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Volume 3
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS AND AVIONICS
Cockpit Inspection

Table of Contents Contents
PAR SEC CHA TITLE T T P 1 AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS 1 Height 1 Introduction to Barometric Height Measurement 2 Altimeters 2 Speed 1 Vertical Speed Indicators 2 Air Speed Indicators 3 Machmeters 4 Combined Speed Indicators 3 Air Data Systems 1 Air Data Computer 2 HEADING, ATTITUDE AND ALIGNMENT 1 Heading

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1 2 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 4

Direct Indicating Compasses and Direction Indicators Gyro-magnetic Compasses Horizontal Situation Indicators Alignment Datum Compasses Magnetic, Compass Deviations Compass Swinging Procedures The Analysis of the Compass Swing Manoeuvre Turn and Slip Indicators Attitude Indicators Accelerometers Stall Warning and Angle of Attack Indication NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Control Systems Remote Indication and Control Servomechanisms DR Position Computing Ground Position Indicator (GPI) Mk 4A The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) Inertial Navigation Principles Principles of Inertial Navigation Alignment INS Errors and Mixed Systems COMPUTING AND DISPLAY Central Computing Airborne Computers Real Time Programs Displays CRT Displays Flat Displays Projected and Electronically Displayed Maps Head-up and Helmet Mounted Displays Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Engine and Miscellaneous

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1 2

Instruments Engine Instruments Miscellaneous Instruments

AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS Height
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Barometric Height Measurement
Introduction
1. Pressure altimeters are instruments which indicate aircraft height above a selected pressure datum. They operate on the principle that air pressure decreases with height, and they are in fact aneroid barometers graduated to indicate height rather than pressure. In order to be calibrated, certain assumptions must be made concerning the manner in which air pressure decreases with height and this has given rise to a number of model atmospheres. 2. Air Pressure Units. The pressure unit which has been used in the field of aviation for many years is the millibar except for some countries, notably the USA, which have used 'inches of mercury'. However, the current SI derived unit is the hectopascal and this should be used rather than the millibar. Nevertheless the hectopascal has not yet entered the vocabulary of most aircrew and in deference to common usage the millibar will be used in this volume. The hectopascal and the millibar are identical for all practical purposes.

The Atmosphere
3. The atmosphere is described in detail in Vol 1, Part 1, Sect 1, Chap 1. It is a relatively thin layer of gases surrounding the Earth, becoming more diffuse with increasing height. Water vapour is present in variable amounts, particularly near the surface. 4. The atmosphere can be divided into a number of layers each with a tendency to a particular temperature distribution. The names, heights and characteristics of these layers may vary according to which standard atmosphere is being defined. However, in all cases the lower layer, the troposphere, extends to a layer known as the tropopause. The significant characteristic of the troposphere is the fairly regular decrease of temperature with height. The tropopause tends to become lower towards the Earth's poles (around 25,000 ft) and higher towards the equator (up to 54,000 ft). The region above the tropopause is known as the stratosphere, extending up to the stratopause. The height of the stratopause varies depending on which definition is being employed, but can be taken to be about 30 miles (166,000 ft). 5. Pressure Lapse Rate. As height increases, pressure decreases, but this decrease is not proportional to the increase in height because the density of air varies with height, as does the value of g, although to a lesser extent. It is possible to deduce an expression for the pressure lapse rate at a constant temperature and thus establish a relationship between pressure and height. A practical approximation for the lower levels of the atmosphere is that a decrease in pressure of one millibar equates to an increase in height of 30 feet. 6. Temperature Lapse Rate. Temperature does not remain constant but varies with height in a complex manner. The temperature lapse rate depends on the humidity of the air, and is itself a function of height. This variation greatly affects the relationship between pressure and height. To calibrate an altimeter to indicate barometric height it is necessary to make some assumptions as to the temperature structure of the atmosphere. The relationship can be expressed in mathematical form for each of the various layers of the atmosphere and the instrument can then be calibrated accordingly. 7. Height Assumptions. Because of the temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere, and the differences between the conditions on any occasion and the assumptions used in altimeter calibration, there is no real correlation between indicated altitude and actual altitude. A barometrically derived height must therefore be used with extreme caution as a basis for terrain clearance. However, provided that all aircraft use the same datum and the same assumptions in the calibration of their altimeters, safe vertical separation between aircraft can be achieved.

Standard Atmospheres
8. A standard atmosphere is an arbitrary statement of conditions which is accepted as a basis for comparisons of aircraft

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Height

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performance and calibration of aircraft flight instruments. Because of the extreme variability of conditions in the atmosphere, the standard can only represent the average conditions over a limited area of the globe. Most standards so far adopted are related primarily to the mean atmospheric conditions in temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere. 9. The first widely accepted standard was proposed by the International Commission on Air Navigation (ICAN) in 1924 and between 1950 and 1952 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed and adopted another standard which varied only slightly from the ICAN model. Equations were formulated for determining height from barometric pressure which were valid up to 65,617 ft. The ICAO standard atmosphere is taken as the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) and the assumed characteristics are: a. The air is dry and its chemical composition is the same at all altitudes. 2 b. The value of g is constant at 980.665 cm/sec . c. The temperature and pressure at mean sea-level are 15°C and 1013.25 millibars. d. The temperature lapse rate is 1.98°C per 1000 ft up to a height of 36,090ft above which the temperature is assumed to remain constant at – 56.5°C. 10. A number of other standard atmospheres have been formulated mainly in response to the need to extend the height limit of the model beyond 65,617 ft to accommodate the requirements of missiles and certain high performance aircraft. The assumptions of these models are very similar to the ICAO standard and the differences in the relation of height to pressure are minimal in the lower altitudes. However in the stratosphere and beyond, heights, lapse rates and layer names differ markedly. A comparison of Fig 1, which depicts the Wright Air Development Centre (WADC) Standard Atmosphere with Fig 1 in Vol 1, Pt 1, Sect 1, Chap 1 will reveal some of the differences.

3-1-1-1 Fig 1 WADC Standard Atmosphere

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and prevented from collapsing completely by means of a leaf spring. sealed. Conversely a decrease in height compresses the capsule faces. 3-1-1-2 Fig 1 Simple Altimeter .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Height Chapter 2 . This linear movement of the capsule face is magnified and transmitted via a system of gears and linkages to a pointer moving over a scale graduated in feet according to one of the standard atmospheres. As the aircraft climbs the static pressure in the case decreases allowing the spring to pull the capsule faces apart.Altimeters Principle of Operation of a Simple Altimeter 1.1. The capsule is mounted inside a case which is fed with static pressure from the aircraft's static tube or vent. or in some cases by its own rigidity.Schematic Page 5 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:32 2002 Height 3.1.2 . Fig 1 is a schematic diagram of a simple altimeter. The instrument consists of a thin corrugated metal capsule which is partially evacuated.

5. Page 6 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:32 2002 Height 3. 4. Changes of barometric pressure are still sensed by the contraction or expansion of evacuated capsules. If sea-level pressure (QNH) is set.1.1. a change of pressure of 1 mb at sea-level equates to only 30 ft. one every 10. The servo-assisted altimeter is designed to relieve the capsule of the work required to drive the mechanical linkage. Thus small changes in pressure. have to overcome inertia in the mechanical linkages and therefore tend to cause the altimeter to lag significantly behind the aircraft's true change of height. Servo-Assisted Altimeter 6. the altimeter could be set on the ground to read airfield elevation so that it will thereafter indicate height above mean sea-level. For example. A simple altimeter will normally be calibrated according to the ICAN or ICAO atmosphere and will therefore normally be set to indicate height above the 1013. The dial adjusting knob allows the indicator needle to be moved away from the normal datum. for example. but the mechanical transmission is replaced by a position control servo system. Limitation. which can represent significant changes in height. A sensitive altimeter has a millibar scale so that it is possible to set whatever datum pressure is desired. providing that the prevailing sea-level pressure does not change.000 ft. Compensation for varying temperatures within the instrument casing is incorporated in the form of a bi-metallic strip inserted between the capsule and the transmission shaft. The millibar setting can be altered in the air to reflect changes of pressure with time. At these altitudes the change in height for a given pressure change is very much greater than at ground level. Sensitive Altimeter 3. the altimeter will read zero on the ground and height above airfield once airborne. The single capsule is replaced by two or more capsules to give greater sensitivity for small changes in pressure. one rotating every 1. whereas at 60.000 ft. again providing that the surface pressure at the airfield remains constant.000 ft a similar pressure change relates to a height change of 325 ft. ie the movement of the capsule is transferred to the pointers by means of amplified electrical signals. above which height is to be measured. The chief limitation of the directly operated capsule altimeter is its increasing inaccuracy and lack of sensitivity with increasing height above approximately 60. Thus if airfield level pressure (QFE) is set. location or required datum level.2 millibar pressure level.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 2.2 . Typically there will be three pointers. Thus. Alternatively by setting zero before take-off the altimeter will indicate height above the airfield.000 ft and a third every 100. The sensitive altimeter is designed for more accurate height measurement than the simple altimeter although the principle of operation is the same.000 ft. the altimeter will indicate height above sea-level (ie airfield elevation on the ground).

and an auxiliary pointer moving over a scale graduated in 50 ft increments from 0 . and errors caused by non-standard atmospheric conditions.2 . instrument or installation errors. A false static pressure can be created by the effect of the air flow passing over the static vent. They do not usually have error compensating devices although they may be compensated to allow for fluctuations in cabin temperature. or automatically in an air data computer or pressure error corrector unit (PECU). Pressure error. 10. b. In current altimeters the three needle display is replaced by a digital display.1.000 ft (Fig 2).1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 7.Digital Display Cabin Altimeters 8. The static pressure is of course cabin pressure and a change in this causes the capsules to expand or contract in the normal way. Pressure Altimeter Errors 9. eg IFF/SSR. it can become significant at high speeds. It is usually insignificant but if necessary a correction card can be provided. Although the error is generally negligible at low speeds and altitudes. Cabin altimeters indicate cabin pressure in terms of altitude and are normally of the simple type. airbrakes. Instrument error. the arrangement has the advantage that the altitude information can be easily transmitted to other systems. The errors inherent in the instrument and installation are: a. In addition to increased accuracy and sensitivity. or when services such as flaps. Page 7 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3. Cabin altimeters suffer from the errors outlined below and at cabin altitudes below 30.000 ft the instrument should be accurate to better than ± 500 ft. Instrument error is caused by manufacturing tolerances. Residual error is calibrated for each aircraft type and detailed in the Aircrew Manual or ODM. or gear are operated. having one pointer moving over a scale graduated in tens of thousands of feet. Pressure altimeter errors may be considered under two categories. 3-1-1-2 Fig 2 Servo-Assisted Altimeter . Pressure error occurs when the true external static pressure is not accurately transmitted to the instrument.1. Large transient errors can be caused by shock waves passing over the vent during accelerations or decelerations. Avoidance or reduction of the effect is accomplished by careful probe or vent design and location.

In a cold air mass the density is greater than in a warm air mass.000 ft up to 36. This gives an error in the altimeter indication for the duration of the disturbance. d. or there are obstructions such as insects. Conversely if the flight was from an area of low pressure to one of high pressure the altimeter would read low if not corrected. the pressure levels are more closely spaced and the altimeter will over-read (Fig 4) . while leaks in unpressurized compartments usually produce over-reading. Since the response of the capsule and linkage is not instantaneous.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. Clearly the latter situation could be dangerous and should be allowed for in rapid descents. In summary. The resulting errors in ISA-calibrated altimeters are: a. as they very often do. The effect of leaks varies with the size and location of the leak.1. Barometric error. The effect is to increase altimeter lag or. Blockages may occur if water in the pipework freezes. The ICAO standard atmosphere assumes a temperature lapse rate of 1. Temperature Error. since in order to do so it would be necessary to have a knowledge of the temperature structure from the surface to the aircraft. A capsule under stress has imperfect elastic properties and will settle to give a different reading after levelling from a climb compared to that obtained after levelling from a descent. Variations from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions may be brought about by the development of weather systems.5°C above that.2 . Time lag is virtually eliminated in servo-assisted altimeters and may be reduced in others by the fitting of a vibration mechanism. f. from HIGH to LOW the altimeter reads HIGH. with complete blockage.the error being zero at sea-level and increasing with altitude.1. a rapid change in static pressure will occur. Lag Error. Hysteresis Loss. with a constant temperature of −56. In effect the datum is lowered during the flight so that the altimeter reads high. The effect of the error on an altimeter which is not reset when flying from an area of high pressure to one of low pressure at a constant indicated height is illustrated in Fig 3.98°C per 1. The magnitude of the Page 8 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3. but the 1030 mb setting is retained on the altimeter. The error is not easy to compensate for. the altimeter needle lags whenever height is changed rapidly causing an under-read on climbs and an over-read on descents.090 ft. and from LOW to HIGH the altimeter reads LOW. leaks in pressurized compartments cause under-reading. If a shockwave passes over that static source. Transonic Jump. 3-1-1-2 Fig 3 Effect of Barometric Error b. e. The amount of lag varies with the rate of change of height. to make the instrument stick at the reading when the blockage occurred. Blockages and Leaks. and local geographic effects. Blockages and leaks are unusual occurrences. If the actual temperatures differ from the assumed ones. 11. then the indicated height will be incorrect. In this case the aircraft flies from an area where the MSL pressure is 1030 mb to one where the MSL pressure is 1010 mb. Barometric error occurs when the actual datum pressure differs from that to which the altimeter has been set and can be overcome simply by the correct setting of the millibar scale. Temperature error arises when the atmospheric conditions differ from those assumed by the standard atmosphere used to calibrate the altimeter.

for example.1. on altimeter readings. The altimeter readings may therefore be affected due to barometric error as described in sub-para a. Corrections can be made for low altitudes by use of the table in the Flight Information Handbook and this may be necessary. The temperature profile in the affected area may then be significantly different from the unaffected airmass thereby inducing temperature error effects as described in sub-para b. Additionally. The table is reproduced in Fig 5 to give an indication of the magnitude of the error. When a current of air meets a barrier of hills or mountains there is a tendency. for much of the air to sweep round the ends of the barrier.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 error is approximately 4ft/1. often marked. This gives rise to areas of low pressure to the lee of the barrier. Orographic Error.2 . the rising or descending air in the wave will change temperature at very nearly the normal adiabatic lapse rate.1. when calculating decision heights in arctic conditions. c. 3-1-1-2 Fig 4 Effect of Temperature Error 3-1-1-2 Fig 5 Temperature Error Correction Page 9 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Height 3.000ft for every 1°C that the air generally differs from ISA. so avoiding the ascent. if standing waves are present above the barrier.

and through a metering unit to the outer chamber. is a sensitive differential pressure gauge. which in effect forms the instrument case. The metering unit restricts the flow of air into and out of the case. whereas the flow to the inside of the capsule is unrestricted. the pressure change in the case lags behind that in the capsule.1 . if the static pressure varies due to changing altitude. which displays a rate of change of atmospheric pressure in terms of a rate of climb or descent.1. A bleed valve is fitted in many VSIs to prevent damage and to improve the Page 10 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:33 2002 Speed 3.Vertical Speed Indicators Introduction 1. The principle employed is that of measuring the difference of pressure between two chambers. also known as a rate of climb and descent indicator (RCDI). Static atmospheric pressure is fed directly to the inner chamber. one within the other. Therefore. A vertical speed indicator (VSI).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Speed Chapter 1 .2. or capsule. Principle 2. The resultant differential pressure distorts the capsule and this movement is transmitted to the pointer by means of a mechanical linkage.

Schematic Construction 3-1-2-1 Fig 2 VSI .1. The construction of a VSI is shown schematically in Fig 1 and a typical display is illustrated in Fig 2.Typical Display Page 11 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. 3-1-2-1 Fig 1 VSI . It is important that any given pressure difference between the inside and outside of the capsule should represent the same rate of climb or descent. is to compensate for these changes in ambient conditions. in the manner in which it restricts the flow into the case. regardless of the ambient atmospheric pressure and temperature variations with altitude.2. The function of the metering unit. 3.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 instrument's reaction time (by reducing lag) when levelling off from a high speed descent.

2 . the VSI may briefly indicate a wrong rate of climb or descent.1. c. Static Line Blockage. Instrument error is the result of manufacturing tolerances and is usually insignificant. e. position. b. If the static line or vent becomes blocked by ice or any other obstruction the VSI will be rendered unserviceable and the pointer will remain at zero regardless of the vertical speed. Errors 5.Air Speed Indicators Page 12 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. Pressure Error. and the capsule is expanded. The VSI can suffer from the following errors: a. In level flight the pressure inside the capsule and the case are the same. A similar delay in the pointer indicating zero occurs when the aircraft is levelled. Movement of a shock-wave over the static vents results in a rapid change in static pressure which briefly produces a false reading on the VSI. Because of the time required for the pressure difference to develop. In a descent. zero. the increase in pressure in the case lags behind the increase in static pressure in the capsule.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4.2. Transonic Jump. Instrument Error. When the aircraft climbs. If the static head or vent is subject to a changing pressure error. and the pointer remains at the horizontal. the static pressure decreases and the capsule collapses slightly. Lag. Speed Chapter 2 . The fall in pressure in the case lags behind that in the capsule until level flight is resumed and the pressures equalize. when an aircraft is rapidly manoeuvred into a steady climb or descent there is a few seconds delay before the pointer settles at the appropriate rate of climb or descent. d. causing the pointer to indicate a rate of climb.

which is closed and streamlined at the forward end but which has a series of small holes drilled radially along its length. However. 5. The pitot pressure is led through a pipe-line to one side of a sealed chamber. Rearranging the formula. (also known as total head pressure or stagnation pressure) p = the static pressure ½ = the air density V = the velocity of the aircraft. 3. divided by a thin flexible diaphragm. Fig 1 illustrates the principle. An aircraft. is subject to normal atmospheric or static pressure which acts equally on all parts of the aircraft structure. aligned with the direction of flight. When moved through the air. the static tube.2. the pitot tube will pick up pitot pressure made up of static pressure and dynamic pressure. The static tube is unaffected by dynamic pressure as its end is closed. and a second tube. on which all air speed indicators function. which is mounted in a suitable position on the airframe. The instrument which displays this information is the air speed indicator (ASI).2 . A knowledge of the speed at which an aircraft is travelling through the air.1. is essential both to the pilot for the safe and efficient handling of the aircraft and to the navigator as a basic input to the navigation calculations. 3-1-2-2 Fig 1 Principle of Air Speed Indicator 4. The diaphragm is subjected to the two opposing pressures. The ASI is a sensitive differential pressure gauge operated by pressures picked up by a pressure head.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. Principle 2. stationary on the ground. the small holes will pick up local static pressure. in its most simple form. the difference between the pitot and the static pressures is equal to 1 ½V2 (the dynamic pressure). however. ie the air speed. The static pressure is led through a second pipe-line to the other side of the diaphragm. the pitot tube. the static pressure component of the pitot pressure is Page 13 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. This additional pressure due to the aircraft's forward motion is known as dynamic pressure and is dependent upon the forward speed of the aircraft and the density of the air according to the following formula: 1 pt = ½V2 + p 2 where pt = the pitot pressure. In flight the aircraft experiences an additional pressure on its leading surfaces due to a build up of the air through which the aircraft is travelling. The simplest pressure head consists of an open ended tube. The 2 air speed indicator measures this pressure difference and provides a display indication graduated in units of speed.

pressure. quadrant and pinion can be used to transfer this movement to a pointer and dial calibrated in knots. which thus contains the lower pressure. Control of the capsule is difficult due. the basic principle holds good for all. 3-1-2-2 Fig 3 A Typical Simple ASI Page 14 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:34 2002 Speed 3. the movement being proportional to pressure. 3-1-2-2 Fig 2 A Combined Pressure Head Construction 7. among other reasons. 8. As stated in para 2. Depending on the manufacturer of the ASI. the principle of operation is exactly the same. to the magnification factor of the mechanism. giving unequal pointer movements for equal speed changes.2 . The capsule.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 balanced by the static pressure on the other side of the diaphragm so that any diaphragm movement is determined solely by the dynamic. A pressure difference will cause the capsule to open out. A heater is placed between the pitot and static tubes to prevent ice forming and causing a blockage. Drain holes in the head allow moisture to escape and various traps may be used to prevent dirt and water from affecting the instrument.2. however.1. detailed points of construction will vary. Movement of the diaphragm is transmitted through a mechanical linkage to a pointer on the face of the ASI where the pitot excess pressure (pt – p) is indicated in terms of speed. the pitot excess pressure varies with the square of the speed and a linear pressure/deflection characteristic in the capsule produces an uneven speed/deflection characteristic of the pointer mechanism. A typical simple ASI is shown in Fig 3. Most air speed indicators in current use have a capsule instead of a diaphragm. In some installations the pitot tube and the static tube are combined into a single pressure head with the pitot tube built inside the static tube. It is more usual to control the mechanism to produce a linear scale shape by changing the lever length as the pointer advances. A link. acting as the pressure sensitive element is mounted in an airtight case. Pitot pressure is fed into the capsule and static pressure is fed to the interior of the case. however. To produce a linear scale between the capsule and pointer it is necessary to control the characteristics of the capsule and/or the mechanism. A combined pressure head is shown in Fig 2. or pitot excess. 6.

Sensitive and Servo Air Speed Indicators. Extra sensitivity is achieved by an increase in the gear train from the capsule. more power is required to operate the gears and this is provided by a stack of capsules. Sensitive and servo ASIs are identical in principle to the simple ASI and operate from the normal pitot/static system. 3-1-2-2 Fig 4 A Two Pointer Sensitive ASI Page 15 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3.2 . In a servo ASI the mechanical linkage is replaced by an electrical linkage utilizing error actuation and power amplification.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 9. so that two pointers may be moved over an evenly calibrated dial.1. A typical sensitive ASI display is shown in Fig 4.2. This capsule assembly has a linear pressure/deflection characteristic which is more closely controlled than the single capsule used in the simple ASI. Because of this increase in the gear train.

The speed of the aircraft.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Calibration 10. c. Compressibility error. The error is determined during calibration and any necessary correction is combined with that for pressure error (see para 13). 13. Page 16 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. Pressure error results from disturbances in the static pressure around the aircraft due to movement through the air. c. The position of the pressure head. The ASI pointer registers the amount of capsule movement due to dynamic pressure. Pressure error. 12. the dial is calibrated according to the formulae mentioned above which assume constant air density (standard sea level density) and no instrument defects. Instrument error is caused by manufacturing tolerances in the construction of the instrument. Since dynamic pressure varies with air speed and air density. Instrument Error. The configuration of the aircraft (ie ‘clean’/ flaps/gear/airbrakes/etc). the error may be influenced by: a. and since air density varies with temperature and pressure. There are four sources of error: a. standard datum values have to be used in the calibration of air speed indicators. ASI Errors 11. pitot head or static vent.2.2 . b. The formula given in para 2 is only an approximation and one of two formulae is used for calibration of a particular ASI depending on the speed range of the instrument. Any departure from these conditions or disturbance in the pitot or static pressures being applied to the instrument will result in a difference between the indicated and the true air speed and thus an error in the display. Pressure Error. d. Density error.1. Instrument error. b. The angle of attack of the aircraft. d. However. Depending upon aircraft type. The values used are the sea level values of the standard ICAO atmosphere.

The relationship between the various air speeds and the associated errors can be summarized as follows: CAS = IAS § PEC § IEC EAS = CAS ¡ CEC TAS = EAS § DEC Blocked or Leaking Pressure Systems 17. Thus. The necessary correction can be calculated from the formula: r ½ ½o EAS = TAS where: ρ ρo = the air density at the height of the aircraft. The pressure error correction (PEC) is tabulated in the Aircrew Manual for the aircraft type and is also combined with that for instrument error correction (IEC) and recorded on a correction card mounted adjacent to each ASI. The use of static vents eliminates almost all the error caused by the pressure head. therefore compressibility error varies both with speed and altitude. It it usual to have two static vents.8. Compressibility error and its correction can be calculated by using the circular slide rule of the DR Computer Mk4A or 5A.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 e. dynamic pressure varies with air speed and the density of the air. In such a case the static pipeline terminates at a hole in a flat brass plate known as the static vent. In practice. = the air density at mean sea level. As altitude increases. As has already been explained. However the calibration formulae use standard mean sea level values and an error is introduced at any altitude where the actual values differ from those used in calibration. will become progressively lower than true air speed (TAS). At altitude. the flow of air around the static vent may be unpredictable. the density error correction (DEC) is obtained from a graph or by the use of a circular slide rule such as the DR Computer Mk 4A/5A. In lower speed aircraft the static head is often divorced from the pitot tube and positioned where the truest indication of static pressure is obtained eg on the fuselage midway between nose and tail. Application of the compressibility error correction (CEC) to CAS produces equivalent air speed (EAS). for any other condition of air density. the ASI will be in error. partial blockage of the 'nose' of the tube (the most common effect of icing) will result in an under-reading. Standard mean sea level air density is used for calibration purposes. Unfortunately the use of a static vent becomes less acceptable for high performance aircraft since at Mach numbers exceeding 0. If the pitot tube is blocked eg by ice. In such cases a high speed pitot-static head is used and. Pitot. resulting in a greater dynamic pressure which causes the ASI to over-read. the less dense air is more easily compressed than the denser air at sea level. 16. and thus EAS. 14.2 . density decreases and IAS. the ASI will not react to changes of air-speed in level flight. one either side of the aircraft to balance out the effects of sideslip which produces an increase of pressure on one side of the aircraft and a corresponding decrease in pressure on the other side. However. 15. The card correction (IEC + PEC) should be applied to the indicated air speed (IAS) to obtain calibrated air speed (CAS). More extensive icing will cause the reading to reduce towards Page 17 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. Compressibility Error. The calibration formulae contain a factor which is a function of the compressibility of the air.1. as before. If the pitot tube contains a small bleed hole for drainage. the capsule may act as a barometer producing an indication of increase in speed if the aircraft climbs or a decrease in speed if the aircraft dives. At higher speeds this factor becomes significant. Most of the error results from variations in the local static pressure caused by the airflow over the pressure head. Any remaining error is determined by flight trials. In addition compressibility increases with increase of speed. The presence of sideslip. Summary.2. Blockages a. Density Error. pressure error is determined by flight trials.

The local speed of sound is a function of static pressure and density. As the density factor is common to both functions. when the true air speed is a certain proportion of the local speed of sound. They can cause loss of aerodynamic lift. Mach number can be expressed as: · ¸ V p ¡p / t a p M= where: V a pt p = True air speed = Local speed of sound = Pitot pressure = Static pressure The machmeter uses an air speed capsule to measure pt – p an altitude capsule to measure p. The former may cause problems in adverse landing conditions (eg in a strong cross-wind). and density. Speed Chapter 3 . A leak in the static tube. where the pressure outside the pipe is lower than static (ie most unpressurized aircraft). and is calibrated to show the quotient as the corresponding Mach number. at some speed below the speed of sound and will increase in effect and extent as the speed is further increased. Mach Number. True air speed is a function of pitot excess pressure ie the difference between pitot and static pressure.or over-reading of an ASI is potentially dangerous. Page 18 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3.Machmeters Introduction 1. changes in aerodynamic stability. the ASI will over-read at lower altitudes and under-read at higher altitudes than that at which the blockage occurred. for a given aircraft type. characterized by the occurrence of shock waves.3 . The onset of these shock waves and their subsequent effects occur. Static. depending on the aircraft design.1. the ratio of true air speed to the local speed of sound is considered as a single entity.2. it is important that the pilot knows his speed in terms of Mach number. Because of the effect of the shock waves on stability and control of the aircraft. b. the local Mach number varies with the true air speed and the local speed of sound. These will occur locally. Machmeter. 18.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 zero as the dynamic pressure leaks away through the bleed hole b. As explained in para 1. The under. Static. erratic control loads. Where the outside air is higher than static (ie in a pressurized cabin) the ASI will under-read. A leak in the pitot tube causes the ASI to under-read. If the static tube is blocked. Pitot. the airflow around the aerofoils exhibits a marked change. and the latter condition may result in an aircraft stall at a higher indicated airspeed than that specified for the aircraft. Leaks a. Effects. It is called Mach number and is usually expressed thus: Mach number (M) = V/a where: V = True air speed a = Local speed of sound 2. This is achieved by an instrument called a Machmeter which gives a direct display of Mach number and may have an adjustable index which is usually set to the Limiting Indicated Mach Number of the aircraft in which it is installed. 19. loss of control effectiveness and buffeting. will cause the ASI to over-read. As an aircraft's speed approaches the speed of sound. Basic Principle 3. For convenience.

The second capsule unit. Presetting can be carried out by an adjusting screw on the front of the instrument. It is adjustable so that the relevant Mach number for the particular type of aircraft in which the machmeter is installed may be preset. 9. It consists essentially of a sealed case containing two capsule assemblies and the necessary mechanical linkages. the actual formula used to derive an indicated Mach reading requires and receives considerable modification.1.2. since the behaviour of air changes as speed is increased. causing it to rotate and move a pivoted arm (the ratio arm) in the direction A-B (see Fig 2). the altitude capsule. Critical or Limiting Mach Number is indicated by a specially shaped lubber mark located over the dial of the machmeter. causing it to move in the direction C-D. the spring providing the tension necessary to retain the pin in position.3 . A typical machmeter is shown in Fig 1. Movement of the ratio arm controls the ranging arm which. As Mach number increases therefore. 3-1-2-3 Fig 2 Principle of Operation of a Machmeter Page 19 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:35 2002 Speed 3. via a spring and pin. upon both pitot excess and static pressures. is sealed and evacuated to respond to static pressure changes. The movement of the capsule is transferred to the ratio arm.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. The interior of the case is connected to the static pressure pipeline. The air speed capsule measures the pressure difference between pitot and static pressure and therefore expands or contracts as air speed increases or decreases. The position of the ratio arm depends. The pin is pointed at both ends and rests in cups on the altitude capsule and ratio arm. Construction 5. The movement of the capsule is transferred by the air speed link to the main shaft. expanding or contracting with variation of altitude. through linkage and gearing. 8. is connected to the pitot pressure pipeline. the air speed capsule. 3-1-2-3 Fig 1 A Typical Machmeter 6. An increase of altitude and/or air speed results in a display of higher Mach number. 7. especially once shockwaves form. therefore. turns the pointer thus displaying the corresponding Mach number. The altitude capsule responds to changes of static pressure. The actual calibration of the instrument is more complex than the basic principle suggests. The interior of one capsule unit.

With the increased complexity of aircraft instrument panels in modern aircraft and the continual search for more room in an already restricted space. Instrument Error. of the order of ± 0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Errors in Machmeters 10.. Pressure Error. The altitude capsule. The combined speed indicator (CSI) contains an air speed capsule and an altitude capsule. typically. reacts to static pressure and thus altitude. Variations in air density and temperature from the standard mean sea level values have no effect. As Mach number is effectively a function of the ratio of pitot excess pressure to static pressure. 12. Principle 2.1. The construction of the dial-type combined speed indicator is very similar to the machmeter and the same principles are employed. However.2. There are only two such errors. Like all instruments. only those errors in the measurement of this ratio will affect the machmeter. This movement. The machmeter operates from the same pressure source as the air speed indicator and is therefore subject to the same pressure errors. One area where this has been successfully carried out is with speed indicating instruments. instrument error and pressure error. a pointer which is read against a dial calibrated in IAS. the effect of pressure error is relatively greater on the machmeter as the ratio of pitot excess pressure (pt – p ) to static pressure (p) is being measured rather than just the pitot excess pressure (pt – p) in the case of the ASI. machmeters are subject to tolerances in manufacture which produce errors that vary from instrument to instrument. These are. however. expanding or contracting. Description 3. The instrument can take one of two forms. Speed Chapter 4 .4 .01M over a range of 0. small and are. it is becoming the practice to combine two or more functions into one instrument. modifies a parallel drive Page 20 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:36 2002 Speed 3. The air speed capsule directly drives. through a normal type linkage.5 to 1. 11. through a second linkage.Combined Speed Indicators Introduction 1.0M. A combined instrument showing both indicated air speed and Mach number is now fitted in some aircraft. a simple capsule operated dial presentation or a capsule operated IAS dial with a synchro operated digital Mach number presentation.

