, railroad tracks, or formula 1 tracks. When using this feature, 4-Antenna Receive Diversity, TX diversity, MIMO, FDE,UL CELL_FACH enhancement, extended cell, load measurement (based on the report of actual service load), Load-based Uplink Target BLER Configuration, or Dynamic Configuration of HSDPA CQI Feedback Period cannot be supported.

Enhancement
In RAN14.0, an RRU can be configured with one or two receive (RX) antennas when multiple RRUs are configured for one cell. That is, RRUs configured with a single RX antenna can work with RRUs configured with two RX antennas in one cell. This enhanced feature also applies to indoor and tunnel coverage scenarios where RRUs are configured with single RX antennas. In comparison with the existing scheme of multiple RRUs in one cell with digital combination and division, this enhanced feature in RAN14.0 prevents RoT and mutual interference caused by a mixture of RX signals received by multiple antennas. This enhanced feature improves the cell uplink coverage and throughput.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB

Only the DBS3900 configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board supports this feature. The BTS3902E does not support this feature.

Dependency on other RAN features None Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service and High-Speed Train Feature Introduction Service

7.4 Intra-system Mobility Management
7.4.1 WRFD-020302 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on Coverage
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0 This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature introduces inter-frequency hard handover triggered by Active Set quality measurement event 2D or by Uplink Radio Link QoS or emergency blind handover triggered by event 1F.

Benefits
Coverage based Inter frequency hard handover provides supplementary coverage in inter-frequency networking cells to prevent call drop, therefore, improve the network performance and end user feeling. Enhancement of inter frequency hard handover between multi frequency band cells can be used to support multi frequency band networking scenario.

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Description
Inter frequency hard handover is hard handover between cells of different frequencies. It can be triggered by coverage, load or speed which is suitable for the corresponding scenarios. The trigger condition based on the cell load belongs to the optional feature which is described in WRFD-020103 Inter Frequency Load Balance. The trigger condition based on the UE speed which is evaluated by RNC belongs to the optional feature which is described in WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure). In this feature, the handover is triggered by coverage reason. This trigger condition is based on the quality measurement. The compressed mode measurement for DL or UL will be triggered by event measurement report 2D for inter-frequency or inter-RAT handover and stopped by event measurement report 2F. When compressed mode measurement is triggered, RNC will start the inter frequency measurement in UE to get the target cell to handover if inter-frequency neighboring cells are configured. The measurement quantity is combination of RSCP and Ec/N0. The compressed mode can also be triggered by the combination of Ec/N0 and RSCP. Moreover, event 2B and period measurement report mode are supported and which measurement quantity and mode to use can be configured by operator. The measurement related parameters include threshold, hysteresis, and trigger delay time. The inter-frequency neighboring cell number can be up to 64. The compressed mode is divided into two types, namely, spreading factor reduction (SF/2) and high layer approaches. The type of compressed mode to be used is decided by the RNC automatically, according to the configurable spreading factor used in uplink and downlink. Another measurement report 1F can also trigger inter-frequency hard handover, but compressed mode will not be triggered in this scenario since such a report means a call drop may occur at any time and there is no time to implement the measurement procedure. The target cell of handover is selected based on the equivalent down link overage of the inter frequency blind neighboring cells. By this means the handover success rate can be guaranteed, and the equivalent down link coverage is represented by RSCP of CPICH channel which is determined after network planning. Inter-frequency handover triggered by limitation of UE TX power or high UL BLER is available for PS BE, CS AMR and VP services. In multi frequency band networking scenario which is described in WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management, the inter frequency hard handover is enhanced to meet the networking requirements. That is, coverage based hard handover between different frequency bands is supported and UE measurement capability will be considered to guarantee that the UE is not handed over to the cell where the UE does not have the corresponding capability on that frequency band. When the capability of the UE is insufficient can be acquired, whether to implement the handover can be configured by operator.

Enhancement
In RAN3.0, event report mode and periodical report mode are supported. In RAN5.1, compressed mode is triggered by combination of Ec/N0 and RSCP is supported. In RAN5.1, puncturing mode as one compressed mode type is not supported anymore since such a mode has been removed from 3GPP. In RAN6.0, coverage based inter-frequency hard handover between multi frequency band cell is supported.

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In RAN6.0, combination of RSCP and Ec/N0 measurement is supported when triggering compressed mode measurement, and available only for periodic measurement report mode. In RAN10.0, combination of RSCP and Ec/N0 measurement is available when event 2B measurement report mode is selected. In RAN10.0, the inter-frequency handover triggered by limitation of UE TX power or high UL BLER is applicable to the PS BE, CS AMR, and VP services.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the relevant measurements and the procedure of handover. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.4.2 WRFD-020304 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on DL QoS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
When the load of services is higher in the cell and downlink QoS drops, this feature enables the UE to be handed over to an inter-frequency cell, guaranteeing QoS requirements.

Benefits
DL QoS based inter frequency hard handover provides the method to prevent call drop and guarantee the QoS in inter-frequency networking, therefore, improves the network performance and enhances end user experience.

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Description
In the scenarios of severe fading and high load, the call drop could take place due to the limitation of DL transmitted code power. In addition, coverage area is different for different services in network planning, thereby the system should take actions in order to guarantee the downlink QoS and keep the connection as could as possible. The evaluation of downlink QoS status is on the basis of TCP (Transmitted Code Power) or RLC retransmission (only for PS BE). Once the downlink QoS is detected to be in bad condition, inter-frequency handover could be triggered:
 

For AMR and VP services, inter-frequency handover could be triggered based on TCP. For PS BE service, inter-frequency handover could be triggered based on TCP and RLC retransmission.

This feature can be switched on/off separately for AMR, VP and PS BE services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020302 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on Coverage

7.4.3 WRFD-020605 SRNS Relocation Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

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Summary
This feature provides multiple solutions for user mobility between RNCs. The solutions include the static relocation solution (with Iur interface), and hard handover/cell update/URA update relocation solutions (without Iur interface).

Benefits
    

Reduce the bandwidth occupied by the Iur interface. Reduce the transmission delay of user plane. Obtain the parameters of cell-level algorithms to optimize the performance. Ensure that communications are not interrupted when the UE moves to the coverage area of another RNC while the Iur interface is not available. Help to keep the integrity and continuity of the data transfer, and improve the best effort service performance during the SRNS relocation procedure.

Description
The serving RNS (SRNS) manages the connection between the UE and the UTRAN and can be relocated. The SRNS Relocation Introduction Package includes following features:
   

SRNS Relocation (UE Not Involved) SRNS Relocation with Hard Handover SRNS Relocation with Cell/URA Update Lossless SRNS Relocation

Enhancement
In RAN3.0, RAN5.0 SRNS Relocation Introduction Package is enhanced. For details, refer to the enhancement of the features in the package.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The CN and DRNC must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on CN The CN node must support this feature simultaneously.

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Dependency on Other Features None

7.4.4 WRFD-02060501 SRNS Relocation (UE Not Involved)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
This feature supports the SRNS procedure based on the standard Iu interface defined by 3GPP. The static relocation procedure does not involve the UE and radio connections are affected during the relocation. The static relocation is an optimal relocation mode.

Benefits
  

Reduce the bandwidth occupied by the Iur interface. Reduce the transmission delay of user plane. Obtain the parameters of cell-level algorithms to optimize the performance.

Description
When the Iur interface exists, the UE may use the radio resources of one RNC and connects to the CN through another RNC. After the SRNS is relocated (UE not involved), the Iur resources for the UE are released. The target RNC not only provides radio resources for the UE but also connects the UE to the CN. If the radio links are provided only by the target RNC, the static relocation for UEs in CELL_DCH state can be triggered in the following four conditions:

SRNS relocation based on delay optimization The SRNC calculates the transmission delay on the user plane. If the delay exceeds the threshold, the SRNC initiates the SRNS relocation.

SRNS relocation based on transmission optimization The SRNC calculates the bandwidth occupancy on the Iur interface. If the transmission resource of Iur interface is congested, the SRNC initiates SRNS relocation to reduce the transmission bandwidth occupation.

SRNS relocation based on separation time The SRNC initiates SRNS relocation when the SRNC and the CRNC have been separated for a period of time which exceeds the threshold.

SRNS relocation based on location separation The SRNC initiates SRNS relocation when the UE moves to an area which is controlled by the DRNC. The UE’s only behavior during the procedure is that it is notified with new UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION.

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Enhancement
In RAN3.0, the SRNS relocation based on delay optimization is supported. In RAN5.0, the SRNS relocation based on separation time and location separation are supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The CN and DRNC must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on CN The CN node must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on Other Features None

7.4.5 WRFD-02060502 SRNS Relocation with Hard Handover
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
When the Iur interface is unavailable, this feature enables the UE to move between RNCs.

Benefits
It can ensure communications are not interrupted when the UE moves to the coverage area of another RNC while the Iur interface is not available.

Description
SRNS relocation with hard handover, which applies to UEs in CELL_DCH state, occurs in the following conditions:
 

Inter-frequency or intra-frequency hard handover is performed. The target cell and the source cell belong to different RNCs.

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There is no Iur interface between the two RNCs or there are not enough resources to set up a connection through the Iur interface.

In such scenarios, the UE is ordered to be relocated to a new RNC with hard handover to prevent call drop.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The CN and DRNC must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on CN The CN node must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on Other Features None

7.4.6 WRFD-02060503 SRNS Relocation with Cell/URA Update
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
When the Iur interface does not support CCH or Iur-CCH is unavailable, this feature enables the UE in CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, or URA_PCH state to move between RNCs.

Benefits
It ensures that communications are not interrupted when the UE in CCH state moves to the coverage area of another RNC.

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Description
If Iur interface support CCH, the cell/URA update does not trigger relocation immediately. When Iur interface does not support CCH or Iur-CCH is unavailable, the SRNS relocation with cell update occurs when all the following conditions are met:
  

The cell update procedure is performed. The target cell and the source cell belong to different RNCs. There is Iur interface between two RNCs, but Iur does not support CCH or Iur-CCH is unavailable.

It is caused by cell reselection of UE in CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state. The message Cell Update or URA Update sent by the UE is forwarded from the new RNC to the old RNC through the Iur interface, and then the relocation procedure starts.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The CN and DRNC must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.4.7 WRFD-02060504 Lossless SRNS Relocation
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
This feature enables the forwarding of SRNS contexts and DL N-PDU duplicates to the target relocation cell during the relocation. With this feature, the higher layer on the user plane does not need to resend the data lost during the relocation, improving the BE service performance.

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Benefits
This feature helps to keep the data transfer integrity and continuity, and improve the best effort service performance in the SRNS relocation procedure.

Description
Lossless SRNS relocation is used to forward the context in SRNS and DL N-PDU duplicates towards the relocation target RNC during the relocation procedure. That is, the RNC supports the maintenance of PDCP sequence numbers for radio bearers which are used to forward data not acknowledged by the UE. With this feature, the higher layer in user plane does not need to resend the data lost during relocation procedure; therefore, the best effort service performance is improved.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units The UE, CN and DRNC must support this feature simultaneously. Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.5 Intra-system Radio Resource Management
7.5.1 WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

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Summary
This feature is a combination of two or more PS RABs.

Benefits
Multi-RAB support capability provides operators with more choices for the service solution.

Description
Multi-RAB can provide many services simultaneously to the upper layer. When multi-RAB has more than one PS RAB, Huawei supports the following specifications:
    

Combination of two PS services One CS service + two PS services Combination of three PS services One CS service + three PS services Combination of Four PS Services

In all the above combinations, the bit rates of CS and PS services are not limited. That is, any bit rate defined in WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class, WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class, WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class, and WRFD-010501 Background QoS Class can be selected in the combination. The PS conversational/streaming/interactive/background services can also be mapped onto HS-DSCH or E-DCH channels, such a feature will be supported with the optional feature WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package.

Enhancement
In RAN6.0, the following specifications can be supported:
 

Combination of three PS services including IMS signaling One CS service + three PS services including IMS signaling

In RAN10.0, the limitation that one of 3 PS service must be IMS signaling is removed. In RAN11.0, the combination of four PS service is supported.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units

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None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Features None

7.5.2 WRFD-01061501 Combination of Two PS Services
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
This feature is a combination of two PS services.

Benefits
Multi-RAB support capability provides operators with more choices for the service solution.

Description
Huawei supports the combination of two PS services. The bit rates of PS services are not limited. That is, any bit rate defined in WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class, WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class, WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class, and WRFD-010501 Background QoS Class can be applied to this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability.

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Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)

7.5.3 WRFD-01061502 Combination of One CS Service and Two PS Services
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
This feature is a combination of one CS service and two PS services.

Benefits
This feature provides operators with more choices for the service solution.

Description
Huawei supports the combination of one CS service + two PS services. The bit rates of CS and PS services are not limited. That is, any bit rate defined in WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class, WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class, WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class, and WRFD-010501 Background QoS Class can be applied to this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Features

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WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)

7.5.4 WRFD-01061503 Combination of Three PS Services
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is a combination of three PS services.

Benefits
This feature provides operators with more choices for the service solution.

Description
Huawei supports the combination of three PS Services. The bit rates of PS services are not limited. That is, any bit rate defined in WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class, WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class, WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class, and WRFD-010501 Background QoS Class can be applied to this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)

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7.5.5 WRFD-01061504 Combination of One CS Service and Three PS Services
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0.

Summary
This feature is a combination of one CS service and three PS services (including IMS signaling).

Benefits
This feature provides operators with more choices for the service solution.

Description
Huawei supports the combination of one CS service and three PS services, including IMS signaling. The bit rates of CS and PS services are not limited. That is, any bit rate defined in WRFD-010501 Conversational QoS Class, WRFD-010502 Streaming QoS Class, WRFD-010503 Interactive QoS Class, and WRFD-010501 Background QoS Class can be applied to this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)

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7.5.6 WRFD-01061505 Combination of Four PS Services
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature is a combination of four PS services. The service combination can be VoIP + BE or four PS BE services.

Benefits
This feature enhances the system's compatibility with various VoIP UEs and facilitates the development of VoIP. The service combination 3PS RAB VoIP + BE can be applied, which enriches the operator’s services portfolio.

Description
RAN11.0 supports up to four PS RABs per user. A typical application of Multi-RAB is VoIP plus BE service where VoIP may need up to three RABs to transmit SIP signaling, Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) (voice), and Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) (media monitoring) respectively, as shown in the following figure.

RAN11.0 supports four PS RABs per user, and the service combination VoIP + BE is supported. Other service combination like 4PS BE is also supported.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability.

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Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The CN must have the corresponding multi-RAB support capability. Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010615 Multiple RAB Package (PS RAB ≥ 2)

7.5.7 WRFD-020103 Inter Frequency Load Balance
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
When a cell is in initial congestion state, this feature enables some UEs in the cell to be handed over to an inter-frequency co-coverage cell, reducing the load of the cell.

Benefits
This feature is used to reduce the system load by handing over UE to neighboring cells, keeping the system in a safe state.

Description
This feature is an important action for Load Reshuffling (LDR). It enables the system to perform inter-frequency handover that hands over UE to an inter-frequency neighboring cell, thereby reducing the current cell load. This action is triggered when system detects that the current serving cell load is beyond the pre-defined congestion threshold and the cell is entering a basic congestion state. Normally the resource used for cell load level measurement is the power resource, if inter frequency load balance is taken as an action for LDR. The load measurement is done both for UL and DL. A target cell will then be selected according to the load difference between current cell load and congestion threshold of each target cell. Only when the load difference exceeds a certain value can the cell be selected as the target cell for blind handover. The limitation for target cell selection is used to ensure that the handover does not cause the load increase of target cell. Besides, the system will select a UE to be handed over during the LDR according to the UE priority. If the UEs have the same priority, the UE with higher service bit rate will be selected first. Inter-frequency load balance is also applied to hierarchical cell structure.

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, the user selection criterion considers the Traffic Class, ARP, and bear type (R99 or HSPA) when calculating the UE priority, and THP factor added in RAN6.0. HSDPA service is considered during inter-frequency load balance procedure in RAN5.0. HSUPA service is considered during inter-frequency load balance procedure in RAN6.0. Blind handover is used to perform inter-frequency handover before RAN12.0. Measurement based handover is added as one choice of actions to perform inter-frequency handover in RAN12.0. In RAN12.0, by MML command, operator can inhibit some types of service being selected for inter-frequency load balance. Before RAN14.0, inter-frequency load balancing can be triggered only by basic congestion of power resources or code resources. In RAN14.0, load-based inter-frequency handovers can also be triggered by basic congestion of uplink credit resources. This helps mitigate basic congestion of uplink credit resources and therefore lowers the probability of admission failures due to uplink credit resource congestion. In RAN14.0, inter-frequency blind handovers and measurement-based inter-frequency handovers can be triggered by basic congestion of uplink credit resources.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features When this feature is used for HSDPA/HSUPA load control, WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package are required.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.8 WRFD-020114 Domain Specific Access Control (DSAC)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

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Summary
In urgent cases, for example, the CN is overloaded, this feature enables fast reduction of the load, avoiding further overload.