During descent. Outputs to control an auto-throttle system. Thus the pointer displays against the Mach number disc the correct Mach number for the particular air speed/altitude combination as well as the IAS against the fixed graduations on the dial. control of this facility may be achieved by a Page 21 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:36 2002 Speed 3. an overriding stop maintains the pointer at this reading until a condition exists where 490 knots is equivalent to 0. to warn the pilot that he has reached his limit speed. Other functions are sometimes included in the CSI. which should not be exceeded under normal operating conditions or a speed which should not be exceeded under any conditions. A limit speed pointer. As the aircraft climbs. d. expressed in Mach number and sometimes the equivalent IAS.1. 7. From then on the pointer moves anti-clockwise showing the IAS equivalent of 0.2.000 ft to 425 knots. It is possible. the pointer will move clockwise until 490 knots is reached when the overriding stop again takes effect and the pointer remains at the maximum figure. This limit speed pointer is set on the ground to the particular relevant limit speed. Sometimes there is a somewhat lower speed. c. in this case 490 knots. 5. usually expressed in knots of IAS. at low level it may be restricted to 490 knots. In some CSIs a limit speed switch is incorporated which is closed when the IAS pointer reaches or exceeds the speed shown by the limit speed pointer.4 . This second drive is used to position against the air speed pointer. etc.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 from the air speed capsule in a similar manner to the machmeter. Undercarriage warning. This switch operates either an audio or visual warning or both. red or chequered. The Mach number disc rotates anti-clockwise as altitude increases whilst the pointer rotates clockwise with increasing IAS. b. to display this information on the CSI. This is usually achieved by means of a distinctively coloured pointer. a rotatable disc graduated in Mach number. Auto-throttle Control.9M. by means of a special linkage designed to suit the particular aircraft and connected to the altitude capsule. At any time the pilot can assess his air speed in relation to his maximum permitted speed by the angle between the IAS pointer and the limit speed pointer. Limit speed warning. However. These include: a. For example.000 ft to 509 knots.9M. Most aircraft performance data list a speed. 4. Limit Speed Warning. at 10. 3-1-2-4 Fig 1 Typical CSI Dial Presentations 6.000 ft to 347 knots. Limit Speed Pointer. at 30. an aircraft may have a limiting Mach number of 0. which must not be exceeded at low level.9M equivalent at sea level (and ISA conditions) to 594 knots. at 20. On aircraft where an auto-throttle system is installed.

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synchro system installed in the CSI. A moveable command pointer, manually set by a knob on the front of the instrument, positions the rotor of a synchro. The rotor of a second synchro is positioned by a low friction drive from the IAS pointer. When the IAS pointer reads the same as the command pointer, there is zero output from the pair of synchros. Any difference between the two pointers produces an error signal which is fed to the auto-throttle system adjusting the throttles so that the aircraft returns to the original selected speed. 8. Undercarriage Warning. An internal switch is fitted in some CSIs which will close at a pre-set figure in the aircraft approach speed range to provide a signal for a visual or audio warning if the undercarriage is not selected down.

Presentation
9. A single pointer is read against a fixed IAS dial calibrated in knots and a rotatable disc (the Mach disc) calibrated in Mach number. The Mach disc is set behind and viewed through an aperture positioned either inside or outside the air speed scale. A second pointer, distinctively painted with diagonal lines or chequers may be incorporated to show the limit speed at all altitudes. On some models, two manually positioned bezel mounted lubber marks are available to indicate any desired air speed for reference purposes. A single command lubber positioned manually by a knob on the front of the instrument, allowing the auto-throttle reference speed to be set, may also be incorporated. Typical presentations are shown in Fig 1a and b.

Digital Mach/Air Speed Indicators
10. A variation of the CSI is a model which shows IAS by a pointer indication and Mach number by a digital display. In this case the instrument contains two capsules (air speed and altitude) as explained above but these are used only to drive the air speed pointer and a limit speed pointer, if fitted. A synchro drive proportional to Mach number is received from the aircraft's air data computer and a servo loop drives a three counter digital display. Limit speed warning and auto-throttle control can be incorporated as described in paras 6 and 7. 11. Presentation. An air speed pointer is read against a fixed scale and a second pointer, distinctively marked, may be incorporated to show limit speed at all altitudes. A servo driven three drum counter provides a digital read out of Mach number to two or three places of decimals. A failure flag covers the counters in the event of power failure or loss of the Mach number synchro signal from the air data computer. Moveable index lubber marks may be incorporated in the same manner as for the dial presentation CSI and control of an auto-throttle reference lubber mark by a knob on the front of the instrument may also be included. A typical digital Mach/air speed indicator is shown in Fig 2.

Range and Accuracy
12. The operating range of the CSI varies with the particular model but, typically, air speeds up to 800 knots and Mach number up to 2.5 can be covered. Typical instrument accuracies are ± 3 knots and ± 0.010M.

3-1-2-4 Fig 2 Typical Digital Mach/Air Speed Indicator

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3-1-2-4 Fig 1a Mach Aperture Inside IAS Scale

3-1-2-4 Fig 1b Mach Aperture Outside IAS Scale

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Air Data Systems
Chapter 1 - Air Data Computer
Introduction
1. Although conventional pressure instruments can provide satisfactory information for the crew, they have a number of limitations, especially in the context of modern aircraft systems. In particular, the information that an instrument measures can only be presented in one form and cannot easily be transmitted for use by other equipment, or to other crew positions, resulting in a need to duplicate the instrument. An Air Data System (ADS) overcomes these limitations. 2. An ADS can take a number of forms which will vary between aircraft types, however all systems are similar in principle and this chapter will describe a typical, rather than any specific, system. 3. The core of an ADS is an Air Data Computer (ADC) which forms an essential part of a modern flight/navigation/weapon aiming system. The ADS measures the basic air inputs of pitot pressure, static pressure, air temperature, angle of attack (α angle), side slip (β angle), and outputs flight parameters for the various systems and displays. A comprehensive ADS thus consists of: a. Pitot, static and temperature probes to measure the basic air data. b. Local incidence vanes for α angle and β angle computation. c. Transducers to convert the basic air data into electrical or electro-mechanical signals. d. Air Data Computer to process the data and provide the required outputs to the aircraft systems and displays. e. Power supplies to provide specific stabilized power for the ADS units.

Probes
4. Pitot/Static. Pitot and static pressures are taken from the aircraft's pressure head or the pitot head and static vents.

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5. Temperature. Temperature is determined from outside air temperature probes. 6. Angle of Attack (α Angle). Angle of attack is the angle, in the vertical plane of symmetry of the aircraft, at which the free stream airflow meets an arbitrary longitudinal datum line on the aircraft. It is generally measured by a small pivoted vane whose axis of rotation is nominally horizontal and athwartships. The vane is usually mounted on the side of the fuselage near the nose or on a probe forward of the wing or nose. 7. Angle of Side Slip (β Angle). The β angle is the angle in the horizontal plane at which the free stream airflow meets an arbitrary longitudinal datum line on the aircraft. The β sensor is normally identical to the α sensor and mounted on the underside of the airframe along the aircraft centre line. In simpler ADS the β sensor is often omitted.

Transducers
8. Transducers, which convert pressures, temperatures and angles to voltages or digital pulses, are the most vital elements of the air data systems, and are the limiting factors in the system accuracy. Transducers vary in type depending on the parameter which is to be measured, ie pressure transducers, temperature transducers and angular transducers. Various techniques are employed to convert the measured data into usable, repeatable and accurate signals which can be transmitted to the ADC, eg using the expansion of a diaphragm or capsule to actuate an electrical pick-off, or to vary the electrical resistance of a wire by changing the wire's tension.

Air Data Computers
9. The air data computer processes the data input from the sensors, applies any necessary corrections, and supplies output data in the form required by other equipment, either directly or via a central computer. Particularly in older systems, where there is no central computer, the same output parameter may be in several forms, eg pressure altitude may be processed as a voltage, a synchro output, and a digital code. Fig 1 shows a typical ADS arrangement. 10. Compared with conventional pressure instruments the ADS has the following advantages: a. The bulk and complexity of pipe work is avoided. b. Duplication of units is avoided. c. Errors can be automatically corrected before display. d. There are accuracy and sensitivity gains. e. There is a reduced time lag. f. There is the potential for flexibility in presentation. The disadvantage of the ADS is that it needs power to work whereas conventional pressure instruments do not. It is therefore usually necessary to provide back-up systems, either in the form of alternative power supplies or with simple pressure instruments.

3-1-3-1 Fig 1 Air Data System

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b. A direct indicating compass system (DICS) consists of a freely suspended magnet system which can align itself with the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field thus defining the direction of Magnetic North. the aircraft's magnetic heading can be read off against a lubber line. Sensitivity. Properties 2. 3-2-1-1 Fig 1 Basic DICS Page 26 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:37 2002 Heading 3. DICS must exhibit the following properties: a. By aligning a compass card with the North-seeking (red) end of the magnet system as shown in Fig 1.Direct Indicating Compasses and Direction Indicators PRINCIPLES OF THE DIRECT INDICATING COMPASS SYSTEM (DICS) Introduction 1. Horizontality.1. ATTITUDE AND ALIGNMENT Heading Chapter 1 . c. Aperiodicity. The magnet must be sensitive.1 .2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 HEADING. The magnet system must remain as near horizontal as possible. The magnet's behaviour must be aperiodic (ie without recurring oscillations).

where T is the resultant of the horizontal and vertical fields.1. If the magnet system were allowed to align itself with the T field it would be difficult to align the compass card accurately. A pendulous suspension system is therefore used to overcome the magnet system's tendency to tilt. When the pendulously suspended magnet system tilts to align with T. Freely suspended in the Earth's magnetic field.2. DICS must be sensitive and able to indicate the local magnetic meridian quickly and accurately. 3-2-1-1 Fig 2 Pendulous Suspension Sensitivity may be increased by the following methods: Page 27 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:37 2002 Heading 3. The magnet system's weight forms the couple Wd. the tendency to tilt would reduce the magnetic moment in the horizontal plane in which direction is measured. which acts to restore the magnet system to the horizontal. At the magnetic equator the field direction is parallel to the Earth's surface. Sensitivity 5. at all other places the magnet system is tilted in the direction of the total field (T). In UK latitudes the residual tilt in a well designed compass is approximately 2°.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Horizontally 3. moreover.1 . the magnet system's centre of gravity is displaced from the vertical through the pivot (Fig 2). 4. a magnet system will align itself with the direction of that field.

Turning and Acceleration Errors .2. which create drag forces and reduce the magnet system's tendency to oscillate. 3-2-1-1 Fig 3 Accelerating Force Producing Couple Page 28 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. In both cases the accelerating force acts through the pivot which is the magnet system's point of attachment to the aircraft. Looking down on the magnet system in Fig 3 it can be seen that a couple is produced which turns the magnet system anti-clockwise. Reducing the friction at the suspension point. 6. Increasing the magnetic moment of the magnet system. ie when the aircraft changes speed on easterly or westerly headings. Reducing the moment of inertia of the magnet system. Considering the effect of these forces in the vertical plane together with the magnetic forces acting on the magnet. The errors are caused by the displacement of the magnet system's centre of gravity from the line through the pivot. DICS are subject to the errors and limitations covered in the following paragraphs. it can be seen from Fig 4 that the accelerating force and its reaction create a couple which tilts the magnet system out of the vertical. Damping filaments. In addition to the errors caused by external magnetic fields. the accelerating forces may cause errors in the indicated heading. θ is the angle of tilt. If an aircraft fitted with a DICS is subjected to horizontal accelerations. both have similar effects on the compass system. or turns through North or South. 11. Friction at the pivot is reduced by using jewelled bearings and also by suspending the magnet system in a fluid which reduces the weight acting on the pivot and lubricates the bearing. b. or turning from North or South on to West.1. The vibrations and oscillations experienced in flight by a suspended magnet system tend to cause undesirable periodic oscillations. The accelerations may be the result of speed changes or from the central acceleration experienced in a turn. not through the pivot. The vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field no longer acts through the pivot. An equal but opposite effect is created at the red end. Aperiodicity is achieved using a magnet system with a low moment of inertia and high magnetic moment. A compromise is reached between the magnetic moment and the moment of inertia requirements by using a number of small. powerful magnets as the magnetic sensing element of the compass. One component (Z cos θ) acts through the pivot. This displacement results in the formation of couples which rotate the magnet system and produce heading errors.ERRORS AND LIMITATIONS General 8. and the other (Z sin θ) at 90° to the pivot. but can be resolved into two orthogonal components. and a magnetic couple is created which turns the magnet system anti-clockwise (Fig 5). the resultant errors being greatest when the accelerating force acts at right angles to the magnetic meridian with which the compass is aligned. are also used.Effect 10. light.Cause 9. DICS . The reaction force acts. Consider an aircraft in the Northern Hemisphere increasing speed whilst heading West. Aperiodicity 7. Turning and Acceleration Errors . but through the magnet system's centre of gravity. the same compromise applied for sensitivity. In Fig 4 it is shown that the component Z sin θ tends to pull the blue end of the magnet to the right. c.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a.1 .

2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-1 Fig 4 Acceleration Causing Tilt 3-2-1-1 Fig 5 Couple Causing Turn 12. ie the compass over-reads. ie the compass under reads the turn indicating a turn of perhaps 20° for an actual turn through 45°. however. the indicated turn is slower than the actual turn. the magnet system turns in the opposite direction to the turn and the indicated turn is greater than the actual turn.1. In turns through South. the magnet system turns in the direction of turn and in all but the most violent manoeuvres.1 . If the error is caused by an increase in speed. ie the compass indicates a turn of perhaps 40° for an actual turn of 20°. turn the magnet system anti-clockwise. the effect is an apparent turn to North. In turns through North. Two couples. the effect depends on the direction and rate of turn. If the error is caused by turning. Page 29 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. one mechanical and one magnetic.

d. d. Scale error is caused by errors in the calibration of the compass card. It must be installed in the aircraft cockpit. (3) Acceleration causes an apparent turn to the North. small and light. and requiring no power. The effects are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. whereas true or grid heading may be required on occasions. There is insufficient torque to enable it to drive transmission systems to feed other aircraft equipment. Scale Error. (2) Acceleration on easterly headings and turns to the East cause the magnet system to rotate clockwise. with figures every 30 degrees. Turning and acceleration errors make it only suitable for use in straight.1 . or by a displaced lubber-line. which is normally an area of high magnetic deviation. e. b. E2B and E2C are minor and mostly concern the lighting arrangements. The principles of the DICS are exemplified in the E2 series of standby compasses which are widely used (Fig 6). Southern Hemisphere. When reading DICS care must be taken to ensure that the eye is centred on the face of the compass. If the line of sight is offset parallax errors occur. The error is corrected by the compass swing. Alignment Error. c. In this application it has the advantages of being cheap to purchase and install. Operational Limitations 15. graduated every 10 degrees. It depends upon the size of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field for its drive and thus it becomes insensitive and unreliable at high magnetic latitudes. The effects of turning and acceleration errors are summarized below: a.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Summary 13.2. b. It can only provide magnetic heading. Minor Errors 14. Despite the limitations of a DICS it is likely to be fitted to most aircraft for the foreseeable future as a standby compass. Alignment error is caused by the incorrect mounting of the compass in the aircraft. Parallax Error. c. b. The cardinal points are Page 30 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. Advantages 16. A DICS has the following limitations which make it unsuitable for use as the primary heading system of a modern aircraft: a. A PRACTICAL DICS The E2 Series 17. simple and easy to maintain and operate. Centring error occurs when the compass card is not centred on the magnet system pivot. except for lighting. Northern Hemisphere. The compasses have a vertical card fastened to the magnet system. (5) Turns through South cause the compass to over-indicate the turn. unaccelerated flight. (1) Acceleration on westerly headings and turns to the West cause the magnet system to rotate anti-clockwise. The following minor errors also occur: a. Centring Error. (4) Turns through North cause the compass to under-indicate the turn.1. The differences between the E2A.

1. bubbles and sediment. B. The compasses are designed to give an operational accuracy of ±10°. Before use the compass should be checked to ensure that the bowl is not cracked or damaged and is completely filled with fluid that is free from excessive discolouration. The iridium tipped pivot screws into the centre of the dome and rests in a sapphire cup secured to the vertical stem by the cupholder. The magnet is a steel ring to which a dome is attached.Exploded View Page 31 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. The compass bowl is filled with a silicone fluid and a bellows at the rear of the bowl allows for a change of the volume of the liquid due to variations in temperature. The bowl is plastic with a lubber line marked on the front inside. Fig 7 shows an exploded view of an E2 compass. 18. 3-2-1-1 Fig 6 E2 Compass 19. 3-2-1-1 Fig 7 E2 Compass .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 marked with the appropriate letter. in good.2. Serviceability Checks. Design.5°.1 . and C (see Chap 3). stable flight conditions the accuracy may approach the bench accuracy of 2. Provision is made for correction of coefficients A.

Resetting should be done in straight. Errors 22. hence the need to reset the instrument at regular intervals. The direction indicator is subject to the normal wander errors associated with gyros. 3-2-1-1 Fig 8 Direction Indicator Display Page 32 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3. The direction indicator (DI) is used.1. as a simple heading reference. The combination of real and apparent drift could make the total error rate accrued by a direction indicator to be in the order of 10 . It consists of an air or electrically driven. 23. Thereafter it may be used as a heading reference during level flight provided that it is checked and reset if necessary to the correct heading periodically. Pt 2. The spin axis is maintained in the horizontal plane either by the action of a gravity actuated torque motor or by air jets initiated by a liquid level switch. 21. mostly in light aircraft. The display is usually in the form of a conventional plan form compass rose and the only controls provided are to reset the indicated heading. two degree of freedom. The DI must initially be set to a known heading such as that obtained from a direct indicating compass. displacement gyro with its spin axis mounted horizontally (Refer to Vol 8. Clearly the direction indicator cannot be relied upon as a primary heading reference.20°/hr. Sect 4.2.1 . Topple is controlled within acceptable limits by the action of the levelling system.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 DIRECTION INDICATORS Operation 20. Chap 5). and to position a moveable heading index (see Fig 8). unaccelerated flight.

The gyro-magnetic compass consists essentially of a magnetic compass whose indications are stabilized gyroscopically so that the effects of turning and acceleration errors are reduced. magnetic fields of the aircraft structure and flight accelerations. Therefore. 2. This has the effect of making the compass sluggish in indicating a change of heading.1. A gyroscope is unaffected by changing magnetic fields or by normal aircraft accelerations but its heading indications may be inaccurate due to the effect of precessional forces caused by friction.2. After an alteration of heading. Since the Earth’s magnetic field strength cannot provide sufficient torque for driving repeater indicators from one master detector element. The pendulously suspended magnet system is subject to errors due to accelerations. the principle underlying the gyro-magnetic system is to integrate the heading indication of Page 33 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:38 2002 Heading 3.2 . ie in the cockpit where the deviating effects due to hard iron (including DC fields) and soft iron fields are large. separate compass systems must be provided for each crew member requiring a heading readout. 4. In the case of the direct indicating compasses. A further disadvantage of the direct indicating compass is that indications of direction can be given at only one position in the aircraft.Gyro-Magnetic Compasses Introduction 1. the fluxvalve.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Heading Chapter 2 . Although a number of these systems have been designed using different detecting and stabilizing techniques. In addition to these errors. incorrect balance etc. magnetic fields due to aircraft magnetism are accentuated by the necessary positioning of the compass so that it can be read by the pilot/navigator. The direct indicating compass is subject to errors due to two main causes. Since the commonly used detecting element. 3. is pendulously suspended. the effect of reduction in the directional force acting on the detecting element renders the direct reading instrument unreliable in high magnetic latitudes where the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field is weak. the detecting element will oscillate for a considerable time before settling down. it is affected by accelerations. The remote indicating compass was developed to reduce the errors of the direct indicating compass and to evolve an instrument giving automatic continuous direction which could be fed to other instruments. the gyro stabilized remote indicating (gyro-magnetic) compass gradually evolved. General 5.

a moveable pointer against a fixed card or a moveable card against a fixed lubber line. and the gyroscope. The Gyroscope. the transmission and display system. The Transmission and Display System. At the same time there must be sufficient control to correct the gyro drift. The technique most commonly used is to reference the azimuth gyroscope initially to the magnetic meridian and to maintain the relationship by applying precessional forces to the gyroscope based on long term magnetic azimuth information from the fluxvalve detector. 9. the rotor of a control receiver can be attached to a digital counter. The fluxvalve. It is usually remotely located in a wing tip or fin in an area relatively free from aircraft magnetic disturbances. or the monitoring rate. The degree of control of the fluxvalve over the gyroscope. see Fig 1.1. consists of a sensitive pendulous element which is free to swing within limits (usually ± 25°) but fixed to the aircraft in azimuth. A deviation compensator is usually mounted on top of the unit. 11. A fluxvalve is the detecting element of many remote indicating compasses and it provides the long term azimuth reference for the gyroscope. it is logical to break them down into three basic components. ie the spin axis in the local horizontal plane. The transmission system provides data transmission between compass system components and to associated equipments. The element is suspended by a Hooke’s Joint with the whole assembly being hermetically sealed in a case partially filled with oil to dampen oscillations. in a turn the fluxvalve heading is likely to be in error so the control rate must be engineered so that the induced heading is that of the gyro. 3-2-1-2 Fig 1 Fluxvalve 8. The Fluxvalve. Control synchros are usually used for this purpose. Fluxvalve Theory 10. The net result is to reduce the individual errors of each. Short term azimuth stability is typically provided by a two degree-of-freedom gyro with the input axis vertical. When considering the various units associated with the design of gyro-magnetic compass systems. The Page 34 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. the fluxvalve. Basic Components 6. For example.2. For a heading display. The pendulous detector element resembles a three spoke wheel with the spokes 120° apart and slotted through the rim. is of considerable importance.2 . 7.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the magnetic compass with the directional properties of a gyroscope so that a compromise between the two is achieved.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 rim forms a collector horn for each spoke. 3-2-1-2 Fig 3 Magnetic Flux Components Page 35 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. The horns and spokes are made up of a series of metal laminations having a high magnetic permeability.2. the total flux passing through the coil is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the direction of the coil axis and the direction of the field. If a single coil is placed in a magnetic field. For a coil placed at an angle θ to a field of strength H (see Fig 3) the field can be resolved into two components. and maximum but of opposite sense relative to the coil when turned 180° from its original position. Therefore. zero when the coil lies at right angles to the field. its output is affected by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field and the flux passing through the coil is proportional to the magnetic heading of the aircraft. 12. 3-2-1-2 Fig 2 Vertical Cross-section of Spoke This cone has an exciter coil wound round it on a vertical axis. If the coil is in the horizontal plane with its axis parallel with the aircraft longitudinal axis. Each spoke has a vertical cross-section similar to that shown in Fig 2. the amplitude and phase representing the relationship of magnetic North to the aircraft longitudinal axis (magnetic heading). The coil output curve is shown at Fig 4. 13. and each spoke has a pick-off coil wound round both legs on a horizontal axis. the magnetic flux passing through the coil is maximum when the axis of the coil is in line with the direction of the field. In order to appreciate the operation of the fluxvalve it is necessary to consider an individual spoke. The spoke consists of two superimposed legs which are separated by plastic material and opened out to enclose the central hub cone.2 .1. The function of a spoke will be developed in a series of diagrams (Figs 3 to 10). The exciter coil is fed with 400 Hz single phase AC. The H cos θ component is parallel to the coil and is the effective flux producing element. one along the coil equal to H cos θ and the other at right angles to the coil equal to H sin θ. The output of the secondary or pick-off coil is an 800 Hz single phase AC current.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 4 Variation of Flux with Theta 14. ie there are always two headings which cause the same induced output voltage. no induced voltage. Secondly. there would be no change of flux and.1. the problem that must be solved is how to produce an output waveform which is proportional in some way (frequency. In the following discussion the hysteresis loop is represented by a single line curve. consequently. 15. This is achieved in the fluxvalve by introducing an alternating magnetic field in addition to the static field caused by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. Firstly. phase or amplitude) to the components of the Earth’s field and linked with the coil.2. 3-2-1-2 Fig 5 Hysteresis Curve for Permalloy Page 36 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3. the voltage induced into a coil depends on the rate of change of flux. Therefore. the simple concept just described cannot be used without modification as a heading reference system for two important reasons. Therefore. Fig 5 shows the relationship between flux density (B) and magnetizing force (H) known as the hysteresis loop for the permalloy commonly used in the legs of the flux valve spokes. once established on a heading. Permalloy has a very high magnetic permeability (µ = B/H) and a corresponding low hysteresis loss.2 . the output of the simple detection device would be subject to heading ambiguity. Unfortunately.

at peak power. 3-2-1-2 Fig 7 The Effect of Excitation Current in the Top Leg Only Page 37 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:39 2002 Heading 3.1. The winding on one core is the reverse of that on the other. and any change of flux through it induces a voltage and current flows. Fig 7 shows the 400 Hz alternating flux induced in the top leg by the excitation current considering only the top leg of the spoke and the effect of the excitation. The AC supply is just sufficient.2 . 3-2-1-2 Fig 6 Simple Fluxvalve 17. wound round the two primaries.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 16.2. A secondary coil. to saturate magnetically each of the parallel soft iron cores. One spoke of the three-spoke fluxvalve is shown diagrammatically in Fig 6. It consists of a pair of soft iron (usually permalloy) cones each wound with a primary coil. is linked with the circuit.

Therefore. which is wound round both legs. 3-2-1-2 Fig 8 The Effect of the Excitation Current in the Bottom Leg Only 19. the resultant flux cutting the pick-off coil.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 18.2 . which is the algebraic sum of the flux in the top and bottom legs is zero as shown in Fig 9. Since the top and bottom legs are identical. ie the flux in the bottom leg is 180° out of phase with the flux in the top leg as shown in Fig 8. the amplitudes of the flux of the two legs are equal but 180° out of phase with each other relative to the pick-off coil. Now considering the bottom leg only.1. the flux induced in this leg by the excitation current will at any instant be in the opposite direction to that induced in the top leg. 3-2-1-2 Fig 9 The Effect of the Excitation Current in Both Legs Page 38 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3.

the emf in the pick-off coil is a measure of H. ie twice the frequency of the excitation current as shown in Fig 10. 3-2-1-2 Fig 10 The Combine Effects of the Excitation Current and the Component of the Earth's Field Page 39 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3.1. The effect. A plot of the amplitude of the pick-off coil output voltage would show that it varies as the cosine of the magnetic heading. Therefore. The emf induced in the pick-off coil is proportional to the rate of change of flux cutting the coil and therefore will have a waveform approximating to a sine wave at 800 Hz. ie the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field in line with the spoke.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. It has been found by experiment that the amplitude of the emf is proportional to H. the excitation current is biased further from the mid-point of the hysteresis curve. Therefore.2. This should be apparent from Fig 10 in that. if a greater H is detected. If the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field (H) is now added in line with the spoke. which is the algebraic sum of the fluxes in the top and bottom legs. it will induce a steady flux in both legs of the spoke which will be added to the flux due to the excitation current. on the B-H curve by an amount equal to H. will be to bias the datum for the magnetizing force. will no longer be zero but will have a resultant proportional in amplitude to heading. The resultant flux cutting the pick-off coil. a greater resultant flux exists which will induce an emf of greater amplitude in the pick-off coil. and the imbalance between the upper and lower leg fluxes will increase. as shown in Fig 10. The strength of the excitation current is so arranged that the effect of the introduction of the Earth’s magnetic field component is to bring the flux density curves in Fig 10 onto the saturation part of the hysteresis curve. due to the excitation current.2 .

The resultant field across the receiver stator is still aligned with H (see Fig 13).2. For any other value of flux (other than zero).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. even though the heading may remain unchanged. Limitations of the Simple Single Spoke Detector.1. It should be apparent that there are two magnetic headings corresponding to zero flux (90° and 270°) and two headings corresponding to a maximum flux. there will be four headings corresponding to a single voltmeter reading. This ambiguity is overcome by using a fluxvalve having three spokes (each spoke similar to the single spoked device previously discussed) with 120° separation as shown in Fig 11. Regardless of the heading. This limitation is overcome in the three-spoke fluxvalve because the flux associated with each spoke will change in proportion to the change in H.2 . The simple one-spoke detector suffers from another limitation in that the value of H changes with magnetic latitude. 3-2-1-2 Fig 11 Detector Unit and Transmission System . The two maximum values give the same reading on an AC voltmeter since the instrument cannot take into account the direction of the voltage. at least two of the spokes will have a voltage induced and their vector sum points to magnetic North (see Fig 12).schematic Page 40 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. This produces a change in the static flux linking the spoke.

2.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 12 Operation of the Three-spoke Fluxvalve 3-2-1-2 Fig 13 Eliminating Latitude Ambiguity Page 41 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3.1.

2. A null seeking rotor will follow this field change since it remains at right angles to the field and may be used to transmit any change in aircraft heading.2 . This is achieved by means of the transmission system.1. The voltage induced in the fluxvalve pick-off coils cause a current to flow along the connecting lines to the receiver stator (see Fig 14). It is now necessary to convey this heading information from the detector unit to those positions in the aircraft where the information is required. The three arms of the fluxvalve are wound with secondary or pick-off coils which are star connected. A field is set up across the receiver stator in a direction determined by the resolution of the current flowing in each of the receiver stator coils. It has been shown that the resultant field produced by the three pick-off coils is directly related to the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. When the pattern of current flow changes in the receiver stator. The flux induced in the upper core of the spoke is equal and opposite to that induced in the lower core and this is exactly the effect produced by the primary windings in the simple fluxvalve. This increases the static flux and therefore the induced voltage. In the three-spoke fluxvalve a single primary coil excites all six cores. 3-2-1-2 Fig 14 Action of the Fluxvalve and Transmission System Page 42 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. The exciter coil is fed with 400 Hz single-phase current so that each of the three pick-off coils has an emf at 800 Hz induced in it whose amplitude is proportional to the magnetic heading of the aircraft. it will be apparent that the top and the bottom of the exciter coil have opposite polarity. If a single arm of the fluxvalve is considered. The Transmission/Display System 23. Each core of the fluxvalve is fitted with a flux collector horn to concentrate the Earth’s lines of force through the core.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 22. The fluxvalve can be likened to a control transmitter where the transmitter rotor field is represented by the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. as a result of the effects of a heading change in the fluxvalve. 24. the direction of the induced field will change accordingly.

If the aircraft alters heading to starboard. The outputs from the second and third fluxvalve spokes may be wired to the second and third receiver stator coils respectively or vice versa. The errors discussed under this section are limited to those evident in a magnetic compass system without gyroscopic azimuth stabilization. It can be said at this point that those errors are present to some extent even in gyro-magnetic compass systems. Such a system is illustrated in Fig 15.2 . HEADING ERRORS INDUCED BY THE FLUXVALVE General 26.1. Page 43 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:40 2002 Heading 3. ie the fluxvalve is connected directly to the indicator. In this case a compass needle must rotate clockwise (therefore 2 to 3 and 3 to 2). the following discussion considers a single system without compensation or refinement of any sort apart from deviation correction. the field across the fluxvalve (which always points to magnetic North) will rotate in an anti-clockwise direction. This approach will simplify the presentation of the errors associated only with the fluxvalve without having to consider gyro behaviour.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 25. but a card rotating against a stationary lubber line must rotate anti-clockwise in which case the second and third fluxvalve spokes are attached to their respective receiver stator coils. The wiring will depend on whether it is necessary to drive a compass needle or a compass card. Since most compass systems in use have refinements which to some extent compensate the errors outlined here.

28. Only the horizontal component (H) threads the fluxvalve spokes to produce this result. ie only detecting the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field (H). The fluxvalve will provide a correct output of magnetic heading only if the detecting element is maintained in the local horizontal plane. During manoeuvres the accelerations. At this stage it is sufficient to note that even small tilts can cause significant errors in heading.2 . 2 and 3 are such that they produce component magnetic fields in the error detector which compound to produce a resultant magnetic field in a direction indicating magnetic North. 3-2-1-2 Fig 16 Indication of Magnetic North 3-2-1-2 Fig 17 Effect of a Gross Tilt to Port Page 44 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 15 Simple Remote Indicating Compass Detector Tilt Error 27. The currents induced in spokes 1.1. Fig 16 illustrates a fluxvalve fitted in an aircraft on a heading of magnetic North.2. and hence the tilts and errors. can be quite large. Any vertical component of the Earth’s field (Z) linked through the fluxvalve coils will cause an error in the output heading. accelerations act upon the fluxvalve which tilt it slightly and small errors result. In ostensibly straight and level flight.

in this case the component in spoke 1 remains unchanged while that in 2 increases and 3 decreases. 3-2-1-2 Fig 18 Effect of Change of Dip 3-2-1-2 Fig 19 Effect of Direction of Tilt Page 45 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 29. The resultant field in the error detector is displaced and an error in heading results. 30. At intermediate tilts the error would be less. In Fig 17 the fluxvalve is tilted through 90° to port.2 . if the case at Fig 17 is repeated with a different dip. In Fig 18 the dip is increased. the components threading the spokes will alter.1. Therefore.2. thereby increasing the error and reversing one component in this particular case. The induced currents in the spokes change as the components of the total field through them change. In this case the direction of magnetic North is rotated anti-clockwise and the heading indication is an over reading. The error also depends on magnetic dip for.

Direction of tilt. c. The intensity of the resultant field increases but the direction remains the same. In this case the flux flow through each spoke changes but the proportion of one to the other remains unchanged. if the tilt exceeds 90° − dip. Magnetic dip (δ) 3-2-1-2 Fig 20 Tilt Exceeds 90 deg minus Dip 3-2-1-2 Fig 21 Typical Errors in Magnetic Heading Due to Tilt Page 46 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 31. the error produced by tilting depends on the following factors: a. Angle of tilt b.2 .1. A second case exists in which the tilt is in the opposite sense as in Fig 20. Fig 19 shows how a tilt in the direction of the total field may produce no error.2. 32. Here. The direction of tilt relative to the total field is also important. the flux flow in each spoke is reversed and the error is 180°. Therefore.

The fluxvalve magnetic heading is compared with gyro heading at an error detection device. If the two headings are not equal. This precession continues until the two headings are equal and the correct heading is displayed. THEORY OF THE GYRO-MAGNETIC COMPASS General 34. Since gyro heading is displayed. the bigger the tilt and the dip.1.2 . The incorporation of a gyro introduces a number of new errors in the heading output of the system. Coriolis accelerations. e. An important principle is illustrated here. Central acceleration caused by aircraft turns. A number of factors exist during flight which can cause fluxvalve tilts. Aircraft linear acceleration. Page 47 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:41 2002 Heading 3. Any tendency for the gyro to drift away from its alignment datum may be checked by slaving it to the fluxvalve when the aircraft is straight and level. d. uncorrected and uncompensated gyro-magnetic compass system. an error signal is developed. but these errors are more than offset by the improvement in accuracy which results from having an accurate mechanical datum about which any change of heading may be measured. these include: a. the displayed heading must also be in error. Vehicle movement (rhumb line) acceleration. Mechanization 35. These are discussed in paras 44-49. if an error exists in gyro heading. Gross errors occur when tilt is greater than 90 − δ due to field reversal (see para 31).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Typical values of the error in the fluxvalve output are shown against the direction θ of the axis of tilt for various values of tilt in Fig 21. 33. amplified and used to precess the gyro. In general. The simple schematic at Fig 22 shows a basic. Fluxvalve vibration. c. a gyro must be added to the system. To overcome the inaccuracies in magnetic heading obtained from a tilted fluxvalve. b. the larger the error.2.

37. A problem exists when very large errors occur. Three methods of accomplishing the task are as follows: a. 38.2. the gyro precession rate (Wc) is proportional to ε. If the system were mechanized to provide an adequate rate of precession for small errors. The common solution to the precession mechanization problem is a compromise between the step function and the linear function techniques .1. b. the limited linear technique. For example. When the system is initially switched on. Step function (bang-bang) correction. In a gyro-magnetic compass system in which the gyro is controlled by the limited linear concept. The step function correction technique requires the gyro-fluxvalve error signal (ε) to be removed at a fixed rate (Wc) whenever it is generated (see Fig 23a).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 36. The linear correction technique (Fig 23b) appears to be ideal since the correction rate (Wc) is proportional to the error signal (ε). where ε is ≤ 2°. ie for small errors. Therefore. gyro precession rates are proportional to the error signal for small discrepancies. The method of mechanizing the gyro precession loop is of extreme importance.2 . For example. modern gyro magnetic compasses commonly use the random gyro azimuth technique in which the gyro spin axis can point in any direction relative to magnetic North or aircraft heading. the purely linear system also has its limitations. Limited linear function correction. 39. in Fig 23c. Not only is such a system difficult to engineer. however Wc cannot exceed 2° per min regardless of the size of ε 3-2-1-2 Fig 23 Gyro Correction Techniques Page 48 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. Linear function correction 3-2-1-2 Fig 22 Basic Gyro-magnetic Compass c. but gyro behaviour suffers severely from nodding or nutation and secondary precession. 180° would demand an excessive precession rate. 180° can exist between gyro and magnetic heading.namely the method shown in Fig 23c. small torques are applied and vice versa.

1. Therefore. As the rotor approaches the null. when the receiver rotor is lying in the null position. therefore. Typical Gyro Slaving Mechanization.2. τ is referred to as the time constant of the system. The implementation of a typical limited linear control is illustrated in the block diagram at Fig 24 and the schematic at Fig 25. It would require approximately 5τ to remove all the error in a step error function. is arranged to be proportional to the error. if a high quality gyro with a low real drift rate is incorporated. Since the compass needle is driven by the gyro.2 . the gyro should be less closely tied to the fluxvalve and a large time constant anticipated.5 minutes.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 40. the error will reduce exponentially until at the end of 5τ (10 mins) the error is effectively reduced to zero. If an error occurs between gyro and fluxvalve. 42. As the gyro precesses. The current flowing through the precession coil will also reduce. if τ is substituted for K and it has the dimension of time (commonly minutes). Therefore. the currents induced in the spokes of the fluxvalve are passed to a receiver synchro (CT) and produce a field across the rotor from which the aircraft magnetic heading can be determined. the fluxvalve. for the linear portion of the curve. If the compass system contains a poor quality gyro. 41. gyro and compass needle will all be correctly aligned. Since the error reduces exponentially. the dimension of K must be time. for an initial error of 2° and a τ of 2 minutes. Notice that t does not express explicitly the time to correct a given error since the rate of correction reduces as the error reduces so it takes much longer than τ minutes to correct the error. 3-2-1-2 Fig 24 Compass Block Diagram Page 49 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. a short τ should be anticipated. This rotational torque will be translated through 90° by the gyro and will cause it to precess in azimuth. If the rotor is not at right angles to the field set up by the stator coils. Conversely. The rate of precession in a limited linear system is controlled by the amplified error signal and. Significance of τ. " = Wc ¿ Therefore if ε = 2° and τ = 0. The authority of the fluxvalve over the gyro is effectively controlled by τ. a current will flow through the precession coils setting up a magnetic field which will set up a force on the permanent magnet. t directly gives the time it takes to remove 63% of the error. the current flowing in it will reduce. Therefore. Time Constant.5 min Wc = Obviously the larger the time constant. therefore the rate of gyro precession decreases as the error diminishes. the rotor will be misaligned causing a current to flow in it which is fed to the precession coil to correct the gyro. the rotor is repositioned by mechanical feedback until eventually it reaches its null position. it would be expected that any discrepancy between gyro and fluxvalve was caused by the gyro. If Wc is in degrees per minute and ε is in degrees. the slower is the rate of precession. the rate of precession multiplied by a constant is equal to the gyro-fluxvalve discrepancy of WcK = ε (degrees). The electrical output of the rotor is taken to the gyro azimuth precession coils which are threaded by a permanent magnet. assuming small errors. the rate of precession (Wc) is given by: " 2± = = 4± per min ¿ 0.

the field strength across the receiver stator will be reduced and the rotor current flow for any given misalignment will decrease. Therefore. the size of the currents transmitted to the receiver synchro are smaller. Since τ changes with H field strength. Although the direction of the resolved voltages remains the same. However.2.1. As the H field strength decreases due to northward movement. An increase in τ will make the system sluggish and will also tend to magnify any hang-off error present (see para 50). Fig 26 illustrates the relationship between H field strength and gyro precession rate in a typical compass system.2 . the H field strength must be quoted with τ to make τ meaningful. Since the amount of torque applied to the gyro azimuth precession device depends on rotor current.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 25 Typical Gyro Slaving Mechanization (Simplified Schematic) 43. if the aircraft is operating at high latitudes. The H field strength at Greenwich is the common datum quoted by British gyro-magnetic compass system manufacturers. the precession will also decrease. the fluxvalve is less reliable due to the reduction of H field strength and an automatic increase of τ is acceptable. The reduction in gyro correction rate with a decrease of H field strength (or an increase in magnetic latitude) results in effectively the same phenomenon as would be achieved by increasing τ. the amplitudes of the voltages induced in the fluxvalve spokes are reduced proportionally. The Change in τ with H. Page 50 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3.

latitude. Page 51 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. and can be compensated automatically. The error is calculable. All of the horizontal accelerations which cause fluxvalve tilt can cause heading errors in a simple uncompensated gyro-magnetic compass system. little of the error is displayed since the time spent in the turn is minimal. Fluxvalve induced errors due to tilt can be limited by switching the system to an unslaved directional gyro mode whenever turns are sensed by suitable detection devices. dip and track. linear changes of velocity and fluxvalve vibrations. Accelerations are caused by coriolis. The errors decay after level flight is resumed. 45. The rate of heading error incorporation depends on the limiting precession rate and the length of τ. When established on a given heading for approximately 5τ the entire error would be included in the gyro-magnetic compass heading display. depending on groundspeed. An aircraft flying relative to a spherical rotating Earth flies a curved path in space and in consequence there will be a central force acting to displace the pendulously suspended fluxvalve. The amplitude of the displayed heading error in a gyro-magnetic compass due to co-ordinated aircraft turns is less than that shown in Fig 21.2 .1. Slow prolonged turns at high speeds generate the greatest errors. aircraft turns. Turning Error. Although a high rate of turn in a fast aircraft would show the greatest fluxvalve heading error.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 26 Effect of a Change in H on the Time Constant GYRO-MAGNETIC COMPASS SYSTEM ERRORS Fluxvalve Tilt Error 44. Coriolis Error. Fluxvalve induced heading errors will not appear immediately in the displayed heading of a gyro-magnetic compass. 46.2. vehicle movement (rhumb line).

This tilts the fluxvalve which rotates the meridian to port. To remove this error variation must be applied to the output of the detector unit before the gyro error loop so that both the gyro and fluxvalve give directional information relative to true North. The cyclic pattern is repeated and the amplitude can be as great as 6°. To compensate for transport wander due to the convergence of geographic meridians the gyro must be corrected at a rate equal to: U tan lat± /hr where U = East-West groundspeed 60 The correction can be applied manually or through a computer using inputs of groundspeed.1. the fluxvalve senses the true meridian and starts to precess the gyro towards it. if an aircraft on North banks to starboard to correct a small error. upon resuming level flight. Real Drift. the sensor detects the true meridian again and precesses the gyro to starboard. However although the gyro can be compensated in this way for the apparent change in the direction of geographic North. the magnetic meridian rotates in the same direction. automatically from a computer using GPI latitude. Although the error disappears when Page 52 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:42 2002 Heading 3. 48. A correction can be applied in a similar manner to the coriolis error. Whenever flying a true or magnetic rhumb line the aircraft must turn to maintain a constant track with reference to converging meridians. Northerly Instability 49. Another way of looking at this is to imagine that the magnetic meridian rotates clockwise. As with coriolis error. Gyro drift may be due to: a. Vehicle Movement Error. Transport Wander. The aircraft continues to turn and eventually reaches the false meridian.2. say 51° N. The amplitude of the weave tends to increase with an increase in dip and aircraft velocity. Northerly instability or weaving is a heading oscillation experienced in high speed aircraft attempting to fly straight and level at or near a heading of magnetic North. the acceleration displaces the detector from the local horizontal plane and the entire resultant heading error would appear in the displayed heading after about 5τ. The latter technique employs a mass imbalance in the gyro which constantly precesses the gyro at a predetermined rate. at any given time there must be an increment of error present. stand-off error. The new false meridian is chased until. the output from the fluxvalve is in terms of magnetic North. Thus. Apparent azimuth gyro drift due to Earth rotation can be countered by correcting the gyro at a rate of 15 sin lat° /hr. However this leads to a sluggish response and a large hang-off error (para 50). Gimbal Error 51. Therefore as the aircraft moves over the Earth there will be a difference between fluxvalve and gyro since the variation is changing (unless the aircraft is flying along an isogonal). thereby inducing a heading error at the outer gimbal pick-off. the gyro would eventually be precessed to the erroneous fluxvalve mean heading. Fluxvalve vibration results in a heading oscillation. or simply as velocity lag. b. the mean of which is not the actual mean heading. Weaving can thus be reduced to a certain extent by increasing the time constant of the compass system. heading and latitude. Gyroscopic drift is a constant source of error signal in a gyro-magnetic compass system. The incidence of this error depends upon the angle of bank and the angular difference between the spin axis and the longitudinal axis and as in most systems the spin axis direction is arbitrary relative to North the error is not easily predicted. and although it will be compensated for by the precession loop at a rate dependent on τ. Failure to update the variation value will result in small hang-off errors. Hang-off Error 50. Since the gyro slaving loop tends to average fluxvalve headings over a period of time. the outer gimbal must rotate to maintain orientation of the rotor axis. The effect can be limited to small values by careful design of the pendulous detector damping mechanism and through consideration of the location of the detector in the aircraft. The correction can be supplied through a manually set latitude correction mechanism. Real drift can only be reduced by the incorporation of a high quality azimuth gyro having a low real drift rate. The value of variation can be inserted manually or by means of an automatic variation setting control unit. Starboard bank of the aircraft induces starboard tilt.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 47. The indicated heading changes and the aircraft is banked to port to regain a northerly indicated heading. When a 2 degree of freedom gyroscope with a horizontal spin axis is both banked and rolled. c. and decreases with an increase in τ. or through a constantly biased gyro. Earth Rate. This is known variously as hang-off error. usually to compensate for an appropriate latitude for the aircraft's area of operation. On levelling out. and this causes an under reading of the heading. Fluxvalve Vibration.

25° A Refined Compass System 55. but they might be considered to vary between 0. Transmission Errors 52. It is not possible to obtain absolute accuracy in compass swinging. The computer supplies the quantities for Earth rate and meridian convergence to the error detector. Setting of variation and deviation is likely to be accurate to 0. Note that corrections may be made “up” or “down” stream of the gyro or a combination of both.5°. Page 53 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3. producing a small error in computed position. The following description applies to Fig 27: a.1.1° and 2°. Therefore. it will have accumulated in any GPI equipment. the rate of gyro drift sensed is reduced considerably and hang-off results from only random drift.2°. and even refined methods are considered to be only accurate to 0.1° with an overall system error of perhaps 0. Overall system accuracy is lowered by the errors in the synchro systems.2. 3-2-1-2 Fig 27 Ideal Gyro-magnetic Compass b. Over the UK the uncertainty at height is considered to be within 1° but the value varies both with height and locality. This shows in a compass swing as a D or E error. Variation and Deviation Errors 54. The corrections for coriolis and vehicle movement are applied at the fluxvalve by reducing or increasing the output from the athwartships spokes. Different methods of correction are possible for some of the errors depending on the whims of the individual manufacturer and the users considerations of experience and accuracy. Compass Swinging Errors 53. Hang-off. There are no reliable statistical data on the errors in charted values of variation. Fig 27 depicts some of the methods of error reduction. Coriolis and Vehicle Movement Accelerations. there are disadvantages to all approaches.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the aircraft is levelled.2 . 56. Typically each synchro might be expected to a have an error in the order of 0.

3-2-1-2 Fig 23a Step Function 3-2-1-2 Fig 23b Linear Function Page 54 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3. e. Gimbal error is eliminated by the use of a vertical gyro coupled with four gimbal suspension to keep the azimuth gyro and the azimuth pick-off synchro horizontal. Gimbal Error.2. Operation on DG.2 . Coefficient D and E. The fluxvalve monitor and the computer rate of change variation are cut out when on DG. thus reducing weaving. for variable H.1. d. Northerly Instability. the error in the gyro correction terms and the statistical error ie transmission error. A compensation is applied to counter coefficients D and E. Variable gain in the precession amplifier maintains the value of τ constant. The accuracy of the heading then depends on random drift error. f.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-1-2 Fig 23c Limited Linear Function Heading Page 55 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:43 2002 Heading 3.1.2.3 .

Although installations will vary slightly between aircraft types. Deviation Bar.3 . c. Heading Index. the compass card. employing a coloured liquid crystal display. The card is graduated at 5° intervals and is marked alphanumerically at 30° intervals with the numerical annotations being in tens of degrees. and rotates with. Compass Select Flag. A heading index registers against the outside edge of.Horizontal Situation Indicators Introduction 1. The reciprocal of the track set is indicated by a track index tail on the centre display assembly. The index can be manually set relative to the compass card by a selector knob at the lower right-hand corner of the instrument. The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is an instrument for displaying both the compass system and the radio navigation aids in an aircraft (usually TACAN and VOR/ILS). Heading is indicated at the top of the display by a rotating compass card moving against a fixed 'V' lubber mark.2. A track index. Display and Features 2. A deviation bar and a fixed scale of two dots either side of a centre index are on the centre display assembly. The bar moves left or right of the centre index to indicate deviation from the selected track when TACAN or ILS Page 56 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. and rotates with. b. Heading. registers against the inside edge of. The selector knob is marked with a symbol representing the track index. An electronic version.1. The index can be manually set relative to the compass card by a select heading knob which is marked with a symbol representing the heading index and is located at the lower left-hand corner of the instrument. d. a typical conventional display is illustrated in Fig 1 and the features are described below: 3-2-1-3 Fig 1 Horizontal Situation Indicator a. When the compass system is set to the directional gyro mode the compass select flag appears with the letters DG displayed. A 3-digit display of the selection is given on a track (COURSE) counter at the top right of the display.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Chapter 3 . e. functions in a similar manner and is able to handle more services. Track Index and Counter. the compass card. which is on the centre display assembly.

3 . a TACAN radial set on the track index and the bearing pointer locked on to a TACAN beacon. TACAN Range. TACAN. Operation of the controls annotated on Fig 2 may depend upon the mode selected. for example.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 information is selected. Fig 2 shows a typical instrument in VOR mode. l. In different installations. ILS Localizer or TACAN Bearing Warning. 6. It receives inputs from the aircraft compass. the EHSI is also linked to the hovermeter.2. Displays and Controls. The pointer is driven by the ILS equipment and indicates the vertical position of the ILS glidepath relative to the aircraft. There is a slight ratchet effect to give positive feel. i. ELECTRONIC HSI (EHSI) Description 3. In most cases. Heading Select Knob. The TACAN bearing and radial are also displayed when ILS is selected. the numbered items described in the key are displayed only when the appropriate inputs are valid. A brief description of each is given below. A yellow bar obscures the counter when range information is invalid. When first switched on or after a power break the EHSI will have no mode indicated in the bottom right hand corner. VOR/ILS and. The 'to' flag is displayed whenever the bearing from the TACAN is less than 90° from the selected TACAN radial. c. The knob is normally disabled 5 sec after its last rotation. Glidepath Deviation Pointer. Two triangular indicator windows. The 'to' window is adjacent to the track index and the 'from' window is adjacent to the tail of the track index. An orange flag with black diagonal stripes appears when the power to the HSI has failed or when an invalid signal is transmitted from the compass system. 'to' and 'from' are on the centre display assembly. Heading Select Pushbutton. TACAN Bearing. Power Failure Warning. The EHSI can be configured to provides more information than the HSI and employs a colour active matrix liquid crystal display. a white flag is displayed in the 'to' or 'from' window. The relevant Aircrew Manual will set out the precise operation of the system. To/From Indication. rotating the Heading Select Knob sets the heading bug. The tail of the pointer indicates the TACAN radial. With TACAN selected. Pushing the TM switch associated with the instrument configured for ILS will transfer the ILS information to the other instrument. A red flag appears below the COURSE counter when the ILS localizer or the TACAN bearing information is invalid. Track Select Knob. When enabled by the Track Select Pushbutton. Conversely the 'from' flag shows white whenever the bearing from the TACAN beacon is 90° or more from the selected TACAN radial. Mode Select Panel 4. b. g.1. eg if the pointer is above the circle the aircraft is below the glidepath. h. depending on aircraft fit. A red flag appears above the glidepath deviation scale when the glidepath information is invalid.1 sec is required to enable the Heading Select Knob. UHF and VHF homers and specialist navigational aids. a. In helicopters. When enabled by the Heading Select Pushbutton. Therefore. the TACAN radial can be set on one instrument and the ILS QDM on the other. Glidepath Warning. Displays 5. rotation of the Track Select Knob allows the track Page 57 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. Range to a TACAN or DME beacon in nautical miles is shown on a 3-digit counter at the upper left corner of the instrument. The bar indicates the relative position of the chosen track as selected by the track index. k. The magnetic bearing to a TACAN ground beacon is indicated by a green pointer head when read against the compass card. j. A Transfer Mode (TM) switch enables the course selector display of one instrument to be transferred to the other. f. A mode select panel will be available to each pilot position with buttons for selection of each available feature. display colours may vary depending upon which mode is selected. A positive press of the Heading Select Pushbutton of at least 0. A pointer to the left of the compass card moves over a fixed vertical scale consisting of two dots above and two dots below a circle (representing the aircraft).

The sensor automatically adjusts the display brightness in daylight.4. Track Select Pushbutton. The ar rowhead on the single bar pointer indicates the bearing of the TACAN station locked on. the symbol represents aircraft orientation against the steering pointer or deviation bar. Positive feel is given by a slight ratchet effect. The knob is automatically disabled 5 sec after its last rotation. e.Lubber Line. The associated track digital readout (10) follows the pointer setting.Single Bar Pointer (TACAN Bearing).9. The pointer clears if a TACAN station is not locked on or if the compass input fails.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 pointer to be set to the required track.Compass Card. 3-2-1-3 Fig 2 EHSI . The cross end of the Track Pointer indicates th Page 58 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Heading 3. The aircraft symbol is always aligned pointing towards the heading lubber line at the top of the instrument.1. Functionality. When not locked on. The heading bug is set by the Heading Select Knob to indicate the required heading.Double Bar Pointer (VOR Bearing).3. T he compass card indicates gyro-compass heading in conjunction with the lubber line (2).8. d.1 sec is required to enable the Heading Select Knob. The display clears wh en there is no source data or if the compass input fails. Most coloured symbols are cleared when the service is not activated or the compass input fails. Aircraft Symbol. The direction fr om which the wind is blowing is shown by a yellow diamond.2. one click of the ratchet equating to 1 degree change in selected track. The appropriate Aircrew Manual should be consulted for precise details. The card rotates clockwise as the aircra ft turns left. The key to Fig 2 describes the numbered indicators shown on the diagram for VOR/ILS mode. The bug clears if the compass input fails.Track (Course) Pointer. Wind speed to the nearest knot is shown by a yellow digital display.VOR Mode Selected 1. The arrowhead on the double bar pointer ind icates the bearing of the VOR station locked on. the card freezes and a red HDG FAIL caption is superimposed.6. If the compass fails.Wind Speed Readout. Mode Displays. h. A positive press of the Track Select Pushbutton of at least 0. The TACAN/DME readout is a digital display which shows the slant range to a lo cked on TACAN or DME station. In other modes the names. f. The lubber line is the index against which heading is shown on the compass card. The pointer clears if the VOR receiver is not locked to a station or if the compa ss input fails.Heading Bug. A separate manually operated dimmer sets the brightness for night operations.3 .5.Wind Direction Indicator.2. Integrated Light Sensor. When a navigation mode is active. functions and colours of the displayed features may change from those depicted. the display shows 4 dashes. The diamond clears when there is no source data or if the compas s input fails.TACAN/DME Range Readout.7. g.

the aircraft compass heading is read with the aid of a Precise Heading Test Set (PHTS) which permits the aircraft heading to be recorded to an accuracy of 0.10. However. and a sighting telescope.11.Datum Compasses Introduction 1. The sighting telescope is sighted along the datum line and the bearing of the line of sight is read off from the bearing plate through a microscope.2.1 . The scale comprises two white dots to the left and right of the centre of the heading p ointer (9) creating a scale over which the Track Deviation Bar (11) moves. Showing Bowden Cable Release Page 59 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:44 2002 Alignment 3. A Mk2 version was produced which improved upon the Mk1 by being partially waterproofed and provided with luminescent ‘Betalights’ for night operation. A further version. The instrument consists essentially of a compass system. The outside dots represent full scale deflection (±10° ).15. 3-2-2-1 Fig 1 Mk1A Instrument. WATTS DATUM COMPASS MK1A Principle 2. The ‘From’ Flag is a white d otted arrowhead which is displayed once the aircraft has passed over or abeam the locked station. following the decision to delete the ‘Betalights’ a revised version. This Chapter will describe only the Watts Datum Compass Mk1A and the PHTS.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 e track selected.Track (Course) Deviation Scale. Objective-End View Showing Tripod Mounting 3-2-2-1 Fig 2 Mk1A Instrument. the intermediate dots indication ±5°. In order to calibrate an aircraft compass system it is necessary to have an accurate heading datum.‘From’ Flag. after which it is replaced by the ‘From’ Flag. However. The deviation bar shows track deviation left or right of that selected on the Track Pointer (9). The sel ected mode (VOR in the example) is displayed provided the service is on and functioning. the Mk1A. The compass system accurately defines the magnetic meridian and the bearing plate is then aligned with. To return t o track. and locked to.13.‘To’ Flag. denotes the model produced for use in industry.Mode Annunciator. A Prismatic or Landing Compass may be used for this purpose.Selected Track (Course) Readout. this meridian.05°.Track (C ourse) Deviation Bar.14.2. where the aircraft compass heading is used as an input to a navigation system this datum is provided by a more accurate Watts Datum Compass. which is normally only graduated at 1° intervals.12. Alignment Chapter 1 . with improved waterproofing and no artificial lighting was developed and this is in general use within the RAF today. a bearing plate. This may be either a Mk1 or Mk1A version. the Mk 3. the aircraft should be turned towards the bar until the bar centralizes and then on to a new heading to keep the bar in the centre. The readout shows the track selected on the Track Pointer (9). The ‘To’ Flag is a white arrowhead which is displayed until the aircraft pas ses over or abeam the locked station. In order to overcome the accuracy limitations of the aircraft compass display. All Marks are similar in operation.

1 . are enclosed within an aluminium body. A three-screw levelling base supports Page 60 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. Side View General 3. with the necessary controls being mounted externally. azimuth circle (bearing plate).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-1 Fig 3 Mk1A Instrument.2. and telescope. Waterproof seals on each joint or orifice. the compass. effectively prevent ingress of moderate rain and allow the instrument to be used in such conditions.2. The three parts of the instrument.

7. The lock does not prevent the use of the Bowden cable release. The magnet which. The compass can be uncaged either by pressing the knob in the centre of the shield.2. On the external face of the compass casing is a metal shield through the centre of which the compass caging control passes. is engaged by turning the knob anti-clockwise. Page 61 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. is not directly visible to the observer. carries an aluminium vane with vertical fine wire filaments at each end. The convex lens is focused on the North filament and so the South filament. The compass is aligned with the magnetic meridian when. is mounted on the same spigot as the compass box and is tilted with it.02° (50% error). for collimation purposes. The compass box is mounted on a horizontal spigot so that it may be tilted to allow for dip. being out of focus. The compass consists of a magnet. the North filament and the image of the South filament reflected in the mirror form one continuous vertical line seen through the convex lens. When all systematic errors have been eliminated the Watts Datum Compass can be aligned to the magnetic meridian to an accuracy of ± 0. A safety lock on the caging knob. with an index mark on its lower edge. in a containing box (Fig 4). 3-2-2-1 Fig 4 Mk1A Compass Box 5. 6.1 . The instrument is illustrated in Figs 1-3. fitted with an artificial sapphire jewel bearing. or by operating a Bowden cable release which can be screwed into the centre of the knob. A mirror above the magnet pivot faces the lens and can. swings between two copper damping blocks.2. A red-painted screw on the shield conceals the access to the mirror adjustment screw. which prevents it from being pressed in. with the magnet on its pivot. only its image in the mirror is apparent. This accuracy will deteriorate in windy conditions since a surface wind speed in excess of about 15 knots will cause vibration of the uncaged compass system. The shield. be moved about its vertical axis by a small adjustment screw. A leaf spring normally keeps the magnet lifted off its pivot and presses its centre boss against a forked bracket above the pivot. In either case the pressure operates a lever which depresses the leaf spring and lowers the magnet on to its pivot.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the body and provides the tripod mounting point for the instrument. Compass 4. The compass can be tilted up to 10° either side of the horizontal position and locked in position by two screws in the shield. The compass box is closed at its North end by a ground glass window and at its South end by a convex lens. when lowered on its pivot.

1 . and the accuracy with which the aircraft compass can be read. but also upon the precision of the instrument alignment with the aircraft’s datum points. 13. The mirror can be tilted by the elevating screw on top of the casing and will allow the line of sight to be varied by 25° in a vertical plane. A green clear glass anti-glare filter may be swung across the eye lens when required. two prisms.2. A sighting graticule. Wind speed in excess of about 15 knots is liable to cause the aircraft to rock and it is inadvisable to attempt an accurate swing under such conditions. 3-2-2-1 Fig 5 Telescope Optical System 9. The instrument can be used if sufficient artificial lighting is available (eg flood lighting) but this is not recommended. telescope. 11. With Page 62 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. Azimuth Circle 12. A fixed focus prismatic telescope enclosed in the main portion of the upper casing is used to define the line of sight. The azimuth circle is made of glass and is graduated at intervals of 0. A soft rubber eyepiece is provided for comfort.1° with every degree mark numbered. The azimuth circle is read against a fixed index line through a variable focus microscope. The telescope optical system (Fig 5) consists of an objective lens looking vertically downwards. 10. and thus they should be avoided whenever possible. This last factor is independent of the datum equipment and is likely to cause the largest error. The accuracy of compass deviation measurements using the Watts Datum Compass depends not only on the accuracy of the datum instrument. The azimuth circle and the upper casing (which covers the compass box. Although the Watts Datum Compass can be used in moderate rain.2. Ambient illumination is provided by a ground glass window situated below the compass system. Beneath the objective lens is an oblique mirror which deflects upwards the light entering the telescope window. is provided for accurate alignment. and reading microscope with its index) are mounted independently on the vertical axis of the instrument and each is provided with a clamp and a tangent screw. consisting of a vertical line with a short crossline in the centre.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Sighting Telescope 8. it is likely that the operator’s performance will be degraded in such conditions. from 5° depression to 20° elevation. The telescope gives an erect image with x 6 magnification and a field of view of 8°. and an eye-piece.

The instrument and accessories rest in moulded compartments within the base and lid. A triangular spring plate retains the base plate to the instrument. where a precision of ± 0. d. while the upper set has milled screw-heads coloured silver.2. The case houses the following accessories (Fig 6): a. and slide along.1 . which is determined using the Watts Datum Compass. the rods of the tripod head. 2 Bowden release cables. can be adjusted by means of lock-nut screws under the level housing. Tripod 17. The dustproof instrument case consists of a green fibreglass box and lockable lid. 14. Instrument Case 16. The under surface of the base plate has a machined flat and groove to register with. most compasses are synchronized by reference to a ·•/+ annunciator or to a rudimentary centre-reading voltmeter. one parallel to the line of sight and the other at right angles to it. The lower casing of the instrument is supported by three levelling screws. in addition to the actual magnetic heading of the aircraft. Plumb line. The spirit levels are sealed against rain. b. 3-2-2-1 Fig 6 Instrument Case and Accessories Page 63 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. It is a cast aluminium plate fitted with a circular spirit level for initial setting-up and has two machined rods to register with the base plate. the ball end of each resting in a corresponding groove in the triangular base plate. A hook is suspended in the hollow handle of the bolt for the attachment of the plumb line. In addition. neither of which is sufficiently accurate. In carrying out a compass swing. The levels. 19.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the upper clamp loose and the lower clamp tightened. it is necessary to know the magnetic heading indicated by the aircraft compass to a high degree of accuracy. Most compass displays are only graduated at 1° intervals and this is unsatisfactory for compass calibration purposes. THE PRECISE HEADING TEST SET Introduction 18.1° is needed. The tripod head provides the platform upon which the instrument is mounted. Graduations on the levels are provided at intervals corresponding to 2 minutes of arc. Base 15. The levelling of the instrument is indicated by two tubular spirit levels mounted on the upper casing to the right of the sighting telescope. When the tripod is not in use. 1 screwdriver. the azimuth circle is fixed to the base of the instrument and the upper casing can be rotated relative to the base of the instrument. It is also essential that the compass system is synchronized before any readings are recorded. a metal protective cap for the head is secured by the bolt and handles are provided for carrying in the closed position. A longitudinal slot through the head carries the captive attachment bolt for the instrument and permits nine inches of lateral adjustment. The tangent screws enable fine adjustments to be made to the locked positions after their respective clamps have been tightened. A hole in the centre of the base plate is threaded to accept the tripod head bolt. In order to differentiate between the two sets of clamps and tangent screws. Abbreviated instructions for the use of the instrument are engraved on a plate inside the lid of the instrument case. c.2. 3 spanners. the lower set has fluted screw-heads coloured yellow.