Benefits
In urgent cases, for example, the overload of the CN, the DSAC function can quickly lower the current load and reduce the risk of overload. If one CN domain is overloaded or unavailable, the other CN domain is not affected. This improves the disaster tolerance and availability of the network.

Description
In the 3GPP protocols, the PRACH resources (such as access slots and access preambles in FDD mode) provide access services of different priorities by distinguishing different Access Service Classes (ASCs). The value range of the ASC is 0–7. The value 0 represents the highest priority and the value 7 represents the lowest priority. The value 0 of ASC is used for emergency calls. The Information Element (IE) "AC-to-ASC mapping" in SIB 5 or SIB 5bis indicates the mapping between Access Class (AC) and ASC. This mapping is usually applied to the access phase, for example, sending an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message; therefore, different access services are provided by controlling the access probability of the UEs which belong to the ASCs of different priorities. In SIB 3/4, the IE "Domain Specific Access Restriction Parameters" is used to indicate which access class is barred or allowed. The UE will read its access class and compare it with the access class stored in the SIM card. After comparison, the UE knows whether it is allowed to access the cell. The DSAC function can be used in the following scenarios: 1. When the RNC knows through the Iu interface that the CN is overloaded, it triggers the DSAC function as follows:

The RNC sets the step as X% to limit the access of the UE under the RNC at a fixed interval, namely, "Access Class Restriction interval". Within the next interval, the RNC limits the other X% UEs and releases all the other UEs. The RNC bars the access of UEs according to different domains. That is, the RNC prevents the UEs from accessing the overloaded CS domain. If the PS domain is overloaded, the RNC also prevents the UEs from accessing the PS domain. If X% = 100%, the RNC bars the access of all the UEs. The UEs camp on the coverage area under the RNC but cannot access the corresponding domain. When the CN is no longer overloaded, all the barred ACs will be released. The operators can set X% and Access Class Restriction interval. The operator can decide whether to trigger the DSAC function when a domain of the CN is overloaded.

− − − −

2. When Iu Flex is used, the DSAC function can be automatically triggered only when all the CN nodes of the corresponding domain connected to the RNC are overloaded. 3. When the DSAC function is triggered, based on logs and alarms, the operator can easily monitor the DSAC status, network status, the process of removing restrictions on access classes, and so on.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE Only the UEs of R6 (or later) can support this function. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN CN nodes should support this message on the Iu interface. Dependency on Other Features None

7.5.9 WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
With this feature, the operator can simultaneously provide services on multiple frequency bands. This feature implements the functions such as mobility management, load balancing, and traffic balancing between frequency bands.

Benefits
In multi-frequency-band networking scenarios, this feature can provide seamless communication to improve the system capacity.

Description
IMT-2000/UMTS service was launched in the core band (1920-1980 MHz/2110-2170 MHz) during the year 2001, and by mid-2006 there were more than 75 million IMT-2000/UMTS subscriptions worldwide in more than 110 IMT-2000/UMTS networks launched commercially.

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However, there are still sparsely populated and remote areas where there are difficulties to provide IMT-2000/UMTS services in a cost-efficient way. Therefore, other frequency band re-farming is required to provide UMTS service to meet the requirements. For example, UMTS deployment in 900 MHz band can facilitate the provision of the expected IMT-2000/UMTS services to users in those areas. The 900 MHz band is identified for IMT-2000/UMTS at ITU and from a regulatory point of view it can be used for IMT-2000/UMTS. The most significant benefit comes from the fact that compared to 2 GHz band, radio wave propagation path-loss in 900 MHz frequency band is much smaller. Therefore, for the offering of the same service (data rates) and same coverage, the required number of base station sites in 900 MHz band is reduced by 60% compared to that at 2 GHz, as shown by the following table. Service Circuit switched, 64 kbit/s Packet switched, 384 kbit/s 2 GHz band 224 468 900 MHz Band 90 181 Site Number Reduction 60% 61%

In addition, the use of the 900 MHz band can significantly improve indoor coverage in urban areas. The economic benefit of the 900 MHz band on UMTS operators’ investments makes it possible to propagate benefits to the end-users in terms of wider coverage and possibly lower level of usage costs. Improved indoor coverage is important because more and more mobile voice and data services are used in the indoor environment. This is of particular interest when considering the increasing use of the mobile phones as a replacement or a complement to fixed phone, PC and TV usage. The UMTS900 will be deployed by reusing the GSM sites within the existing service area, and the benefits are achieved because of:
 

Reuse of the existing base station sites Reuse of the existing antenna systems and feeders

From a practical implementation point of view, operators only need either to add a new base station cabinet or to replace the existing GSM base station by a multimode GSM+UMTS base station subject to site situation or manufacturer’s design. It should be noted that the base station equipment cost represents only a small portion of the total site cost. Huawei supports the following frequency band: Operating Band UL Frequencies UE transmit, NodeB receive 1920 to 1980 MHz 1850 to 1910 MHz DL frequencies UE receive, NodeB transmit 2110 to 2170 MHz 1930 to 1990 MHz RAN2.0 Macro: RAN5.0 RRU: RAN5.1 III 1710 to 1785 MHz 1805 to 1880 MHz Macro: RAN5.0 RRU: RAN5.1 V 824 to 849 MHz 869 to 894 MHz RAN6.0 Availability

I II

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VIII IV IX

880 to 915 MHz 1710 to1755 MHz 1749.9 to 1784.9 MHz

925 to 960 MHz 2110 to 2155 MHz 1844.9 to 1879.9 MHz

RAN6.0 RRU: RAN6.1 RRU: RAN6.0

Huawei also provides the full mobility solution between these frequency bands and the mobility between these frequency bands and GSM cells. The main related features are as follows:
 

Cell selection / reselection Service distribution and Directed retry: Load Balance DRD is supported, which enables the RNC to direct the UE to a preferable layer according to the load conditions of current cell and target cell. Service priority could be set to cells, corresponding to different service types including R99 RT, R99 NRT, HSPA and other (for example, MBMS). This enables service differentiation and/or load balance between multi-frequency layers. In call setup procedures, the RNC would direct the UE to an inter-frequency cell with higher service priority. The RNC also considers the capabilities of the cell/UE, and the requested RAB. Service Differentiate DRD and Load Balance DRD could work independently or cooperatively. In later case service priority will be first considered. Such a feature depends on the optional feature WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package. Coverage based handover: If coverage based inter-frequency handover is needed, the optional feature WRFD-020302 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on Coverage should be enabled. If coverage based inter-RAT handover is needed, WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage should be enabled. Load based handover: Such feature enables the load based inter-RAT handover, which depends on the optional feature WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load. Service based handover: Such feature depends on the optional feature WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service Hierarchical Cell Structure capability is also available which is operator configurable in order to prioritize the different UMTS2100, UMTS900 and GSM layers. And such feature depends on the optional feature WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure).

  

The network operator can have full flexibility to prioritize different UMTS2100 and UMTS900 cells.

Enhancement
In RAN12.0, the inter-band blind handover based on load is supported to share the load in case of cell overload. In RAN14.0, inter-band blind handovers can be triggered by basic congestion of uplink credit resources. This helps mitigate basic congestion of uplink credit resources and therefore lowers the probability of admission failures due to uplink credit resource congestion.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
      

WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package or WRFD-020302 Inter Frequency Hard Handover Based on Coverage or WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage should be enabled or WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service or WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) WRFD-020103 Inter Frequency Load Balance

If one of these dependent features is not enabled, the corresponding function will not be available in the multi frequency band networking solution. Operator can choose which feature to use or not.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.10 WRFD-020160 Enhanced Multiband Management
Availability
This feature is available since RAN12.0.

Summary
In a multiband network, the cells that perform an operation on different frequency bands have different coverage areas. Generally, when the UE needs to perform an inter-frequency handover, it performs handover decision according to the inter-frequency measurement result rather than performs a blind handover. This increases the handover success rate. Inter-frequency measurement is performed for handover decision of the inter-frequency handover based on traffic steering or load sharing.

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Benefits
With this feature, the traffic steering or load sharing between the cells operating on different frequency bands can be implemented, enhancing the resource usage while ensuring the handover success rate.

Description
In the inter-frequency traffic steering, each cell is configured with the priority for carrying each type of services (R99 RT, R99 NRT, HSPA, and others). After the RAB is setup, inter-frequency measurement is performed to ensure that the UE accesses the cell with the highest priority. To enable inter-frequency measurement for traffic steering, enable the features WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management and WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package. In the inter-frequency load sharing, after the RAB setup, load reshuffling (LDR) may trigger a load-based inter-frequency handover. The target cell is selected on the basis of the quality measurement of cells. Only the cell that meets the quality requirement is selected. To enable inter-frequency measurement for load sharing, enable the features WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management and WRFD-020103 Inter-Frequency Load Balance.

Enhancement
Before RAN14.0, measurement-based inter-band handovers for inter-band load balancing are triggered only by basic congestion of power resources. In RAN14.0, inter-band handovers can also be triggered by basic congestion of uplink credit resources. This helps mitigate basic congestion of uplink credit resources and therefore lowers the probability of admission failures due to uplink credit resource congestion.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC Only the BSC6900 supports this feature. Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features

WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management and WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package or

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WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management and WRFD-020103 Inter-Frequency Load Balance

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.11 WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature supports inter-frequency or inter-system direct retry and redirect.

Benefits
These features can decrease the access failure rate and improve the QoS of the network.

Description
The DRD Introduction Package includes the following features:
   

Intra System Direct Retry Inter System Direct Retry Inter System Redirect Traffic Steering and Load Sharing During RAB Setup

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.5.12 WRFD-02040001 Intra System Direct Retry
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
This feature is related to intra-system direct retry during the RRC Connection setup or RAB assignment.

Benefits
Intra system Directed Retry can decrease the access failure rate, and improve the QoS of the network.

Description
Intra System Direct Retry is a feature used during Admission Control when a new call fails to access the network in the admission procedure. This feature can be executed in RRC connection setup procedure and in RAB ASSIGNMENT procedure. As for RRC procedure, it occurs when a UE initiates a RRC CONNECTION REQUEST and the request is refused in the original cell. The system will then make a decision whether the connection setup request can be set up in a inter-frequency neighboring cell. This decision is done according to the configuration of inter-frequency blind neighboring cells. The new cell information will be sent to UE in the RRC CONNECTION SETUP message, indicating UE to access to the new cell. As for RAB procedure, it occurs when a new call fails for admission during RAB ASSIGNMENT procedure. The system will try a blind handover to inter-frequency neighboring cell. In order to increase the blind handover success rate, the neighbor inter-frequency neighboring cell should cover the original cell range.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

7.5.13 WRFD-02040002 Inter System Direct Retry
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
This feature is related to inter-system direct retry during the RAB assignment.

Benefits
Inter system Directed Retry can decrease the access failure rate, and improve the QoS of the network.

Description
Inter System Direct Retry is a feature used during Admission Control when a new call fails to access the network in the admission procedure. This feature is executed in RAB ASSIGNMENT procedure. If the RAB ASSIGNMENT procedure fails during admission, the RNC will respond with the RAB ASSIGNEMNT RESPONSE message with the cause "Direct Retry". Then, a relocation procedure will be initiated by RNC with the cause of "Direct Retry". The following procedure is as the same as the normal inter-RAT handover procedure.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

7.5.14 WRFD-02040003 Inter System Redirect
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
This feature is related to inter-system redirect during the RRC assignment.

Benefits
Inter-system Redirect can decrease the access failure rate, and improve the QoS of the network.

Description
Redirect feature is used during admission procedure when a new call is failed due to resource unavailable. It occurs in RRC CONNECTION SETUP procedure. When a UE initiates a RRC CONNECTION REQUEST and the request is refused in the original cell. And RRC direct retry fails too. The system will send RRC CONNECTION REJECT message with Redirection info indicating UE to access to an inter-system cell. Compared with RRC Direct Retry procedure, UE will perform a new cell-reselection procedure in inter-system Redirect.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None

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Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

7.5.15 WRFD-02040004 Traffic Steering and Load Sharing During RAB Setup
Availability
This feature is available since RAN10.0.

Summary
With this feature, the load of the service and the required service type are considered during RAB setup to implement traffic steering and load sharing between different frequencies or different frequency bands.

Benefits
If traffic steering is enabled during RAB setup, newly admitted services are carried on the specified frequency to reduce the impact on the old services, achieving smooth network evolution. If load sharing is enabled during RAB setup, the probability of congestion on each frequency is reduced, the service access success rate is improved, and the number of load-based handovers performed after service setup is reduced. Therefore, the quality of service is improved.

Description
Services are classified into four types: R99 RT, R99 NRT, HSPA, and others (such as MBMS). Different priorities are defined for different types of services in each cell. If traffic steering is enabled, the cell with the highest priority is selected according to the service type during the RAB setup. If load sharing is enabled, the load on the current cell and the loads on the neighboring cells that cover the same area are considered during RAB setup to ensure that new services access the cell with the lowest traffic load. Traffic steering and load sharing during RAB setup can be enabled or disabled respectively. If both of the functions are enabled, traffic steering takes precedence over load sharing. That is, the cell with the highest priority is selected on the basis of traffic steering. If multiple cells have the same priority, then the cell with the lowest traffic load is selected.

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Traffic steering and load sharing are implemented through blind handovers. These two functions apply to the scenarios where neighboring cells have the same coverage.

Enhancement
In RAN12 Periodically DRD based on measurement is introduced, RAB can be setup in the original cell, and by following inter frequency measurement to chose a neighboring cell to perform DRD, reduce the drop rate caused by blind handover. The Periodically DRD based on blind handover or based on measurement can be selected by operator.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.16 WRFD-02040005 Inter-Frequency Redirection Based on Distance
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature supports inter-frequency redirection based on distance during RRC connection setup.

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Benefits
This feature increases the RRC connection setup success rate and reduces the call drop rate.

Description
This feature solves the coverage overlap problem for UMTS networks. Upon receiving an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message from a UE, the RNC calculates the propagation delay for the UE. The RNC then compares the propagation delay with the inter-frequency redirection threshold and performs inter-frequency redirection based on the distance between the NodeB and the UE.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.17 WRFD-020402 Measurement Based Direct Retry
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0

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Summary
After the setup of UE RRC connection, RNC can immediately initiate inter frequency or inter system measurement, then RNC can perform direct retry according to the measurement result when the RAB assignment is received from CN.

Benefits
The feature can increase the success rate of DRD, reduce the drop rate caused by DRD with blind handover, improves the network performance.

Description
When an RAB is set up and the DRD is triggered, the Directed Retry Decision (DRD) algorithm uses the blind handover procedure to setup the RAB in another cell. In this situation, if the current cell and the DRD target cell cover different areas, the UE DRD may fail. After the Measurement based direct retry (MBDR) function is implemented, inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurement is performed. This ensures good signal quality of the DRD target cell. With this function, the success rate of inter-frequency or inter-RAT DRD can be ensured even if the current cell and the DRD target cell cover different areas. The function can be configured with the service type:

The following types of service support inter-frequency MBDR:
− − − −

CS AMR CS non-AMR PS R99 PS HSPA

Only CS AMR services support inter-RAT MBDR.

After an RRC connection setup, the RNC determines whether to establish services in inter-frequency or inter-RAT cells based on the current cell load and the type of services to be established. If required, the RNC sends the UE an inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurement control message, instructing the UE to measure the signal quality of the target cell. If the signal quality of the target cell meets the specified requirements, the RNC establishes services in the target cell. If MBDR is executed, the other types of DRD will not be performed subsequently in the call.

Enhancement

None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.18 WRFD-020120 Service Steering and Load Sharing in RRC Connection Setup
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables service and load sharing between different frequencies, bands, or systems based on the service type and cell load.

Benefits
In the RRC connection setup phase, this feature can implement service steering and shorten the delay of service setup. In addition, this feature can provide inter-frequency or inter-RAT load sharing under different coverage and increase the success rate of load sharing.

Description
In the RRC connection setup phase, this feature enables the following functions: (1) inter-frequency or inter-RAT service steering based on the setup reasons of RRC connections; (2) inter-frequency or inter-RAT load sharing under different coverage based on the cell load or redirect proportion. With this feature, service steering and load sharing are available through RRC redirection in the RRC connection setup phase. In the RAB setup phase, the direct retry is used for service steering and load sharing. As the RRC redirection is a cell reselection procedure based on UE measurement, this feature is more suitable for the scenarios (for example, different frequency bands are available or no site is shared) to implement service steering and load sharing of two TRXs.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE needs to be compliant with 3GPP Release 6 (or later) to support the feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

7.5.19 WRFD-020124 Uplink Flow Control of User Plane
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
This feature enables the proprietary IEs on the Iub interface to detect the uplink packet loss of R99 services. In addition, this feature enables the transmission of TF limitations to control uplink traffic.

Benefits
This feature prevents the uplink transmission from packet loss for lack of flow control, and increases the service transmission efficiency.

Description
This feature is applicable to R99 service. The Uplink Flow Control of User Plane feature for HSUPA users is a standard flow control mode defined by the 3GPP protocols and has been implemented. In uplink single service data transmission, when the NodeB transmits data on the Iub interface, packet loss may occur due to insufficient processing capability of the buffer or insufficient transport network capability. In this case, data is repeatedly retransmitted, which causes the decrease of transmission and service processing efficiency. Huawei RAN uses the spare field in the Iub FP frame, which enables the RNC to detect the information about the packet loss in the uplink. When the packet loss threshold is reached, the

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RNC decides that this service enters the congestion state in the uplink, and then reduces the uplink data transmission rate of the UE by sending the TF Restriction message to the UE. This is a proprietary feature of Huawei.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.5.20 WRFD-140211 Dynamic Target RoT Adjustment
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
In a cell where the uplink coverage is not limited, this feature adaptively adjusts the target Rise over Thermal (RoT) to increase uplink cell throughput.

Benefits
With this feature, the RNC can dynamically adjust the target RoT based on cell coverage to achieve a balance between coverage and capacity. In scenarios where the uplink coverage is not limited, such as densely populated urban areas, the uplink throughput can be increased by up to 20% with this feature.

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Description
In the uplink cell load control algorithm, RoT is an important parameter that reflects the cell uplink load level. A large target RoT leads to a heavy uplink cell load but a small cell coverage area. In a live network, the cell coverage performance varies greatly by radio environment, such as densely populated urban areas and suburbs. Setting the target RoT to a fixed value cannot account for varied radio environments. In a cell with good coverage, for example, in central business districts (CBDs), if the target RoT is set to a fixed value, the uplink cell load may reach the preset maximum when the UE transmit power is still sufficient. This leads to limited uplink cell throughput. This feature enables the RNC to automatically adjust the target RoT to increase the uplink cell throughput without affecting network performance. The RNC adjusts the target RoT by changing the value of the information element (IE) Maximum Target Received Total Wide Band contained in the PHYSICAL SHARED CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message sent to the NodeB.

When the actual RoT for a cell approaches or exceeds the target cell load and the transmit power resources for UEs in the cell are sufficient, the RNC gradually raises the target cell load to increase cell throughput. When the transmit power of a R99 UE in a cell is insufficient or when the transmit power of an HSUPA UE is insufficient and its throughput is lower than the preset threshold, the RNC rapidly decreases the target cell load to prevent KPI degradation.

This feature may incur the following risks:

When the cell coverage is insufficient, this feature increases the cell coverage by reducing the target RoT. The RNC adjusts the target RoT step by step. Adjusting RoT may lead to call drops of users in weak coverage areas. Therefore, this feature may increase the call drop rate. In scenarios where the RNC increases the target RoT, the uplink cell coverage shrinks. This causes UEs in idle mode unable in weak coverage areas to access the network, affecting user experience.

It is recommended that this feature be used together with Huawei professional services to avoid these risks.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP+EDLP, or EULPd+EDLP boards. Downlink services must be established on the EBBI, EBOI, or EDLP board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board, and downlink services must be established on the EBBC or EBBCd board.

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The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board. Downlink services must be established on the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package Dependency on professional services This feature should be used with Huawei professional services.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

7.5.21 WRFD-140212 CE Overbooking
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to adjust its credit resource usage based on the actual channel element (CE) usage of admitted UEs. Therefore, the RNC's capability to perform admission control based on credit resource usage is enhanced.

Benefits
In networks where actual CE usage is low due to low transmission rates of HSUPA UEs, this feature provides the following benefits:
  

More UEs can be admitted. More HSUPA UEs can use 2 ms transmission time interval (TTI). Compared with 10 ms TTI, 2 ms TTI enables HSUPA UEs to achieve a higher peak rate and a shorter scheduling delay, which improves user experience and admits more UEs. Using 2 ms TTI also increases uplink cell throughput when Uu and Iub resources are sufficient. Improves user experience for UEs in connected mode.

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Description
Generally, the RNC reserves a certain amount of credit resources for each admitted UE. To ensure user experience for HSUPA UEs, the RNC reserves more credit resources for 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs. When the total amount of reserved credit resources exceeds a specified threshold, the RNC rejects new UE access attempts. However, the actual CE usage of the NodeB is low. This is because the transmission rates of HSUPA UEs are low in most cases due to the high penetration rate of smart phones. To solve this problem, Huawei introduces CE Overbooking. With this feature, the NodeB adjusts the actual credit resource usage of admitted UEs based on traffic volume and reports the actual credit resource usage to the RNC through a private interface. The RNC then performs admission control on new UEs based on the reported credit resource usage. In networks where actual CE usage is low due to low transmission rates of HSUPA UEs, more UEs can be admitted after this feature is enabled, which increases uplink cell throughput. This feature has the following impact on the algorithms related to credit resources:
   

Increases the number of admitted UEs. Increases the number of 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs during a PS best effort (BE) service setup or reconfiguration. Reduces the probability of basic congestion of credit resources. Reduces the probability of admitted-CE-based dynamic TTI adjustment for 2 ms TTI HSUPA UEs processing BE services.

Using this feature poses the following risks:

If more UEs are admitted to the NodeB and a large number of UEs transmit data simultaneously: Actual bit rate might be less than the guaranteed bit rate (GBR). The CE resources allocated by the NodeB to a 2 ms TTI HSUPA UE may not be sufficient for this UE to transmit one Radio Link Control packet data unit (RLC PDU). If Admission-CE-based Dynamic TTI Adjustment for a Single BE Service over HSUPA is disabled, Traffic Radio Bearer (TRB) may be reset, which could result in call drops. If Admission-CE-based Dynamic TTI Adjustment for a Single BE Service over HSUPA is enabled, dynamic TTI adjustments from 2 ms to 10 ms will be triggered, decreasing the risk of call drops. Therefore, it is recommended that
Admission-CE-based Dynamic TTI Adjustment for a Single BE Service over HSUPA be enabled.

In networks where actual CE usage is low due to low transmission rates of HSUPA UEs, the air interface load increases in proportion with the number of admitted UEs, which may increase the call drop rate.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None

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Dependency on NodeB hardware
  

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A, and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, or EULPd board. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd or WBBPf board.

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management Dependency on professional services This feature should be used with Huawei professional services.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

7.5.22 WRFD-140213 Intelligent Access Class Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature prevents a large number of UEs from sending RRC connection setup requests simultaneously. When the RNC determines that a cell is congested, the RNC restricts the access of UEs of more access classes. When the RNC determines that congestion is relieved in the cell, the RNC decreases number of access classes on which access control is performed.

Benefits
When a large number of RRC connection setup requests are rejected due to cell congestion, this feature enables UEs to access the network at the scheduled time. This prevents excessive RRC connection setup requests from wasting Um interface resources and RNC processing resources, relieves network congestion, and improves system stability.

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Description
When this feature is enabled, the RNC periodically determines whether a cell is congested and controls access classes based on the cell status. If a cell is congested, the RNC restricts the access of UEs of more access classes. If congestion is relieved in the cell, the RNC decreases number of access classes on which access control is performed. The access classes that are not allowed to access the network are defined in the system information. The RNC restricts the access classes in round robin mode at the specified period so that UEs access the network at the scheduled time. This prevents network storms caused by simultaneous access of a large number of UEs, saves network resources, and relieves cell congestion as a result.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE
 

UEs must support access class control delivered in system information. For UEs complying with 3GPP Release 5 and earlier releases, access class control cannot be performed on CS and PS services separately. If the access class of such a UE is barred, the UE can process neither CS nor PS services. For UEs complying with 3GPP Release 6 and later releases, access class control can be performed on CS and PS services separately. Therefore, such a UE can process CS services while being barred from processing PS services.

Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

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7.5.23 WRFD-140215 Dynamic Configuration of HSDPA CQI Feedback Period
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature considers the uplink load as the criterion for dynamically adjusting the channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback period for HSDPA UEs. The goal is to ensure high downlink rates when only a small number of HSDPA UEs are online and to increase the uplink capacity when a large number of HSDPA UEs are online. This feature dynamically configures the CQI feedback period for PS services carried on HSDPA in CS/PS combined services. This helps ensure satisfactory coverage for CS services in CS/PS combined services.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
 

This feature increases HSDPA throughput or uplink capacity based on the uplink load. This feature improves coverage for CS services in CS/PS combined services.

Description
After a service is set up on an HS-DSCH channel, the UE periodically reports its channel quality indicator (CQI). The NodeB performs power control and data scheduling based on the UE location and the radio channel quality. A short CQI feedback period ensures timely feedback detailing radio channel quality so that the NodeB can dynamically select appropriate data transmission rates. When there are sufficient resources, this mechanism helps ensure a high downlink throughput. However, with a short CQI feedback period, HSDPA UEs frequently send CQI feedback and thereby increases the uplink load. This problem is especially severe when a large number of HDSPA UEs are online. A long CQI feedback period may lead to insufficient CQI information acquisition of the NodeB, decreasing the peak HSDPA throughput. When there are a large number of HSDPA UEs online, HSDPA users generally cannot obtain sufficient resources to achieve the downlink peak throughput. Therefore, increasing the CQI feedback period affects HSDPA users slightly in this case. When only a small number of HSDPA UEs are online, this feature configures a short CQI feedback period to ensure a high downlink throughput for HSDPA UEs. When a large number of HSDPA UEs are online causing a heavy load on the uplink, this feature configures a long CQI feedback period to ease the uplink load and thereby increase the available capacity on uplink traffic channels. Increasing the CQI feedback period lowers the transmit power of UEs and thereby improves coverage. For CS/PS combined services, this feature configures a long CQI feedback period to improve the coverage of CS services in CS/PS combined services. Emulation tests were performed based on small-packet transmission. The test results are as follows: If the CQI feedback period is adjusted from 2 ms to 8 ms and there are 40 online HSDPA UEs, the actual uplink load decreases by a maximum of 20% during busy hours. If the

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CQI feedback period is adjusted from 4 ms to 8 ms, the uplink actual load decreases by a maximum of 10% during busy hours. This feature is not supported when WRFD-021350 Independent Demodulation of Signals from Multiple RRUs in One Cell is enabled.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware To implement dynamic configuration of CQI feedback period based on the uplink load, the NodeB needs to reports actual service load. The reported value has the following requirements for the NodeB configuration:
  

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE do not support this feature. The DBS3800 does not support this feature. If the 3900 series base stations are configured with the WBBPa board or the RRU3801C 20 W, this feature is not supported. In other configurations, this feature is supported,

To implement dynamic configuration of CQI feedback period based on CS+PS services or based on limited coverage, the NodeB does not require any dependency. Dependency on the UE The UE must support HSDPA. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

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7.5.24 WRFD-140216 Load-based Uplink Target BLER Configuration
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature dynamically configures the target BLER on uplink R99 channels based on the uplink load.

Benefits
This feature increases the total uplink capacity by slightly decreasing the throughput on a single link when the uplink load is heavy.

Description
In the WCDMA system, a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases the possibility of data blocks being correctly received. However, a high SNR requires high transmit power, which results in increased interference to the system. Currently, most UEs only support R99 channels on the uplink. This feature considers the uplink load as the criterion for dynamically configuring the target BLERs on R99 channels. When the uplink load is light, this feature configures a small target BLER for each R99 channel to improve data transmission quality. When the uplink load is heavy, this feature configures a large target BLER for each R99 link to reduce link load and increase system capacity. This, however, slightly compromises the system capacity. In the WCDMA system, the BLER on a channel is controlled by the receiver by means of outer loop power control. The RNC can quickly adjust the target BLERs of R99 channels on the uplink. Therefore, this feature is used only if uplink services are set up on dedicated physical channels. Emulation results show that the actual uplink load decreases by at most about 15% when there are 30 online HSDPA UEs (or R99 UEs) and the target BLER is adjusted. This feature is not supported when WRFD-021350 Independent Demodulation of Signals from Multiple RRUs in One Cell is enabled.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware

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This features requires the NodeB to report the value of the uplink actual service load. The reported value has the following requirements for the NodeB configuration:
  

The BTS3812E, BTS3812A and BTS3812AE do not support this feature. The DBS3800 does not support this feature. If the 3900 series base stations are configured with the WBBPa board or the RRU3801C 20 W, this feature is not supported. In other configurations, this feature is supported.

Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Uplink Capacity Improvement Service

7.5.25 WRFD-140217 Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Based on Configurable Load Threshold
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature balances inter-frequency load by triggering measurement-based inter-frequency handovers. With this feature, the RNC compares measurement results of uplink and downlink power resources, code resources, and channel element (CE) resources in a cell with load thresholds for the corresponding service. Based on the comparison result, the RNC selects the UEs and target cell for an inter-frequency handover. This feature supports load balancing between cells on the following:
    

Intra-band frequencies Inter-band frequencies Inter-RNC frequencies Inter-vendor frequencies Frequencies between the macro network and the micro network

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Benefits
This feature achieves load balancing in a diverse range of inter-frequency scenarios by flexibly setting load thresholds. For example, this feature sets different load thresholds to accommodate load balancing requirements in the following typical scenarios:

Overlay network: Different load thresholds are set for circuit switched (CS) services and packet switched (PS) services to achieve load balancing between inter-frequency cells under different RNCs. Macro and micro combined network: Different load thresholds are set for the macro network and micro network so that traffic preferentially flows in the micro network.

Description
Different from load reshuffling (LDR) for UEs in connected mode, this feature balances loads between inter-frequency cells under different RNCs by using configurable load thresholds. If the power resources, code resources, or CE resources reach the preset threshold, the RNC selects a specified number of UEs for measurement and hands over the UEs that meet handover conditions to an inter-frequency cell. This feature supports multiband load balancing between inter-frequency cells under the same RNC or different RNCs, and between macro and micro networks. This feature provides separate cell-level switches and load thresholds for power resources, code resources, or CE resources in the uplink and downlink. The switches determine whether the measurement of related resources is considered during load balancing. In addition, this feature provides configurable thresholds for triggering and stopping load balancing of CS and PS services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features In the inter-band scenario, this feature depends on WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management.

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.5.26 WRFD-150201 Micro Cell Dynamic Rx Sensitivity Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature applies to the following typical scenario:
   

A macro cell and its neighboring micro cell use the same frequency. The maximum transmit power of the macro cell is 20 W. The maximum transmit power of the micro cell is 5 W or 1 W. The difference in the downlink pilot power between the macro cell and micro cell is 6 dB or 13 dB.

The difference in pilot power causes two problematic areas:
 

Soft handover (SHO) area Non-SHO area

Non-SHO Area In the non-SHO area, the best cell for a UE is the macro cell, and the UE is closer to the micro cell than to the macro cell. The UE causes greater interference to the micro cell than to the macro cell. SHO Area In the SHO area, the best cell for a UE is the macro cell, and the UE is also connected to the micro cell. In this case, both the macro cell and micro cell perform uplink inner-loop power control on this UE. Inner-loop power control performed by the micro cell plays the leading role because the uplink Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) on the dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH) received in the micro cell is greater than that received in the macro cell. This affects the HSDPA or HSUPA throughput for the macro cell. The following figure shows the two problematic areas.

This feature provides the following functions:

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  

Inter-frequency redirection in the problematic areas Inter-frequency handover in the problematic areas Macro and micro cells joint desensitization

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:
  

Decreases the call drop rate. Increases the HSDPA or HSUPA throughput for a UE in the problematic areas. Reduces strong uplink interference the micro cell suffers from UEs in the macro cell.

Description
When you enable this feature, the system performs the following three steps to solve the problem: 1. Partially desensitizes the micro cell on the basis of the macro and micro cells joint desensitization algorithm, increases the background noise, and reduces the receive sensitivity for the micro cell. These actions prevent the UEs carried on the macro cell's RACH from blocking the uplink of the micro cell, and they narrow the difference in the uplink between the macro and micro cells. Redirects or hands over the UEs in the problematic areas to an inter-frequency macro cell that has no intra-frequency neighboring micro cells. This action is based on the problematic-area inter-frequency redirection algorithm and the problematic-area inter-frequency handover algorithm. This avoids call drops or throughout drops caused by the difference in the uplink between the macro and micro cells. The following figure shows that UEs in the problematic areas are handed over to another inter-frequency macro cell.

2.

3.

If some UEs remain in the problematic areas, the system totally desensitizes the micro cell based on the macro and micro cells joint desensitization algorithm to increase the background noise and reduce the receive sensitivity for the micro cell until the uplink SIR on the DPCCH received in the macro cell is the same as that received in the micro cell when a UE is at the downlink boundary. This eliminates the difference in the uplink between the macro and micro cells, reduces the call drop rate in the problematic areas, and improves the throughput for the UEs in the problematic areas. The following figure shows that the two problematic areas are eliminated.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the 3900 series and 3902E base stations support this feature. Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
 

Inter-frequency redirection in the problematic areas depends on the WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package. In the inter-band scenario, inter-frequency handover in the problematic areas depends on the WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management.