The voltmeter can be centred by turning a zero-adjuster screw.2.05°. on some compass systems. SYNC. Function Switch. B position is used and selection between B and C voltage displays is made by inserting the red and white probes. c. into the sockets adjacent to the B and C potentiometer correction dials as appropriate. The right-hand window indicates tenths of a degree and can be read to an accuracy of at least 0.1 . thus. B-X3-C. allow the display of the respective DC voltage corrections to the flux valve detector coils set in at the B and C potentiometers of the remote corrector unit. because of the design of the test socket the heading readouts on the PHTS would be 180° removed from the actual heading. The voltmeter is used to read the voltages present at the slaving amplifier annunciator output (ie the state of synchronization) and.05°. only the left-hand. Change-Over Switch. A five position function selector switch is mounted above the voltmeter. On some compass systems. In either case the voltage indicated is one third of the actual voltage (as implied by the X3 marking). Centre-reading Voltmeter. and an accurate centre-reading voltmeter. B-X3-C and B-X1-C.2. which are part of the test harness. The PHTS is in the form of a hinged rectangular box which opens to reveal the controls and indicators (Fig 7). The Precise Heading Test Set (PHTS) is designed to overcome these shortcomings by providing a display of compass heading by means of veeder counters which can be read to 0. On other compass systems. Controls and Indicators 21. On some compass systems. There are two switch positions against the B-X3-C marking and the use of this switch depends on the type of compass being calibrated. the compass is synchronized. These two switch positions operate in the same manner as the B-X3-C function except that the displayed voltage equates to the actual correction voltage set in at the potentiometers rather than one third of the value.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. Heading Counters. The left half of the PHTS has two windows displaying a veeder counter indication of compass heading. 23. When SYNC is selected. an indication of 2 volts represents an actual measurement of 6 volts. The right-hand half of the PHTS contains a centre-reading voltmeter whose scale is graduated 3-0-3. 22. 24. The two-position change over switch permits this anomaly to be Page 64 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:45 2002 Alignment 3. the two positions. The left-hand window indicates whole degrees of compass heading from 000° to 359°. B and C. the facilities provided by these positions are: a. b. the voltages present at the adjustable potentiometers in the remote correction unit (ie the deviation correction voltages for coefficients B and C being fed to the flux valve detector coils). The positions are marked SYNC. for example. the voltmeter shows the DC voltage output from the slaving amplifier. B-X1-C. ie when the needle is central. there is also a calibration certificate and a calibration graph which allows corrections for instrument error to be made to the heading counter readings.

2. 3-2-2-1 Fig 7 Precise Heading Test Set Alignment Chapter 2 . decrease. and the direction of the horizontal component of the resultant field. Chapters 3 and 4 will outline the method used to determine the magnitude of. with aircraft heading. a different cable harness is required for each type of compass.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 corrected if necessary. Because of the variation in the position and type of test sockets on the various compass systems. is known as deviation. and with the passage of time. depending on whether the resultant field direction is to the East or West of the Earth's field.Magnetic Compass Deviations Introduction 1. or act to deviate this directive force. Fluxvalve units use only the H component to sense the direction of the local magnetic meridian. a horizontal component (H) and a vertical component (Z) as shown in Fig 1. 3-2-2-2 Fig 1 The Earth's Magnetic Field Resolved Page 65 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3. The Z component is significant only in that it contributes to the magnetism induced in the magnetic material of the aircraft. Results of the calibration are recorded in the form of a graph on the front of the left-hand half of the set. Deviation can vary with the position of the sensor in the aircraft. A magnetic sensor influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field will detect the direction of that field at its position. the angle of inclination being known as dip. It will as a result indicate the direction of the resultant of the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic field produced by the aircraft and experienced at the sensor position. The difference between the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's field. Two sockets. Corrections to be applied to the PHTS heading counter readings should be extracted from this graph and applied to each reading. these errors. Test Cable Harness. with change of geographical position of the aircraft. and H can therefore be considered to be the directive force acting upon the sensor. If installed in an aircraft. It is annotated 'East (positive)' or 'West (negative)'.2 . 25. Reference should be made to the precedures for the particular aircraft/compass system to ensure that the correct cable harness is used. are provided to allow connection of the set to the compass system by means of a cable harness. Like all items of test equipment. and reduce. Other horizontal magnetic fields will increase. one on each half of the PHTS. the PHTS must be calibrated at regular intervals. Except at the magnetic equator the Earth's magnetic field is inclined to the Earth's surface. The total field (T) can be resolved into two components. the sensor will also be influenced by the numerous magnetic fields associated with the aircraft. The Earth's Magnetic Field 2. Calibration 26. This chapter will review the causes of deviation. ie compass swinging.

4.2. an X component along the fore-and-aft axis and a Y component acting athwartships. It is usual and satisfactory to consider only the situation of the aircraft in a level attitude in which case the three components.Y.Y and Z components are considered positive when acting forward. and for any given geographical location the X and Y components vary with aircraft heading (eg the whole of the H component will equate to a positive or negative X component when the aircraft is aligned with the magnetic meridian.see Fig 2).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3. X. 3-2-2-2 Fig 2 Change in the Magnitude of the X and Y Components with Change of Heading Page 66 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3. or to a positive or negative Y component when the aircraft is at 90° to the meridian . By convention the X.2 . and Z. correspond to the three major aircraft axes.2. The values of H and Z vary with magnetic latitude. starboard and downward respectively. The H component can itself be resolved into two components relative to the aircraft axes.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The Aircraft's Magnetic Field 5. Although permanent magnetism can change slowly with time. servicing. Hard Iron.2 . P. a permanent field and a temporary field. The hard iron field at the sensor position is therefore constant in strength and direction relative to the aircraft axes. in order to make a reasonable analysis of the effect of aircraft magnetism on the Earth's field. 7. The Effect of the Hard Iron Field 8. it is convenient to make a somewhat arbitrary division of the magnetism into two constituents. 3-2-2-2 Fig 3 Resolution to the Hard Iron Field Page 67 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3. the hard iron. Soft Iron. the effect is as if a permanent magnet were fixed to the aircraft. Q and R. and rather more rapidly as the result of a lightning strike. The many elements of hard iron together form a permanent magnetic field of irregular shape. each of which will have a different intensity of magnetization and a different capacity to retain magnetism. or during the flying. The temporary magnetism may be induced by the Earth's field.2. Magnetic material in which temporary magnetism is induced while in the presence of external fields is described as soft iron. or structural testing of the aircraft. However. due to what is known as hard iron and soft iron respectively. but with an orientation relative to the aircraft axes that does not change with heading. electrical currents. Y and Z components of the Earth's field. The effects of electrical currents and payload is reduced to negligible proportions by the careful selection of the sensor position. aligned with the aircraft axes as shown in Fig 3.2. and weapons or cargo. analogous to the X. An aircraft's magnetic field is derived from innumerable pieces of magnetic material. This magnetism may have been acquired during manufacture. This field can be resolved into three component vectors. Magnetic components of instruments permanently installed in the aircraft are included in the general designation hard iron. Magnetic material of the aircraft structure which has acquired permanent magnetism is described as hard iron. 6. these changes are ignored in the general consideration of compass deviation.

2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 4 Deviating Effect of +P 3-2-2-2 Fig 5 Graphs of Deviation due to P Page 68 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:46 2002 Alignment 3.2.2.

ie in the form of a cosine function (Fig 7): ±µ = ± max £ cos µ where δθ = deviation on heading θ and δmax = deviation on heading 000° or 180° 3-2-2-2 Fig 6 Deviating Effect of +Q Page 69 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 9.2.2 . The variation of the deviation due to P is in the form of a sine function as shown in Fig 5. ie: ±µ = ± max £ sin µ where δθ = deviation on heading θ and δmax = deviation on heading 090° or 270° 10. is to produce zero deviation on East and West and maximum deviation on North and South (Fig 6). The effect of the athwartships vector. will have the greatest deviating effect on H when the aircraft is on an East or West heading. Q. P.2. on North or South the vector merely changes the magnitude of the directive force (Fig 4). The fore-and-aft vector.

2 . exercises no deviating effect when the aircraft is in a level attitude.2. R.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 7 Graphs of Deviation due to Q 11.2. Page 70 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3. The vertical component.

The heading of the aircraft. 16. These are constant for any given aircraft. of the soft iron. the field induced by the hard iron in the soft iron is constant. c. and kZ) need no further consideration. As the hard iron field is constant relative to the airframe. and the soft iron can be considered as a single fixed block. Once coefficient B has been determined. the components X. However the soft iron field will distort the hard iron field.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The Soft Iron Field 12. and the horizontal components of these fields will act as deviating forces at the sensor.2 . together with the six soft iron horizontal components (aX. dX. Coefficients 15. each of which exhibit a sinusoidal variation with heading. hY.2. the component is annotated positive if it acts forward or starboard on aircraft headings in the North-West quadrant. the vertical hard iron component (R).2. bY. and as as the vector representing each of these fields can be resolved into three component vectors coincident with the aircraft axes. The product of this maximum deviation in degrees and the appropriate trigonometrical function of heading will give the deviation produced by that pair on that heading. The two hard iron horizontal components (P and Q). which is the dominant effect. The amount. The maximum deviation is termed a coefficient and is assigned an identifying letter to indicate the pair of components to which it refers. The total deviation due to P and cZ is the algebraic sum of the deviation due to P and cZ separately. Y. and the vertical soft iron components (gX. and by the hard iron field. for components X and Y Table 1 Soft Iron Components Inducing Field Soft Iron Field Components Fore-and-af Athwartships t aX dX bY eY cZ fZ Vertical gX hY kZ X Y Z 14. Each is given a two letter designator as shown in Table 1. Thus the total deviation will depend on the magnitude and sign of the constituents. of the Earth's total field. Coefficient B. X. there are a total of nine soft iron components. The geographical location. of the Earth's field is considered to induce a soft iron field. eY. b. 13. As each of the three components. As the inclination and total Earth field strength (T) vary with position. The size of the deviation for any particular pair of components is a maximum on the headings for which the appropriate trigonometrical function is a maximum. Magnetism will be induced in the aircraft's soft iron both by the Earth's field. Y and Z. cZ. As the magnetic sensor only detects the horizontal components. ie the two sources of deviation are in reality inseparable. The hard iron thus has an element of magnetism induced into it by the soft iron. Coefficient B is due to components P and cZ. and Z will vary. this is illustrated in Fig 8. The amount of deviation depends upon: a. can be grouped into four pairs. the members of each group producing deviations which vary as a sine or cosine function of heading. the value of coefficient can be determined from: ±E ¡ ±W 2 Coe±cient B = The deviations must be given their correct signs. X. the deviation due to P and cZ on any compass heading can be obtained from the equation Page 71 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3. The direction in which the soft iron deviating field acts determines the sign convention of the components. If the deviations δE and δW due to P and cZ are measured on East and West. Y and Z. Each component will induce a three-dimensional field in the soft iron. and fZ). permeability and location in relation to the sensor. Soft iron magnetism will be induced by all three components.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ±µ = B sin µ 3-2-2-2 Fig 8 Combined Graphs of Deviation due to P and cZ 17.2.2. Coefficient C. Coefficient D is due to components aX and eY. Coefficient D. 18. If the deviations δNE. δSW. Each component varies as a function of the sine of twice the compass heading as illustrated in Fig 10. In a similar manner to coefficient B. it can be shown that: ±N ¡ ±S 2 Coe±cient C = and that the deviation due to Q and fZ on a heading θ is given by: ±µ = C cos µ Graphs showing the variation of total deviation due to positive and negative values of Q and fZ are shown in Fig 9. δSE.2 . the variation of each with heading being a cosine function. δNW due to aX and eY on the intercardinal headings are measured then the value of coefficient D can be found from: 3-2-2-2 Fig 9 Combined Graphs of Deviation due to Q and fZ Page 72 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3. Coefficient C is the resultant of components Q and fZ. the maximum deviations occur on the intercardinal headings.

2.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 10 The Components of Coefficient D: aX and eY Coe±cient D = (±NE + ±SW) ¡ (±NW + ±SE) 4 The deviation on a heading θ due to aX and eY can be obtained from the equation: ±µ = D sin 2 µ Page 73 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:47 2002 Alignment 3.2 .

The result of adding the two components depends on their equality or otherwise as follows: 3-2-2-2 Fig 11 The Components of Coefficients E and A: bY and dX a. If equal. Coefficients E and A are due to components bY and dX. or varies as the cosine of twice the heading (Figs 12 and 13). 3-2-2-2 Fig 12 Combination of Deviation due to Equal Components of +bY and -dX Page 74 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3. displaced to one side or the other of the zero axis.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 19.2. this function is the cosine of twice the heading. the deviation is constant. Coefficients E and A.2.2 . Each component produces a deviation which varies with heading in the form shown in Fig 11.

2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 13 Combination of Deviation due to Equal Components of +bY and +dX Page 75 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3.2.2.

δE.2. the value of coefficient E is given by: (±N + ±S) ¡ (±E + ±W) 4 Coe±cient E = The variable deviation due to bY and dX on any compass heading can be found from: ±µ = E cos 2 µ 3-2-2-2 Fig 14 Combination of Deviations due to Unequal Components of +bY and +dX Page 76 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3. δS.2 .2. If the deviations δN.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. there is a constant deviation and one which varies as the cosine of twice the heading (Figs 14 and 15). and δW on the cardinal headings are measured. The maximum values of deviation occur on the cardinal headings. If unequal. The variable part of the deviation is represented by the coefficient E and the constant part by the coefficient A. Coefficient E. 20.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-2 Fig 15 Combination of Deviations due to Unequal Components of +bY and -dX Page 77 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3.2.2.2 .

Electrical Fields. These errors are usually greater than those due to induced magnetism. thus: Coefficient A = 1/8 (δ N + δ NE + δ E + δ SE + δ S + δ SW + δ W + δ NW) Other Sources of Deviation 22. they are both included in the term coefficient A. If the sensor is not correctly aligned with the axis of the aircraft. Index or Alignment Error. The two hard iron horizontal components. A. Direct currents will create fields which have a similar effect to hard iron magnetism. c. C. In addition to deviations due to the permanent and induced magnetism of the aircraft. providing the sensor is in a remote part of the aircraft. the greater the accuracy. and the six soft iron horizontal components. cZ. Transmission Errors. but it is unnecessary to differentiate between the sources of error and both are included in coefficients D and E.2. eY. B.2. Coefficient A represents the constant deviation due to the vectors bY and dX. the more headings. aX. and although the errors may be distinguished by the term Apparent A. with magnetic effects being termed Real A. b. For the initial correction of a compass before calibration coefficient A is normally determined from observations on four headings. impedance and voltage imbalances in the flux valve and synchros can cause errors of the sin 2θ or cos 2θ form. D. the effects of any field will be negligible. which represent the maximum deviations caused by the individual sets of components. It can be determined by taking the average of the deviations measured on any number of equally spaced headings.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. Total Deviation 23. Coefficient A. Although the effects can be determined by calibrating the aircraft with and without the appropriate circuits operating. in practice.2 . deviations may be caused by the following: a. and fZ. With remote indicating compasses. and E. in practice it is not necessary to distinguish between them. bY. The deviation due to any set on a compass heading θ can Page 78 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:48 2002 Alignment 3. dX. can be grouped according to their similarity of effect to produce five coefficients. an error constant for all headings will be present. P and Q. or if the transmission synchros are out of alignment. but for deviation analysis it is calculated from observations on eight or twelve headings. The effect is identical to that of coefficient A.

3-2-2-2 Fig 16 Graphs of Components Deviations and Total Deviation 24. The total deviation (δ) on any heading (θ) is then the sum of these individual expressions.2. eg B sin θ for P and cZ. However if the total deviation is measured on the eight headings at which the individual maxima occur.2 . thus: ±N=A+C+E ± NE = A + B sin 45± + C cos 45± + D ±E=A+B¡E ± SE = A + B sin 45± ¡ C cos 45± ¡ D ±S=A¡C+E Page 79 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3.2. An expression for the total deviation on each cardinal and intercardinal heading can be obtained by substituting the value of the heading into the total deviation equation.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 then be determined by multiplying the coefficient by the appropriate trigonometric function of the heading. the values of all of the coefficients can be obtained by analysis of the total deviation equation. they cannot in practice be measured individually as they act simultaneously. thus: δ = A + B sin θ + C cos θ + D sin 2 θ + E cos 2 θ This addition is shown graphically in the example of Fig 16. 25. Although the previous discussion has considered the components of total deviation separately.

H.0°.5°. 26.1°.0 × −0.87) − (1. Suppose the value for total deviation on a compass heading of 060° is required given that the coefficients are: A = +2. D = + 0.0°. If the magnetic latitude of the aircraft is changed the directive force.2.5) + (0.3 + 1.0 − (1.4 + 0.2.5 × 0. Expressions for the coefficients can be deduced as: A = 1/8 §± 1 B = (±E ¡ ±W) 2 C= 1 (±N ¡ ±S) 2 D= 1 [(±NE ¡ ±SE) + (±SW ¡ ±NW)] 4 1 E = [(±N ¡ ±E) + (±S ¡ ±W)] 4 Having determined the five coefficients it is possible to calculate the total deviation for any compass heading.5 sin 120°) + (−1.5 × 0.5° and E = − 1.0°.0 × 0. Soft Page 80 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3.0 cos 60°) + (0.87) + (3. In either case the ratio of the hard iron deviating force to the Earth's directive force will alter.0 + (−1.5 + 0. B = − 1. δθ = A + B sin θ + C cos θ + D sin 2 θ + E cos 2 θ ie δ60 = +2.5 sin 60°) + (3. Fig 17 shows the graphs of the individual coefficients and the total deviation curve. resulting in a change to the deviation angle.5 = +3. the hard iron component will change. The examination of aircraft magnetism in this chapter has assumed a constant Earth field an a constant hard iron component of aircraft magnetism.0 − 1. from which the value of the total deviation on heading 060° can be confirmed as + 3. Example. will change. C = + 3.1° and the magnetic heading of the aircraft will be 063.5) = + 2. or if for example the aircraft is left on one heading for some weeks.0 cos 120°) = + 2.1° Changes in Deviation 27. Over a long period of time.1 Thus on compass heading 060° the total deviation is taken as +3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ± SW = A ¡ B sin 45± ¡ C cos 45± + D ±W=A¡B¡E ± NW = A ¡ B sin 45± + C cos 45± ¡ D There are therefore eight independent equations from which to determine the five unknown coefficients.2 .

3 . In practice it is impossible to reduce the coefficients entirely. 3-2-2-2 Fig 17 Graph of Total Deviation Alignment Chapter 3 . The purpose of compass correction is to approach this condition of zero deviation as closely as possible by reducing the values of the coefficients. Responsibility for the calibration and adjustment of aircraft compasses is promulgated in General and Administrative Instructions (GAI). and the total deviation curve will correspondingly be reduced in amplitude. the deviation curve would become a straight line coincident with the central axis. 2. Compass swinging is carried out only on the following occasions and. magnetic fields which are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to those caused by the components of aircraft magnetism. ie there would be no deviation.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 iron components will also change with latitude as the horizontal and vertical components of the Earth's field vary. B and C are corrected. The correction and calibration procedure is known as compass swinging. by means of a corrector device. Finally a lightning strike can radically alter an aircraft's magnetism. Ideally.2. After correction the compass is therefore calibrated so that the residual deviations can be determined and recorded. If the coefficients can be reduced in size. the curves will be flattened and more nearly approach the central axis of the graph.Compass Swinging Procedures Introduction 1. This is achieved by setting up. and indeed in most cases only coefficients A. and the accuracy requirements stipulated by the user which will depend on how important the magnetic compass is to the aircraft's primary navigation system. In chapter 2 it was shown that the value of the deviation coefficient determines the amplitude of the deviation curve for the component represented by that coefficient. in weather conditions clear of persistent rain and winds of 15kts or less: a. The accuracy with which deviations are measured and corrected depends upon the accuracy to which it is possible to read both the compass and datum instrument during the swing. if all the coefficients could be reduced to zero. Whenever the accuracy of the compass is in doubt as a result of airborne observations or aircraft maintenance Page 81 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3.2. Occasions for a Compass Swing 3. except under exceptional circumstances.

Before delivery of an aircraft from a Storage Unit to a user unit. wire fences or conduit for electrical cabling. When the aircraft has been struck by lightning. unless the total work carried out is of a minor nature and a waiver has been obtained from the relevant support authority. the appropriate demagntization procedures laid down by the operating authority must be followed. The base must be clearly and permanently marked to show the base centre. drainage systems. the cardinals and intercardinals. and the position of any sighting rods on the aircraft and their path during the swing. In addition to the need to be free from extraneous magnetic fields. eg Doppler. 9. Compass bases are classified as Class 1 if there are no known magnetic anomalies in excess of ±0. Changes in variation may occur through diurnal changes and magnetic storms. or Class 2 provided any anomalies are less than ±0. There are four types of compass swing but only the refined swing will be covered in detail: a. a special survey is required.5m. 6. their effect with and without current flowing must be assessed. Air Swing. Although the frequency of such storms is only about once per year. and any ferro-magnetic interference is therefore most likely due to buried scrap metal. For training or specific calibration purposes. Before delivery of an aircraft from a Maintenance Unit to a user unit.25° in the summer to about 0. the heading is simulated by a Compass Calibrator which applies a DC current to the secondary coils of the detector unit. it is possible to carry out an airborne compass swing using either celestial information or. inertially derived heading as a datum. A Watts Datum compass is used to provide the datum headings and the calibration swing is carried out on twelve headings. Although compass swinging is normally carried out on the ground. d. If a base is to be used for aircraft which have magnetic detectors significantly below 1. they may last Page 82 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3. It is unusual for there to be any natural ferrous deposits on an airfield. provided there is magnetic stability. The procedure is otherwise similar to that used in the refined swing except that the calibration swing is carried out on only eight headings. The aircraft is aligned with the magnetic meridian and unlike conventional swings the area used for calibration need not be free from magnetic disturbances. Electrical Swing. the swing (other than an electrical swing) must be carried out in an area free from magnetic fields other than that of the Earth. whether towed or taxied during the swing. unless a compass swing forms part of the pre-delivery schedule.07° in the winter. Magnetic storms are usually associated with sunspot activity. if necessary. reinforced concrete. Electro-magnetic interference may be caused by electrical cabling and if such cables cannot be avoided or re-routed. 7.1° at 1. the datum compass circle and areas of magnetic anomalies. more normally. It must be large enough to take all types of aircraft likely to use it bearing in mind the radii of the aircraft's turning circles. Changes in Variation. c. Types of Compass Swing 4.2. To ensure that the deviations derived from a compass swing are caused only by aircraft magnetism. e. In southern England the diurnal change varies from about 0. a compass base should be sited such that its use does not interfere with normal aircraft movements on the airfield and its surface should not preclude its use in wet weather. particular attention must be paid to compass accuracy and.5m above ground level.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 procedures known to affect accuracy. Standard Swing. Refined Swing. b. f. In this case. b. Although a Watts Datum compass can be used as the datum. The Admiralty Compass Observatory has the overall responsibility for the survey of compass bases. The Compass Base 5.13. Magnetic Anomalies.2. 8. Diurnal changes in variation may vary from a few arc minutes close to the magnetic equator to many degrees close to the magnetic poles. the central area within which the aircraft's sensor should remain.25° at 1.3 . On acceptance by a user unit when the aircraft has been delivered from Industry. d. The refined swing is used when the compass is used as a source of heading information for navigation or weapon aiming equipment. c. a Medium Landing compass is sufficient. The electrical swing is essentially the same as the refined swing except that instead of physically moving the aircraft onto the appropriate headings.5m above ground level. The standard swing is used where the compass system is not used as an input to other navigation or weapon aiming systems. The procedure for the refined swing is detailed in paras 10 .

and with the aircraft still on East correct the compass.2. The deviations obtained from this swing form the basis of the Fourier and accuracy analyses which are described in Chapter 4. The purpose of the correcting swing is to reduce all the correctable coefficients to within the limits set. record the aircraft and datum compass readings. 3-2-2-3 Fig 1 Compass Calibration Log Entries for Correction and Calibration Swings Page 83 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:49 2002 Alignment 3. Apply coefficient A to the compass reading (sign unchanged) and correct the compass. Calculate coefficient B ± E ¡ ± W 2 i. The Correcting Swing. all headings being within 5° of those stated: a. The Refined Swing 10. 12. but in general coefficients should be reduced to less than 0.5°. Head the aircraft on North. The procedure is as follows. record the aircraft and datum compass readings. Head the aircraft on East. f. e. The compass must be allowed to settle after each change of heading before the reading is taken. the results of the calibration swing are used as the basis of a Fourier analysis of the swing (see Chapter 4). d. apply coefficient C (sign changed) to the compass reading and correct the compass. Calculate coefficient C ± N ¡ ± S 2 Turn the aircraft onto South. g. ³ ´ h. Sum the deviations algebraically and divide by four to find coefficient A. The swing may have to be repeated several times to achieve the required accuracy.2. The data from each correcting swing is entered in the appropriate page of the Compass Calibration Log (RAF F712A). Head the aircraft on South. A typical record of correcting and calibration swings. Apply coefficient B (sign unchanged) to the resultant compass heading after correcting for coefficient A. The refined swing is used for those installations where the compass is used as an input to other navigation or weapon aiming equipment. 13. and can alter the variation by up to 0. and the 50% error of an observed deviation to less than ±0. 11. ´ ³ j. Calculate the deviations. When there are no coefficients to be corrected the calibration swing may start. c.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 several hours or even days. The aircraft is moved through a twelve point swing and the datum and compass readings are recorded every 30°. record the aircraft and datum compass readings.30°. is shown in Fig 1. RAF F712A. entered on RAF F712A.3 . The necessary accuracy and limits of the swing are stipulated by operating authorities. b. A Watts Datum compass is used to provide the datum heading and great care must be taken to ensure that both the datum and aircraft readings are read simultaneously and to the limits of accuracy. record the aircraft and datum compass readings. Head the aircraft on West. After the corrections have been made to the compass system.5° in the UK. The Calibration Swing.

For convenience these values have been extracted and are listed at Table 1. Chapter 3 described how the coefficients can be found. The results can be summarized by the equations: A = §± n C = 2§± ncos µ E = 2§± cos 2 n sin B = 2§± n 2µ D = 2§± µ sin 2 n µ where δ is the observed deviation on heading θ. As the band of error only decreases as the inverse square root of n. The observed deviation on each heading is multiplied by the sine of that heading.Value of Functions of θ Hdg (θ) a sin θ b cos θ c sin 2θ d cos 2θ e Page 84 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:50 2002 Alignment 3.2. only two readings were used. where n is the number of headings. 2. A more accurate method is needed. Table 1 . As an aid to calculation a table of values of sin θ. sin 2θ and cos 2θ. is incorporated the Compass Calibration Log which is used for the Fourier Analysis. and n is the number of observations. It can be shown that division of this sum by n. and the results algebraically summed. but in two cases.The Analysis of the Compass Swing THE FOURIER ANALYSIS Derivation of the Coefficients 1. In Chapter 2 it was shown that the deviation caused by coefficient B is a function of the sine of the heading.2. twelve readings have been accepted as the practical figure. gives coefficient B. ie n = 12.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Alignment Chapter 4 . cos θ.4 . 3. at 30° intervals. The purpose of the Fourier Analysis is to extract from a set of observations the most accurate assessment of the deviation coefficients and residual deviations. Similar calculations may be done to find 2 coefficients C. The greater the number of readings used the greater will be the accuracy of the derived coefficients. D and E. B and C. Coefficient A is derived from the sum of the deviations and the number of readings.

starting at 0°. Σδ. c.87 −0.5°.87 −0.00 −0. and columns 7. +1. −3. The observed deviations are entered in column 2.50 0 +0.00 −0.50 0 δ sin 2θ 13 δ cos 2θ 16 −0. C = −0. +1.00 +0.5°. B = +1.6°. and the columns are then totalled to obtain.00 −0.5°. At Fig 1b is the total deviation curve derived from the component curves at Fig 1a.50 −0.9° and −2.50 −0.49. 13 and 16 by 2 .87 0 +0. These deviations are used in the Fourier Analysis.4 .87 0 +0.00 −0.87 +0.5 0 −0.0e .50 −0. −3. These results are entered in the form.50 +0.50 −0. +0.87 +0.87 −0. −1. +0.50 Page 85 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:50 2002 Alignment 3. Dividing column 2 by n. 3-2-2-4 Fig 1 Deviation Graphs Table 2 .87 +0.50 +0. d and e of Table 1. Σδ sin 2θ and n Σδ cos 2θ.3°.00 +0. Σδ sin θ. Observed Deviations.50 +0. Σδ cos θ.87 −0.87 0 −0. +0. and multiplied by the values shown in columns b.5°.50 +1.93.00 +0. Table 2 is an extract of those columns of the Compass Calibration Log used for the calculations.4°.87 −1. 10. 5. D = +0.5 0 δ sin θ 7 δ cos θ 10 −0.50 4.2. gives the calculated coefficients: A = −0.97.00 +0.87 0 −0.50 +1.01.87 +1. To Calculate the Coefficients.0°.The Derived Coefficients Hdg (θ) 1 Observed Deviation (δ) 2 0 −0.87 +0.50 −1. +1.87 −1.50 ±0.2.87 +1.6°.50 −1. +1.94. the observed deviations every 30°.50 0 −0.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 0 +0.1°. are: −0. From Fig lb. E = +1.

99 +1.70 0 −1.26 +0.81 −0.3 150 +1.71 +1.82 0 −0.50 −1.50 +1. If sufficient readings are available.15 −0.99 −1.47 120 +0.82 0 +0.99 0 −0. Summary of the Fourier Analysis 8.95 −1. In Chapter 2 the composite curve was found by visually adding together the coefficient curves as in Fig 1.93 −0. The second part of the Fourier Analysis is to find the calculated deviations.71 +0.01 The Calculated Deviations 6.50 +1.39 +2.05 6 +1.1 60 +1.97 −1.5 120 +0.30 +0.71 −1.87 0 +0.15 +0.97 +0.82 +0.47 +0.49 −0. the derived parts of the original can be built up again to give the most accurate assessment of the function.30 +6.59 6 −0. Any periodic function (the compass swing period is 2π) can be broken down into sinusoids of different amplitudes (the coefficients) and phases (sin. These totals are the end result of the Fourier Analysis . Table 3 is an extract of the columns of the Compass Calibration Log used for the process of finding the calculated deviation curves and the composite curve.96 +0.81 +0.65 240 −1. each line is summed and the totals entered in column 3.50 −0.52 −1.30 +1.50 −1.49 −0.50 +0.87 +0.26 −0. A convenient form for the breaking down and building up processes is the Compass Calibration Log (Refined Swing).01 +0.95 −2.47 0 +0.the calculated deviations which are used to plot the deviation curve and to complete the aircraft deviation card.22 +3.52 +0.47 0 −0.49 −0.87 −1.6 Sums −5. this is the reverse of the first process: having made the most accurate assessments of the coefficients they are used to determine the most accurate deviation curve.65 6 +0. When columns 6.50 +0.99 A 6 −0.47 300 −3.49 −0.50 0 −0.37 150 +0.30 +11.49 −0.96 +0.26 −5.9 330 −2.39 +1.2.97 +1.50 −0.82 0 −0.26 +5.71 B sin θ 8 C Cos θ 11 −0. etc).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 30 +1.4 270 −3. 8.22 0 +3.9 Divisors 12 Coeffs −0.50 −0. cos.41 30 +1.55 +0.70 +3. 7.50 −0.49 −0.4 .50 0 −0.0 90 +0.49 −0.01 +0.49 +0.6 240 −1.49 −0.93 +0.49 −0.50 +1.93 +0.81 +0.47 0 +0. 11.41 270 −3. In effect.99 180 +1.49 −0.5 210 +0. The coefficients are multiplied by their associated trigonometrical functions from Table 1.87 0 −0.07 90 +0. Table 3 .The Calculated Deviations Hdg (θ) 1 Calculated Deviation 3 0 −0.0 180 +1.50 Page 86 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:51 2002 Alignment 3. The Calculated Deviation Curve.82 −0. The Fourier Analysis uses a similar process.94 +0. but by calculation.55 −0.82 D sin 2θ 14 E cos 2θ 17 +1.45 210 +0.50 −0.82 +0.5 300 −3.79 6 +1.01 60 +1.50 +0.50 +3.49 0 +0.01 −0. 14 and 17 are complete.01 −0.2.