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7.5.27 WRFD-150232 Multiband Direct Retry Based on UE Location
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
During service setup or reconfiguration, this feature performs the following actions on UEs based on UE path loss:
 

Enables UEs in the center of a low-frequency cell to access a high-frequency neighboring cell. Enables UEs at the edge of a high-frequency cell to access a low-frequency neighboring cell.

This feature achieves load sharing between high- and low-frequency cells.

Benefits
In a UMTS multiband network where high- and low-frequency carriers are under the same NodeB and cover the same area, this feature preferentially helps ensure capacity for high-frequency carriers and helps ensure coverage for low-frequency carriers.

Description
This feature consists of the following phases: 1. 2. 3. After a UE sets up a radio resource control (RRC) connection, the RNC starts periodic intra-frequency measurement control over the UE. The RNC obtains measurement reports from the UE. Upon receiving the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message from the CN, the RNC calculates the UE path loss based on the measurement results. Then, the RNC performs Directed Retry Decisions (DRDs) based on the UE path loss to select a suitable frequency band for the UE:

If the UE accesses a low-frequency cell and the UE path loss is lower than a specified threshold, the RNC determines that the UE is located in the cell center. Then, the RNC instructs the UE to preferentially access a high-frequency neighboring cell through a blind handover. If the UE accesses a high-frequency cell and the UE path loss is higher than a specified threshold, the RNC determines that the UE is located at the cell edge. Then, the RNC instructs the UE to preferentially access a low-frequency neighboring cell through a blind handover.

This feature improves user experience in the following ways:
 

UEs at the edge of high-frequency cells are handed over to lower-frequency cells because low frequency band has good propagation performance. In certain scenarios, UEs in the center of lower-frequency cells are handed over to high-frequency cells to reduce the lower-frequency cells load and guarantee the coverage.

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This feature is based on blind handovers and applies to scenarios where high- and low-frequency carriers are under the same NodeB and cover the same area. This feature takes precedence over other DRD algorithms. This feature is only applied to HSDPA users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must support both high- and low-frequency bands. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
  

WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package WRFD-020110 Multi Frequency Band Networking Management WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

7.6 GSM and UMTS Radio Resource Management
7.6.1 WRFD-070004 Load Based GSM and UMTS Handover Enhancement Based on Iur-g
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.1.

Summary
This feature is based on Huawei private information exchange mechanism over the Iur-g interface. With this feature, the traffic is distributed through the RRC redirection and load-based handover from the 3G network to the 2G network on the basis of the service

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attributes and the load of the 2G networks when 3G cell enters LDR status. In this manner, the load is shared by the GSM network when the load of UMTS network is heavy.

Benefits
Based on Huawei private information exchange mechanism over the Iur-g interface, this feature shares the load of the UMTS network by the GSM network. As a result, the load of the GSM network and the UMTS network in the same coverage area remains even, the risk of network congestion due to the load imbalance between networks is reduced, and the network usage is increased.

Description
With this feature, the networks in the same coverage area have nearly the same load. Therefore, the access failures during the MS access are greatly reduced, and each network has remaining resources to provide a higher rate for the PS services. If the GSM cell and the UMTS cell under the same MBSC with co-sited MBTSs have the same-coverage area, 3G-to-2G handover algorithm enhancement in connection state is available based on the private information exchange mechanism. For the load management of the 3G cells, the inter-RAT handover based on load or HCS by coverage is enhanced on the basis of Huawei private information exchange mechanism over the Iur-g interface. With this feature, a more proper target cell can be selected for the inter-RAT handover. In addition, the probability of the ping-pong handover due to the high load of the neighboring 2G cell can be minimized if the following requirements are met:
  

The inter-RAT neighboring cell with the lowest load is selected. The difference between the load in the source cell and the load in the target 2G cell exceeds the configured threshold. The handover does not lead to congestion in the target cell.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware

In the BSC6900, only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, or GOUc board supports the Iur-g interface.

Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on CN

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None Dependency on Other features
 

WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) GBFD-511101 GSM/UMTS Load Handover Enhancement based on Iur-g

7.6.2 WRFD-070005 NACC Procedure Optimization Based on Iur-g
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature enables the exchange of messages containing the RAN Information Management (RIM) information over the Iur-g interface between the RNC and BSC. The Iur-g protocol stack complies with the 3GPP specifications. In this way, the NACC procedure for PS services from a UMTS cell to a GSM cell does not require the information transfer via the CN.

Benefits
This feature provides a solution that enables the NACC procedure when the CN does not support the RIM procedure. The simulation results show that this feature helps shorten the delay of PS handover by two seconds. As the delay is shortened, the user experience can be improved.

Description
As indicated in the 3GPP specifications, the GERAN (P) SI is obtained through the RIM procedure during the NACC procedure. The NACC procedure involves the RNC, UMTS SGSN, GSM SGSN, and BSC. When this feature is applied, the GSM/UMTS GERAN (P) SI information is transferred over the Iur-g interface between the base station controllers, without being transferred via the CN. This feature applies only to the Iur-g interface, which connects different base station controllers. In such a case, the GERAN (P) SI information is transferred over the protocol stack complying with the 3GPP specifications. If there is no Iur-g interface between UMTS and GSM, the GERAN (P) SI information can be exchanged only via the CN, and accordingly the NACC procedure can be implemented only through the CN, as specified in the 3GPP specifications. The following figure shows the network topology that supports this feature. As shown in the figure, the Huawei RNCs and BSCs are connected through the Iur-g interface. This feature applies to the BSC/RNC of other vendors only if it has passed the interoperability test (IOT). Otherwise, the CN-involved NACC procedure is applied. For the BSC/RNC of other vendors, the common cell reselection procedure is performed if the CN does not support the RIM procedure.

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UMTS SGSN SSGSN GSM SGSN

NACC GBSC/RNC of other venders Huawei RNC/MBSC Iur-g NACC Huawei GBSC/MBSC

UMTS cell

GSM cell

GSM Cell

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware

In the BSC6900, only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, or GOUc board supports the Iur-g interface.

Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE UEs must support NACC procedure. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on CN None Dependency on other features
  

GBFD-511102 NACC Procedure Optimization Based on Iur-g between GSM and UMTS or WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage or WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service

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 

or WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-021200 Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)

7.6.3 WRFD-070006 GSM and UMTS Load Balancing Based on Iur-g
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature implements RRC redirection and the load-based GSM/UMTS handover through the exchange of Huawei proprietary IE over the Iur-g interface. The Iur-g protocol stack complies with the 3GPP specifications. With this feature, the traffic is distributed on the basis of the service handover indicator and the load of the GSM network and UMTS network during RRC connection setup or after RAB setup. In this way, a load balance is achieved between the GSM network and UMTS network.

Benefits
This feature aims at striking a load balance between the GSM network and UMTS network. It reduces the possibility of congestion in areas covered by both GSM and UMTS. The network utilization is consequently increased. The simulation results show that this feature reduces the percentage of invalid handovers between the GSM network and UMTS network by up to 6% and decreases the access congestion rate during busy hours by up to 4%.

Description
As high-speed PS services are on great demand by a large number of GSM/UMTS dual-mode handsets in well-established 2G/3G commercial networks, the load of UMTS network has become increasingly heavy. Facing the situation, network operators focus on reducing the congestion rate and making full utilization of the present network capacity. This feature can efficiently address this issue. With this feature, the load balance between the GSM network and UMTS network can be achieved. This helps reduce the possibility of network congestion and the percentage of invalid inter-RAT handovers. As a result, the capacity of both the GSM network and UMTS network can be fully utilized. The following figure shows the applicable scenario where the GSM cell and UMTS cell have the same coverage. Through the exchange of load information of the GSM network and UMTS network over the Iur-g interface, redirection for load-balancing can be performed during RRC connection setup, and load-based handover can be performed after RAB setup. Redirection for load-balancing during RRC connection setup Redirection for load-balancing during RRC connection setup is performed on a number of UEs requesting CS services in a UMTS cell when the same-coverage GSM cell is lightly loaded. In such a case, the RNC redirects a number of UEs to the GSM cell according to the predefined distribution rate. The rate is considered as a probability rate with respect to the redirection of a single UE. In this way, a load balance between the UMTS network and GSM network can be

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maintained.

GSM x% of CS calls redirected to GSM network UMTS

UEs access the UMTS network

(1-x)% of CS calls and PS services

Load-based handover after RAB setup Load-based handover from UMTS to GSM after RAB setup is performed on the basis of the service handover indicator, PS service rate, and load difference between the UMTS network and GSM network. If the UE requests only the CS service in a UMTS cell, the RNC decides whether the UMTS network or GSM network processes the request. The conditions on which the decision is based are as follows:
   

The UE supports GSM services. The service handover indicator assigned by the CN or configured at the RNC shows that the CS service can be handed over to the GSM cell. The target GSM cell is lightly loaded. The load difference between the source UMTS cell and target GSM cell exceeds the predefined threshold.

The GBSC/MBSC determines whether to perform the inter-RAT handover on a number of UEs according to the predefined distribution rate. The rate is considered as a probability rate with respect to the redirection of a single UE. In this way, the load between the GSM network and UMTS network is balanced. Network operators can decide which load-balancing scheme to be applied according to the actual situations. The major differences between the two schemes are as follows:

As it is difficult to learn the traffic class requested by the UE, the traffic class mapping needs to be verified before performing redirection for load-balancing. For example, whether the GSM network supports the conversational service from the UMTS network should be verified. If the traffic class is not supported, the RNC can decide whether the UE can be handed over to the GSM network only after RAB setup is complete.

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The redirection function does not require the UE to enable the compressed mode but it may prolong the delay of service access and also affect user experience. For the handover performed after RAB setup, the RNC can select a candidate GSM cell as the target cell, which improves the efficiency of load balancing. In addition, the handover success rate is higher than the redirection success rate. In contrast to the redirection process, the inter-RAT handover process requires the UE to enable the compressed mode. Therefore, the handover is a relatively long process, during which the UMTS network still provides system resources for the UEs steered to the GSM network. To guarantee its success rate, the redirection process requires that the source UMTS cell and the target GSM cell should have the same coverage. Differently, the handover process only requires that the GSM cell and the UMTS cell should be neighboring cells.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

In the BSC6900, only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, or GOUc board supports the Iur-g interface.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service GBFD-511103 GSM and UMTS Load Balancing Based on Iur-g

7.6.4 WRFD-070007 GSM and UMTS Traffic Steering Based on Iur-g
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

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Summary
This feature supports RRC redirection and GSM/UMTS inter-RAT handover based on service. With this feature, services are steered on the basis of the service handover indicator, hierarchical network planning, and the load of the GSM network and UMTS network when an MS accesses the network. Service steering enables UEs requesting speech or low-speed PS services to access the GSM network and those requesting high-speed PS services to access the UMTS network.

Benefits
This feature helps operators to develop network services in hierarchies, which facilitates the hierarchical network planning. With this feature, the spectrum utilization is increased. The simulation results show that this feature reduces the percentage of invalid inter-RAT handovers by up to 8% and increases the total capacity of the GSM and UMTS networks by up to 8%.

Description
In the case of evolution from a legacy GSM network to a GSM&UMTS network, the UMTS network usually has a larger capacity in the early stage. How to fully utilize the UMTS network to carry high-speed services has become a major concern for network operators. This feature provides the service steering function for the benefit of network planning. Service steering helps improve the utilization of resources in each network and divide frequencies and RATs into different hierarchies. When a GSM cell and a UMTS cell have the same coverage, considering resource utilization and QoS requirements, speech services are steered to the GSM cell whereas data services are steered to the UMTS cell. In addition to service steering, the selection of RAT for a UE to access also depends on the network load. This helps optimize the network performance in the following aspects:
  

Tasks of different RATs can be clearly defined, which facilitates the planning of network capacity. Service steering can reduce interference between different traffic classes, increasing the capacity of the UMTS network. The flexible distribution of services to the UMTS and GSM cells can improve the utilization of system resources, reduce the access congestion rate, and enhance the QoS of the network.

This feature provides two load-balancing schemes. One is to redirect CS services to the GSM cell during RRC connection setup, and the other is to perform load-based handovers between the GSM and UMTS cells after RAB setup. During the redirection process, if the UE initiating the RRC connection request in the UMTS cell uses the protocol of R6 or later, the UE carries information about the access domain and call type when the GSM cell under the same coverage is lightly loaded. If the access domain is the CS domain and the call type is the speech service, the service is redirected to the GSM cell. In this way, the UE initiating the request for speech services in the UMTS cell is steered

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to the GSM cell. Therefore, more capacity of the UMTS system is reserved for the UEs requesting high-speed PS services. The load-based handover between the UMTS and GSM cells after RAB setup is an enhanced function of the existing handover feature provided by Huawei. This function is determined by the service handover indicator, PS service rate, and load of the UMTS/GSM system after RAB setup. If the UE requests only the CS service in a UMTS cell, the RNC hands the UE over to a neighboring GSM cell when the following conditions are met:
 

The UE supports GSM services. The neighboring GSM cell is lightly loaded.

Network operators can decide which load-balancing scheme to be applied according to the actual situations. The major differences between the two schemes are as follows:

As it is difficult to learn the traffic class requested by the UE, the traffic class mapping needs to be verified before performing redirection for load-balancing. For example, whether the GSM network supports the conversational service from the UMTS network should be verified. If the traffic class is not supported, the RNC can decide whether the UE can be handed over to the GSM network only after RAB setup is complete. The redirection function does not require the UE to enable the compressed mode but it may prolong the delay of service access and also affect user experience. For the handover performed after RAB setup, the RNC can select a candidate GSM cell as the target cell, which improves the efficiency of service steering. In addition, the handover success rate is higher than the redirection success rate. In contrast to the redirection process, the inter-RAT handover process requires the UE to enable the compressed mode. Therefore, the handover is a relatively long process, during which the UMTS network still provides system resources for the UEs steered to the GSM network. To guarantee its success rate, the redirection process requires that the source UMTS cell and the target GSM cell should have the same coverage. Differently, the handover process only requires that the GSM cell and the UMTS cell should be neighboring cells.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC

In the BSC6900, only the FG2a, FG2c, GOUa, or GOUc board supports the Iur-g interface.

Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None

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Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features
  

WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package GBFD-511104 GSM and UMTS Traffic Steering Based on Iur-g

7.6.5 WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage
Availability
This feature is available from RAN2.0.

Summary
This feature is related to inter-RAT handover based on coverage such as Active Set Quality measurement 2D, UE uplink QoS or emergency blind handover triggered by event 1F. This feature deals with the inter-RAT handover caused by coverage reason or UE mobility.

Benefits
Inter-RAT handover improves flexibility in planning UMTS and GSM networks for the network operator. It can also reduce cost by utilizing the existing GSM network resources and provide coverage expansion, load sharing, and layered service.

Description
Inter-RAT handover from UMTS to GSM/GPRS Function is the procedure during which the WCDMA RAN initiates handover (for CS services) or UE initiates cell reselection (for PS services) to the GSM. The GSM/GPRS system cannot perform CS and PS services simultaneously. Therefore, when the handover for CS and PS domain combined services is determined, the CS service can be handed over from the WCDMA system to the GSM/GPRS system successfully, but the PS service will be suspended. After the CS call is finished, a resume request will be sent to the 2G SGSN to continue the PS service. Inter-RAT handover from UMTS to GSM can be triggered by coverage reason, cell load, service of UE and HCS. The trigger condition based on the cell load belongs to the optional feature WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load. The trigger condition based on the service assigned by CN node belongs to the optional feature WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service. This feature deals with inter-RAT handover triggered by coverage reason. This trigger condition is based on the quality measurement. The compressed mode for DL or UL will be triggered by event measurement report 2d for inter-frequency and inter-RAT handover and stopped by event measurement report 2f. When the compressed mode triggered, the RNC will start the inter-RAT measurement in UE to get the target cell to handover if inter-RAT neighboring cells are configured.

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The related measurement quantity can be either Ec/N0 or RSCP. Moreover, event 3A and period measurement report mode are supported and which measurement quantity and mode to use can be configured by operator. The measurement related parameters include threshold, hysteresis, and trigger delay time. The inter-RAT neighboring cell number can be up to 32. The compressed mode includes two types, spreading factor reduction (SF/2) and high layer approaches. The usage of type of compressed mode is decided by the RNC automatically, according to the configurable spreading factor used in uplink and downlink. Another measurement report 1F can also trigger inter-RAT handover, but compressed mode will not be triggered in this scenario since such report means call drop may occur in any time and there is no time to implement measurement procedure. The target cell to handover will be selected based on the configurable parameter "Blind Handover Priority" in the neighboring inter RAT cells, Priority 0-15 indicates the handover successful rate can be guaranteed, such parameter will be certain as the result of network planning. Inter-RAT handover triggered by UE TX power is available for PS BE, CS AMR services. This function can be switched on/off by operator. The procedure of Inter-RAT handover from UMTS to GSM is executed by Relocation Preparation procedure at Iu interface and handover or cell change order command at Uu interface. When the UE is in CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, or URA_PCH state, UMTS  GSM handover in PS domain is triggered through Inter-RAT Cell Re-selection from UMTS to GPRS procedure. This procedure is triggered by UE and realized by Routing Area Update procedure. The parameters for inter-RAT handover can be configured and are different for CS and PS services respectively. Since the GSM/GPRS system cannot perform CS and PS services simultaneously, Inter-RAT handover from GSM/GPRS to UMTS Function can be divided to CS and PS individually. On the UMTS side: For CS: inter-RAT handover from GSM/GPRS to UMTS is comprised of Relocation Resource Allocation, Relocation detect, Relocation complete procedure at Iu interface and HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message processing at Uu interface. For PS: inter-RAT handover from GSM/GPRS to UMTS is the same as the setup of a PS service.

Enhancement
In RAN10.0, inter-RAT handover triggered by UE TX power or high UL BLER is available for PS BE and CS AMR services.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE

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The UE should support the relevant measurements and the procedure of handover. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.6.6 WRFD-020309 Inter-RAT Handover Based on DL QoS
Availability
This feature is introduced in RAN10.0

Summary
When the load of voice and PS BE services is higher in the cell and downlink QoS drops, this feature enables the UE to be handed over to an inter-RAT cell, guaranteeing QoS requirements.

Benefits
DL QoS based inter-RAT handover provides the method to prevent call drop and guarantee the QoS in inter-RAT networking, therefore, improving the network performance and enhancing the end user experience.

Description
In the scenarios of severe fading and high load, the call drop could take place due to the limitation of DL transmitted code power. In addition, coverage area is different for different services in network planning, thereby the system should take actions in order to guarantee the downlink QoS and keep the connection as could as possible. The evaluation of downlink QoS status is on the basis of TCP (Transmitted Code Power) or RLC retransmission (only for PS BE). Once the downlink QoS is detected in bad condition, inter-RAT handover could be triggered if in inter-system networking:
 

For AMR service, inter-RAT handover could be triggered based on TCP; For PS BE service, inter-RAT handover could be triggered based on TCP and RLC retransmission.

This feature can be switched on/off separately for AMR and PS BE services.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should support the relevant measurements and the procedure of handover. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage

7.6.7 WRFD-020307 Video Telephony Fallback to Speech (AMR) for Inter-RAT HO
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
Before VP services are handed over to the 2G system, this feature enables the fallback of video telephony to speech to ensure continuous calls.

Benefits
This feature provides an inter-RAT handover mechanism for the VP service which falls back to speech instead of call drop.

Description
Video telephony is a service exclusive for 3G system. However, due to the limitation of UE and network support capability, it is possible that the service cannot be implemented. Therefore, Service Change and UDI Fallback (SCUDIF) is introduced in Release 6. This feature provides the mechanism to fall back to Speech instead of call drop in these scenarios. In 3GPP protocol TS23.172, there are two defined fall back methods:

Fallback: multi-media service fall back to speech during the setup procedure

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Service Change: multi-media service fall back to speech during the RAB modification procedure

They all belong to the bound of multi-media fall back procedure.

Fallback This procedure can be triggered by UE or network side and implemented by the NAS signaling. Therefore, to RAN, it is corresponding to the RAB Assignment procedure over the Iu interface.

Service Change This procedure can also be triggered by UE or network. When it is triggered by UE, the CN will initiate an RAB Assignment (Modify) procedure over the Iu interface when receiving the fallback request from the UE. When it is triggered by UTRAN, the scenario generally aims to the 3G to 2G handover during which the VP service cannot be supported. The following flow chart describes the procedure:
UE A RNC A MSC A MSC B UE B

RANAP RAB Assignment (configuration1, configuration 2)

RANAP Modify Request (alternate configuration requested)
MODIFY (BCspeech) MODIFY (BCspeech) MODIFY COMPLETE (BCspeech) RAB Assignment Modify (Configuration 2, Configuration1) Core Network Procedure MODIFY COMPLETE (BCspeech)

Firstly, the MSC must assign the alternative configuration when setting up a VP service to let UTRAN know it has the fallback capability. When the user with VP service needs to be handed over to the 2G network, the RNC will initiate an RAB modify request to trigger fallback. Then, fallback will be implemented by the MODIFY procedure. From UTRAN view, it is corresponding to the RAB Assignment (Modify) procedure over the Iu interface. After the VP service falls back to speech successfully, the following speech inter-RAT handover can be implemented.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE needs to be compliant with 3GPP Release 6 to support the feature. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN The MSC needs to be compliant with 3GPP Release 6 to support the feature. Dependency on Other Features
   

WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage or WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service or WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure)

7.6.8 WRFD-020308 Inter-RAT Handover Phase 2
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R6.

Summary
This feature provides the inter-RAT relocation procedure for NACC and PS services to shorten the interruption time of PS services caused by inter-RAT handover.

Benefits
The service interruption for PS service inter-system handover will be shorter or reduced. With this feature, in scenario of inter-RAT handover, the user experience will be enhanced greatly especially for the real-time PS service.

Description
The inter-RAT Handover Enhanced Package includes following features:
 

NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change) PS Handover Between UMTS and GPRS

With these features, the service interruption for PS service inter-system handover will be shorter or reduced.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should also support NACC and PS handover. Dependency on Other Network Units BSC should support NACC RIM (RAN Information Management) and PS handover procedure. Dependency on CN The SGSN should also support NACC and PS handover. Dependency on Other Features
   

WRFD-020303 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Coverage or WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service or WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure)

7.6.9 WRFD-02030801 NACC(Network Assisted Cell Change)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1 (BSC6900 only).

Summary
This feature supports the standard NACC procedure defined in 3GPP specifications.

Benefits
Compared with the normal cell change, the NACC can shorten a service interruption of about four to eight seconds and greatly enhance user experience.

Description
The NACC refers to Network Assisted Cell Change from UTRAN to GERAN, which is different from normal cell change order procedure, due to network providing GERAN (P) SI to UE.

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In today's GPRS networks (without NACC), cell re-selection may cause a service interruption between 4 – 8 seconds, which obviously has an impact on the user experience. Similar interruption time can be expected in mixed UMTS and GPRS networks, during UE cell re-selection from UTRAN to GERAN. GERAN (P)SI information is acquired by RIM (RAN Information Management) procedure. In this feature, when handover from UTRAN to GERAN is to be performed, and if both UE and network support NACC, then RNC will firstly trigger the RIM procedure. If (P)SI is obtained successfully, cell change order from UTRAN message carrying the GERAN (P)SI information will be sent. That is, NACC is completed, which is illustrated in the following figure. Otherwise, normal cell change order would be performed. UE
RRC MEASUREMENT REPORT WITH GERAN BEST CELL

SRNC

SGSN

BSC

DIRECT INFORMATION TRANSFER (RAN IFORMATION REQUEST) RAN INFORMATION RAN INFORMATION DIRECT INFORMATION TRANSFER (RAN INFORMATION REPORT)

CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN (((P)SI))

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should also support NACC handover. Dependency on Other Network Units BSC should support NACC RIM (RAN Information Management). Dependency on CN SGSN should also support NACC handover.

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Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020308 Inter-RAT Handover Phase 2

7.6.10 WRFD-02030802 PS Handover Between UMTS and GPRS
Availability
This feature is available from RAN6.1.

Summary
This feature enables the relocation of PS services between systems.

Benefits
In inter-system handover scenarios, this feature can greatly improve user perception, especially for real-time PS services.

Description
The PS handover is different from NACC or normal cell change function, with which the relocation procedure between 3G and 2G is applied, just like the CS inter-system handover. With this feature, the service interruption for PS service inter-system handover is reduced by a great extent. In this feature, both handover from UTRAN to GERAN and handover from GERAN to UTRAN are supplied. If both UE and network support PS handover, handover between UTRAN and GERAN would be performed. Otherwise, either NACC or normal cell change order would be selected.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE The UE should also support PS handover. Dependency on Other Network Units BSC should support PS handover procedure. Dependency on CN SGSN should also support PS handover.

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Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020308 Inter-RAT Handover Phase 2

7.6.11 WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature supports 3G to 2G handover based on service attributes. When 3G and 2G coexist, this feature enables the 3G traffic to be directed to the 2G system.

Benefits
This feature provides an inter-RAT handover mechanism according to the service. It can balance the load between the two systems by transferring some kind of appropriate services to GSM/GPRS and prevent the handover course from bad effect to services according to attributes of the services.

Description
Inter-RAT Handover based on Service introduces a precondition for UMTS to GSM/GPRS handover to UTRAN. The RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message sent from the CN to the RNC may include a service handover IE. With this IE, the UTRAN determines whether to switch the corresponding RAB from UTRAN to GSM/GPRS. The operation (the CN sends the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message to the RNC) can also influence decisions made regarding UTRAN-initiated inter-system handovers. If this indicator is not included in the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message, the RNC can use its pre-configured value for various kinds of services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None

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Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with GUL Co-Operation Audit and Optimization Service

7.6.12 WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0.

Summary
When a cell is in initial congestion state, this feature enables some UEs in the cell to be handed over to an inter-RAT co-coverage cell, reducing the load of the cell.

Benefits
This feature reduces the load of the cell in basic congestion and keeps the system in a safety state.

Description
This feature is an important action for Load Reshuffling (LDR). It enables the system to perform inter-RAT handover that handover UE to GSM/GPRS cell and reduce current cell load. This action is triggered when system detects that the current serving cell load is beyond the pre-defined congestion threshold and a cell is entering a basic congestion state. Normally the resource used for cell load level measurement includes the power resource, that used for NodeB load level includes Iub transport resource and NodeB CE resource if Inter-RAT handover is taken as an action for LDR. The load measurement is done both for UL and DL. The system will select a UE to handover during the LDR according to the UE priority. If the UEs have the same priority, the UE with higher service bit rate will be selected first.

Enhancement
In RAN5.1, the user selection criterion considers the Traffic Class, ARP, and bear type (R99 or HSPA) when calculating the UE priority, and THP factor added in RAN6.0.

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features When this feature is used for HSDPA/HSUPA load control, WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package are required.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with GUL Co-Operation Audit and Optimization Service

7.6.13 WRFD-020401 Inter-RAT Redirection Based on Distance
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0

Summary
If UE initialize a voice call with a long distance to the antenna, UMTS RAN can consider it as a call attempt in the pilot contaminated area, and redirect it to GSM to avoid handover drop in the following call procedure.

Benefits
The feature can reduce the drop rate in handover in a 2G/3G co-coverage area, solve the pilot contamination problem and improve the network performance.

Description
Pilot contamination is a phenomenon that can cause call drop in handover. For example, in the picture, A’ is the pilot contaminated area of Cell A. If UE setup a call in area A’, when it moves to the cells in blue which are not the neighboring cells of cell A, the call will drop because cell A has no handover relationship with these cells.

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To solve this problem, for the voice call initiated in the contaminated area which is co-covered by 2G and 3G, RAN will directly redirect it to GSM. Operator can configure a distance threshold for each cell by LMT, the UE distance is measured by RAN when RRC CONNECT REQUEST message is received, if the distance to the antenna is beyond this threshold, the UE location will be seemed as in the contaminated area, the system then redirect the call to GSM. In this way, the handover drop in the call procedure will be reduced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

7.6.14 WRFD-020310 3G/2G Common Load Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

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This feature is introduced in 3GPP R5.

Summary
During inter-RAT handover or inter-system direct retry, this feature supports the transfer of load information as stipulated in 3GPP specifications to reduce inter-RAT ping-pong handover.

Benefits
  

Decrease the probability of 2G system overload or congestion due to inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G based on service or load. Avoid 3G system overload due to inter-RAT handover from 2G to 3G. Avoid ping-pong handover between 3G and 2G.

Description
The 3G/2G Common Load Management applies to inter-RAT handover and inter system direct retry. The load of source cell and target cell are considered during inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G or from 2G to 3G and inter system direct retry. During inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G, the RNC will send the load information of the source cell to 2G through RELOCATION REQUIRED message and may get the load information of target cell from RELOCATION COMMAND message. If the load of target cell is in a high level (over the threshold configured) and the inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G is triggered not because of coverage, then the inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G will be cancelled. During inter-RAT handover from 2G to 3G, the RNC may get the load information of the source cell from RELOCATION REQUEST message. If the load of source cell is not in a high level (less than the threshold configured) and the inter-RAT handover from 2G to 3G is triggered not because of coverage, then the inter-RAT handover from 2G to 3G will be refused. During inter system direct retry, the procedure and decision is similar to that of inter-RAT handover from 3G to 2G. If the load of target cell is in a high level (over the threshold configured), inter system direct retry will be cancelled.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None

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Dependency on Other Network Units The BSS should support this feature. Dependency on CN The CN should support this feature. Dependency on Other Features
    

WRFD-020305 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Service or WRFD-020306 Inter-RAT Handover Based on Load or WRFD-021200 HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) or WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package or WRFD-020308 Inter-RAT Handover Phase 2

7.7 UMTS and LTE Radio Resource Management
7.7.1 WRFD-020126 Mobility Between UMTS and LTE Phase1
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
This feature covers the following functions:
 

UE cell selects/reselects between LTE and UMTS network. UE with PS service handovers from the LTE network to the UMTS network are supported.

Benefits
This feature improves the high-speed service experience of LTE UEs in the area simultaneously covered by the UMTS network and the LTE network. In addition, in the area not covered by the LTE network or when the LTE network is heavily loaded, some UEs with PS service are handed over from the LTE network to the UMTS network.

Description
This feature provides a basic mobility solution for the operators who want to evolve from UMTS to LTE.

UE cell selects/reselects between UMTS and LTE network.

The RNC supports broadcasting the information about LTE frequencies in a cell and the parameters related to cell select/reselect. Therefore, the UEs in idle state can camp on an LTE cell preferentially. In this way, on one hand, the UEs can obtain better experience of high-speed services in the area covered by the LTE network; on the other hand, the potential

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cell load and network load of the UMTS network are reduced because these UEs gain access to the LTE network.
LTE Cell LTE Cell

UMTS Cell

Cell reselection

UMTS Cell

Normal UE: LTE UE

UE with PS service handovers from the LTE network to the UMTS network are supported. At the early construction stage of the LTE network, operators may plan the LTE network coverage only in hot spot areas. When some UEs leave the hot spot area or the LTE system load is heavy, these UEs need to be handed over from the LTE network to the UMTS network. With this feature, the RNC can processes the migration requests from the LTE system. This feature does not support the UE handover from the UMTS network to the LTE network.

LTE Cell

Handover

UMTS Cell

UMTS Cell MTS Cell

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None

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Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE UE has the capability of both UMTS and LTE. Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN LTE should also support this feature Dependency on Other Features None

7.7.2 WRFD-020129 Service-Based PS Service Redirection from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
If a UMTS/LTE dual-mode UE establishes services in the UMTS network, this feature allows the RNC to redirect the UE to the LTE network when both UMTS and LTE coverage is available and the UE establishes only PS services.

Benefits
In a UMTS/LTE multi-layer network where PS handover from UMTS to LTE is not supported by UE or network, this feature redirects the UEs that process only PS services from the UMTS network to the LTE network, improving user experience for PS service users.

Description
In a UMTS/LTE multi-layer network, if UE or network does not support the handover from UMTS to LTE, then the UE will be redirected from UMTS to LTE, the following conditions must be met: 1. The conditions for PS handover from UMTS to LTE are met and the UE or the network cannot support the handover from UMTS to LTE. 2. The UE supports both UMTS and LTE. 3. The UE is processing only the PS services. The RAB assignment message from the SGSN does not indicate that the PS services cannot be handed over to the LTE network. The RNC carries the LTE frequency information in the RRC Connection Release message and directs the UE to access the LTE network.

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Enhancement
In RAN15.0, the following functions are added:
  

Triggering redirection when the best cell changes Support for blind redirection Added frequency information in the SIB19 message for redirection or blind redirection.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UE The UE must support 3GPP Release 8 (September 2008) or later. It also must support both UMTS and LTE. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on CN CN should support cooperation from UMTS to LTE. Dependency on other RAN features None

7.7.3 WRFD-140218 Service-Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
If a UMTS and LTE dual-mode UE in a UMTS and LTE overlapping coverage area processes only PS services in the UMTS network, Service-Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE allows the RNC to hand over the PS services to the LTE network.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
 

Improved user experience for PS services Reduced service interruption time compared with redirection

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Increased LTE network utilization

Description
This feature allows the RNC to hand over a UE and its PS service to the LTE network in either of the following scenarios:

The UE in the UMTS and LTE overlapping coverage area originates a PS service in the UMTS network. For a UE in the UMTS and LTE overlapping coverage area that is handed over from the LTE network to the UMTS network due to a CS fallback (CSFB), after the UE terminates the CS voice service in the UMTS network, the UE still has ongoing PS services.