81 0 −0. Fig 4 shows another set of observed deviations where consecutive readings change by as much as 1. The analysis is based on the differences between the observed and calculated deviations.11 −0.at first sight a good swing. and X is the mean of all the readings.at first sight a bad swing. differences which arise because the aircraft and datum instruments are being used at or beyond their accuracy limits.02± ie B. and one would therefore expect half of the differences to be within ±0. The Meaning of the Probable Errors.C.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 330 −2. The following two sets of figures may be compared. To find the greatest probable error of coefficient A. To show how statistics can be used to compare one swing with another the effect of a load of bombs will be considered. As the compass calibration n method does not provide a mean. ie A = ¡0. But examination shows that the rapid changes are due to large coefficients D and E. The probable error formula then becomes: Single r §D2 reading " = §0. use is made of the formula: q 2 " "A = pn and for coefficients B.82 0 +0. The probable error (ε) is the difference between the mean of a series of observations and any single observation which will not be exceeded on 50% of occasions.02± " of their stated ¯gures. Normally the standard deviation is found q § (X ¡ X)2 from: ¾ = § .49 §0.49 −5. Fig 3 also shows a completed form. Thus for the figures used: " = §0.05 +0. Fig 2 shows a completed form for the swing used in the Fourier Analysis. or 1. and coefficients which can be corrected are less than the accepted maximum of 0. The coefficient's probable errors provide a means of comparing one compass swing with another form of correlation test. The accuracy analysis gives a statistical assessment of the reliance that can be placed on the results of the swing.50 0 THE ACCURACY ANALYSIS Introduction 9.20.88 −0.05° means that any single observed deviation has an evens chance of being within . where σ (sigma) is the standard deviation. The figure for ε of ±0. 2σ or 3ε.a result is only considered as being significant when it is at the 95% probability level. D and E of the formula: "B to E = " n.D and E are within §0. Column 5 is D . where D is the difference between the corresponding observed and calculated deviations and s is the number of unknowns (ie the coefficients). A B −0. Probable error equals 0.014± .14 +0. Statistical Analysis of the Swing 2 11.674 σ.05± . 14.88 −0. A further statistical limit must be explained . But examination of the e values shows that the swing gives coefficients and calculated deviations that are meaningless: the coefficients all stand an evens chance of equalling zero.14± . The Effect of Carriage of Stores.5°.05°. It will be useful to summarize the following terms which are used in a Fourier Analysis. Column 4 is D. "B to E = §0. 10.4 εA. No observed deviation differs from the next by more than 1° . "A = §0.29 −0.5° . C.61 Sums −5. Further Applications of Statistics 13.06 +0. where X is the particular reading.99 0 −0. the calculated deviation is used instead.674 n ¡ s.2. 12. Column 4 confirms this.43 Page 87 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:51 2002 Alignment 3.05° of the calculated deviation. and enables one swing to be compared with another.2. The probable accuracy of the single reading is better than the accepted maximum of ε = ± 0.4 .

45 +0. and there is a better than 19 to 1 chance of being right.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 C D E ε εB to E +0. But first the probable error (since all the figures are at the 50% level) of the differences must be found.24 −0. This is done by finding the square root of the sum of the squares of the probable errors of the coefficients: q "2 + " 2 1 2 "D = To use the figures shown: q "D = § 0.1142 + 0.40 −0.2.24 ±0.Example 2 Page 88 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:52 2002 Alignment 3.43 At first sight there are large differences in the values of the coefficients B to E.16 −0.459°.4 .28 = ±0.Example 1 3-2-2-4 Fig 3 Compass Calibration Log .102 +0. Therefore it can be said that the bombs have no effect on the aircraft's magnetism because no difference exceeds 0.2.36 +0.1022 = §0.67 = ±0.459°. 3-2-2-4 Fig 2 Compass Calibration Log .25 ±0.81 +0.114 −0.153± This figure becomes significant at the 3e level ie 0.

2.Example 3 Page 89 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:54 2002 Alignment 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-4 Fig 4 Compass Calibration Log .2.4 .

The instrument is also invaluable while spinning. in a spin it always indicates the direction of yaw.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-2-4 Fig 1a Component Deviations 3-2-2-4 Fig 1b Deviation Graphs Manoeuvre Chapter 1 .2. The turn indicator is used to indicate the rate at which the aircraft changes heading.1 .Turn and Slip Indicators Introduction 1. The turn and slip indicator comprises two instruments in the same case. a rate 1 turn (of 3 degrees per second) is the standard turn during procedural instrument flying.3. The slip indicator Page 90 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:54 2002 Manoeuvre 3.

Consider. When the instrument casing rotates around the X axis. if the aircraft is simultaneously yawed and pitched nose up. primary bearing-induced precession will tilt the gyro to the left with respect to the casing. This freedom is.3. the gyro's rigidity causes it to remain spatially fixed. however. At equilibrium the tilt angle of the gyroscope within its casing is related to the aircraft rate of turn and the dial can be calibrated accordingly. 180° per min.Simplified Construction Errors 4. reducing spring tension and reducing the rate of secondary precession until it matches the aircraft turn rate. If the aircraft rate of turn becomes faster than the secondary precession rate of the gyroscope. Rate 3. 540° per min). This torque in turn produces a secondary (or indirect) precessionary force about the Z axis in the direction in which the aircraft is starting to turn. The scale is non-linear. any change is sensed by centrifugal switches which control the DC motor.2. where the X (roll). Conversely. a banked turn to the left. Y (pitch). the calibrations representing standard rate turns (Rate 1. in respect of Fig 1. 360° per min. but a state of equilibrium will be reached when the rate of turn of the aircraft equals the rate of secondary precession induced in the gyroscope. which coincides with the gyro spin axis. limited by a restraining spring connecting the gimbal to the outer casing. The gimbal is damped and gimbal stops prevent instrument damage at high turn rates. ideally produce any gyro precession. and Z (yaw) gyro axes are shown. The turn indicator measures the rate of turn about the yaw axis and movement about the pitch axis. if the aircraft rate of turn decreases. gyro axis cross-coupling can cause a torque to be applied such that the indicated rate of turn will Page 91 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3. THE TURN INDICATOR Construction 2. The instrument consists of a rate gyro mounted with its spin axis arthwartships. primary (or direct) bearing-induced precession will tilt the gyro further to the right with respect to the casing. Principle of Operation 3. This gearing is so arranged that gimbal tilt to the right causes the pointer to move to the left and vice versa. would not. Pitching Error. so increasing the spring tension and causing increased secondary precession until a balance is once again restored.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 shows whether or not corrective rudder is required to achieve balanced flight. As gyro speed is critical to accuracy. In fact. 3-2-3-1 Fig 1 Turn Indicator . Rate 2. and with only one gimbal such that it has freedom in roll only. However. extending the spring which exerts an anti-clockwise torque. The construction of a basic turn indicator is illustrated in Fig 1. the gyroscope has no freedom to move independently about its Z axis. Movement of the gimbal is transmitted to a pointer on the instrument face via a reverse gearing.

badly damped. An over-speeding gyro is uncommon because of the speed governing system. centrifugal force acts on the ball in addition to gravity.3. but electrical faults or excessive bearing friction may produce under-speeding. and in extreme cases may indicate zero regardless of actual turn rate. and the resultant of these two forces causes the ball to remain in the centre of the tube (Fig 2c). Conversely if the aircraft is skidding outwards (with the relative airflow coming from the outside of the turn). When the aircraft is in straight. clear tube filled with a damping liquid. This will be manifest as under-reading and an oversensitive. Fig 3 summarizes various situations that the turn and slip indicator can show. the instrument will under-read. If the aircraft is in straight but unbalanced flight.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 exceed the true rate of turn. The angle of tilt. The tube is tilted with respect to the outside world and gravity takes the ball to the lowest position of the tube (Fig 2b). θ. of a rate gyro is given by: µ = Rate of turn £ I! where I = Moment of inertia of the gyro and ω = Angular velocity of the gyro Thus if the angular velocity (rotor speed) of the gyro is altered a different angle of tilt is generated by the same rate of turn. together with the correct sense of rudder movement required. 8. and the ball will be in the centre of the tube (Fig 2a).2. The error is unlikely to be corrected until the rate of pitch is significantly reduced and as a consequence it may continue to indicate a turn in one direction while the aircraft turns in the other. more right rudder is needed). The error is dependent on the rate of yaw and the rate of pitch. If the aircraft is slipping inwards (ie the relative airflow is coming from the inside of the turn). The slip indicator consists of a ball mounted in a curved. Gyro Speed Errors. and in some circumstances can cause full scale deflection of the indicator. In all cases the corrective action is to move the feet to 'kick' the ball back to the centre (ie if the ball is to the right of the tube. the pilot will be countering the rudder-induced yaw with opposite bank. the ball will be displaced towards the high wing. needle. 3-2-3-1 Fig 3 Indications of Turn and Slip in Flight Page 92 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3. Conversely. THE SLIP INDICATOR Operation 6. 5. Summary of Turn and Slip Indications 9.1 . the ball will be displaced towards the low wing. with nose down pitch. balanced flight the only force acting on the ball is gravity. 3-2-3-1 Fig 2 Operation of Slip Indicator 7. In a properly balanced turn.

1 .2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-3-1 Fig 2a Straight and Balanced Flight 3-2-3-1 Fig 2b Side-slip Page 93 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3.3.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-2-3-1 Fig 2c Balanced Turn Manoeuvre Chapter 2 .3.2.Attitude Indicators Page 94 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:55 2002 Manoeuvre 3.2 .

Fig 1 shows an artificial horizon in various attitudes. gyro based.2 . The principle of operation of both instruments is similar. the horizon bar is replaced by a moving 'ball' marked with a horizon line and with graduated pitch angle markings. without reference to the natural horizon. or by displays driven by outputs from other aircraft equipment such as inertial systems. In more modern displays (the attitude indicator). Fig 2 illustrates an attitude indicator (note the integrated Turn and Slip indication). Indication of pitch and bank attitude may be presented in one of two ways. This chapter deals with the self-contained. some form of attitude reference is required. direct reading instruments. In both cases supplementary indication of bank angle is presented by the position of a gyro stabilized pointer against a fixed bank angle scale at the bottom of the display. Modern attitude indicators usually include the elements of the Turn and Slip indicator (see Chap 1) within the instrument. 2. The areas of the ball above and below the horizon are typically coloured blue and brown respectively. This reference may be provided either by a direct reading attitude indicator (or artificial horizon). the aircraft is represented by a fixed symbol and the horizon by a bar stabilized parallel to the Earth's surface. In order for an aircraft to be flown accurately and safely.2. The principle component of an attitude indicator is an air or electrically driven displacement gyro with its spin axis maintained vertical to the Earth by gravity sensing devices. Fig 3 shows the arrangement of the artificial horizon gyro and its Page 95 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3. In older instruments (the artificial horizon).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. 3-2-3-2 Fig 1 Artificial Horizon Indicators Principle of Operation 4.3. 3.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 gimbals.2. This arrangement ensures that with the gyro spin axis maintained vertical to the Earth. The inner gimbal forms the rotor casing and is pivoted to the outer gimbal ring parallel to the aircraft's pitch axis (YY).3.2 . all three axes of the gyro are mutually at right angles when the aircraft is in straight and level flight and are coincident with the three aircraft axes. The aircraft symbol is fixed to the front glass of the instrument. The outer gimbal is pivoted to the front and rear of the instrument case parallel to the aircraft's roll axis (XX). 3-2-3-2 Fig 2 Attitude Indicator 3-2-3-2 Fig 3 Artificial Horizon Principle Page 96 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3.

A pin attached to the gyro housing moves in a slot in the horizon bar. producing the correct sense of horizon bar movement. Any change in pitch attitude will result in the instrument case and the outer gimbal rotating around the YY axis of the gyro.movement of the gyro unit relative to the outer gimbal producing correct sense movement of the ball by a direct drive consisting of either a wire loop (as shown). or gearwheels.3.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 5. but the pitch mechanism is greatly improved . relative to the aircraft symbol. Fig 4 shows the general construction of the attitude indicator. taking the aircraft symbol with it. with reduced sensitivity at high pitch angles. Attitude indicators are therefore equally sensitive at both low and extreme pitch angles. The major drawback to this arrangement is that it results in a non-linear scaling in pitch. Any change in bank attitude will result in the instrument case rotating around the XX axis. Bank is indicated in exactly the same manner as described for the artificial horizon. In some instruments the movements are also sensed electrically so that attitude information can be transmitted to other aircraft equipment. 6.2 . 3-2-3-2 Fig 4 Attitude Indicator Principle Page 97 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3.

To prevent the generation of significant gyro verticality error with high acceleration. and internally generated torques due to any gimbal imbalance or bearing friction. To provide accurate indications the gyro spin axis must be maintained vertical to the Earth and therefore correcting torques must be applied to compensate for Earth rotation. transport error. Controlled Precession 11. It is necessary that the attitude indication should be consistent and coherent over the full flight envelope of an unrestricted manoeuvrability aircraft. a fast erection mechanism is fitted which applies high-rate precessing torques to erect the gyro with respect to the instrument casing.2. Acceleration errors cannot be fully eliminated.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Control of the Gyro Spin Axis 7. a cut-off device can be incorporated to inhibit the erecting system above a pre-determined level of horizontal acceleration. This force will displace the pendulous system and the torque generated by the erecting system will cause a misalignment of the spin axis to produce a verticality error. 9. starting from wings level flight. Turning and Acceleration Errors. It may also be selected following start-up when errors in attitude indications are apparent. but they can be reduced by the use of compensating design and construction features. However if accelerated flight below the cut-off limit is maintained. For example an inverted flight. irrespective of how any particular attitude is achieved. level. After extended periods of manoeuvring the gyro may have very large verticality error or it may be toppled. Fast Erection. Page 98 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:56 2002 Manoeuvre 3. A pendulous system responds not only to Earth's gravity but also to any acceleration force that the aircraft experiences. influenced by factors such as axis cross-coupling and gyro precession. flight when this facility is used.3. The gyro spin axis is kept vertical by a pendulous system which responds to Earth's gravity and thus initiates the necessary correcting torques (which can be compensated for axis cross-coupling during turns) either mechanically or by controlling the operation of air jets or electric torque motors. zero pitch attitude may result from a 180° roll or from a 180° pitch manoeuvre. 8. 10.2 . which may affect indications in both pitch and roll. The aircraft must therefore be in unbanked. To restore the gyro to its normal operating position as quickly as possible. considerable verticality error can be built up.

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AP 3456

12. In both cases the outer gimbal is required to rotate 180° relative to the airframe. During a 180° roll manoeuvre, the rotation of the airframe and instrument case around the gyro-stabilized outer gimbal provides the necessary inverted flight indication. To retain the correct attitude display during a 180° pitch manoeuvre however, a rapid 180° rotation of the outer gimbal has to occur just before passing the vertical (otherwise the outer gimbal axis would become coincident with the gyro spin axis, the condition of gimbal lock, leading to topple). The means of achieving this is known as Controlled Precession. 13. Inner gimbal resilient stops are incorporated in the instrument to cause the pitch rotation of the airframe to apply a torque to the gyro, about the inner gimbal YY1 axis, at about 85° of pitch. This causes the gyro to precess, forcing the outer gimbal to rotate. After 180° of rotation the continuing pitch rate of the aircraft results in the inner gimbal moving away from the stop. However, if the aircraft is held in the vertical, during a stall turn or climbing roll for example, the instrument may topple.

Geometric Error
14. Many aircraft have instrument panels inclined from the vertical in normal cruise flight. Zero pitch attitude indication is restored by adjusting the linkage to the indicator to correct for the tilt. However the inner gimbal stops are intercepted early in dive and late in climb relative to the attitude of the airframe. This geometric offset produces errors, known as geometric errors, in the displayed attitude which vary as a function of the true pitch and bank angles. If the aircraft is looped or rolled inverted the pitch error is twice the panel tilt angle. At intermediate bank angles the geometric error in pitch increases from zero at 0° bank angle, to tilt angle at ± 90° bank angle, and twice tilt angle at 180° bank angle. The geometric error in roll cannot be expressed so simply but in any case is < 5° at pitch angles less than ± 30°. In manoeuvres involving large pitch or bank angles geometric errors can combine with limitations in the controlled precession system to produce a significant error in the displayed attitude.

Manoeuvre
Chapter 3 - Accelerometers
Introduction
1. An indicating accelerometer is an instrument used in aircraft to provide a visual indication of acceleration components in the direction of the aircraft Z axis (Fig 1). In addition auxiliary pointers are provided which preserve a reading of the maximum and minimum accelerations sustained during any period; these can be reset as required.

3-2-3-3 Fig 1 Aircraft Axes

2. The purpose of the instrument is to indicate loadings due to manoeuvre and turbulence, so that excessive loadings may be avoided.

Page 99 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:57 2002

Manoeuvre

3- 2- 3- 3

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3. Although the accelerometer gives a reasonably accurate indication of the accelerations encountered in flight, indications of the instrument with respect to accelerations of extremely short duration, such as landing shocks, should be treated with caution since the accuracy under these conditions is dependent on the damping characteristics and no generalization is possible. 4. The instrument should be mounted on a rigid part of the aircraft structure in the cockpit. Accurate results cannot be obtained from accelerometers mounted on anti-vibration mountings which would tend to reduce the effect of accelerations on the instrument.

Principle of Operation
5. An accelerometer depends upon the displacement of a mass under the influence of an acceleration. Fig 2 illustrates the principle of operation, although other mechanisms may be used. The mass-weight, suspended between 2 springs, is free to move along the aircraft Z axis and is coupled to a main shaft so that when vertical acceleration forces along the Z axis are imposed on the mass, the main shaft is caused to rotate. The linear movement is thus converted to the rotary movement of a set of three pointers, one to indicate instantaneous acceleration and the other two to remain at the maximum indications, plus or minus, until reset manually.

3-2-3-3 Fig 2 Accelerometer Mechanism

6. A cranked lever is attached to the shaft, and the horizontal arm of this lever is interposed between positive and negative pointers so that they will be moved when the shaft rotates, and will remain in their new positions on the return of the shaft to the neutral position. The recording pointers may be reset to the neutral position when desired. A device is fitted to damp out vibrations and prevent violent pointer fluctuations under short period accelerations. 7. Fig 3 shows a typical cockpit display. 8. The cockpit accelerometer should not be confused with the aircraft fatigue meter. This instrument will normally be installed outside the cockpit (often in the undercarriage bay) to monitor cumulative acceleration forces on the airframe. Details of the

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fatigue meter may be found in this volume, Pt 4, Sect 4, Chap 2, Para 15 and in Vol 1, Pt 1, Sect 2, Chap 2, Para 12.

3-2-3-3 Fig 3 Accelerometer Display

Manoeuvre
Chapter 4 - Stall Warning and Angle of Attack Indication
Introduction
1. For any given configuration, an aircraft will stall or depart from controlled flight once a specific angle of attack (AOA) is exceeded. In straight and level flight this angle of attack will be reached at a particular airspeed for a given aircraft weight, but since there will be variations in aircraft weight both during and between flights, there is no simple correlation between airspeed and angle of attack. During manoeuvre the situation becomes considerably more complex, and the critical angle of attack can be induced by the pilot at almost any airspeed. The airspeed indicator is therefore of limited use in warning the crew of the approach to this potentially dangerous situation, and some other means must be devised. 2. The pilot of an aerodynamically unsophisticated aircraft will usually be given warning by the onset of airframe buffet which can be felt through the control column. However, in modern, more complex, aircraft this is less likely to be the case, and moreover the situation is more difficult to recover if the limit should be exceeded. It is therefore necessary to have a system which will warn the crew of the onset of departure, either by artificially inducing buffet on the controls, or by giving some audio or visual indication, or both, once a designated AOA is exceeded. 3. Whereas a simple stall warning device can give adequate warning to the crew, it cannot indicate the margin of safety that exists at any time. Furthermore, in high performance aircraft it is usually desirable to fly at the optimum angle of attack for any stage of flight. Such aircraft are often therefore fitted with an AOA indexer to indicate when the aircraft is flying at the optimum approach AOA regardless of aircraft weight, and this may be replaced by or supplemented with an AOA gauge to enable the aircraft to be flown efficiently during other stages of flight.

Simple Stall Warner
4. A typical simple stall warning device comprises a forward facing vane, edge on to the airflow, mounted on the leading edge of the wing. The vane is spring loaded to the central position and in flight the vane is held in place by air pressure when the

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AOA is safe, but is pushed upwards when it is not. This upward movement operates a micro-switch which triggers an audio or visual stall warning device in the cockpit, or can be used to initiate a stick shaker or pusher.

Airstream Direction Detector (ADD)
5. Where a more sophisticated system is needed, some form of airstream direction detector (ADD) is employed which measures the direction of the localized airflow striking it, and relays this information to an indexer, gauge, warning device, or any combination of these. A simple example may consist of a trailing aerofoil, mounted on the outside of the aircraft, which aligns itself with the direction of the local airflow. 6. A paddle type of ADD is illustrated in Fig 1. A cylindrical casing carries a central shaft which is free to rotate through a restricted angular range (typically 50°). The shaft protrudes through one end of the casing and through the aircraft skin to form a probe into the local airflow. Two rows of forward facing slots are cut near the outer end of the probe, and each row is connected by internal ducts to two paddle chambers located within the casing. Operating in these chambers are paddles which are attached to the central shaft. Pressure from one of the ducts acts on both paddles to induce clockwise rotation of the shaft while pressure from the other duct similarly induces anti-clockwise rotation. Thus, if the pressures in the two ducts are equal, the probe will not rotate. This equal pressure state can only occur if the two rows of slots are equally disposed about the direction of the local airstream. In conditions of misalignment the pressure in one duct will be greater than in the other, and the paddles will be caused to rotate until the probe is once again aligned with the airstream, whence the pressures will be equalized and the probe will stop rotating. Thus, providing that there is sufficient airflow to operate the system (typically above 50 kts), the probe will follow any changes in the direction of the local airflow. 7. The position of the central shaft relative to the casing, and therefore to the aircraft, is transmitted to potentiometer assemblies by means of wiper arms, and the output voltage, which is related to AOA, may be used to operate the particular aircraft indicators or warning devices. In some installations two ADDs are provided to add a measure of redundancy, and so that the output voltage from the two can be compared, and the higher taken, to provide an additional margin of safety. 8. An ADD can only measure the direction of the local airflow, and not the AOA explicitly, although changes in this measured direction reflect changes in AOA. Accordingly, an AOA gauge is marked in arbitrary units (usually 0 - 30) rather than in angles (of attack).

3-2-3-4 Fig 1 Paddle Type of Airstream Direction Detector (ADD)

NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Control Systems
Chapter 1 - Remote Indication and Control

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Instances frequently occur in aircraft instrument systems when the angular motion of a shaft has to be accurately reproduced at some other location.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Introduction 1. eg remote indication of flap. There are. Both DC and AC systems are used and these are discussed below. Direct mechanical linkage is often not suitable because of the distance involved or the resulting poor accuracy. This is adequate for the remote indication of. DC SYSTEMS Desynn Transmission System 6. Only small torques are developed such as is required to move a light pointer over a graduated scale. Simple systems may be employed consisting of a transmitter and receiver. 2. 3. rudder and elevator positions. 7. 3-3-1-1 Fig 1 Simple Electrical Remote Indication 4. The movement of the first shaft is duplicated by the receiver which positions a second shaft.1. These remote indication systems translate movement of a shaft into electrical signals by means of a transmitter unit or transducer. DF bearings or the position of a radar scanner (see Fig 1). B and C spaced 120° apart which are connected to the receiver.1 . 5. By convention the first shaft is known as the input shaft and the second. The wipers are fed via slip rings and brushes Page 103 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. In these cases a remote electrical indication system is often employed. however. or to repeat the reading of an instrument at a remote point. which is electrically connected to a receiver unit located in the desired position. electrically connected. The Desynn Transmission System is a simple transmission system with low torque characteristics which is used for the remote indication of angular position. It is often used where a simple pointer and scale is adequate. A number of different devices are used to give remote indication of angular position or to control the movement of heavy loads from a distance. the output shaft. The Transmitter.3. many occasions when the accurate remote control of the position of a heavy load is required (eg remote rotation of a radar scanner). thus giving the remote indication of the first shaft's movement. The transmitter (see Fig 2) consists of a continuous resistance ring (toroidal potentiometer) having three fixed tappings A. The input shaft carries two spring loaded sliding contacts or wipers diametrically opposed in contact with the potentiometer. for example. To provide the necessary torque servomechanisms (ie amplifiers and servomotors) are normally employed. The accuracy of the system is approximately ± 2 °.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 with DC. the change of voltages at A. The Receiver. This operation is shown in Fig 3a and b: a. The rotor magnet remains aligned with this field at all times and so rotates in synchronism with the input shaft. if the input shaft is rotated.3. Thus. current flows from A through coil A in the receiver then divides equally at the star point with half the total current flowing through coil B and half through coil C back to the transmitter. The resultant magnetic field in the receiver. The receiver (see Fig 2) consists of three high resistance coils whose axes are spaced 120° apart. with which the rotor magnet aligns itself. The three coils are connected to the tapping points A. The rotor magnet aligns itself with this magnetic field. 8. In Fig 3a the voltage distribution around the potentiometer is such that point A is at +24 V while B and C are both at +8 V. B and C in the transmitter.1 . 3-3-1-1 Fig 2 Desynn Transmission System 3-3-1-1 Fig 3 Operation of Desynn Transmission System Page 104 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. B and C produces a variation in the current flowing in the stator coils and rotation of the resultant magnetic field in sympathy with the rotation of the input shaft. When DC is applied to the transmitter wipers.1. The magnitude and polarity of each tapping point voltage varies according to the position of the wipers and thus. is compounded from the vectors representing the individual fields. 9. the voltages at the tapping points A. Desynn Operation. with a permanent magnet rotor pivoted at their centre carrying a pointer. B and C produce a current flow in the three stators of the receiver and a resultant magnetic field is produced. as the voltage at A differs from that at B and C by the same amount.

The two metal segments are connected to opposite poles of a suitable DC supply and three pick-off brushes are disposed around the drum at intervals of 120° (see Fig 5). the resultant field at the receiver and hence the rotor magnet take up corresponding positions.3. Thus if the wipers in the transmitter are placed in any position by the input shaft. In the M-type system the transmitter is modified considerably from that used in the Desynn system but the receiver operates on the same principle.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. 12. The vectors show that the resultant magnetic field also rotates through 120° clockwise and the rotor shaft aligns itself along this new axis. although the rotor may be either a permanent magnet or a laminated soft-iron core. More than one receiver may be operated from a single transmitter. M-Type Transmission System 10. Where moderate torque is required to rotate fairly substantial indicators or comparable devices. the drum consisting of two segments each spanning an arc of 150° separated by two sections of insulating material each extending over 30°.1 . 11. Page 105 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:58 2002 Control Systems 3. remote indication of the position of the input shaft is immediately available. is attached to the rotor. The outer end of each coil in the receiver is connected to one of the three pick-off brushes in the transmitter. moving over a calibrated scale. The transmitter is basically a drum type switch. If a pointer. the voltage distribution around the potentiometer is such that current flows from B through coil B in the receiver then divides equally to flow through coils A and C back to the transmitter. The essential features of a simple M-type transmission system are shown in Fig 4. The amount of torque produced by the Desynn system is limited by the amount of current which can be taken by the low resistance toroidal potentiometer before overheating occurs. If the input shaft is rotated through 120° in a clockwise direction as shown in Fig 3b. The receiver unit is similar to that in the Desynn system.1. a step-by-step or M-type transmission system can be used.

Magnetic fields F1. System Operation. Resolution of fields F1. At the receiver. The condition after a further 30° rotation of the input shaft is shown at position 3. The resultant field. F2 and F3 now produces a resultant field which is seen to have rotated through 30° clockwise in sympathy with the input shaft.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 4 M-Type Transmission System 13. b. brush 2 is disconnected by the insulated segment and brush 3 is positive. These polarities are applied to the three coils in the receiver so that the current divides through coils 2 and 3 with all the current flowing through coil 1. equal currents flow through coils 1and 3. while coil 2 carries no current. Rotation of the input shaft through 30° clockwise ( position 2 in Fig 6 ) produces a condition where brush 1 is negative.1 . In position 1 of the input shaft. Operation of the M-type transmission system is shown in Fig 6. F2 and F3 are produced and vector resolution produces the resultant field as shown. brush 1 is connected to the negative supply and brushes 2 and 3 to the positive.1. a.3. again following Page 106 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. 3-3-1-1 Fig 5 M-Type Drum Transmitter c.

the 30° step is too large and a modified system. Although a 60 times increase in Page 107 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. Types of Receiver. There is a change of pick-off brush polarity at one or other of the brushes each time the. does not suffer from this ambiguity. which is more commonly used. Types of Transmitter. may be used to improve the sensitivity of the system. Synchronization of Transmitter and Receiver.3. giving 24 steps of 15° each. The latter does not suffer from brush wear and is preferred when the rotation rate is high. The receiver rotor aligns itself with the axis of the resultant field and hence the angular movement of the input shaft. Due to the relatively strong magnetic field produced by the magnet. The inductor rotor is built up of iron and aluminium laminations and continuously aligns itself with the axis of the resultant field in the stator to offer the path of lowest reluctance. 16. Greater sensitivity can be achieved by gearing up the input shaft to the transmitter shaft. the rotor torque is considerably higher than that of the induced type and. 14. Since this type of rotor is non-polarized it is possible for it to align itself in either of two positions 180° apart. The receiver is geared down by an equal ratio if a 1:1 output to input ratio is required.1 . The former is a development of the drum transmitter and gives 24 x 15° steps. the rotor lines up in one position only. The rotor of the the receiver may be either of the soft iron (inductor) type or a permanent magnet. A 60:1 gearing system is commonly used. 3-3-1-1 Fig 6 Operation of M-Type Transmission 15. ie when the laminations are in line with the resultant flux.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the input shaft.1. input shaft is turned through 30°. is now rotated 60° from the initial position. being polarized. Two other types of transmitter are in common use in M-type transmission systems. The fact that the receiver rotor in an M-type transmission system only moves in 30° (or 15°) steps is a disadvantage. The permanent magnet rotor. the transmitter shaft completing 60 revolutions for each revolution of the input shaft. These are commutator and eccentric cam type transmitters. but only in discreet steps of 30°. For certain purposes.

Torque Synchro Operation. both of which are very similar.1 . 17. AC systems are generally preferred for high accuracy applications and also where servomechanisms are involved. star connected at 120° to each other. has an associated alternating field which cuts the windings of the TX stator coils producing an induced emf. eg heading.5° each (with a 30° step transmitter) and there are 60 different positions in the full 360° movement of the input shaft. the accuracy of M-type transmission systems is seldom better than ±1°. Accuracies. but in the opposite direction to the TX rotor inducing field. but presents problems in the transmission of actual shaft position. The basic torque synchro consists of a transmitter (TX) and a receiver (TR).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 sensitivity is obtained in this case. Torque synchros. Resolver synchros. Torque Synchros 19. Differential synchros.3. c. energized by the AC supply.synchro) and are divided into four groups: a. The operation of torque synchro is shown in Fig 9. One revolution of the transmitter shaft now represents a rotation of 6° of the input shaft producing 12 steps of 0.1. b. and a rotor which is a single winding energized by an AC supply. Initial course synchronization is therefore necessary and this is normally achieved by manual adjustment before the transmission system is used. must be of such a direction and magnitude as to produce a field associated with the TX stator which is equal in strength. A similar field. The TX and TR rotors differ in that the TR rotor is normally fitted with a mechanical damper to prevent oscillation. parallel to the 3-3-1-1 Fig 7 Basic Torque Synchro System Page 108 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. by Henry's Law. Control synchros. The application of the DC systems described above is limited to the remote indication of shaft position and the transmission of moderate torques to remote indicators or other devices. Because the TX stator windings are in closed circuit with the TR stator windings a current flow occurs which. d. Each has a stator made up of three windings. The AC systems are self-synchronous (hence the name . The TX rotor. AC SYSTEMS Introduction 18. and the actual construction is shown in Fig 8. into which the receiver can "lock" and still follow the M-type sequence. This accuracy is adequate for the remote transmission of shaft rotation rates such as analogues of ground speed. Fig 7 shows a diagrammatic representation of a torque synchro system. each separated by 6°. Because of frictional and resistive losses. 20. the possibility of ambiguity is introduced. the output shaft will be out of synchronization with the input shaft. In all but one of these positions.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 8 Construction of Torque Synchro 3-3-1-1 Fig 9 Operation of the Torque Synchor Page 109 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3.1 .3.1.

A control synchro system is shown at Fig 10. proportional to the angular displacement from the null position. by Henry's Law. produces an alternating field which. currentceases to flow and the fields collapse. The CX rotor. Typical accuracy figures are 16 minutes of arc. NOTE: Current flow is continuous in the control synchro. When the CT rotor is at 90° to the CT stator field there is no induced emf (or error signal) in the rotor: the rotor is said to be in the "null" position. induces an opposing field in the CX stator.3. If it is required to move heavier loads a control synchro. fed from an AC supply. may be used. Using a suitably powered motor. 23. The stator coils are of low impedance and any rotor misalignment produces sufficient current flow to produce reasonable torque. Control Synchro Operation. Control and torque synchros are similar.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 TX rotor field. but not the control transformer (CT) rotor. Control Synchro Accuracy. is induced in the rotor. the CT field alignment will change and the CT rotor will no longer be in the “null” position. If a high degree of accuracy is required the load must be limited. all the field directions simply reverse and the system remains in alignment. the phase of this induced emf depending upon the direction of displacement. The presence of both rotor and stator fields within the TR causes the rotor to turn to align its field with that of the stator and thus with the fields of the TX stator and rotor. the control synchro accuracy is independent of load. employing a separate servomotor to provide the necessary torque amplification. The circuit current causes a magnetic field associated with the CT stator and parallel to the CX rotor field. 24. The second phase is supplied by the same AC source supplying the original CX rotor input. Page 110 : Wed Jan 02 02:28:59 2002 Control Systems 3. the direction of movement being determined by the phase of the error signal. 21. both have three-winding stators and single-winding rotors. the current magnitude being limited by employing high impedance stators. lightly loaded torque synchro accuracy is approximately ± 1°. An emf. As the two rotors reach alignment. The induced error signal is amplified and fed to one phase of a two phase servomotor which drives the output shaft of the CT rotor. As the torque synchro approaches synchronization. If the CX rotor is displaced. A complete control synchro system is shown at Fig 12. the field structure collapses and the available torque falls off. The motor drives the output shaft and the CT rotor until the induced error signal is zero. As the phase of the AC supply changes.1. The TX and TR rotors are energized by the same AC supply and thus have associated magnetic fields. Control Synchros 22. Torque Synchro Accuracy. The control transmitter (CX) rotor is AC energized.1 . is produced in association with the TR stator. The operation of the control system is shown in Fig 11. they induce equal but opposite emfs in the two stators.