The implementation is as follows: 1. The RNC sends the SGSN a Relocation Required message, which contains the information about the target LTE cell. 2. The SGSN forwards the relocation request to the MME. 3. After the LTE side has made preparations for the inter-RAT handover, the MME instructs the SGSN to send a Relocation Response message to the RNC. 4. Upon receipt of the Relocation Command message forwarded by the SGSN from the MME, the RNC instructs the UE to hand over to the target eNodeB. To use this feature, both the UMTS network and the UE must support LTE measurement and UMTS-to-LTE PS handovers. This feature supports interoperability between the UMTS network and the TDD LTE network and between the UMTS network and the FDD LTE network. The TDD LTE and FDD LTE networks, however, cannot coexist. When the MOCN feature is enabled in the target LTE network, Service-Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE must not be enabled if the UMTS and LTE networks do not share the same PLMN. Otherwise, call drops may occur.

Enhancement
In RAN15.0, the PS handover can be triggered when the best cell changes.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE The UE must comply with 3GPP Release 8 or later and support UMTS-to-LTE PS handovers and LTE measurement. Dependency on other NEs

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The eNodeB and MME must support UMTS-to-LTE PS handovers. Dependency on the CN The SGSN must support UMTS-to-LTE PS handovers. Dependency on other RAN features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with GUL Co-Operation Audit and Optimization Service

7.7.4 WRFD-140224 Fast CS Fallback Based on RIM
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Summary
This feature enables the eNodeB to obtain and maintain the system information of the UMTS cell, including the ID of the target cell and convolutional code, through the RAN Information Management (RIM) procedure and sends the information to the UE in the RRC Connection Release message. This can reduce the access time when the UE is redirected from an LTE network to a UMTS network without reading system information, improving user experience.

Benefits
The LTE-to-UMTS redirection delay can be reduced by up to 1.28s, depending on the size of SIB11. This improves user experience because the access time is shortened during redirection.

Description
Upon receiving a RIM request for the system information of the UMTS cell from the eNodeB, the RNC sends the system information of the UMTS cell to the eNodeB through the RIM procedure. If the system information of the UMTS cell changes (except for changes in the information element UL interference in SIB7), the RNC sends the updated system information to the LTE network through the RIM update procedure. The eNodeB receives and maintains the system information of the UMTS cell. With flash circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) in Release 9, the eNodeB then forwards the system information of the UMTS cell to the UE in the RRC Connection Release message. Therefore, the UE does not need to read system information after redirection, which reduces the redirection delay.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware

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None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on the UE The UE must support flash CSFB in Release 9. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN

The mobility management entity (MME) and serving GPRS support node (SGSN) must support the RIM procedure in 3GPP release 9. If the core network (CN) is earlier than 3GPP release 9, it must support eNodeB ID conversion.

Dependency on other RAN features None

7.7.5 WRFD-150215 SRVCC from LTE to UMTS with PS Handover
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature is part of the UMTS/LTE interoperability solution. This feature must be supported by the UEs, radio access network, and core network.

Benefits
This feature supports single radio voice call continuity (SRVCC) from the RAN side. This feature ensures voice service continuity by allocating VoIP services and PS services (or default PS bearers) from the LTE network to the UMTS network.

Description
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is not deployed at the early stage of LTE network deployment. Therefore, IMS VoIP cannot be used to provide normal voice services and emergency call services. UEs performing normal voice services and emergency call services should be handed over to the UMTS network through Circuit Switch FallBack (CSFB) and PS handover. After an LTE network is deployed with IMS, the LTE network can support VoIP services. When a UE performing VoIP services on the LTE network moves out of the LTE coverage, if there is UMTS coverage, the UE should be handed over to the UMTS network for voice

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service continuity. When a UE is performing VoIP services on the LTE network, there must be at least one PS bearer. The reason is that there must be a default PS bearer for a UE in connected mode on the LTE network, even if the UE is not performing PS services. When SRVCC from LTE to UMTS is being performed, the PS bearers will also be handed over to the UMTS network. Based on network configuration, the LTE network selects one handover scheme to perform an LTE-to-UMTS handover. Candidate handover schemes are as follows:

If UMTS supports VoIP, a PS handover is performed on VoIP. This process is an inter-RAT PS handover, which does not involve the switchover from the PS domain to the CS domain. CS-only SRVCC, which is called SRVCC from LTE to UMTS without PS handover. That is, VoIP services are first handed over to the CS domain of the UMTS network through the switchover of the core network, while PS bearers are transferred to the UMTS network through a routing area update (RAU) procedure. From the perspective of UMTS RAN, the process is only an inter-RAT CS handover. PS+CS SRVCC, which is called SRVCC from LTE to UMTS with PS handover. That is, through the switchover of the core network, VoIP and PS services are handed over to the CS and PS domains of the UMTS network, respectively. From the perspective of UMTS RAN, the process is an inter-RAT CS+PS handover.

The first two handover schemes have already been supported by Huawei RAN. The last handover scheme will be implemented by this feature.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must be of 3GPP Release 8 or later and must support SRVCC. Dependency on other NEs The eRAN must support SRVCC. Dependency on the CN The CN must support SRVCC. Dependency on other RAN features None

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7.7.6 WRFD-150216 Load Based PS Redirection from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to redirect a UMTS/LTE dual-mode UE processing only PS services to the LTE network when the UE is located in the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE and the serving UMTS cell is in the basic congestion state.

Benefits
This feature reduces the possibility of congestion for a UMTS network by allowing more UEs in the UMTS network to be redirected to the LTE network. In addition, this feature helps improve the LTE network resource utilization at the early stage of LTE network deployment.

Description
In the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE, if UEs, the UMTS network, or the LTE network does not support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover, operators can use this feature to redirect UEs to the LTE network where UEs will reestablish their PS services. This feature is applicable only when the following conditions are met:
  

The serving UMTS cell meets the conditions for load reshuffling (LDR). The UE to be redirected supports both UMTS and LTE. The UE to be redirected processes only PS services, and all the processed PS services can be established on the LTE network. In the RAB assignment message sent from the SGSN, there is no indication that the PS services processed by the UE cannot be established on the LTE network.

Redirection is categorized into blind redirection and measurement-based redirection. If the UE in connected mode does not support measurements on the neighboring LTE cell and allows blind redirection to the LTE network, the RRC Connection Release message sent from the RNC to the UE will include the LTE frequency information, instructing the UE to implement redirection. If the UE in connected mode supports measurements on the neighboring LTE cell, the RNC instructs the UE to enter the compressed mode for measurements and the RRC Connection Release message will include the frequency of the neighboring LTE cell that was reported by the UE.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None

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Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must support both UMTS and LTE and support 3GPP Release 8 or later. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

7.7.7 WRFD-150217 Load Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to hand over a UMTS/LTE dual-mode UE processing only PS services to the LTE network when the UE is located in the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE and the serving UMTS cell is in the basic congestion state.

Benefits
This feature reduces the possibility of congestion for a UMTS network by allowing more UEs in the UMTS network to be handed over to the LTE network. Compared with PS redirection, PS handover shortens the service interruption duration, improving user experience. In addition, this feature helps improve the LTE network resource utilization at the early stage of LTE network deployment.

Description
In the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE, if UEs, the UMTS network, and the LTE network support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover, operators can use this feature to hand over UEs to the LTE network. This feature is applicable only when the following conditions are met:
  

The serving UMTS cell meets the conditions for LDR. The UE to be handed over supports both UMTS and LTE. The UE to be handed over processes only PS services, and all the processed PS services can be established on the LTE network. In the RAB assignment message sent from the SGSN, there is no indication that the PS services processed by the UE cannot be established on the LTE network. The neighboring LTE cell meets the conditions for the UMTS-to-LTE handover.

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The procedure for the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover is briefed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. The RNC sends the SGSN a Relocation Required message, which contains the information about the target LTE cell. The SGSN forwards the Relocation Required message to the MME. After the LTE network is ready for the inter-RAT handover, the MME instructs the SGSN to send a Relocation Response message to the RNC. Upon receipt of the Relocation Response message from the SGSN, the RNC instructs the UE to be handed over to the target eNodeB.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must support:
  

3GPP Release 8 or later UMTS-to-LTE PS handover Measurements on the neighboring LTE cell in connected mode

Dependency on other NEs The eNodeB and MME must support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover. Dependency on the CN The SGSN must support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover. Dependency on other RAN features None

7.7.8 WRFD-150219 Coverage Based PS Redirection from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to redirect a UMTS/LTE dual-mode UE processing only PS services to the LTE network when:

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  

The UE is located in the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE. The UMTS signal quality received at the UE is poor. The LTE signal quality received at the UE is good.

When the UMTS signal quality received at the UE is very poor, the RNC can redirect the UE to the LTE network through blind redirection.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:

This feature provides an alternative to the PS handover. When UEs, the UMTS network, or the LTE network does not support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover, this feature enables PS redirection to the LTE network. When the UMTS signal quality is poor and the LTE signal quality is good, this feature allows the UE to be redirected to the LTE network to ensure the continuity of PS services. When the UMTS signal quality is very poor, this feature allows blind redirection to the LTE network, reducing service drops. During UE redirection to the LTE network, this feature allows the RNC to obtain the LTE frequency from the system information or from the neighboring LTE cell. If the RNC obtains the LTE frequency from the system information, operators can eliminate the workload for configuring the neighboring LTE cell.

 

Description

When the UMTS signal quality is poor and the LTE signal quality is good, the RNC decides whether to initiate measurements on the neighboring LTE cell and whether to redirect a UE to the LTE network by considering the UE capabilities and the redirection switch status. This feature is applicable only when the following conditions are met:
− −

The UE to be redirected supports both UMTS and LTE and supports measurements on the neighboring LTE cell. The UE to be redirected processes only PS services, and all the processed PS services can be established on the LTE network.

With this feature, the RNC sends the UE an RRC Connection Release message to instruct the UE to access the LTE network. This message includes the LTE frequency information. The RNC obtains the LTE frequency information from the system information or the neighboring LTE cell, depending on the redirection switch status.

When the UMTS signal quality is very poor, the RNC redirects the UE to the LTE network through blind redirection without measurements on the neighboring LTE cell. This feature is applicable only when the following conditions are met:
− −

The UE to be redirected supports both UMTS and LTE. The UE to be redirected processes only PS services, and all the processed PS services can be established on the LTE network.

With this feature, the RNC sends the UE an RRC Connection Release message to instruct the UE to access the LTE network. This message includes the LTE frequency information. The RNC obtains the LTE frequency information from the system information or the neighboring LTE cell, depending on the redirection switch status.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must support both UMTS and LTE and support 3GPP Release 8 or later. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

7.7.9 WRFD-150220 Coverage Based PS Handover from UMTS to LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables the RNC to hand over a UMTS/LTE dual-mode UE processing only PS services to the LTE network when:
  

The UE is located in the hybrid network coverage of UMTS and LTE. The UMTS signal quality received at the UE is poor. The LTE signal quality received at the UE is good.

Benefits
When the UMTS signal quality is poor and the LTE signal quality is good, this feature allows the UE to be handed over to the LTE network to ensure the continuity of PS services and avoid service drops. Compared with PS redirection, PS handover shortens the service interruption duration, improving user experience.

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Description
When the UMTS signal quality is poor and the LTE signal quality is good, the RNC decides whether to initiate measurements on the neighboring LTE cell and whether to hand over a UE to the LTE network by considering the UE capabilities and the handover switch status. This feature is applicable only when the following conditions are met:
 

The UE to be handed over supports both UMTS and LTE and supports measurements on the neighboring LTE cell. The UE to be handed over processes only PS services, and all the processed PS services can be established on the LTE network.

The procedure for the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover is briefed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. The RNC sends the SGSN a Relocation Required message, which contains the information about the target LTE cell. The SGSN forwards the Relocation Required message to the MME. After the LTE network is ready for the inter-RAT handover, the MME instructs the SGSN to send a Relocation Response message to the RNC. Upon receipt of the Relocation Response message from the SGSN, the RNC instructs the UE to be handed over to the target eNodeB.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The UEs must support:
   

Both UMTS and LTE 3GPP Release 8 or later UMTS-to-LTE PS handover Measurements on the neighboring LTE cell in connected mode

Dependency on other NEs The eNodeB and MME must support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover. Dependency on the CN The SGSN must support the UMTS-to-LTE PS handover. Dependency on other RAN features None

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7.7.10 WRFD-150231 RIM Based UMTS Target Cell Selection for LTE
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature enables the eNodeB to obtain the load information of the UMTS cells through the RAN Information Management (RIM) procedure and select the target UMTS cell base on the cell load during redirection or handover from LTE to UMTS. This can increase the success rate of redirection and handover from LTE to UMTS and reduce inter-RAT ping-pong handover.

Benefits
This feature can increase the success rate of redirection and handover from LTE to UMTS and reduce inter-RAT ping-pong handover.

Description
The redirection or handover from LTE to UMTS, such as CS fallback or LTE to UMTS PS handover based on load, may fail when the target UMTS cell is congested. This will impact the success rate of redirection and handover from LTE to UMTS, bring unnecessary signaling process for handover preparing in eNodeB and delay the handover. This feature enables the eNodeB to obtain the load information of the UMTS cells through the RIM procedure. Therefore the eNodeB is able to select the proper target UMTS cell according to the cell load. Upon receiving a RIM request for the UMTS cells load information from the eNodeB, the RNC sends the UMTS cells load information to the eNodeB through the RIM procedure. If the UMTS cell load changes, the RNC sends the updated cell load information to the LTE network through the RIM update procedure.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs None

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Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN The CN must support the RIM procedure in 3GPP release 9. Dependency on other RAN features None

7.8 UMTS and Wi-Fi Radio Resource Management
7.8.1 WRFD-150229 Intelligent Wi-Fi Detection and Selection
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature uses a UMTS macro network to help the user equipment (UE) detect Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) hotspots. If the cell load in the macro network reaches a specified threshold and a nearby Wi-Fi Access Point (AP) is available, this feature redistributes the data flows of the UE to the Wi-Fi network. This feature must be supported by UEs and the radio access network.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:
   

Reduced manual operations due to automatic detection of and access to Wi-Fi hotspots Reduced power consumption for UEs and improved user experience with Wi-Fi Increased usage of Wi-Fi hotspots due to cooperation between the macro and Wi-Fi networks Maximized resource usage due to convergence of the macro and Wi-Fi networks

Description
Existing Wi-Fi networks are not fully utilized, probably because subscribers do not always know the location of Wi-Fi hotspots and therefore do not always open the Wi-Fi function to reduce the power consumption of UEs. To address this issue, this feature helps UEs detect Wi-Fi hotspots and enables UEs to access Wi-Fi hotspots. This feature has the following functions:

Intelligent detection and selection of Wi-Fi hotspots When a UE initiates a data service, if the cell load reaches a specified threshold and a nearby Wi-Fi AP is available, the network informs the UE of the detected hotspots and instructs the UE to switch its data service to the Wi-Fi network.

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Access to the Wi-Fi network After a UE receives a message indicating a detected Wi-Fi hotspot, it can switch its data service to the Wi-Fi network.

Interface between macro and micro cells An interface connects the RNC and the Wi-Fi Access Controller (AC). This interface transmits Wi-Fi AP availability information, based on which the RNC determines whether to switch UEs to the Wi-Fi network.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware
 

The BSC6900 must be configured with SPUb boards. The BSC6910 must be configured with EGPUa boards.

Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs The required application software must be installed on the UEs. Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

7.9 QoS
7.9.1 WRFD-010505 Queuing and Pre-Emption
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
This feature enables service differentiation when the network is congested to provide better services for high-priority users.

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Benefits
This feature provides operators with a method to differentiate users according to their priority. High priority users can obtain the system resources with high priority in case of resource limitation. In this way, operators can provide better service to those high priority users.

Description
Queuing and Pre-emption are two functions related to access control and are methods for differentiating services. It enables operators to provide different services by setting different priorities, which will affect the user call setup success rate during the call setup procedure. If there are not enough resources and a new call is not admitted to access to the network, high priority user will have more chances to access to the network than low priority users by queuing or pre-empting other low priority users. The priority information is obtained from the RAB parameters including TC (Traffic Class), ARP (Allocation / Retention Priority), and THP (Traffic Handling Priority for interactive service), in the message of RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST. The RNC will assign the user priority according to TC, ARP, as well as THP. Pre-emption will take action if admitting a call fails due to lack of resource. The service with the attribution of Pre-emption Capability and Pre-emption Vulnerability indicates the service ability of pre-empt and pre-emption vulnerability. The pre-emption capability indicates the pre-emption capability of the request on other RAB, and pre-emption vulnerability indicates the vulnerability of the RAB to pre-emption of other RAB. If a new call pre-emption does not take effect due to some reasons such as no service can be pre-empted or current call has no ability of pre-empting other calls, the call will perform queuing function if queuing ability is allowed. To support the call queuing function, there’s an establishment queue (actually a buffer) per cell for RNC to keep the RABs when a call queuing is triggered. A configurable timer is used to indicate how long the associated RAB can be queued and the maximum waiting length is configured according to the Priority Levels. Resource re-allocation for the RABs in the queue is done periodically. If a queued RAB failed due to expiry of the maximum waiting length, it will be removed from the queue, and the RNC will report in a subsequent RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE message indicating that the RAB failed to setup or modify with IE Cause "queuing Expiry". Queuing and pre-emption can be applied into following procedures:
   

New RAB request Existing RAB modification request Partial RAB assignment failure request SRNS relocation request

The users can also be divided to Golden/Silver/Copper level which is mapped from ARP, and the mapping relationship is configurable. And the Gold user is not allowed to be pre-empted.