3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 10 Control Synchro System 3-3-1-1 Fig 11 Operation of a Control Synchro System Page 111 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:00 2002 Control Systems 3.1 .1.

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The differential synchro (CDX) consists of a three-winding stator and a three-winding rotor. 3-3-1-1 Fig 14 Action of the Differential Synchro Page 113 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:02 2002 Control Systems 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 12 Complete Control Synchro System 3-3-1-1 Fig 13 Differential Synchro System Differential Synchros 25. The CDX becomes a TDX when used in a torque synchro system. The control system in Fig 13 includes a CDX. An emf is induced in the TDX rotor coils by the TDX stator alternating field.1 .3. Shaft input 2 is fed to the TDX rotor. Differential Synchro Operation. Shaft rotation 1 is fed to the TX rotor in the normal manner causing an induced field associated with the TDX stator parallel to the TX rotor field. Differential synchros may be used to add or subtract two shaft rotations. The operation of a differential synchro within a torque synchro is illustrated in Fig 14 (the operation within a control synchro system is similar). 26.1.

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1 . both having two orthogonal windings. Application of Differential Synchros. The relationship of one point to another may be defined in either of two ways: a. Co-ordinate Systems. the current flow produces a magnetic field associated with the TDX rotor which opposes the field in the TDX stator. Ground speed and track define a vector in polar co-ordinates. Use of Resolvers. The resolver synchro is used to convert one co-ordinate system to the other. The same vector may be expressed in northings and eastings in cartesian form. Cartesian co-ordinates (distances X and Y along orthogonal axes). together with the equations relating one system to the other.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The TDX rotor coils are connected to the TR stator coils and. Although the operation of both TDX and CDX are identical in theory.1. The resolver synchro is illustrated in Fig 16. 27. but the modes of operation are slightly different. eg two could be used. The resolver synchro consists of a stator and a rotor. to add variation and drift to magnetic heading to give an output of true track. consequently. The two co-ordinate systems are shown in Fig 15. Several differential synchros can be included in a system. in tandem. Polar co-ordinates (range and bearing) b. their windings are different because of the different system current flows: torque systems have zero current flow when aligned. 3-3-1-1 Fig 15 Relationship Between Polar and Cartesian Co-ordinates 29. Similar resolvers are used to convert from polar to cartesian and vice versa.3. Resolver Synchros 28. 3-3-1-1 Fig 16 Resolver Synchro Page 115 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:04 2002 Control Systems 3. whereas control systems have continuous current flow. A magnetic field is also induced in association with the TR stator coils and alignment of the TR rotor takes place as explained above (para 20).

31. The operation of the resolver synchro (resolving) is shown in Fig 17. In the resolving mode.3. One of the rotor windings is connected to an amplifier and servomotor in the same manner as a control receiver (CT).1. the associated fields combining to produce a stator field of magnitude R at an angle θ (R and θ are analogues of groundspeed and track). the other rotor winding lies parallel to that field. Resolver Synchro (Resolving). The rotor field has components of R cos θ (northings) and R sin θ (eastings) along the stator winding axes. Resolver Synchro (Compounding). In this example R (an electrical analogue of groundspeed) is applied.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 30. It is therefore driven to a position at 90° to the stator field and the output shaft is turned through the angle θ. When the CT connected rotor winding is at 90° to the total stator field.1 . but in this case additional components are needed as shown in Fig 18. The rotor is then turned through angle θ (track). the resolver synchro converts polar to cartesian co-ordinates eg ground speed and track to northings and eastings. thereby deriving track. A similar resolver is used to convert cartesian to polar co-ordinates. 3-3-1-1 Fig 17 Conversion of Polar to Cartesian Co-ordinates Page 116 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:04 2002 Control Systems 3. as an AC voltage. In this position a field proportional to R is produced in association with this rotor winding and hence a p voltage analogue x2 + y2 of groundspeed may be obtained. The Y and X co-ordinates (northings and eastings) are fed to the stator windings as AC voltages. to one rotor winding. the voltages induced in the stator windings are proportional to R cos θ and R sin θ.

3. Resolver Synchro (Differential). multiplied by cosine and sine θ(true track) may be required as grid northings and grid eastings. The operation of the differential resolver synchro is shown at Fig 20.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-1 Fig 18 Conversion of Cartesian to Polar Co-ordinates 32. There are three inputs. R cos θ (true northings) and R sin θ (true eastings) both fed as voltage analogues to the stator coils. If the angle between true North and grid North is represented by φ. φ Page 117 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. Operation of Differential Resolver Synchro.1 . It is often necessary to produce the sine and cosine of the sum of two angles multiplied by a given value. eg northings and eastings relative to true North represented by R (ground speed). 33.1. then required outputs are R cos (θ + φ) and R sin (θ + φ) as illustrated in Fig 19.

The outputs would then be distance gone along and across desired track.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 (convergence) is fed as a shaft rotation to position the rotor coils relative to the stator. From Fig 20. Thus the differential resolver synchro redefines cartesian co-ordinates about a new datum direction. The fields associated with the stator coils may be resolved into 4 sub-fields. eastings and desired track.1 . R sin θ cos φ − R cos θ sin φ = R sin (θ + φ). two of the sub-fields are 3-3-1-1 Fig 19 Action of a Resolver Synchro (Differential) shown to be additive and two subtractive. 3-3-1-1 Fig 20 Operation of Differential Resolver Synchro Page 118 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. R cos θ cos φ − R sin θ sin φ = R cos (θ + φ).1. The sub-field values are: a. b.3. Output voltages taken from the rotor coils are analogues of Rcos (θ + φ) (grid northings) and Rsin (θ + φ) (grid eastings). The versatility of the device may be illustrated by imagining inputs of northings. two parallel to each rotor coil.

Summary of Remote Indication Systems System Desynn Remarks DC. DC. Provides moderate torque.3. Provides only sufficient torque to operate small instruments: gives remote indication of dial readings to an accuracy of about ± 2°.1 .1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 SUMMARY Summary Table 34. Provides only sufficient torque to operate small instruments: efficient and accurate to within ± 1°: often used to transmit data such as radar bearings to the place where the information is required. Table 1 . sufficient to drive small mechanisms: accurate to about ± 1°. Table 2 summarizes the pertinent detail of the various types of synchro mechanisms. Typical use is to rotate the scanning coils in a CRT in synchronism with a radar aerial. M-Type Torque Synchro Page 119 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. Table 1 summarizes the remote indication systems discussed in the preceding paragraphs. AC.

Accuracy about ± 6' arc.1. Used in computers to give either cartesian or polar co-ordinates of an input. and for conversion of one to the other: can also be used in a manner similar to that of a control synchro.1 . Resolver Synchro AC. Resolver Differential Synchro AC.3. Table 2 . eg to combine a DF loop reading and a compass reading to give true bearing.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Torque Differential Synchro AC. but provides summation of two input shaft angles. As for control synchro. Control Differential Synchro AC. Gives an electrical output that is dependent on the error in alignment between driving shaft and load shaft. The error signal is normally used as the input to a control system driving a heavy load. As for the torque synchro. Gives an electrical output in the form of sine and cosine values of the sum or difference of two input angles. Control Synchro AC.Synchro Details Component Code Torque TX Transmitter Torque Receiver TR Inputs Outputs Mechanical rotation Electrical from of rotor stator Electrical to stator Mechanical rotation from rotor Electrical to stator Electrical from and mechanical rotor rotation of rotor Electrical to stator Mechanical and rotor rotation from rotor Mechanical rotation Electrical from of rotor stator Electrical to stator Error signal to servo loop Electrical to stator Electrical from and mechanical rotor rotation of rotor Mechanical rotation Electrical from of stator and rotor stator Electrical to stator and mechanical rotation of stator Error signal to servo loop Uses Transmits angular information Operates low torque equipment Transmits the sum of angular inputs Provides low torque equipment with the sum of two angular inputs Transmits angular information Control position of servo mechanism Transmits the sum of two angular inputs Transmits the sum of two angular inputs Provides a position servomechanism with a control signal which is the sum of two angular inputs Resolves polar co-ordinate inputs to cartesian co-ordinate outputs Compounds cartesian inputs to polar outputs Torque Differentil TDX Transmitter Torque Differential Receiver Control Transmitter Control Transformer Control Differential Transmitter Control Transmitter with Rotatable Stator Control Receiver with Rotatable Stator TDR CX CT CDX CXB CTB Resolver Synchro RS (Resolving) Electrical to rotor and mechanical rotation of rotor Electrical to stator Electrical from stator Resolver Synchro RS (Compunding) OR Arc/Tan Resolver Electrical from rotor and mechanical rotation of rotor Page 120 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. but provides summation of two input shaft angles.

all of which have this ability to amplify the input force. Page 121 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:05 2002 Control Systems 3. but its receiving element included parts which released much greater power at the output than was available at the input.2 . At least one. could do more than this. however. however. It could not only transmit the information over considerable distances.1. its pattern of operation must follow a particular sequence. which need not involve remoteness of control. This sequence.Servomechanisms Introduction 1. the control transmission system. will now be examined. 2. A lightly applied movement at the input could control the position of a heavy load. The transmission systems described in Chapter 1 of this Section included many devices capable only of remote indication on light pointers. To define a servomechanism (or servo) properly.3. The receiving elements of the control transmission system are members of a large family of control devices known as servomechanisms.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Resolver Synchro RS (Differential) Electrical to stator and mechanical rotation of rotor Electrical from rotor 3-3-1-1 Fig 3a Redefines cartesian co-ordinates about a new datum direction 3-3-1-1 Fig 3b Control Systems Chapter 2 .

His actions would probably be such as to allow high speeds for large load movements and low speeds for small movements. move the control element by an amount proportional to the required angle. it can only be used when the operator can see the load and when fatigue on his part is unlikely. In other words he would. In order to control the position of a radar scanner or other heavy load. The voltage to the amplifier is called the error signal and it is usually produced within the error detector. Once the possibility of prolonged operation is envisaged. then an automatic system must be used. at any rate during his first few attempts. however.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Simple Control System 3. 10. When the input is moved a voltage proportional to this angle is applied through the amplifier to the motor. Clearly the load will not stop at the required position unless some further action is taken. is not automatic. moves the load. The voltage would then be regulated by the difference between the load angle and the input angle. Since restraining torques increase with speed.2 .3. 5. 7. which drives the motor in the required direction. the load speed. The load position is fed to some device which compares it with the input and the difference between them regulates the voltage to the amplifier. The control element could be calibrated with a scale indicating the angle through which the input is turned. applies the input to a power amplifier. the difference between the load angle and the input angle is called the error and the comparison device is termed the error detector. A block schematic diagram of the automatic system is illustrated in Fig 2. or when the operator cannot read the load position or if the changes of input are too rapid for him to follow. an arrangement such as that in Fig 1 could be put together. The motor accelerates at a rate compatible with the load inertia and with restraints. 8. Several courses of action are possible but perhaps the simplest and most obvious is to brief an operator to watch the load movement. The control element. such as friction. perhaps a variable resistor. The motor. in turn. until it reaches a steady speed with the driving torque equal to the restraining torques. 6. This control system. The link between the load and the comparison device is known as feedback. He could slow the motor down as the load closed on the required position by drawing back on the control element. Automatic Control System 9. A simple automatic system can be designed to work in precisely the same way as the operator. and not its position.1. is controlled by a device of this type. The essential features are as follows: 3-3-1-2 Fig 2 Automatic Control System Page 122 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. finally bringing it to rest. 3-3-1-2 Fig 1 Elements of Control System 4.

Feedback of the load position. It is actuated by the error since the net input to the amplifier is the error signal and not a voltage representing the input angle. θo to the error detector. Error actuation. Movement of the load by the motor in a direction which reduces the error. Control of the motor movement by the amplifier output. c. The input also will normally be an angle or position. There are two main classes of servomechanism . e. Subtraction of θi. error detector. Production of an error signal proportional to θo − θi. 11. Closed loop control. Page 123 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. Application of the input angle. g. Types of Servo 14. it is fully automatic and capable of continuous operation.3. amplifier. Servomechanisms 12. d. θi. 13. when the error signal disappears and movement stops.2 . from θo to produce the error. and motor. Thus the system in Fig 2 is a servomechanism.position control servos and speed control servos: a.1. The automatic control system described operates by continuous cycling of the load position through the loop formed by the feedback. Position control servos are used to control the angular or linear position of a load. f. Position Control Servos. while those which do not have feedback are known as open loop systems. Control of the amplifier output by the error signal. b. but may be found in other forms. to the error detector. Power amplification. It has power amplification and closed loop control. an automatic control system must be capable of continuous operation and have: a. The new load position is fed back to the error detector and the sequence b to g continues until the error is zero. c. To be classed as a servomechanism. Control mechanisms in which this loop can be identified are known as closed loop systems. b.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a.

The synchro control transmission system has already been mentioned as an example of a servomechanism. however. but is limited to low power applications. combining the merits of both. the input and output may take so many forms that it is common practice to use non-committal descriptions such as input demand for θi and load behaviour for θo.1. 17. Indeed some systems use a direct mechanical link for the feedback. 3-3-1-2 Fig 3 Servo Elements of Control Synchro EXAMPLES OF SERVOMECHANISMS Position Control Servo . Whatever the feedback method. Speed control servos are used to control the speed of a load. and the fact that a second servo is used to provide the load position feedback is a matter of design convenience. 15. The DC servo is used in high torque situations.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. The classification into position and speed control servos is a convenient one in view of the applications of the servo principle met in normal service equipments. The compass is therefore essentially a servomechanism. Fig 4 shows the arrangement of a typical gyro-magnetic compass and Fig 5 illustrates the same system in block form. and the gyro spin axis is the load. Gyro heading is the load position. will be found when heavy loads are involved. Thermostatic control of a gas oven uses the servo principle. The error in gyro heading actuates the system. The precession coils replace the servomotor. θo and the resolver synchro is the error detector. It is illustrated in Fig 3 with the servo terms added to assist the reader in identifying the features enumerated in para 10. being actuated by the error in oven temperature.The Gyro-Magnetic Compass 18. In general the AC system is capable of greater accuracy and stability. is applied to the resolver synchro together with gyro heading. In general. 3-3-1-2 Fig 4 GM Compass System Page 124 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3. the servo principle can be identified in all gyro-magnetic compasses. but more often a hybrid AC/DC servo. In this case the input will not normally itself be a speed. Magnetic heading. Speed Control Servos. the control of the concentration of a solution in a chemical process is another example. inputs are usually in the form of voltages or shaft angles. Indeed. can be operated by AC or DC power supplies.3.2 . the servo can control many things not embraced by these terms. Servomechanisms of either classification. θi. 16. 19.

The device used is called a velodyne and its components are illustrated in Fig 6. 3-3-1-2 Fig 6 Speed Control Servo.3.2 . A shaft turning at this angular velocity can then be used to display distance gone. the Velodyne Page 125 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3.1.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-1-2 Fig 5 GM Compass System Servo Outline Speed Control Servo The Velodyne 20. The situation calling for a speed control servo in navigation equipments is most commonly that of converting a voltage representing airspeed or groundspeed into an angular velocity.

Nevertheless a suitable choice of components can ensure an input-output relationship which is very closely linear over the operating range. It is intended. 3-3-1-2 Fig 7 Simple Servomechanism 25. The motor is therefore controlled by the difference in voltages and will speed up or slow down until the difference is zero.2 . so that θi and θo may represent positions or speeds. It can be very small and absorbs little power since only a voltage. The tachogenerator output. The servo illustrated in Fig 7 will be chosen as the model. is required. This is a special type of generator which gives a voltage proportional to its speed of rotation. PERFORMANCE OF SERVOMECHANISMS Introduction 24. to discuss some of the more sophisticated members of the family and before this can be done the behaviour of the simple servo must be studied in greater detail. The discussion which follows applies equally to the position servo and the speed servo. however. In practice the equality of voltages is never quite reached and a small residual difference is necessary to counter friction. Page 126 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:06 2002 Control Systems 3.3. with negligible current. For simplicity Fig 7 will be taken to be a position servo.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 21. The conversion is effected by a tachogenerator coupled to the output shaft. is fed back to be subtracted from Vi at the amplifier input. 23. and are on occasion ambiguously termed in order to avoid difficulty. 22. The descriptions given in the preceding paragraphs of servo action are rather superficial.1. Vo. The input voltage Vi is applied through a power amplifier to turn a servometer which accelerates the load towards the required speed. Comparison between the load speed and the input voltage is made possible by converting the speed into a voltage.

friction etc. But this is not a satisfactory state of affairs. and the various restraints. It has so far been assumed that if the input moves to θi the load will simply follow. 29. These are now considered in turn. its response being a reproduction of the input movement. Two important factors affecting response are the form which the input change takes. it keeps moving past the required position. The response of a servo is the pattern of behaviour of the load when a change is made to the input condition. 3-3-1-2 Fig 8 Types of Input Step Input No Friction 28. Two types of input change will be covered. For this discussion we will assume that the input and output were aligned at θo.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Response 26. The load stops when it has overshot by the initial error. therefore. 27. The resulting load oscillation about the demanded position is illustrated graphically in Fig 9. The error signal produced. An error signal proportional to θo− θi appears at the amplifier input and the motor is energized to null the error. now reverse in sense to slow down the load. The torque delivered by the motor to the load is directly proportional to the error. the components operate symmetrically about the null. the pattern of deceleration is a mirror image of the original acceleration. 30. which act on the output. Further.2 . and. one when the input suddenly changes to a new position. however. As the error reduces so the acceleration reduces. The first is known as a step input. Both are discussed without considering restraints in the first instance. the torque applied to the load. the second a ramp input. until the input suddenly changed to θi. it acts only on the inertia of the load which therefore accelerates at a rate proportional to the error. until it reaches zero with zero error. One important point must now be emphasized. for the load acceleration is in one sense only and that is to increase its velocity. The paragraphs which follow will show that matters are not as simple as this. Saying that the acceleration is zero at zero error simply means that the load has reached a steady speed when we require it to be stationary. the names deriving from the curves of input against time shown in Fig 8.3. Since. since there is nothing to stop it. 31.1. the other when it suddenly moves at a constant speed. 3-3-1-2 Fig 9 Oscillating Response to a Step Input Page 127 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. and from there the performance is repeated.

The oscillatory responses are obviously not desirable. The load speed.1. air resistance. Various inherent factors act to oppose the load movement. exceeds the input speed and an overshoot results. When its speed exceeds that of the input the position error starts to decrease. the load accelerates slowly and lags behind the input. Lumping them all together for the moment the general effect is to reduce the amplitude of each successive swing until gradually the output becomes steady. eddy currents. The error signal grows as the lag increases. Page 128 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. The oscillations are known as transients and they are effective during the transient response period. In the early stages of the ramp. kinetic friction. however. restraints on the load have a stabilizing effect. That the outcome is a continuous oscillation can be easily imagined from this point.No Friction 32. Eventually the load speed equals the input speed but since a substantial position error exists it continues to accelerate. and luckily. they include static friction. Once the output has settled it has reached the steady state. building up the acceleration. viscous lubricants and many others. while the error signal is small. the acceleration reduces and the load reaches a constant speed at zero position error with no error signal. or settling time.3. 3-3-1-2 Fig 10 Oscillating Response to a Ramp Input Effect of Restraints 33.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Ramp Input . The description of the response can be followed in Fig 10.2 .

and since this increases with speed the error is generally reckoned to vary directly with speed. therefore an error must exist. One of these is that power is wasted. 3-3-1-2 Fig 12 Response with Viscous Friction to Ramp Input Page 129 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. they do have certain detrimental effects. known as the dead space. and its effect is often neglected. In the steady state the load is moving with constant speed. however. but.3. it is therefore being resisted by viscous friction. For most modern servos the coulomb friction is very small. Fig 11 shows the effect of coulomb friction on the response to a step input.1. the greater part is due to viscous friction. However. and any errors less than this will not be corrected. Steady State Errors 35. It does. it also contributes to this error.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 34. the width of which depends on the amount of coulomb friction. To provide this torque the load error must reach some finite size. While restraints are beneficial in stabilizing. of course. The resistance due to coulomb friction tends to degrade the sensitivity of a servo. Coulomb friction may be considered small compared with viscous friction during a ramp input. for a torque which overcomes it must be generated before any movement of the load takes place. produce a similar effect when the ramp input is considered. 37. or damping. An error signal must be produced to overcome this. the response. The response is illustrated in Fig 12 .2 . and the error necessary to overcome the friction is known as velocity lag. Examination of the various restraints present would show that their effect is in part due to a small constant magnitude force known as coulomb friction and in part to viscous friction which increases with speed 3-3-1-2 Fig 11 Response with Coulomb Friction to Step Input 36. Viscous friction does not produce a dead space in the step input case since it has no value when the speed is zero. another is the introduction of error in the steady state. The load comes to rest somewhere within a band of error.

The simple servo oscillates in response to either a step or ramp input. Two methods commonly employed are described. One device in use is the eddy current damper shown in Fig 13. and also the response time. IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE Introduction 39. This is usually the case for small position servos. For many applications the simple servo using its inherent friction for damping is perfectly adequate. Viscous Damping 40.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Summary 38. Time and energy are wasted during this period. but leads to dead space and velocity lag. This method is simply a controlled increase of the inherent viscous damping to achieve the required response. but when large loads are involved the transient response is unsatisfactory. and bearing wear is increased.2 . 3-3-1-2 Fig 13 Eddy Current Damper Page 130 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. It is evidently desirable to reduce the number of oscillations. Friction damps the oscillation.1.3.

These eddy currents set up magnetic fields which act against the inducing fields and forces opposing the disc rotation are created. Too much extra viscous friction will produce a very sluggish response and the system is heavily damped. however. to allow one small overshoot. These forces are closely proportional to the disc velocity. Slightly less damping than this. A snag arises. 42. 43. This simple device consists of a thin disc of metal with high electrical conductivity (usually aluminium) which is attached to the output shaft. Eddy currents are induced of magnitude proportional to the field strength and to the disc velocity. Thus to remove the transient oscillations completely a considerable velocity lag must be expected. Varying degrees of damping can be applied. It spins between the poles of electromagnets mounted round its periphery. coulomb friction being ignored for simplicity.3. 3-3-1-2 Fig 14 Degrees of Damping . The degree of damping which just prevents any overshoot is known as critical damping.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 41. for any increase in viscous friction also increases the velocity lag.Step Input Page 131 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:07 2002 Control Systems 3. Most designs are aimed at this condition. The effect on the transients for a ramp input can be similarly adjusted to produce optimum damping. and therefore provide parallels to the inherent viscous forces.2 . They can be controlled by adjusting the current flow to the electromagnets. Using only inherent friction light damping is achieved. Fig 15 illustrates the response for two degrees of damping for a ramp input. is optimum damping which gives the smallest settling time. Fig 14 shows some of the stages.1.

3-3-1-2 Fig 16 Velocity Feedback Page 132 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 Control Systems 3. therefore.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 44. the motor torque can be reduced in the same proportion by some means other than an opposing force the damping action will be retained. Viscous damping acts by absorbing motor torque. We therefore feed back a voltage proportional to the load velocity and apply it in opposition to the error signal at the amplifier input. Motor torque can be lowered by cutting off part of the amplifier output. 46. If. that is it must be proportional to the output speed. It does so by applying a force at the motor output proportional to the output speed. The arrangement is shown in Fig 16.1. 3-3-1-2 Fig 15 Degrees of Damping . and a simple way of doing this is to cut down the error signal. For effective damping the reduction must be on the lines indicated by viscous friction. Velocity feedback damping acts in this way. Since a voltage with negligible current is required the additional output load can be neglected. but power no longer wasted.Ramp Input Velocity Feedback Damping 45.2 . Examining these statements we see that the damping effect is produced by reducing the motor torque in the desired proportion. The response achieved by additional viscous damping can be made adequate. The second method attacks this problem. The feedback voltage is provided by a tachogenerator on the output shaft. but it has the great disadvantage of wasting energy.3. while the friction force applied to do so is the cause of energy waste.

but of the two velocity feedback is to be preferred since power is not wasted. controls the 28V DC supply to the motors and transmitters within the GPI. The cancellation can only be made by an equal error signal. The ON/OFF switch. or Along/Across track co-ordinates. Varying degrees of damping can be achieved by adjustment of the feedback and much greater precision is possible than with viscous friction. Main Switch. Summary 49. Indicator 3. Page 133 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. which means that an error must exist. The output is the computed position in Northing/Easting.Ground Position Indicator (GPI) MK 4A Introduction 1. In this case the steady state velocity of the load imposes a signal on the amplifier input which must be cancelled in some way if the steady velocity is to be maintained. Transient response can be improved in two ways. and ground distance gone by M-type transmission from the Doppler tracker unit.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 47. drift transmitted by synchros from the Doppler aerial. permitting the freezing and correction of the position counters. but for a different physical reason. It has no controls. The latter is used in conjunction with a servo system to provide a power drive of track angle. Components 2. DR Position Computing Chapter 1 . 48. Once again optimum damping is sought.2. and transmission of drift and ground mileage occurs a few seconds after the Doppler is switched on. which is at the bottom of the unit. A storage system is built into the equipment. There are two components. by applying extra viscous friction or by velocity feedback. an indicator unit and an amplifier unit. is mounted remotely. and is therefore not described in this chapter. Latitude/ Longitude. Velocity feedback increases velocity lag just as did the viscous friction method. The inputs are heading by M-type transmission from the heading reference.1 . It also controls the transmission of groundspeed to the instrument. The Ground Position Indicator Mk 4A is an electromechanical computer designed for use with Doppler radars and remote indicating compass systems. All controls are on the face of the indicator (Fig 1). Heading transmission becomes operative as soon as the compass is switched on.3. Both increase velocity lag in the response to ramp inputs.

To improve the accuracy the heading is passed via a 60:1 gearing reducing the steps to 0. lagging or leading by an amount equal to the drift reading on the Drift and G/S indicator. Heading and Track Indicator. A limiting stop in the azimuth synchro unit then engages. Doppler drift of 20° port and GPI drift condition of 20° starboard. 3-3-2-1 Fig 1 Controls on GPI MK 4A Page 134 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. The servo-motor used in the azimuth resolving mechanism has sufficient power to overcome the power of the heading repeater motor.5° but allowing the system to appear to be synchronized every 6°. In these circumstances. The heading must then be resynchronized. and therefore both pointers are driven continuously in one direction by the servomotor. The input of heading is by M-type transmission and would normally be in 30° steps. dragging the track pointer along 36° behind the heading pointer.2. but when more than 36° of drift is presented to the mechanism it tries to reach a null position in the wrong direction. To stop this continuous rotation. If the drift servo is not powered the track pointer will remain stationary until it lags by 36° from the heading. the continuous rotation will stop and the track pointer will be pulled into synchronization. The pointer indications are accurate to about 0. When this happens the drift conditions in the GPI may differ by more than 36° from the drift input from the Doppler eg.3. This is because the azimuth resolving mechanism has a null position every 72°. Synchronization should be carried out with the drift servo powered (ie Doppler switched on). allowing it to deal with normal drifts of up to 36° relayed from the Doppler. the drift on the Doppler indicator should be inched until its drift indication is within 36° of that on the GPI. while the other has a single arrow indicating heading. A compass rose on the face of the instrument carries two pointers. as soon as the Doppler is switched on.5°. One of these has a double arrow to indicate track. The track pointer then follows the heading. both pointers will be driven continuously round the dial in one direction. The heading pointer is synchronized with the compass master indicator by the use of the knob at the left-hand side of the compass rose.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4.

1 .3. Slipping of a secant gear in the resolving mechanism usually causes errors in latitudes above 70° North or South. A/A SET TRACK. the counters appear the same as for GRID. Position is indicated as nautical miles travelled in North or South and East or West directions from any point at which the counters have been set to zero.000 nm on each counter. The range obtainable on this setting is 4. GRID. Movement of the switch applies the appropriate form of drive to the counters.2. The range on each counter is 400°. with an overshoot of approximately 200 nm. b. When A/A is set. The three presentations are: a. At the zero changeover. It must be noted that a change of presentation in flight requires a complete counter resetting. LAT. the East/West counters record distance across track. and the other drums give the number of whole degrees. The two counters give degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude. increasing East for Page 135 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. and adjusts the counter shutters to give the correct presentation. The minutes are read on the right-hand drum against a mark on the shutter. A three-positioned switch in the centre of the indicator allows a selection of any one of three types of position presentation. Presentation Selection Switch. the counters increasing North. the minute mark moves with the shutter. c. but they give nautical miles gone along and across any track which has been set on the set track drum. The normal North/South counters record distance along the selected track. and any reading must be delayed until the changeover is complete.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 5. LONG.

Input Error. when the indicator lamps will go out. rotation of the knob gives a corresponding rotation of the indicator dials. To store information. shown in its stowed position in Fig 1. When the switch is put back to NORMAL. 12. the greatest source of error.1 . and a line dividing dots from crosses indicates the neutral position. NOTE: The storage indicator markings cover a range of 160 nm for each component. since the locking device can be forced and this will result in unserviceability of the GPI. Very accurate compass calibration and precise alignment of the M-type transmission system. in fact. deviation and coriolis effect are necessary to minimize heading error. Resetting of the counters can be carried out either manually or with the aid of an electric motor. Latitude and Altitude Error. This high rate of reset permits a rapid change of the counters when selecting a different position presentation. and input error. The handle is then inserted in the lower keyway (E/W) and a similar procedure carried out with reference to the other cross and dot indicator. 8. Should the automatic system fail.3.3°. appears through a window in the lower right-hand corner of the GPI face. These errors are maximum at high altitudes and in high and low latitudes. whereupon the indicator lamps light. The drum is rotated by a setting knob near the window. and at any other latitude or altitude must introduce errors. On manual resetting. until the drum has been returned to zero.25%. With electrical resetting.080 feet and is equal to one minute of latitude. A further inherent source of error is backlash in the transmission and resolution gear.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 distance to the right of the set track and West for distance to the left. corresponding to 0. there is no indication of the correct unstore direction and large errors may be introduced. the NORMAL/ FIX switch is turned to FIX. A drum marked off at two-degree intervals. The GPI Mk 4A is subject to instrument error. Despite the inherent accuracy of the GPI Mk 4A the ultimate accuracy depends on the quality of the inputs. The storage system is controlled by the NORMAL/FIX switch. and 0. electric motors automatically feed all the stored mileage into the position counters until the storage is cleared. latitude and altitude error. The cross and dot indicator nearest to this keyway shows the direction in which the handle must be turned. Counter Resets. At all altitudes and latitudes the length of a nautical mile is 6. manual unstoring can be carried out. Instrument Error. LONG. Slipping of the secant gear. The accuracy of the true heading input is much less than that of the drift and is. the knob being pulled out for manual control. The design of constant-scale measuring instruments such as the GPI Mk 4A is based on the assumptions that: a. The East/West counters are marked R (right) and L (left) respectively. presentation) per minute. the counter affected would be 400 nm in error after unstoring.2. 10. The track set on this control does not affect the track pointer on the compass rose. Should 200 nm be exceeded. will increase the instrument error. The rate of automatic unstore is equivalent to approximately 3.000 feet at 45° N is an overreading of approximately 0. 11.5% and track resolution is accurate to within 0. and the position shown on the position counters remains constant.5 degrees. although in effect 200 nm can be stored. two hand reset knobs and two drum indicators which are illuminated by concealed lamps at all times when any information is in store.5 revolution of the indicator drum. altitude error always causes an overreading in distance while latitude error causes overreading in high latitudes and underreading in low latitudes.000 knots. b. together with careful application of corrections for variation. A distance of 6. and setting this knob scale against a fixed datum mark above the knob allows very accurate track setting. The knob is divided into four by projecting points at 90° intervals. Page 136 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:08 2002 DR Position Computing 3. 7.7% respectively. A handle. 6. one revolution of the knob representing 4°. Counter resetting can then be carried out. LONG. which is likely to occur at latitudes higher than 70° N or S. If the 160 nm figure is exceeded. The overall error at 50. A locking device prevents movement of the drum from its zero position unless the A/A presentation is chosen and also prevents return of the presentation switch to GRID or LAT. which continues to give the true track of the aircraft. The drifts and groundspeed values supplied by Doppler are accurate to about 0. Storage System. rotation of the knob gives a rate of reset of about 700 nm (on A/A and GRID presentations) or about 70° (on LAT. Care should be taken when change of presentation is made. and only manual unstorage is available. A knob alongside each set of counters controls both manual and electrical resetting. Set Track Drum and Knob. and numbered every 10°. Distance resolution is accurate to within 0. Errors 9. Backlash error is kept to a minimum by ensuring that the GPI reset knobs are at their central position when not in use.080 feet multiplied by the cosine of the latitude is equal to one minute of longitude. is inserted in the upper keyway (N/S). These assumptions are true only at sea level at latitudes 47°42' N and S.

k. Exactly two minutes after switching on in g switch off the GPI and the Doppler distance gone counter. switch on Doppler. e. described in relation to the example illustrated at Fig 2 is as follows: 3-3-2-1 Fig 2 Changing from LAT/LONG to A/A Track Page 137 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3. l. c. Set zero drift and 600 kt groundspeed on the Doppler. the counters should then read zero at destination.1 .1 nm North and 14.1 nm Left. i. Switch to NORMAL and note that both storage lights go out together as the drums reach their neutral positions. Set the GPI counters to take-off co-ordinates and the Doppler distance gone counter to zero. and simultaneously switch on the GPI and the Doppler distance gone counter. As aircraft becomes airborne switch on GPI and distance gone counter. Set NORMAL/FIX switch to NORMAL and GPI main switch to OFF. The GPI counters can be set so that the actual distance to go is shown. but tactical considerations may favour the use of an alternative presentation. Circumstances may arise when a change from LAT/LONG to A/A track presentation is required in flight. Doppler and the heading reference are used together in a particular type of aircraft. g. Switch off GPI. b. LAT/LONG is the most commonly used and versatile mode of operation. Return counters to zero and switch off GPI. 17. Operation in Flight. Note the time.3. Check that the distance gone counter reads 20 nm and that the GPI counters read 14. Set presentation selection switch to A/A and the track drum to the value indicated by the heading and track pointers plus 45 degrees. a. and a dot or cross appears on each storage drum. Set the presentation switch and track drum as required for flight. Switch to FIX and note that both storage lights come on. Synchronize heading and track pointers with compass. an error growth rate of 6 nm/hr would be typical.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. h. Switch on and synchronize the compass. Switch GPI main switch to ON and check N/S and E/W electrical resetting in both directions. a. m. d. o. Operation 14. Pre-flight. Carry out Doppler switching on procedure as appropriate. 16. by setting the South counter to read that distance before take-off. 15. Immediately before take-off check that the GPI heading repeater is still synchronized with the heading reference. n. The following drills apply to the GPI Mk 4A in any installation. f. A/A track presentation permits immediate checking of track-keeping accuracy and of distance to go. the counters freeze. With doppler groundspeed readily available frequent and accurate revision of ETA can be calculated. System Error. When a single track is to be flown. Take-off. The process.2. b. The error which concerns the operator is that which arises when the GPI Mk 4A. j.