Enhancement
In RAN5.0, only ARP is considered for candidate calls to be pre-empted. The functionalities of pre-emption and queuing are applied for R99 and HSDPA, but DCH service can only

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pre-empt other DCH services with low priority and HSDPA can only pre-empt other HSDPA services with low priority. In RAN5.1, the priority is enhanced by introducing RAB integrate priority (TC top-priority or ARP top-priority), user integrate priority and user priority (Gold, Silver and Copper) considering Traffic Class (TC) and Carrier Type as parameters when selecting candidate call to be pre-empted. In RAN6.0, THP is considered for interactive service if TC and ARP have the same priority. In addition, the functionalities of pre-emption and queuing are also applied for HSUPA, but HSUPA can only pre-empt other HSUPA services with low priority. In RAN10.0, there is an enhancement which ARP should be considered in the case of different TC. This improvement is only applied for Streaming and I/B traffic class. That is, the ARP of user to be pre-empted should be lower than or equal to that of a new request user in the case of different traffic classes. For example, streaming service can preempt I/B with equal or lower ARP. In RAN10.0, pre-emption can take place between HSDPA and DCH services due to limitation of power and Iub transmission resources. ARP, TC and THP are also used for pre-emption. For example, Gold R99 user will be able to preempt a silver HSPA user, and a Gold HSPA user will be able to preempt Silver R99 user.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN This feature need the CN bring the ARP IE to RNC during RAB assignment procedure so that RNC can get the service priority with those RAB parameters. Dependency on Other Features This feature requires optional feature WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-010612 HSUPA Introduction Package when HSDPA / HSUPA queuing and Pre-emption are required.

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

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7.9.2 WRFD-021103 Access Class Restriction
Availability
This feature is available from RAN5.1. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R99.

Summary
When the RNC’s Signaling Processing Unit(SPU) is overloaded as while as too many UEs initiate random access, this feature allows operator to control the access priority according to UEs’ Access Class (AC) via broadcasting System Information Block 3 (SIB3).

Benefits
The benefit of this feature is to decrease the signaling processing load of SPU in certain level via controlling the UEs’ access sequence, as well as to increase the UEs’ access rate.

Description
The PRACH resources (that is, access slots and preamble signatures for FDD), timeslot (with specific frame allocation and channelization code for 3.84 Mcps TDD and SYNC_UL codes (with specific frame allocation) for 1.28 Mcps TDD) may be divided between different Access Service Classes in order to provide different priorities of RACH usage. Access Service Classes shall be numbered in the range 0  i  NumASC  7. The ASC 0 has the highest priority, and the ASC 7 has the lowest priority. The ASC 0 shall be used in case of Emergency Call or for reasons with equivalent priority. A mapping between Access Class (AC) and Access Service Class (ASC) shall be indicated by the information element "AC-to-ASC mapping" in SIB 5 or SIB 5bis. Access Classes shall only be applied at initial access, that is, when an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message is sent. In SIB 3/4, IE "Access Class Barred list "is used to indicate which access class is barred or allowed. UE reads its access class stored in SIM and compares it with that in SIB 3/4. And then UE will know whether it can access into this cell. Access Class Restriction information will be updated in the following scenarios:

When the cell is in signaling overload, "Access Class Barred list" will be updated automatically and some access classes are barred to prevent too many users accessing into the cell; when cell signaling load becomes low, more access classes will be unbarred.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

7.9.3 WRFD-050424 Traffic Priority Mapping onto Transmission Resources
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature enables the dynamical mapping of the services onto the transport bearers according to the TC, ARP, and THP of the user. The operator can flexibly configure the mapping to fulfill differentiated services while guaranteeing the QoS.

Benefits
This feature implements the mapping from traffic priorities to transmission resources and provides flexible configuration means for differentiated services and for guarantee of QoS.

Description
This feature dynamically maps the services onto the transport bearers, according to the TC (Traffic Class), ARP (Allocation/Retention Priority), and THP (Traffic Handling Priority for interactive service) of the user. The operator can flexibly configure the mapping of service types onto transmission resources. According to different combinations of TC+ARP+THP, the operator can choose the transmission resources with different QoS requirements to fulfill differentiated services while guaranteeing the QoS.

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TC\ARP R99 conversational R99 streaming R99 interactive

Gold R99 C R99 S1 THP High R99 I11 THP Middle R99 I12 THP Low R99 I13

Silver

Bronze

R99 S2 THP High R99 I21 R99 B2 THP Middle R99 I22 THP Low R99 I23

R99 S3 THP High R99 I31 R99 B3 THP Middle R99 I32 THP Low R99 I33

R99 background HSPA conversational HSPA streaming HSPA interactive

R99 B1 HS C HS S1 THP High HS I11 THP Middle HS I12 THP Low HS I13

HS S2 THP High HS I21 HS B2 THP Middle HS I22 THP Low HS I23

HS S3 THP High HS I31 HS B3 THP Middle HS I32 THP Low HS I33

HSPA background

HS B1

ATM transport In ATM transport, the service data with different priorities is mapped to different ATM service types. The practical mapping can be flexibly configured.

IP transport In IP transport, the service data with different priorities is mapped to the IP data stream with different PHB attributes. The practical mapping can be flexibly configured.

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The mapping between service bearer and transmission resource also support the primary and secondary path configuration. In the admission of transmission resource, the primary path is considered for the service setup firstly, and secondary path will be selected in case of the lack of primary path bandwidth or failure of the primary path, with this feature, both transmission reliability and transport efficiency can be improved. In RAN11.0, the load balancing algorithm is introduced for the path selection to prevent the uneven load distribution on the primary and secondary path which may lead to the decrease of transport efficiency. That is, when the load of primary path is too high and the difference with the secondary path is higher than a configurable threshold, the secondary path will be selected.

Enhancement
In RAN11.0, the mapping from AAL2 path types to ATM service types is removed, which makes the priority mapping of ATM services more flexible. In RAN11.0, the mapping from IP path types to PHBs is removed, which makes the priority mapping of IP services more flexible. In RAN11.0, the load balancing algorithm is introduced for the transmission path selection to enhance transmission efficiency improvement.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

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7.9.4 WRFD-020806 Differentiated Service Based on SPI Weight
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

Summary
HSPA users share Uu interface resources, CE resources, and Iub interface resources. If these resources cannot provide the maximum bit rate (MBR) for all online HSPA users, differentiated resource allocation can be performed on users according to user priority or service type (interactive or background). The differentiation in resource allocation is controlled by SPI weight.

Benefits
With the development of the HSPA technology, HSPA channels have become the main radio bearer of UMTS services. This feature is mainly applicable to HSPA channels. It provides users with differentiated services according to user priority or service type, so that the service quality of high-priority users is preferentially ensured and high-priority services are preferentially processed when resources are insufficient. In addition, while meeting the requirement of GBR, the ratio of the user throughput will try to reach the ratio of SPI weight. There are three user priorities: gold, silver, and copper. If gold, silver, and copper users are in the same radio environment, the ratio of user throughput of these users is equivalent to the ratio of SPI weights of the users. Here is an example:
   

The ratio of SPI weights of gold, silver, and copper users is 9:3:1. Services are processed in a cell whose total available bandwidth is 3 Mbit/s. The cell has a total number of 10 users, and all the users have a large amount of data to transmit but resources are insufficient. The mean user throughput of gold, silver, and copper users is 1.1 Mbit/s, 380 kbit/s, and 120 kbit/s, which is equivalent to 9:3:1.

The following table shows the details: User Priority Mean Cell Throughput Number of Online Users Mean User Throughput Gold 3 Mbit/s 1 1.1 Mbit/s 3 380 kbit/s 6 120 kbit/s Silver Copper

This feature supports differentiated tariff policies, for example, high-tariff users are provided with better services. It also supports differentiated service quality according to service type (interactive or background), for example, background services are provided with low service quality if network bandwidth is insufficient.

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Description
HSPA users share Uu interface resources, CE resources, and Iub interface resources, which are allocated according to their respective resource scheduling algorithms. If this feature is not enabled, the resource scheduling algorithms mainly ensure the fairness between BE services (interactive and background services). That is, the resource scheduling algorithms fairly allocate resources between users based on the guaranteed bit rate (GBR) and maximum bit rate (MBR) required. After this feature is enabled, SPI weights can be set for user priorities (gold, silver, and copper). Resources are allocated according to the set SPI weights. The quality of services with high SPI weight is preferentially ensured. For example, if Uu interface resources are insufficient, higher data rate or shorter transmission delay is achieved preferentially for services with high SPI weight.

Enhancement
In RAN13, except user priority (golden, silver, bronze), SPI Weight can be configured according to UE category or user subscribed MBR. In this way, the operator can adopt more flexible promotion strategy to increase the revenue.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features
 

When applied in the downlink on the Uu interface, this feature depends on the feature WRFD-01061103 Scheduling based on EPF and GBR. When applied in the uplink on the Uu interface, this feature depends on the feature WRFD-01061402 Enhanced Fast UL Scheduling or WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management. When this feature is enabled together with the feature WRFD-01061402 Enhanced Fast UL Scheduling, only the uplink Uu interface resources can be differentially scheduled. When this feature is enabled together with the feature WRFD-010638 Dynamic CE Resource Management, both the uplink Uu interface resources and CE resources can be differentially scheduled. When applied in the downlink on the Iub interface, this feature depends on the features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-050405 Overbooking on ATM Transmission, or depends on the features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package and WRFD-050408 Overbooking on IP Transmission. When applied in the uplink on the Iub interface, this feature depends on the feature WRFD-01061212 HSUPA Iub Flow Control in Case of Iub Congestion.

Dependency on other NEs None

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Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

7.9.5 WRFD-020131 Optimization of R99 and HSUPA Users Fairness
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
In scenarios where R99 users and HSUPA users share the same carrier, this feature enables telecom operators to provide service for R99 and HSUPA users in a fair way and improve the experience of HSUPA users. This is achieved by considering the satisfaction rate (real-time user rate/GBR) of both types of user.

Benefits
This feature helps improve the fairness of resource allocation between HSUPA and R99 users and raise the satisfaction of HSUPA users.

Description
With the increase of the commercial use of HSUPA, the HSUPA user experience has become more and more important. As a result, the original policy based on which R99 users take precedence over other users does not follow this trend. In scenarios where R99 users and HSUPA users share the same carrier, the throughput of R99 users might be higher than that of HSUPA users at the same priority level. This feature enables the periodic comparison of satisfaction between R99 and HSUPA users. The comparison considers the ratio of actual service rates of users to the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) values. If the satisfaction degree of R99 users is higher than that of HSUPA users and reaches a certain preset threshold, the rate decrease of high-rate R99 BE services is triggered and the rate increase of low-rate R99 BE services is limited.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware
 

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EDLP board. The HBBI and HDLP cannot support this feature. The DBS3800 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3806 cannot support this feature.

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The 3900 series base stations must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board. The WBBPa board cannot support this feature.

Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-010612 HSUPA introduction package WRFD-021101 Dynamic Channel Configuration Control (DCCC)

Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

7.9.6 WRFD-011502 Active Queue Management (AQM)
Availability
This feature is available from RAN10.0.

Summary
This feature provides approach of queue management and shorten the period of HTTP queuing.

Benefits
AQM can improve user experience when HTTP and download services simultaneously exist.

Description
This feature is valid for R99 packet connections for up to 384 kbit/s packet data. In an interactive packet-data connection, the packet data to transfer is typically characterized by large variations, so the buffer is introduced to even out the variations. However, if the buffer is filled up or an overflow situation takes place, it will result in loss of data packets. Currently, TCP as the main transport layer protocol is used on Internet. Packet loss is regarded as link congestion by TCP, and TCP will correspondingly reduce the data transmission rate. TCP protocol is also sensitive to round trip delays and it will take actions differently in case just one packet is missing or if a burst of packets is lost. In case of uncontrolled packet losses, it may take a considerable time for the data rate to increase again, leading to poor radio link utilization and causing long delays for the end user. In addition, in case a user is performing parallel activities, for example, FTP download and web browsing, if the file download would fill the buffers and thereby cause a long delay before anything would happen when clicking on a link. The functionality of AQM is provided as an optimized buffer handling method, in order to interact with the TCP protocol in a favorable manner and reduce the buffering delay. It is possible for the operator to switch on/off the Active Queue Management function

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features None

7.9.7 WRFD-020128 Quality Improvement for Subscribed Service
Availability
This feature is available from RAN12.0.

Summary
To provide better services to customers and to enhance the competitiveness, some service providers are ready to pay extra to network operators to sign a contract for obtaining better transmission quality for specific services. These service providers are called subscribed customers and the specific services are called subscribed services. IP transmission is used widely. In IP transmission, the service data is transmitted in IP packets, and the IP header contains the information that indicates the source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, and destination port number. So the data source can be identified through IP header analyzing. Based on this technique, the network operator can identify the data of subscribed services and ensure that the subscribed services have better quality such as higher throughput or shorter delay. In this way, customers can have better experience for subscribed services than for ordinary services.

Benefits
With this feature, end users can have better experience for subscribed services and the status of the subscribed service provider is elevated. In this way, the competitiveness of the subscribed service provider is enhanced. Moreover, the network operator can get extra income from the subscribed service provider.

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Description
If IP transmission is used at the network layer, the IP header contains the information that indicates the source of the service data. So the operator can identify whether the data is of the subscribed services by checking the IP address and port number in the IP header. For the data of subscribed services, if the data is carried over HSPA channels, the operator enhances the capability of the service to obtain Iub interface resources, Uu interface resources, and CE resources. In this way, the throughput of the service on the radio access network is enhanced, the data transmission delay is reduced, and the user experience is enhanced. The effect of this feature is more obvious when the traffic load over the access network is high.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB
  

The BTS3812E and BTS3812AE must be configured with the EBBI, EBOI, EULP or EULPd board. The BBU3806 must be configured with the EBBC or EBBCd board. The BBU3900 must be configured with the WBBPb, WBBPd, or WBBPf board.

Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN None Dependency on Other Features WRFD-010610 HSDPA Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

7.9.8 WRFD-020123 TCP Accelerator
Availability
This feature is available from RAN11.0.

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Summary
A series of enhanced TCP functions adaptive to the link characteristics on the RAN side are implemented on the RNC. This feature enables the performance of the TCP protocol derived from the wired network to be greatly improved in the wireless network, improving user experience and system efficiency.

Benefits
This feature mitigates the impact of some factors such as packet loss on the RAN to affect negatively the performance of TCP data transmission, accelerates the slow startup and fast retransmission of the server during the data transmission, increases the UL/DL data transmission efficiency, and reduces the UL/DL transmission delay, greatly improving the PS data transmission performance. For example: (1) The time to download a small size file of 500kbyte can be decreased by 20%. (2) When a user downloads and uploads large size files with the bandwidth of 2 Mbit/s and one TCP connection at the same time, the downlink rate can be increased by 50%.

Description
The TCP/IP protocol is extensively used all over the world. It was initially developed for wired transmission and later also used in wireless networks. However wireless networks exhibit some characteristics quite different from the wired network. A typical example is that of packet losses which, in a wired network, is commonly due to congestion in some network elements, whereas in a wireless network such losses can be due to transmission errors over the air interface. This has a significant impact on the overall performance of the data transmission, due to the way the TCP/IP protocols reacts to such packet losses. To mitigate this effect, a number of enhancements have been implemented in the RNC A TCP accelerator functionality is implemented in the RNC. The TCP Proxy Entity (TPE for short) is used to improve the data transmission performance in the wireless network. The TPE processes the TCP/IP packets by adopting TCP performance optimization technologies such buffering and sorting of DL data, ACK splitting, DupACK duplication, local retransmission, building Window Scaling (WS) indication, and enhanced simultaneous DL/UL data transmission. In addition, the buffering and sorting of UL data is adopted to prevent factors, such as packet loss and transmission delay in the RAN, from affecting the UL TCP data transmission. This feature also accelerates the slow startup and congestion prevention of the server during the UL data transmission, increases the UL data transmission efficiency, reduces the UL transmission delay, and improves the DL throughput in the case of simultaneous uploading and downloading. Therefore, this feature greatly improves the PS data transmission performance.