Wind Velocity. Manual Inputs . This chapter will provide an overview of the variant (T9447-D). track and wind velocity. 3. DR Position Computing Chapter 2 . Magnetic Variation.75°. The computer will normally operate using Doppler inputs. however should these fail. c. eg heading.The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) Introduction 1. Sensor input values and computed navigation variables.Start and Waypoint Positions. Air Data Inputs . c.3. Plot the GPI position at 1000 and DR ahead for 6 mins. For the DR position at 1006 measure the distance off track (10R and distance to go (605 nm).2. Switch to Normal. combined into a single unit. The Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS) comprises a digital computer.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a.2 . 2. d. Page 138 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3. d.From the GM compass system. The inputs for this variant are: a. b. Heading .Mach Number and True Outside Air Temperature (which are processed in TANS to calculate TAS). and a display and control unit.Drift. There are a number of variants and sub-variants of TANS which use different inputs and produce different outputs. Present Position. c. Along and Across Heading velocity and Vertical velocity. The computer is a general purpose type with a fixed program designed to resolve navigation problems. navigation calculations will continue using air data information together with the last stored. or manually inserted. it is not intended to be a User Manual. e. b. set 605 on the N/S counters and 10R on the E/W counters. b. The TANS computer uses these inputs to calculate and display the following information: a. switch from LAT/LONG to A/A track and set the track drum to 0. Continuously predicted steering information from present position direct to a previously inserted waypoint. Doppler Inputs . value of wind velocity. At 1006 switch to fix. and Time. Between 1000 and 1006.

All information stored in the TANS is lost if the power is switched off. Accuracy.2. and 20 nm/hr in the Air Data System (ADS) mode. the decimal point is not indicated and its position varies with each display format.3. Position L/L selects latitude and longitude format for position display (Fig 2). Power is switched on or off by a spring loaded toggle switch which must be pulled outwards and up to provide the necessary 28V DC to the equipment. b. Page 139 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:09 2002 DR Position Computing 3. control switches.2 . Navigation Mode Switch. 3-3-2-2 Fig 1 TANS Computer T9447D Front Panel TANS Display 6. fail lamps. Modes are selected by rotating a four position switch marked: (1) L/L. Control Switches 7. The display. When the TANS is not in the OP mode the extreme left-hand digit(s) flash. The purpose of the control switches is as follows: a. DESCRIPTION Display and Control Unit 5. The display comprises 2 lines of 9 alpha-numeric digits. ON/OFF Switch.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. The TANS computer has a 6 nm/hr error growth rate when fed by Doppler inputs. and push button keyboard are all mounted on the front panel of the TANS unit as illustrated in Fig 1.

Position B-D selects a format which displays present position as a bearing and distance to an inserted location (Fig 4).2. The GRID position selects grid coordinates format for position displays (Fig 3).3. The INT (Intercept) position selects a display which shows the heading required to reach a selected waypoint and the time it will take to reach it (Fig 5). 3-3-2-2 Fig 3 Grid Display (3) B-D. 3-3-2-2 Fig 5 INT Display Page 140 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-2-2 Fig 2 L/L Display (2) GRID.2 . 3-3-2-2 Fig 4 B-D Display (4) INT.

In this situation the light will extinguish so long as the ADS information remains valid. the Sensor Fail light will illuminate. A Sensor Fail lamp is situated to the right of the Sensor Switch and operates as follows: (1) Flashing. Sensor Fail Lamp. The S/Y (Stand-by) position is used when no inputs are required to be fed to the TANS. b.2 .3. The ADS (Air Data System) position isolates the Doppler from the computer and TANS will operate using the remaining sensor inputs and either the last wind velocity stored by the computer or a wind manually entered by the operator. In the DOP (Doppler Operation) position. if the Doppler loses lock. and the TANS will automatically revert to ADS mode using heading. The equipment is normally operated in the LAND position but the SEA functions are designed to compensate for Doppler spectrum distortion when flying over the sea. Page 141 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. e. the Sensor Fail light will illuminate but the system will not automatically switch to DOP. Sensor Switch. The heading input has failed. (3) ADS. The DIM switch controls the brilliance of displays. temperature. If the sensor light illuminates steadily the selected input source (ie Doppler or ADS) is invalid but the other source is still available. The sensor switch is at stand-by thus inhibiting both Doppler and ADS velocities.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. (2) Steady On. and fail lamps. If the ADS inputs should fail. eg start-up and taxiing. If no fault exists in the circuit the lamp will extinguish after present position (latitude and longitude) has been entered in the computer. Both ADS and Doppler inputs have failed. If the sensor light flashes there are 3 possibilities: i. A Computer Fail lamp (marked FAIL) is situated above the DIM control. It also illuminates approximately 10 seconds after switch on to check the lamp circuit. even if the Doppler lock is to false values. Mach number. and the stored value of wind velocity. the mode must be selected manually. This is a 3 position switch used in conjunction with the Sensor Fail lamp and controls the sensor inputs to the computer as follows: (1) DOP. If the Doppler regains lock. the TANS will update present position using heading plus Doppler inputs. This possibility can be avoided by switching manually to ADS until correct Doppler lock is achieved.2. iii. Two lamps are used as follows to indicate failures in the system: a. illuminated keys. It compares Doppler and ADS velocities to guard against a Doppler runaway and will revert to ADS if the 2 velocities are markedly different. d. Land/Sea Switch. It illuminates in the event of computer malfunction. Fail Lamps 8. the light will extinguish and the equipment will again use the Doppler information. at low level and in light wind condition. With DOP selected. Display Dimmer Switch. The SEA-S (Sea Smooth) position is normally only used in helicopter installations when flying over a smooth sea. ii. (2) S/Y. and with the Doppler 'ON' and locked on. The SEA-R (Sea Rough) position is used when low level winds exceed force 3 on the Beaufort scale (7-10kts). Computer Fail Lamp.

Variation should be set only if the heading input to TANS is magnetic. k. In conjunction with the numeric keys the DTA (Data) key is used for setting and displaying selected data modes. with the exception of the OP. SET. 3-3-2-2 Fig 6 VAR Display c. The functional keys. The VEC (Vector) key permits the entry or display of waypoint vector (course and speed). The keyboard has 21 press-button keys. and keys 2. Aircraft movement is stored whilst in FIX and pressing OP or DTA will release the FIX mode and present position updating will recommence. WP. The nine functional keys operate as follows: a. The variation value and sense is shown on the top line of the display as illustrated in Fig 6. Functional Key 10. The CLR (Clear) key is used in 2 ways when entering new information on the display. VEC. continuously updated). ENT. The STR (Steer) key permits the selection of steering facilities. The VAR (Variation) key is used to set or display magnetic variation. The OP (Operation) key may be pressed at any time to restore normal operation. Mag IN. into the computer. (2) If the key is depressed for 2 seconds. j. 4. when entering other data it need only be depressed for about 1 second. and 8 are additionally labelled N. The GL (Grid Lock) key is used to enter present position. b. 11 provide functional control and 10 are used to insert numerical data. (Present position displayed. The entering sequence for information other than present position is initiated by the SET key which must be pushed before selecting the function to be updated. the display will clear completely. e. h. The Navigation Mode switch must be set to the appropriate position when displaying or entering waypoint information. STR.9. ENT and CLR keys. f.3. or the last digit on the right if no digit has been entered. The FIX key freezes the present position display which may then be amended (eg to a fix position at that time). CLR. OP. (1) One short press will clear the last entered digit.2 . All bearings and headings displayed will be magnetic. The numeric keys are numbered 0 . True OUT. All keys have integral lighting. FIX. increase their brightness when pressed to indicate the function selected. Page 142 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. DTA. If data modes are required consecutively there is no need to press DTA each time. The ENT (Enter) key is used to enter data which has been keyed in via the numeric keyboard. GL. Mag OUT. d. Once the correct position is displayed ENT must be pressed to input the information into the computer.2. in grid coordinates. When present position is to be entered the ENT key must be held depressed for about 3 seconds (to guard against accidental insertion of wrong information). In either case the display will blink momentarily once the position or data has been entered. Up to 10 waypoints (labelled 0 . Data entered will be valid from the instant of pressing ENT. W. g. E.9) may be stored. The WP (Waypoint) key is used in conjunction with the numeric keys to insert and/or display information relating to waypoints.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Computer Keyboard 9. ie True IN. i. 6. VAR. and S respectively.

Drift is calculated about a datum of 360°. Wind Velocity. bearings and headings have one. With valid Doppler inputs the wind displayed is the average wind found over the preceding 2 minutes.3. thus an angle <360° indicates port drift and an angle >000° indicates starboard drift. DTA 2 gives wind direction (°T or °M) and speed (kts) as in Fig 8. Leading zeros must always be entered but trailing zeros may be omitted. For each display format the decimal point changes position. The TANS will only accept inputs in the correct format. DTA 1. therefore care must be exercised to ensure that latitude figures are always preceded by N or S and longitude and grid coordinates by E or W. The wind velocity must be manually input if operating in ADS mode.2 . DTA 3. DTA 3 (Fig 9) displays heading and drift angle. calculated from either Doppler or ADS information.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Position Format 11. DTA 2. the display freezes and the computer uses the indicated wind. which may be updated manually via the keyboard. 3-3-2-2 Fig 9 DTA 3 Display Page 143 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3. Speeds have no decimal places. 3-3-2-2 Fig 8 DTA 2 Display c. The data displays are used to show the values of sensor inputs and calculated navigation variables.2. 3-3-2-2 Fig 7 DTA 1 Display b. Decimal place positions vary and users need to be aware of the format they are trying to enter or read. and distances have two. If Doppler inputs become invalid. Track and Groundspeed. Heading and Drift. The computer resumes the averaging process should Doppler inputs become available again. Data Displays 12. The various displays are accessed by pressing the DTA key plus the appropriate numeric key (which is then displayed in the left-most position on the top line) as follows: a. The DTA 1 display (Fig 7) shows track made good and groundspeed.

DTA 5. DTA 5 (Fig 11) indicates pitch angle (if available) on the top line and Mach number on the bottom line. The DTA 6 display (Fig 12) gives Doppler Along Velocity on the top line and Across Velocity on the bottom line.2 . Doppler Along and Across Velocity. DTA 4. DTA 6. Roll and True Air Speed. 3-3-2-2 Fig 12 DTA 6 Display Page 144 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:10 2002 DR Position Computing 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. 3-3-2-2 Fig 11 DTA 5 Display f. The DTA 4 display (Fig 10) shows roll angle (if available) on the top line and TAS on the bottom line. Pitch and Mach Number.3.2. 3-3-2-2 Fig 10 DTA 4 Display e.

The top line indicates the direction and the bottom line the speed of this correction. DTA 9. 3-3-2-2 Fig 15 DTA 9 Display Page 145 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 DR Position Computing 3. 3-3-2-2 Fig 13 DTA 7 Display h.2 . DTA 7 (Fig 13) displays Angle of Attack on the top line and Vertical Speed on the bottom line.2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 g. DTA 7. 3-3-2-2 Fig 14 DTA 8 Display i. Time and Static Air Temperature.3. When DTA 9 is selected (Fig 15) the elapsed or clock time is displayed on the top line and static (true) outside air temperature on the bottom line. Surface Motion Compensation. DTA 8. The DTA 8 display (Fig 14) presents the Surface Motion Compensation that is applied to the Doppler. Angle of Attack and Vertical Speed.

The accelerometer outputs are integrated. Inertial navigation systems. Operation of the TANS 14. it will be necessary to switch off and then switch on and start the procedure again.3. If the DC voltage is too low the data store may be corrupted. Accelerometers detect and measure accelerations along their sensitive axes (input axes). BASIC PRINCIPLES Acceleration 2. when such fluctuations are most likely. The appropriate Aircrew manual should be consulted to obtain the operating procedures for any particular variant or sub-variant of TANS. Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 1 . In an inertial navigation system. and s = where. This conserves available power to maintain the data store. a = acceleration Page 146 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. once to obtain velocity along the sensitive axis.Principles of Inertial Navigation Introduction 1. are self-contained and are capable of all-weather operation. The TANS power unit is designed to absorb transient power fluctuations.1 . The velocity achieved and the distance travelled by a vehicle accelerating from rest at a constant rate are obtained from the following equations: 1 2 at 2 v = at. The basis of inertial navigation is the measurement of a vehicle's (aircraft's) acceleration along known directions. 3. During start up and taxi. and again to obtain distance travelled along the sensitive axis. the display may go out. Relationship between Acceleration.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 OPERATION Power Supply 13.3. velocity and position are obtained by continuously measuring and integrating vehicle acceleration. If the Computer Fail lamp illuminates. Velocity and Distance.

The reference frame defined by these directions. The platform rotations detected by the gyros are used to generate error signals. velocity North is annotated ‘V’. this platform is not inherently stable. and the third rotation about the vertical. Acceleration must be measured along two axes. two accelerometers are required for inertial navigation in a two dimensional plane. 4. otherwise. Three single degree of freedom gyros are normally used. Additionally. the sensitive axes must be kept perpendicular to the gravity vertical. they must be capable of maintaining that orientation during aircraft manoeuvres. In aircraft systems the accelerometers are usually mounted with their input axes aligned with North and East. one gyro detects rotation about the North axis. Platform Control. Effect of Earth Rotation and Vehicle Movement. 8. which are used to motor the platform back to its correct orientation. capable of solving the navigation problem.3. The platform control unit computes and applies the gyro and accelerometer correction terms from calculated values of ground-speed and latitude and stored values of Earth radius and Earth rotation rate. 5. 3-3-3-1 Fig 1 Principle of Inertial Navigation 6. ie local North. Latitude 'φ'. A third vertically mounted accelerometer must be added if vertical velocity is required. However. therefore. The accelerometers are therefore mounted on a platform which is suspended in a gimbal system that isolates the accelerometers from aircraft manoeuvres. Simple INS. and s= Z Z a. usually orthogonal. if vehicle velocity and displacement are to be defined in a given plane. eg in weapon aiming applications. 3-3-3-1 Fig 2 A Simple Inertial Navigation System Page 147 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:11 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.dt The basic principle of inertial navigation is. velocity East ‘U’. Measurement Axes. Gyro Stabilization. Other annotations are self-explanatory and the individual INS components are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. Since most accelerometers are designed to measure acceleration along one axis only. local East and local Vertical. proportional to change in platform attitude. or s = Z v. Moreover. the double integration of acceleration with respect to time (Fig 1). and must be integrated to obtain velocity and distance: Z v= a. is called the Local Vertical Reference Frame. Earth rate 'Ω' and the radius of the Earth ‘R’. and any tendency for the platform to rotate with the aircraft must be detected and opposed. the accelerometers sense part of the gravity acceleration. An INS operating in the local vertical reference frame must maintain its alignment relative to Earth directions.3. 7.dt. the accelerometers must be corrected for the effects of coriolis acceleration and the central acceleration caused by rotating the platform to maintain alignment with the local vertical reference frame. The gyros used to stabilize the platform are rigid in space and must therefore be corrected for Earth rate and transport wander to make them "Earth stable".1 . another rotation about East. is illustrated in Fig 2. Other reference frames can be used. and this alignment must be maintained if the correct accelerations are to be measured. Conventionally.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 v s t = velocity = distance = time Aircraft accelerations are not constant. Once the accelerometers have been aligned in the chosen reference frame. Gyros are therefore mounted on the platform to detect platform rotation and control platform attitude.dt. A simple INS. but the local vertical is the fundamental mechanization and is the one primarily considered in this Chapter.

but this would necessitate long springs to achieve the required range and the resulting Page 148 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.1 .3. the mass will move relative to its neutral position until the spring tension balances the displacing force. and a linear response. An inertial grade accelerometer requires a wide dynamic range (typically ± 20 g). a high sensitivity (typically 1 x 10 g).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 ACCELEROMETERS Basic Principles 9. High sensitivity could be achieved by the use of weak springs. A pick-off system could be arranged to provide an electrical output that was the analogue of the acceleration.3. Its function is to sense acceleration (a) along its input axis and to provide an electrical output proportional to sensed acceleration. The spring and mass arrangement illustrated in Fig 3 shows the basic principles. If the instrument is accelerated along its longer axis. The accelerometer is the fundamental component of an INS. −6 10. These requirements cannot be accommodated in the simple accelerometer of Fig 3. The deflection of the mass is proportional to the acceleration.

When the instrument is accelerated along its sensitive axis the pendulous mass is deflected and the deflection is sensed by the pick-off. The initial deflecting force is proportional to the acceleration experienced since the mass is constant (F = ma). A basic pendulous force balance accelerometer is shown schematically in Fig 4. the pendulous mass is central and no pick-off current flows. A number of accelerometer designs have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. With the case horizontal and the instrument at rest or moving at a constant velocity.3. A current flows through the restorer coils such that a force is exerted on the displaced mass to restore it to the central position.1 . some of which are more applicable to other than aircraft INS (eg ballistic missile systems).3. Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer 12. The pendulous mass is free to move only along the sensitive axis and accelerations perpendicular to this axis have no effect. In aircraft applications the 'Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer' is the most common type. Alternatively strong springs could be used to achieve a wide range but this would deny high sensitivity. ie the restorer current is proportional to the acceleration. 3-3-3-1 Fig 3 Simple Spring and Mass Accelerometer 11. 3-3-3-1 Fig 4 Basic Pendulous Force Balance Accelerometer Page 149 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 instrument would be too large for use in a practical INS. The restoring force is proportional to the current through the restorer coil and is equal and opposite to the initial force.

Fig 5 shows the situation where the pendulum has been displaced through a small angle. The accelerometer is sensitive to accelerations along an axis perpendicular to. Alternatively the error.3. Cross-coupling error can be minimized by ensuring that the accelerometer platform is maintained horizontal and by using a high gain feed-back loop so that the displacement of the pendulum due to accelerations is kept small. either by an acceleration or by tilting of the platform.3. If the pendulum is displaced from the null position. Pendulous Accelerometer Errors 14. The input (sensitive axis) IA is rotated through the same angle. the pendulum. then the sensitive axis no longer coincides with the designed fixed input axis. and in the plane of.1 . ay θ. Cross-coupling. Instead of the flexure support system the pendulous element may be floated. can be calculated and corrected.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13. θ. thus producing a couple in the presence of a linear acceleration. It should be noted that when the input axis is displaced from the horizontal it will sense a component of the acceleration due to gravity. The element has its centre of mass displaced from the centre of buoyancy. If the instrument is accelerated along the displaced axis the acceleration will have horizontal and vertical components ax and ay and the measured acceleration will be: ax cos µ + ay sin µ If θ is small and measured in radians this becomes: ax + ay µ The acceleration that should have been measured is ax and the term ay θ is an error known as cross-coupling error. 3-3-3-1 Fig 5 Cross-Coupling Error Page 150 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.

If the platform is misaligned as in Fig 6 and accelerated in a North/South direction. When an accelerometer is operated in a vibration environment. the north sensitive accelerometer will not detect the full acceleration and the east accelerometer will detect an unwanted component. to measure accelerations in specific directions.1 . 3-3-3-1 Fig 6 Accelerometer Misaligned Performance Characteristics Page 151 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. 16. Displaced Orientation. components of the vibration may act along the input axis causing the pendulum to deflect and thus register erroneous accelerations. Accelerometers are arranged. normally North and East. Vibropendulosity. below the natural frequency of the accelerometer loop.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 15. mutually at right angles.3.

It is the minimum change in acceleration input required to cause a change in accelerometer electrical output. An INS can be designed to compensate for known accelerometer bias provided the bias is stable. The sensitivity will generally be different at different levels of −6 indicated acceleration but a typical value would be 1 x 10 g. Scale Factor. Threshold. A typical value is 1 x 10 g. Ageing in permanent magnet torquers can lead to small changes in scale factor with time. f. mechanical friction.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 17. ie the desired scale factor in mA/g. Sensitivity. e. Bias is expressed as an equivalent error in g's and is usually less −4 than 1 x 10 g. The random drift of the accelerometer output at zero acceleration input is known as null (zero) stability. The width of the band of uncertainty is termed sensitivity. The ratio of the current in the torquer to the measured acceleration (mA/g) is the accelerometer scale factor. a. b.3. Null (Zero) Uncertainty. The dotted straight line represents the desired response from the instrument. d. Linearity error is defined as the deviation from the best fit straight line drawn through a plot of the electrical Page 152 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:12 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Fig 7 shows a typical accelerometer response and indicates the performance parameters usually referred to in technical descriptions. Bias is the electrical output under conditions of no acceleration input due to residual internal forces acting on the mass after it has been electrically or mechanically zeroed. The pair of curved lines represent the actual response. 3-3-3-1 Fig 7 Accelerometer Performance Parameters c. Linearity.1 . for example. It is −6 equivalent to sensitivity but with an incremental change about a zero input.3. which is not a single line but has a band of uncertainty caused by. Accelerometers are required to give an accurate indication of vehicle acceleration over a wide range (typically ± 25 g) and with a high degree of sensitivity. Threshold is the minimum acceleration input which causes an accelerometer electrical output. Null uncertainty is also known as bias uncertainty and is the variation in accelerometer output under conditions of zero acceleration input. Bias.

but can integrate indefinitely. At this stage the output shaft is rotating at a constant speed. Analogue Integrators 19.3. 20. 3-3-3-1 Fig 8 The Miller Integrator 21. Fig 9 shows a schematic diagram of the velodyne.dt).dt). the motor starts to turn and drives a generator. Analogue integrators are normally electronic or electro-mechanical. The speed of both the motor and the output shaft d Φ/dt is directly proportional to the input voltage (V − V1 ∝ dΦ/dt). the process being fast and accurate. eg accelerations: it is not used to integrate continuous inputs. The velodyne can integrate continuously.1 . Typically this would be in the order of 5 x 10 0. A Miller amplifier circuit is an electronic integrating device. The accelerometer output may be in voltage analogue form if analogue techniques are used.3. and is therefore used for the second integration of acceleration to obtain distance travelled. The Miller integrator can only be used to integrate for limited periods of time. The process continues until the input is steady and is balanced by the feedback voltage. but are capable of integrating continuously for only limited periods of time. The circuit diagram of the Miller integrator is shown in Fig 8. The operation of the velodyne is described below: a. 3-3-3-1 Fig 9 The Velodyne Page 153 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:13 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.01% of applied acceleration at higher g's. Electronic integrators are more accurate. −5 g up to 1g and less than INTEGRATORS Function of the Integrator 18. As voltage V is applied. the output (V1) from the generator increases. As the motor speed increases. Miller Integrator. The angle through which the shaft turns (Φ) is therefore proportional to the time integral of the input voltage (ie Φ R ∝ (V ¡ V1 ). eg velocity. and is fed back to reduce the input voltage. providing a voltage which is the integral of R 1 a varying input voltage (ie Vo = ¡CR V. The velodyne is an electro-mechanical device which converts a voltage input into an output of shaft rotation proportional to the integral of the applied voltage. The Velodyne. The Miller integrator is therefore used to integrate spasmodic inputs. or pulse form if digital techniques are used. The accelerometer outputs are integrated to obtain velocity and again to obtain distance.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 output in response to a known acceleration input. b. The electro-mechanical integrators are less accurate. The initial integration may be carried out within the accelerometer or by a separate integrating device. since the integrator must be allowed to regain its stable state periodically.

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Digital Integrators
22. Many inertial systems use digital computers and therefore digital integration techniques. A digital computer integrates by adding small increments of the quantity to be integrated. As the computer will be dealing with discrete quantities instead of continuous values there will be a certain amount of approximation in the integration process. The principle of approximate numerical integration is introduced in Volume 8 and developments of these techniques are commonly used.

GYROSCOPES Terms
23. The following discussion on gyroscopes complements the contents of Vol 8, Part 2, Sect 4, Chap 5. The following terms are included for clarification: a. Degrees of Freedom. In the convention used throughout this chapter, the gyro rotor axis is not counted as a degree of freedom, since it cannot be a sensitive axis. A free or space gyro is therefore defined as a two degree of freedom gyro. b. Gyro Drift. The term gyro drift describes any movement of the gyro spin axis away from its datum direction. c. Levelling Gyros. Gyros which control the platform about the horizontal axes are called levelling or vertical gyros, irrespective of the direction of their spin axes. 24. Inertial Quality. A gyro is described as being of inertial quality when the real drift rate is 0.01° per hour or less. Such low drift rates were first achieved with single degree of freedom rate integrating gyros.

Single Degrees of Freedom (SDF) Gyros
25. Rate Integrating Gyro. The rate integrating gyro achieves its accuracy by reducing gimbal friction: the gimbal and rotor assemblies are floated in a fluid. A typical floated rate integrating gyro is illustrated in Fig 10; the rotor is pivoted in an inner can (gimbal), which in turn is floated in an outer can. The outer can contains all the controls, pick-offs, torquers and heaters, etc. Rotation of the gyro about the input (sensitive) axis causes the gyro inner can to precess about the output axis, ie there is relative motion between the inner and outer cans. This precession is sensed by the pick-offs which measure the angular displacement of the inner can relative to the outer can. Thus, the pick-off output is proportional to the time integral of the input turning rate. This output signal is used to drive the platform gimbals to maintain the platform in the required orientation. The ratio of output to input (gimbal gain) is a function of rotor mass, gimbal size and fluid viscosity. A high ratio enables the gyro to detect small input rates. However, the fluid viscosity varies with temperature. Temperature must therefore be controlled to ensure a constant

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gimbal gain. With this type of gyro, it is also important to limit the inner can precession: as the inner can precesses, the rotor and the input axes are also precessed. Unless this precession is rapidly detected and opposed (the gimbal drives the platform and the gyro in opposition to the input), cross coupling errors are likely to occur. A cross coupling error is caused by the gyro sensing a rotation about a displaced input axis.

Two Degrees of Freedom (TDF) Gyros
26. Two degree of freedom gyros are used in some IN applications. SDF and TDF gyros have comparable performances, but the TDF gyro has the advantage of being able to detect movement about two axes. Since the INS monitors motion about three axes, two TDF gyros are not only sufficient, but also supply a redundant axis; the spare axis is normally utilized to monitor azimuth, The two TDF gyros must have their spin axes at right angles to each other; both axes may be horizontal, or alternatively one horizontal and the other vertical.

3-3-3-1 Fig 10 Typical Floated Rate Integrating Gyro

Table 1 - Comparison of SFD and TDF Gyros
Property Number Required in IN platform Gyro Gain Cross Coupling SDF Three Normally controlled by fluid viscosity Limited rotor axis movement minimizes cross coupling Detected by rotor axis movement 0.003°/hr to 0.1°/hr TDF Two (one redundant axis) Output = input No cross coupling - angular displacement is measured against fixed input axis Detected by gimbal axis movement As for SDF

Vehicle Movement detection capability Accuracy

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Comparison of Single and Two Degrees of Freedom Gyros
27. The single and two degree of freedom gyros are compared in Table 1.

Pick-Offs and Torquers
28. Angular movement about a gyro's sensitive axis is detected by pick-offs which generate electrical signals proportional to the movement. The action of the torquers is virtually the reverse; electrical signals proportional to the desired correcting torque are applied to the torquers which cause the gyro to precess at the desired rate. The pick-offs and torquers are usually of the induction type, and may be separate devices or combined in a single unit; in the latter type, the pick-off would use AC and the torquer DC to avoid interaction between the fields.

PLATFORMS STABILIZATION Gyro Control of the Platform
29. Platform Mounted Accelerometers. The accelerometers are mounted on a platform which is oriented to a fixed reference frame. The platform is aligned with the desired reference frame and subsequently controlled to maintain its alignment. 30. Choice of Reference Axes. A fundamental aircraft INS is aligned in the local vertical reference frame, the axes of which are shown in Fig 11. Basic stabilization procedures are described for this simple system, but in practice most RAF aircraft INS use a modified local vertical reference frame known as a Wander Azimuth System. These systems allow the azimuth gyro to wander, and the IN computer continually transforms position in the wander azimuth frame to the required Earth-fixed co-ordinates. 31. Platform Alignment. Inertial platforms are aligned in attitude and azimuth using one of the techniques described in Chapter 2. Any platform misalignment will cause errors.

3-3-3-1 Fig 11 Local Vertical Reference Frame

3-3-3-1 Fig 12 Platform Arrangement (Aircraft Heading North)

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32. Use of Gyros. The desired platform orientation is maintained by mounting reference gyros on the platform to detect changes in platform alignment. The gyro outputs are used to drive gimbal motors which return the platform to its correct orientation. 33. Platform Arrangement. The platform may be arranged as shown in Fig 12. The three gyros have their input axes mutually at right angles and aligned with the local vertical reference frame. The error pick-offs and torquers are built into the gyro cases and are not shown in the diagram. The platform is gimbal mounted to permit the aircraft freedom of manoeuvre without disturbing the platform away from its alignment with the local vertical reference frame. Each gimbal is driven by a servo motor controlled by the error signals from the gyros. 34. Control on North. The gyros in Fig 12 are arranged with their sensitive axes pointing in the directions about which rotation is to be detected. The East gyro has its sensitive axis pointing East, and is therefore capable of detecting rotation about East. On northerly headings, pitch manoeuvres are detected by the East gyro which generates an error signal. This error signal activates the pitch gimbal, thereby maintaining the platform's alignment with the reference frame. Similarly, roll is detected by the North gyro, and yaw by the azimuth gyro: the North gyro activates the roll gimbal motor, and the azimuth gyro the yaw gimbal motor. The action is summarized in Table 2.

Table 2 - Action on North
Heading Manoeuvre Yaw Pitch Roll Sensing Gyro Azimuth East North Correcting Servo-motor Azimuth Pitch Roll

North

3-3-3-1 Fig 13 Platform Arrangement (Aircraft Heading East)

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35. Control on East. In Fig 13, the same platform is again shown, this time heading East. The action on East is summarized in Table 3.