ACK splitting In TCP, the congestion window is updated according to the number of received ACK messages and is expanded by increasing the number of ACK messages. When a slow startup occurs at the transmitting end, ACK splitting can quickly recover the congestion window; when the transmitting end works in congestion avoidance mode, ACK splitting can accelerate the expansion of the congestion window.

DupACK duplication In TCP, a lost TCP packet is retransmitted after three DupACK are received. With this feature, after the TPE receives the ACK message from the UE, the TPE immediately duplicates three DupACK messages and sends them to the Server if it detects that the

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packets requested by the ACK are not in the buffer. This shortens the time for packet retransmission.

Local retransmission When packet loss occurs on the air interface, the TPE, rather than the transmitting end, retransmits the packet to the receiving end, reducing the time for retransmission.

Packet sorting Sorting of the disordered DL packets is as follows. The TPE sorts and transmits the disordered DL packets to avoid unnecessary transmission of DupACKs in the uplink and to prevent TPE local retransmission caused by disordered packets. In this way, transmission resources are saved. Sorting of the disordered UL packets is as follows. The TPE sorts the UL packets and transmits them to the core network (CN) in sequence. This avoids the deterioration of the UL data transmission performance caused by the disordered UL packets.

Building WS indication When TCP window size in server side is 64KB, the synchronization packet will not include WS indication. If the receiving side detects that there is no WS indication, the synchronization ACK packet returned by receiving side will not include WS indication. In this case, even if the capability of the receiving end is greater than 64KB, the window size is limited to 64KB. Therefore, the throughput is decreased if the actual receiving capability exceeds 64KB.

Enhanced simultaneous downlink and uplink transmission If data are transmitted in the uplink and downlink simultaneously, UE needs to send data and TCP ACK/NACK information corresponding to downlink data. However, TCP ACK/NACK information may be blocked on the UE side by uplink data packet. Therefore, the TCP ACK information of downlink data is delayed, which may affect the downlink throughput. This feature can monitor the TCP packet reception in UE. If a TCP packet is received by UE correctly, TPE builds ACK information and sends it to the server. Then, the server TCP TX window can slide more quickly and the downlink throughput will be increased.

Enhancement
The enhanced UL data transmission is introduced in RAN12.0.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN

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None Dependency on Other Features None

7.9.9 WRFD-010507 Rate Negotiation at Admission Control
Availability
This feature is available from RAN3.0. This feature is introduced in 3GPP R4.

Summary
This feature enables QoS negotiation and RAB downsizing on the Iu interface.

Benefits
Based on the QoS negotiation mechanism, this feature can enhance the RAB setup process and shorten the service setup time. This feature can greatly increase the success rate of call setup and hard handover and maximize resource usage and system capacity.

Description
This feature makes it possible for a call to access the network with a lower bit rate in case that cell resource is not enough, and it comprises the following two parts
 

Iu QoS negotiation RAB Downsizing

The access success rate, system capacity, and performance can be improved with this feature. I. Iu QoS negotiation In Release 99, the UTRAN accepts or rejects a radio access bearer request only from the CN. If the QoS requirement of the service defined in the RAN establishment request is higher than that can be handled by UTRAN, the UTRAN cannot accept it. For the services having higher QoS requirement could accept lower QoS requirements than those requested by the CN in the RAB establishment request. There are no means for the UTRAN to propose an alternative (lower) QoS. For such services, the RAB establishment will fail, or alternatively the CN could re-attempt the RAB re-establishment with lower QoS requirements. This would significantly increase the setup time. Therefore, a QoS negotiation mechanism is introduced in Release 4. This aligns the procedure with the already existing CN solution used in GPRS and shortens the service setup time. Such a mechanism also applies to the relocation procedure by adding Alternative RAB Parameter Values IE in the RANAP RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or RELOCATION REQUEST message. The Iu QoS negotiation mainly aims for the PS streaming service and is used to negotiate the maximum and initial bit rate for the service.

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Maximum bit rate negotiation The UE capability will be considered to decide the maximum bit rate. That is, the maximum bit rate will be selected among the maximum bit rate assigned and the alternative ones in descending order until it meets the UE capability. If the HSPA is related, the UE capability with HSPA will be used.

Initial bit rate negotiation To decide the initial bit rate, the following load information should be considered:
− − − −

Uplink and downlink radio load states of the cell Iub resource state Minimum spreading factor supported HSPA capability. If a service is related to HSPA, the UE capability must be considered to get a proper bit rate.

When the cell with radio load or Iub resource load is congested, the minimum bit rate among the assigned Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) will be selected for service admission. Otherwise, the bit rate among negotiated maximum bit rate and guaranteed bit rate will be selected in descending order until it meets the load and capability requirements mentioned above. After the maximum and initial bit rates are made certain and the subsequent admission procedure is successful, the RNC will inform the CN node of the negotiated bit rate through RAB ASSIGNMENT REPONSE or RELOCATION REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message. II. RAB downsizing The RAB downsizing applies mainly to Best Effort (BE) service (interactive or background service). In an ideal scenario, BE service can always access the network with the maximum request bit rate if there is enough cell resources, but such a process cannot meet the system capacity and performance requirements while the system resource is limited. Therefore, the RNC will try to negotiate the proper maximum and initial bit rate as Iu QoS negotiation does.

Maximum bit rate negotiation The UE capability will be considered to decide the maximum bit rate. That is, the maximum bit rate will be selected among the maximum bit rate assigned to 8 kbit/s in descending order until it meets the UE capability. If the HDPA is related, UE capability with HSPA will be used.

Initial or target bit rate negotiation The following load information will be considered to decide the initial bit rate:
− − − − −

Uplink and downlink radio load states of the cell Available Iub resource Minimum spreading factor supported Available credit resource HSPA capability, if the service related to HSPA, the UE-related capability must be considered to get a proper bit rate.

When radio load is congested, GBR will be selected to admit to maximize the access successful rate. Otherwise, the bit rate among negotiated maximum bit rate to 8 kbit/s will be selected in descending order until it meets the load and capability requirements mentioned above.

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RAB downsizing can also be applied in the hard handover procedure. That is, with this feature, during the hard handover procedure, the target cell load will be considered, the downgraded hard handover may be triggered to maximize the handover successful rate.

Enhancement
In RAN5.0, Iu QoS negotiation feature is introduced. In RAN5.0, RAB downsizing used in the hard handover procedure is supported. In RAN5.1, HSPA capability is taken into consideration, and in RAN6.0 the HSUPA feature is introduced. In RAN10.0, RAB downsizing can also be applied when the request for adding new radio links in the AS in soft/softer handover is rejected by admission control due to resource limitation. The rate will be downgraded according to the cell load information, in order to avoid the call drop due to soft handover failure. In RAN11.0, the newly added policy is that the access of the PS service, if denied, allows an access rate of 0 kbit/s or the implementation on the FACH. RAN11.0 decides the downlink initial access rate of the R99 BE service on the DCH according to the Ec/Io contained in the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message. If the Ec/Io is higher than the related threshold, the downlink initial access rate is min[384k, MBR] (where MBR is the maximum bit rate assigned by the CN); if the Ec/Io is lower than the threshold, the downlink initial access rate is the default value.

Dependency
Dependency on RNC None Dependency on NodeB None Dependency on UE None Dependency on Other Network Units None Dependency on CN For Iu QoS negotiation, the CN node needs to support this feature, but for RAB downsizing, the CN node does not need to support this feature. Dependency on Other Features None

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7.9.10 WRFD-020130 Videophone Service Restriction
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature disables the videophone (VP) function of a cell through cell-level configurations.

Benefits
This feature meets telecom operators' requirements for information security in restricted areas. It prevents leakage of information through VP.

Description
In restricted areas such as military management areas and key laboratories, the use of VP may lead to leakage of information. To meet the security requirements in these areas, the RNC supports the prohibition of VP services at the cell level. Through configurations on the Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT), the VP services of all UEs in a cell can be prohibited. The implementation of this feature involves the following aspects: Prohibiting VP service setup during service establishment Releasing VP services in the case of an incoming handover, for example, retaining other services except VP services when the UE has multiple concurrent services to process

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features None Dependency on other NEs None

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Differentiated QoS Service

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7.9.11 WRFD-020135 Intelligent Inter-Carrier UE Layered Management
Availability
This feature is available from RAN13.0.

Summary
This feature allows the RAN to intelligently distinguish between UEs and data cards in multi-carrier scenarios and to separately set up services on different carriers.

Benefits
With the rapid growth of mobile broadband, use of data cards to access the Internet has become a common occurrence. Data card traffic is characterized by its long duration and high volume. It increases operator profit but also increases network load. Other services of the same carrier may be negatively affected. Use of separate carriers for data card services allows full utilization of carrier resources and keeps data card traffic from affecting other services. This helps operators formulate flexible billing policies, develop large-scale data card services, and establish Mobile Broadband (MBB) brands.

Description
This feature allows the RAN to intelligently distinguish between UEs and data cards in multi-carrier scenarios and to separately establish services on different carriers based on priority configuration. This feature is applicable to UEs during the access procedure and in connected mode. This feature requires operators to separately allocate IMSI ranges to UEs and data cards. The RNC determines the terminal type based on the IMSI of the terminal and configured rules. Each carrier is assigned a priority corresponding to a terminal type. During the RAB setup, the cell with the highest priority for the terminal type is chosen for access. This achieves the layered assignment of terminals to specific carriers. After a service is established, periodic directed retry based on the terminal type can be performed for handover to the highest-priority carrier.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature requires operators to separately allocate IMSI ranges to UEs and data cards. Dependency on the RNC hardware None Dependency on the NodeB hardware None Dependency on other RAN features WRFD-020400 DRD Introduction Package

Professional Service
Recommend to deploy this feature with UMTS Multicarrier Service

7.9.12 WRFD-150204 Platinum User Prioritizing
Availability
This feature is available from RAN15.0.

Summary
This feature improves user experience for platinum users by:
  

Allocating a high admission priority to them when network congestion occurs Allocating the highest High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) service scheduling priority to them Enhancing voice quality for them when downlink coverage is weak

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits for platinum users:
 

Increased access success rate and HSPA throughput Improved voice quality

Description
If network congestion occurs during gatherings, sports events, and festivals, it is difficult for platinum users (for example, policemen and firefighters) to access the network. With this feature, the RNC preferentially allows platinum users to access the network during radio resource control (RRC) connection setup or radio access bearer (RAB) setup. A list of platinum users is saved on the RNC and the list is configurable.

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Circuit switched (CS) services initiated by platinum users have the highest admission priority, and packet switched (PS) services initiated by common users have the lowest admission priority. The admission priority of PS services initiated by platinum users and the admission priority of CS services initiated by common users are configurable. When downlink coverage is weak, this feature improves voice quality for platinum users. Additionally, this feature enables the RNC to allocate the highest HSPA service scheduling priority to platinum users, increasing their HSPA throughput.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware None Dependency on UEs None Dependency on other NEs None Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

8
8.1 Advanced Planning
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

O&M Experience

8.1.1 WRFD-140219 Micro NodeB Self-Planning

Summary
This feature automatically plans the following information for micro NodeBs:
     

Available UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers (UARFCNs) Scrambling codes Intra-frequency neighboring cells Inter-frequency neighboring cells Inter-RAT neighboring cells between UMTS and GSM, LAC/SAC/RAC parameters

Benefits
With this feature, the system automatically scans the radio environment around a micro NodeB and sets the radio parameters such as UARFCNs and scrambling codes. This feature simplifies micro NodeB network planning while also making it more efficient and reducing the cost.

Description
Network planning is mandatory for WCDMA network deployment. WCDMA network planning, including site survey and network dimensioning, is generally performed manually, which results in a high cost and a lengthy deployment schedule. To improve network planning efficiency and meet the customers' requirements of automatic micro NodeB deployment, this feature automatically determines available UARFCNs, scrambling codes, intra-frequency neighboring cells, inter-frequency neighboring cells,

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

inter-RAT neighboring cells between UMTS and GSM, and LAC/SAC/RAC parameters for micro NodeBs. With this feature, the system automatically performs the following functions:
  

Scans the radio environment around a micro NodeB to collect raw data. Sets radio parameters by using radio parameter planning algorithms. Configures radio parameters on network elements (NEs) through the operation and maintenance (O&M) channel.

Enhancement
In RAN15.0, the following functions are added:
 

Self-planning for micro NodeBs in dual-carrier scenarios Automatic planning of camping, mobility, and load control parameters based on the operators' networking policy Automatic planning of inter-RAT neighboring cells between UMTS and LTE and of URA parameters

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware The RNC version must be RAN13.0 or later, and the RNC data can be configured and modified on the M2000. Dependency on NodeB hardware Only the BTS3902E supports this feature. The BTS3902E must be configured with a self-organizing network (SON) receiver and a SON receiver antenna. Dependency on the UE None Dependency on other NEs
   

The NodeB auto deployment function is enabled on the M2000 side. The M2000 must support BTS3902E WCDMA self-planning. The GBSC version must be GBSS 14.0 or later to support remote configuration by the M2000. The eNodeB must support the modification of the inter-RAT neighbor relationship between LTE and UMTS on the M2000.

Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features
 

WRFD-031101 NodeB Self-Discovery Based on IP Route WRFD-031102 NodeB Remote Self-configuration

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

9
9.1 Supporting
Availability
This feature is available from RAN14.0.

Site Solution

9.1.1 WRFD-140220 Intelligent Battery Management

Summary
With this feature,
  

The battery management mode automatically changes depending on the selected grid type, which prolongs the battery lifespan. The battery self-protection function is triggered under high temperature, which prevents battery overuse and damage. The runtime of batteries is displayed if the mains supply is cut off. Users can then take measures to prevent service interruption.

Benefits
The benefits of this feature are as follows:
   

Prolonged battery lifespan Less energy consumption Reduced operation costs Improved system stability

Description

Automatic change of the battery management mode

The PMU board records the number of times the power supply is cut and the duration of each instance. Then, the PMU board determines the grid type and correspondingly activates the appropriate power management mode. If the grid type is 1 or 2, batteries can enter the hibernation state, in which batteries do not charge or discharge, which helps prolong battery lifespan.

Issue Draft B (2010-06-10)

Commercial in Confidence

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Number of Hours Without External Power in a 15-Day Period ≤5 5-30 30-120 ≥ 120

Grid Type

Charge and Discharge Mode

Current Limitation Valve

Hibernation Voltage (V)

Hibernation Duration (Days)

Estimate d Battery Lifespan Improve ment Rate 100% 50% 0%

1 2 3 4

Mode A Mode B Mode C Mode C

0.10 C 0.15 C 0.15 C

52 52 N/A N/A

13 6 N/A N/A

The automatic change function of the battery management mode is under license control. This function is disabled by default and users can enable it by running an MML command.

Self-protection under high temperature

If the battery temperature exceeds the threshold for entering the floating charge state for 5 minutes, the batteries enter this state and no alarms are generated. If the battery temperature exceeds the threshold for triggering the self-protection function for 5 minutes, the batteries are automatically powered off or the battery voltage is automatically adjusted.

Battery runtime display

If the mains supply is cut off, the base station calculates the battery runtime based on such information as the remaining power capacity and discharge current. Users can query the runtime by running an MML command. The NodeB calculates the runtime of batteries with the following formula:
Runtime of batteries = (Remaining power capacity x Total power capacity x Discharge

efficiency)/(Mean discharge current x Aging coefficient)

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Dependency on RNC hardware None Dependency on NodeB hardware The APM30H (Ver. C), BTS3900AL, TP48600A, and batteries must be configured. Dependency on the UE None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

Dependency on the CN None Dependency on other RAN features None

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

10
3G AP APM AQM BBU BITS BTS CBS CPC CPE DNBS DSAC ETSI FTP GIS GA GBR GLONASS GPS HCS HSDPA HSUPA LCS

Acronyms and Abbreviations

The Third Generation Access Point Advanced Power Module Active Queue Management Baseband Unit Building Integrated Timing Supply System Base Station Cell Broadcast Service Continuous Packet Connectivity Customer Premises Equipment Distributed NodeB System Domain Specific Access Control European Telecommunications Standards Institute File Transfer Protocol Geographical Information System General Available Guaranteed Bit Rate GLObal Navigation Satellite System Global Position System hierarchical Cell Structure High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Uplink Packet Access Location Service

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RAN12.0 Optional Feature Description

LTE MBMS MIMO NACC PA PARC PPS QAM RAN RET RNC ROHC RRM SAE SASA SASU SNone TGW VoIP WCDMA

Long Term Evolution Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Multi-Input Multi-Output Network Assisted Cell Change Power Amplifier Platform Advanced Radio Control Pulse Per Second Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Radio Access Network Remote Electrical Antenna Radio Network Controller Robust Header Compression Radio Resource Management System Architecture Evolution Same Band Antenna Sharing Adapter Same Band Antenna Sharing Unit Shared Network Area Transmission Gateway Voice over IP Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

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