Table 3 - Action on East
Heading Manoeuvre Yaw Pitch Roll Sensing Gyro Azimuth North East Correcting Servo - motor Azimuth Pitch Roll

East

36. Conclusions. Two main conclusions may be drawn from Tables 2 and 3: a. Yaw, or change of heading, is corrected by the azimuth servo-motor which is always controlled by the azimuth gyro. b. Pitch and roll are corrected by the pitch and roll servo-motors respectively. However, the control may be exercised by either the North or the East gyros or both, dependent upon aircraft heading. 37. Change of Heading. The action of the azimuth gyro and servo-motor keeps the platform aligned with the North datum. However, the pitch and roll gimbals remain oriented to the aircraft pitch and roll axes (Figs 12 and 13). Relative motion about the vertical between the platform and the pitch and roll gimbals is yaw, and angular displacement is change of heading. A pick-off of the angular displacement relative to true North as defined by the platform, produces an output of heading.

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38. Control During Manoeuvres. On northerly headings, the North gyro senses roll and wholly controls the roll servo-motor; on easterly headings the East gyro controls the roll servo-motor. On intermediate headings, the control is shared between the North and East gyros, the amount of control exercised being determined by the heading. A sine-cosine resolver, set by the azimuth servo-motor, determines the amount of control and transmits the error signal to the appropriate servo-motor. The action is shown in Fig 14.

3-3-3-1 Fig 14 Gimbal Control Signals

PLATFORM MOUNTING Gimballed Systems
39. The stable element of the inertial platform is mounted in gimbals to isolate the platform from vehicle manoeuvres. Three types of gimbal system are in common use. 40. Three-gimbal System. Figs 12 and 13 are diagrams of a three-gimbal system. In such a system there are three input/output axes, azimuth, pitch and roll. Each gimbal imparts freedom about one particular axis, the particular gimbal being named after that axis. a. Azimuth Gimbal. The stable element is rigidly attached to the azimuth, or first, gimbal. In allowing relative motion between the stable element and the pitch gimbal, the platform is isolated from vehicle movement about the vertical axis. b. Pitch Gimbal. The pitch gimbal isolates the platform from pitch manoeuvres. c. Roll Gimbal. The roll gimbal isolates the platform from roll manoeuvres. In some installations, the pitch and roll gimbals are reversed in order of position. 41. Gimbal Lock. Gimbal lock occurs when two axes of rotation become co-linear and, as a result, one degree of freedom is lost. Fig 15 illustrates how gimbal lock can occur in a three-gimbal system. If the vehicle pitches through 90° the first and third gimbal axes become coincident, and the platform stable element is no longer isolated from yaw.

3-3-3-1 Fig 15 Gimbal Lock

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42. Gimbal Error. In a three-gimbal system (gimbal order; Azimuth, Pitch and Roll) the roll gimbal axis, which is parallel to the aircraft roll axis, assumes an angle relative to the plane of the platform stable element whenever the aircraft pitches through large angles. When this occurs, the gimbal roll axis and the plane of the levelling gyros' input axes are no longer parallel. Should the aircraft now roll, the gyros sense only a component of roll angle (roll x cos pitch angle), and the roll servo displaces the roll gimbal by an amount (roll x cos pitch angle) instead of the full value of roll angle. 43. Four-gimbal System. In a four-gimbal system the order of the gimbals is azimuth, inner roll, pitch and outer roll. The fourth gimbal is introduced to keep the second and third gimbals at right angles, thereby avoiding both gimbal lock and gimbal error. The fourth gimbal is controlled by a pick-off which detects changes in the angle between the second and third gimbals. 44. Gimbal Flip. With a four-gimbal system, heading change is picked off from the relative motion between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals. If, however, the aircraft completes a half loop and roll-out manoeuvre, the aircraft heading changes by 180° but there is no motion between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals, and the indicated heading remains unchanged. This problem is overcome by employing gimbal flip. As the pitch angle passes through 90°, the outer gimbal is driven through 180° (ie flips), tending to drive the platform through 180° about the vertical. This tendency is detected by the azimuth gyro which provides an appropriate output signal. This signal keeps the platform correctly orientated by driving the platform in opposition to the flip. One hundred and eighty degree relative motion is produced between the azimuth and inner roll gimbals and the heading output remains correct, 45. Comparison of Three- and Four-gimbal Systems. A four-gimbal system is heavier, larger and costs more than a three-gimbal system. However, since the second and the third gimbals of the four-gimbal system are kept at right angles, the aircraft has full freedom of manoeuvre without disturbing the platform. 46. Inside-out System. In the inside-out system, the azimuth cluster containing the gyros and accelerometers lies outside the gimbals. The basic inside-out system (Fig 16a) has three gimbals and is not fully manoeuvrable but the addition of a fourth gimbal permits unrestricted manoeuvre. A special case of this type of four-gimbal system (see Fig 16b) uses two TDF gyros instead of the more normal three SDF gyros. The following advantages are claimed for the inside-out arrangement: a. The replaceable parts are more accessible. b. The gimbals have less mass than in a conventional gimbal system and are more responsive to control.

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Computing Requirements.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-1 Fig 16 Inside-out Platform Arrangement Non-Gimballed Systems . 48. The integration process must therefore be carried out very rapidly to avoid large errors being induced. These are then converted to the geographic frame to give latitude and longitude. In gimballed systems the accelerometers are mounted on a stable platform which is kept in the correct orientation by torqueing in response to signals from the gyroscopes detecting movement about three orthogonal axes.Strapdown Systems 47. In a strapdown system the function of the gyroscope is to measure accurately angular changes about a specific axis of rotation. However. more reliable and more rugged than a gimballed system. This requires a very wide range of performance as the gyros may well need the capability to detect rotation rates ranging from 0. an advantage of this configuration is that outputs can be used for an automatic flight control system. ie the airframe. Gyroscopes.3. The main computing task in a strapdown system is to compute the instantaneous aircraft attitude and to resolve and integrate the accelerometer outputs to obtain velocity information in a useful geographic reference frame. 3-3-3-1 Fig 17 Strapdown System Block Diagram Page 161 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:14 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. These calculations need to be carried out at very high speed and accuracy. 51. Although conventional gyros could be used for strapdown applications the ring laser gyro is best suited as it has no moving parts and exhibits excellent linearity. 50. In a strapdown system the inertial sensors are fixed to the vehicle and their orientation within the navigation reference frame is computed using the outputs of gyroscopes which detect angular displacement about the aircraft axes.001°/hr to 400°/sec. Strapdown systems commonly use a space referenced frame for the navigation solutions and then convert to a geographic frame to give the desired outputs of position and velocity. an iteration rate of 200 Hz would be typical and a dedicated microprocessor may be required. 49. The outputs of the accelerometers are resolved along the space axes and the cartesian co-ordinates of the aircraft position within the space frame calculated.1 . Whereas in a gimballed system the platform reference frame rotates relatively slowly due to transport wander and Earth rate. it is potentially cheaper. Fig 17 shows the functional layout of a typical system. in a strapdown system the platform reference frame.3. Thus in a strapdown system the gimbals are effectively replaced by a computer. can be rotating at very high rates. The platform reference frame in a strapdown system is the same as the airframe and is therefore of no use for navigation. Reference Frames. Although a strapdown mechanization is more demanding technically in terms of computing and gyroscope performance.

It is now necessary to analyse Earth and transport rates into components affecting the local vertical axes. This is shown in Fig 18 which shows the Earth's rotation vector. A rate of rotation is represented by a vector shown parallel to the axis of the rotation. These are the rates which are applied to the platform's axes to correct it from inertial space stabilization to local vertical stabilization. This means that the stabilizing effect of the gyros must be adjusted by the rates at which local vertical axes diverge from inertial axes. in other words they operate with reference to the constant axes of inertial space.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 CORRECTIONS TO INERTIAL SENSORS Introduction 52. 3-3-3-1 Fig 18 Earth's Rotation Vector Page 162 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Table 4 . each of the 3 axes of the local vertical reference frame has an accelerometer to detect movement along it and a gyro to provide stabilization against rotation around it. Its length is proportional to the rate of rotation and its direction is the direction an ordinary right hand threaded screw would move if subjected to the rotation in question.3. The changing orientation of the platform also makes corrections to the accelerometer outputs necessary. The method used in the following discussion is that of vector analysis. its length represents 15:04°/hr (Ω) and its direction is from South to North.3. It is normal to navigate aircraft with reference to the local Earth co-ordinates of latitude. For an aircraft system using local vertical Earth co-ordinates it is therefore necessary to change the orientation of the platform axes relative to inertial space in order that the accelerometers are kept aligned with the local vertical axes.Platform Correction Terms Earth Rate North Gyro East Gyro Azimuth Gyro Ω cos φ zero Ω sin φ U R Vehicle Movement U R ¡V R tan Á 53. longitude and height. Aircraft INS are therefore normally aligned as described in para 30. Accelerometers and gyros are both inertial devices in that their sensitive axes extend infinitely in straight lines.1 . The vector is parallel to the Earth's spin axis. Local vertical axes however are not constant. These rates are due to Earth rotation and vehicle movement as shown in Table 4.

Fig 19 shows how the Earth rotation rate is resolved into vector components acting about local North and local vertical axes at intermediate latitudes. in radians. At the poles the rotation vector coincides with the local vertical axis. is found by dividing the circumferential distance A-B by the radius of the circle. ie.1 . The Earth's rotation vector may be analysed into components acting about the local vertical axes at any point on the Earth's surface. 55. The component acting about local East is always zero because local East is always at 90° to the rotation vector. whereas at the Equator it will topple about local North but not drift. Similarly. The angle θ. the rate of rotation may be found by dividing the rate of movement from A to B by the radius.3. normal to the surface of the page. The axis of the rotation is perpendicular to both the radius and the tangent. and at the equator it coincides with the local North axis. Earth Rate (Ω). but not topple. at the pole. Fig 20 shows that any movement around the circumference of a circle equates to a rotation about the centre of the circle. Fig 21 shows how a total aircraft velocity vector Vg may be resolved with 3-3-3-1 Fig 19 Earth Rate Vector Components Page 163 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.3. This means that an INS not corrected for Earth rotation will appear to drift.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Gyro Corrections 54. Transport Rates.

Component V produces a rotation rate of V/R radians/hr about an axis parallel to the local East axis and through the centre of the Earth. U therefore produces a rotation rate of R Cos Á about the Earth's polar axis as shown U U tan Á in Fig 22. acts U along a parallel of latitude. ie a small circle.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-1 Fig 20 Circular Movement North and East components. however. Component U.1 . This is achieved using the same analysis by vectors as was used for Earth rate. they may be Page 164 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. for the axis of rotation is the same: the Earth's spin axis. R and R respectively. before it can be applied to the IN platform. This rate must be resolved into rates about the local North and local vertical axes.3. The quantities arrived at by this analysis are in radians per hour. (where V is in knots and R is the radius of the Earth in nm.

Stabilizing a platform to local Earth axes requires that it be rotated relative to a spatial reference in order to compensate for the effects of Earth rotations and vehicle movement. Accelerometer Corrections 57. The resulting change in the local axes relative to spatial references makes 2 types of accelerometer corrections necessary: Page 165 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. which turns the gyro about its output axis at the same rate but in the opposite direction to the precession caused by the error rate.3. The drift due to the error rate is eliminated by applying an equal and opposite correction to the gyro output axis. The correction is applied through a torque motor on the gyro output axis. 3-3-3-1 Fig 21 Components of Velocity Vector 3-3-3-1 Fig 22 Rotation Rates 56.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 approximated to degrees per hour by substituting 60 for R in the final expressions.1 . Correction Method.3.

This quantity as a correction must be added to the output of the vertical accelerometer. Resolution of Total Acceleration.3. There is thus a central acceleration of R cos Á along this radius. Chap 2. We thus have an Eastward velocity component producing an output from the North accelerometer. This is shown in Fig 23. These are shown in Fig 24. Pt 2. V + U Vg 2 v2 3-3-3-1 Fig 23 Axis of Central Acceleration 59. one affecting the North accelerometer and the other the vertical accelerometer. Because of this inclination. This is a central or centripetal acceleration and affects a local vertical INS because as the platform is transported over a spherical surface it is rotated to maintain its alignment with local North and the local vertical. along an axis inclined at φ to the local vertical. Any East component of velocity acts along a small circle of latitude whose U2 radius is R cos φ.16). Central acceleration corrections must also be applied to the horizontal accelerometers because of meridian convergence. Central or Centripetal Acceleration. must be subtracted from the output of the North accelerometer because it is caused entirely by an Eastward motion. this must be removed for purposes of navigation. The acceleration component R however. At any instant when an INS is moving over the Earth's surface it is moving along an arc of a great circle. An acceleration of R therefore affects the vertical accelerometer where Vg is along track velocity and R is the radius 2 2 and thus make use of the 1st of the Earth. Sect 4. Pythagoras' theorem enables us to convert this term to its component form R integrals of the North and East channels accelerations. b. Coriolis Acceleration.3. 3-3-3-1 Fig 24 Components of Central Acceleration Page 166 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:15 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. (See note at end of para 63). 58. A body moving at a constant speed v in a circle radius r has a constant acceleration of r directed towards the centre of the circle (see Vol 8. Coriolis acceleration results from the combination of aircraft velocity and the rotation of the Earth over which it flies.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 a. A lateral acceleration relative to inertial references is necessary to make good a desired track measured against meridians which are themselves in motion. it is a direction which constantly changes with respect to the fixed axes of inertial space. Paras 14 .1 . that is. The U2 U2 tan Á component R is contained within the vertical accelerometer correction already discussed. Central Accelerations. the total acceleration may be resolved by vector analysis into 2 components. This apparent contradiction arises because while "East" is a constant direction in terms of navigation over the surface of the Earth.

as discussed earlier. −2ΩUsin φ applied to the North accelerometer. Its output must therefore. An aircraft flying a constant track over a spherical rotating Earth follows a path which is curved relative to the constant axes of inertial space. The track angle is constantly changing and. An observer may thus be regarded as being at the centre of a rotating disc of Earth's surface. A straight track over the ground thus produces a track which is curved relative to a constant spatial direction. In order that a constant total velocity vector results. the direction of rotation being anti-clockwise when viewed from above. If there is no North component only the North accelerometer correction is applied. the accelerometer will sense the acceleration due to gravity as well as aircraft vertical acceleration. Also the magnitude of the corrections to the horizontal accelerometers increases as latitude increases. and centripetal accelerations. A similar correction is applied to the vertical accelerometer because of the component of Earth rotation acting about the local North horizontal axis. The corrections are given below: a. Application. so are U and the North accelerometer correction. ie as meridian convergence increases. The horizontal accelerometer central corrections thus produce varying V and U components of total velocity as track angle changes relative to the converging meridians. Because the gravity acceleration decreases as the distance from the centre of the Earth increases.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 60. the output of the East accelerometer must be adjusted in inverse proportion to the North accelerometer correction. Summary Page 167 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. This acceleration is the Coriolis effect and is detected by the horizontal accelerometers. When a third accelerometer is used in the vertical channel to measure vertical acceleration for weapon aiming purposes its sensitive axis will necessarily be in line with the gravity vector. 2Ω Ucosφ applied to the Vertical accelerometer. As shown in para 54 there is a component of Earth rotation which acts about the local vertical axis.1 . be removed if the system is to produce navigation information which is correct relative to Earth co-ordinates.3. It must. in the Northern hemisphere.3. An aircraft flying towards a given point on the horizon is therefore flying to a destination which is moving constantly to the left. therefore. Table 5 shows that if there is no East component of velocity there is no central correction to either horizontal axis. Gravity Corrections. this component Ω sin φ varies with latitude. b. Now consider an aircraft flying a great circle track at a constant groundspeed. The correction is given by: ½ 2h ¡1 r ¾ go where go is the gravity at the surface of the Earth and h is the aircraft latitude. Coriolis Acceleration. 61. this can only be achieved if there is a sideways acceleration. 62. however. be corrected for gravity. 2ΩVsinφ applied to the East accelerometer. in addition to coriolis. the correction is dependent on aircraft altitude. c.

the signs of the azimuth gyro correction terms are reversed.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 63. The gyro and accelerometer correction terms are summarized in Table 5.1 .3. Table 5 .Gyro and Accelerometer Terms Axis North East Azimuth/ Vertical Gyros Earth Rate Transport Wander − cos Á nil − sin Á U R Central ¡U 2 tan R Accelerometers Coriolis ¡2− U sin Á 2− V sin Á 2− U cos Á nil nil go Gravity Á ¡V R U R UV tan R Á tan Á U2 + V 2 R ©2h R ¡1 ª 3-3-3-1 Fig 16a 3-3-3-1 Fig 16b Page 168 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Earth rate (Ω) and velocity East (U) are negative. NOTE: In the Southern Hemisphere. That is.

b. Self Alignment. The fundamental aircraft INS is a local vertical North slaved system and in this case the initial alignment consists of levelling the horizontal axes and aligning the North axis with North. The amount of support equipment available. c. Reference Alignment. These two actions are carried out sequentially and are usually known as 'levelling' and 'azimuth alignment'.Alignment Introduction 1. 3. Airborne Alignment.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 2 .3. The time available. Accordingly much research has been carried out into rapid alignment techniques for combat aircraft. The reference frame being used.3.2 . Various factors affect the choice of alignment method and these include: a. c. b. 2. Three methods of alignment will be considered in this chapter: a. Page 169 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:16 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The stability of the vehicle during the alignment phase. Once this initial alignment has taken place the system uses its own computed values of position and velocity to torque the stabilizing gyros at the required rates to maintain the correct platform orientation. A full alignment will typically take between 10 and 15 minutes and this may not always be compatible with operational requirements. An INS computes the velocity and position of a vehicle within a given reference frame and unless the platform is initially aligned to that frame all subsequent computations will be meaningless. d. The accuracy required.

5 minutes. Open Loop Gyro-compassing. Fine levelling normally takes about 1.10 minutes.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Self Alignment of Local Vertical Referenced INS 4.3. During the coarse alignment phase the platform is roughly levelled and aligned in azimuth thereby removing gross errors and reducing the overall alignment time. In practice the accelerometer outputs are zero only when the acceleration due to gravity is balanced by the accelerometer bias. Coarse alignment. With the aircraft stationary there should be no output from the horizontal accelerometers provided the platform is level. The accuracy of the alignment will also depend on the real drift rate of the East gyro as this will be an unwanted component of the error signal. The time taken in carrying out the full self alignment sequence depends on the accuracy required. 9. The phase itself takes only a few seconds but the overall time is governed by the heating process. Ω cos φ sin Ψ where φ is latitude and Ψ is the angle of misalignment. Fine levelling is achieved using the accelerometer null technique. Closed Loop Gyro-compassing. Alignment in azimuth using this method should achieve an accuracy of about 6 arc minutes in about 6 . Furthermore the time taken to achieve alignment will increase with latitude due to the reducing strength of the error signal. c. is achieved by turning the platform in azimuth until the heading output agrees with the aircraft's best known heading. Although this would appear to be a quicker method than the closed loop technique. Any tilt error will cause the accelerometers to sense a component of gravity and the resulting signal. can be calculated.3. Coarse azimuth alignment. 7. Coarse Azimuth Alignment. A conventional self alignment consists of the following phases: a. Coarse Levelling. which will be proportional to tilt. The sensed component of Earth rate is measured and since Ω and φ are known the misalignment angle. The majority of modern North slaved INS use open loop gyro-compassing. b. and so in fact there is little difference in the time taken by each method. The sensed component of Earth rate will cause the platform to tilt out of level and so the North accelerometer senses a component of gravity. 5. d. The signal from the accelerometer is fed through a high gain amplifier in order to torque the platform in azimuth until the error is nulled. b. b. Gyro-compassing. a. The levelling loop continues to be operative during the gyro-compassing phase. During the warm-up period the fluid filled accelerometers and gyros are brought to the correct operating temperature (typically 70°C) by rapid heating (approx 15°C/min) and the gyros are run up. Warm-up period. the Page 170 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Ψ. In order to overcome this problem the misalignment signal has to be filtered and averaged over time. a. The platform is then levelled to ± 1 by reference to the aircraft frame or to gravity using the horizontal accelerometers or gravity switches. Fine Levelling. The Earth rate sensed by a misaligned East gyro depends on the cosine of the latitude and therefore gyro-compassing accuracy decreases with increasing latitude and cannot be achieved close to the poles. (± 2°). Gyro-compassing or fine azimuth alignment is the final stage of self alignment and is based on the fact that if the East gyro input axis is pointing East it will not sense any component of Earth rate. If it is misaligned however it will sense a component. in practice the error signal is small and difficult to measure in the presence of noise. The accuracy is largely dependent on the null characteristics of the accelerometers but levelling to within 6 seconds of arc is achievable. Coarse levelling and alignment is usually carried out concurrently with the rapid heating once the temperature is above about 35°C. 6. Self Alignment Time. This phase normally takes between 3 and 4 minutes. is used to torque the levelling gyros. Fine levelling. When the system is switched from the alignment to the navigate mode the platform is rotated through the computed misalignment angle. 8. Gyro-compassing. This sensed component can be used to align the platform and two main methods are employed: closed loop and open loop gyro-compassing. Coarse Alignment. The pitch and roll gimbals are driven until they are at 90° to each other. Warm-up Period.2 . An INS can align itself using the local gravity vector for levelling and the Earth's rotation vector for azimuth alignment. usually about 7 minutes. normally obtained from the gyro-magnetic compass.

There are two main components: the datum gyro and the transfer gyro. As soon as this is done the heading error is torqued out and rapid heating is commenced to bring the system to operating temperature.2° can be achieved by this method and the technique has the advantage of being independent of external facilities or support equipment. Page 171 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The alignment is carried out with the gyros running at half speed and at the ambient temperature. Once heating is complete the gyros spin-up to their full speed. Synchro Memory Alignment. If the true bearing of a distant object is known the HUD can be used to measure the relative bearing of the object from the aircraft and the true heading can then be calculated. However. Airborne Alignment 15. The datum gyro is mounted on a firm protected base and is used to establish North by gyro-compassing. After gyro-compassing the HUD is used to measure the relative bearing of a distant object. The accuracy depends on the time allowed for measuring the misalignment angle but the system can be switched from 'align' to 'navigate' after about two minutes. Runway Alignment 11. The computed lateral displacement is assumed to be entirely due to platform misalignment in azimuth and the gyro is torqued until the error is removed.2 . Reference Alignment 10. starting at a temperature between 0°C and 15°C. 13. This method can be used as an extension of the synchro memory technique. An accuracy approaching 0. Any across track discrepancy is attributed to azimuth misalignment. it is particularly suitable for use in the field. 14. as it is portable. which cuts out the platform heating phase and reduces the gyro spin-up time. At lift off the aircraft is held as close to the centre line as possible and the accelerometer outputs are processed in a small computer to provide along and across distances. Airborne alignment can also be achieved in doppler/inertial mixed systems by comparing the doppler and inertial velocity outputs. Transfer of the heading to the aircraft takes about 15 seconds. and the ambient temperature. The accuracy of the system is about 0. In UK latitudes. The transfer gyro method permits rapid alignment and. fix monitored INS may be mechanized to perform airborne alignment automatically by comparing the INS track-made-good with the track-made-good determined from the fixing.15 minutes. Although the alignment time is reduced to about two minutes this must be balanced by an accuracy reduction by about a factor of two. of which between 6 and 9 minutes will be attributable to the gyro-compassing phase.3. The INS can then be shut down and the aircraft can be moved providing that when it is necessary to carry out the alignment it is returned to within a few feet of its original position and the object is within the HUD field of view. The transfer gyro takes about 20 minutes to align to the datum after which it is ready for immediate use. The transfer gyro is an azimuth gyro which is located on the datum gyro base plate by dowels. The transfer gyro is aligned to North by reference to the datum gyro and is then carried to the aircraft and used to align the aircraft azimuth gyro. Azimuth errors may be corrected during the take-off run if precise runway heading and take-off distance are known. 12.3. Transfer Gyro Alignment b. If the aircraft frame is rigid and immobile the output is accurate and repeatable to a few minutes of arc but in practice it is very difficult to ensure that the aircraft does not move by a few minutes of arc. Head-up Display Alignment d. This may be operationally restrictive and some systems have a rapid align mode which reduces the time but at the cost of some accuracy.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 latitude. These methods are in general less accurate than self alignment and usually rely on support equipment or specially located aircraft pan. A pure INS cannot self align in flight as an external reference is required to distinguish between movement induced and misalignment induced accelerations. As the true heading of the aircraft is known the true bearing of the object can be calculated. The transfer gyro is powered by its own batteries during the transfer. Head-Up Display (HUD) Alignment.2° should be attainable by this method. Transfer Gyro Alignment. The INS is then slewed until the heading output agrees with the calculated heading. Runway Alignment. The platform may be gyro-compassed at any convenient time and the azimuth obtained stored in a synchro memory system. a typical INS will self align in 10 . Accuracies of around 0. Provided the aircraft is not moved the platform may be realigned subsequently by torqueing it to the stored azimuth. Synchro Memory Alignment c. provided this is above 5°C.2° for around 30 minutes after removal from the datum. The most time consuming phase of the self alignment sequence is the gyro-compassing phase and several methods of fine alignment have been developed which use some form of external reference. The following methods will be discussed: a.

The INS stable element is maintained normal to the local vertical by feeding back the aircraft's radial velocity as levelling gyro control signals. ie horizontal. for any reason. A platform is said to be "Schuler Tuned" if its oscillation period is 84. and g is the gravity acceleration in feet/second² 2. 3-3-3-3 Fig 1 Schuler Tuning ERRORS Error Sources Page 172 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.3. the bob on the Earth pendulum became displaced from the Earth's centre.4 minutes is produced. If the suspension point were accelerated around the Earth.INS Errors and Mixed Systems Schuler Tuning 1. and in this way the north and east accelerometers are prevented from detecting V U components of the gravity acceleration.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Inertial Navigation Principles Chapter 3 .3.4 minutes (obtained by substituting the Earth radius in feet for L in the equation above). the bob would remain vertically below the suspension point because it is at the Earth's centre of gravity.4 minutes. the bob lags behind the suspension point in the opposite direction to the acceleration (Newton's First Law). The vertical defined by the normal to the platform is therefore unaffected by acceleration. an analogue of the Earth pendulum of period 84. the pendulum oscillates with a period (T) equal to: s L g T = 2¼ where: T is in seconds L is the length of the pendulum in feet. would therefore remain horizontal irrespective of the acceleration experienced. The Platform Pendulum. Should the platform be displaced from the horizontal it would oscillate with a period of 84.3 . Imagine a pendulum whose bob lies at the Earth's centre.4 minutes. By mechanizing the platform to remain horizontal. A platform mounted on the suspension point tangential to the Earth's surface. The control signals are the R and R terms for vehicle movement (transport wander) applied as shown in Fig 1. When a pendulum is accelerated. If. the pendulum would start to oscillate. The oscillation period would be 84. 3. This period is known as the Schuler period after Dr Maximilian Schuler who discovered the properties of the Earth pendulum. The Earth Pendulum. When the acceleration stops.

b. or effective within. Initial azimuth misalignment error. Oscillation.Oscillation Page 173 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. d.3. Bounded Errors. Errors originating in. The accelerometer now detects zero acceleration. The integration of the detected acceleration produces a positive velocity which drives the platform anti-clockwise to the horizontal. Accelerometer error. the Schuler loops. 2): a.3. there is always some residual error in the vertical. f. Initial Levelling Error 6. Integrator error. ie the platform is not completely level. are termed bounded errors. However. Following the convention that clockwise tilts produce positive acceleration. Levelling gyro drift.3 . which oscillate about a constant mean and therefore do not grow continuously with time. g. The positive velocity reduces to zero at angle Φo (the original tilt error) and for an instant the platform drive stops. velocity and distance are zero at the instant the "navigate" mode is selected. gΦo (strictly g sin Φo but the approximation is correct and for small angles and Φo expressed in radians). (Note: The lettering of the sub-paragraphs corresponds with the lettering in Fig. Vertical channel errors. the negative acceleration is integrated into negative velocity which drives the platform clockwise. Initial levelling error. When the "navigate" mode is selected (at the conclusion of the alignment phase) the following sequence takes place. c. and therefore. No matter how carefully the stable element (platform) and its sensors are aligned. e. 3-3-3-3 Fig 2 Initial Levelling Misalignment .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 4. 5. c. The integration of the accelerometer output takes a finite time. b. The accelerometer detects the component of gravity. sensed as a negative acceleration. After the platform passes the horizontal the accelerometer detects the opposite gravity effect. These errors. gΦo is sensed as a positive acceleration. The following errors affect inertial navigation systems: a. but the positive velocity continues to drive the platform. are oscillatory and propagate at the Schuler frequency. Azimuth gyro drift.

The errors caused by an initial tilt are shown in Fig 3. the negative velocity continues to drive the platform clockwise. After the platform passes the horizontal the accelerometer detects the gravity effect. e.3.75 feet per second (0. 3-3-3-3 Fig 3 Initial Levelling Misalignment . After one complete Schuler period both the velocity and distance errors have returned to zero. However.Errors Page 174 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:17 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. d and e positions of the error curve are labelled to correspond to the sub-figure lettering of Fig 2.3. The clockwise drive brings the platform once again to the level position. The cycle is then repeated. Note: the errors are bounded and do not increase with time.3 . c. This reduces the negative velocity to zero at angle Φo.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d.45 knots) and a mean distance error of 0. sensed as a positive acceleration. 7. An initial levelling error of 6 seconds of arc is shown to cause a velocity error bounded by ± 0. Initial Tilt Errors. b. The a.1 nm. resulting in zero output from the accelerometer.

As with levelling errors an oscillation is set up because the 2 velocity error is fed back through the Schuler loop.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Accelerometer Errors 8.3 .001 ft/sec . cross-coupling or vibropendulosity (Chap 1). The error is integrated into an erroneous velocity which torques the platform at an incorrect rate. Acceleration errors may be due to bias.3. 3-3-3-3 Fig 4 Accelerometer Bias .Errors Page 175 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Fig 4 shows the error curves generated by a bias error of 0.3.

Although the desired drift for an IN gyro is of the order of 0.01°/hr. A typical figure of 0.01°/hr is used to illustrate the effect of gyro drift on the platform: a. Levelling Gyro Drift 10.3.3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Integrator Errors 9. Any error in the integration results in an incorrect velocity output which produces a platform oscillation and associated error curves similar to those previously discussed. The stable element is turned away from the horizontal at the rate of 0.001°/hr it is probable that the drift rate in flight will be greater. Page 176 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. The first integrator is within the Schuler loop. and the platform tilt curve is shown at Fig 5a. Oscillation. The rotation is bounded by the Schuler loop. The second integrator is outside the Schuler loop and any errors caused by it produce a position error that increases linearly with time.3 .

Distance Error. c.3. If the INS is misaligned in azimuth by an angle Ψ. The second integration results in the distance error which grows with time because of the mean velocity error. The acceleration error follows the same curve as that shown for platform tilt (Fig 5a).01°/hr. If an INS is properly aligned in azimuth the East gyro senses zero component of Earth-rate and the North gyro outputs a signal proportional to −Ωcosφ. After integration the velocity curve at Fig 5b is obtained. and for a drift of 0. the East gyro will output −ΩcosφsinΨ. which shows that a mean velocity error develops over the Schuler period.6 nm/hr and has an oscillation of ± 0. Velocity Error. The distance error due to levelling gyro drift is unbounded. and the North gyro −ΩcosφcosΨ. Page 177 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.3 . The growth rate is oscillatory about a mean ramp increase (Fig 5c).3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b. the ramp grows at approximately 0.13 nm. 3-3-3-3 Fig 5 Errors Caused by Gyro Drift Initial Azimuth Misalignment 11.

005°/hr 0. northern velocity and latitude determination.2° 0.Distance Error Page 178 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. this error may be disregarded. eg at Latitude 55± and ª = 0.015°/hr 0. eg during long accelerated climbs. The errors produced oscillate about means which increase with time.3 .970 ft 3 ft/sec 6 ft/sec 9 ft/sec 14. Azimuth Gyro Drift 15. is appreciable even when Ψ is small.220 ft 1 ft/sec 0. The effect of various misalignment angles is shown in Table 1. The North gyro is torqued for Earth-rate by Ω cos φ and therefore the torqueing error will be: − cos Á ¡ − cos Á cos ª = − cos Á (1 ¡ cos ª)± /hr Since the magnitude of the misalignment angle is unlikely to exceed 0.3.1° 0. registers as East levelling gyro drift and produces an increasing azimuth alignment error.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 12.LAT 55°N Azimuth Resultant East Distance Max Error Deg's Gyro Drift Error at 1 Velocity Degree/hr hour Error ft/sec 2. At Latitude 55° and Ψ of 0. The error curves produced in the latitude channel by an initial azimuth misalignment are similar to those caused by levelling gyro drift. given by − Ωcosφ sin Ψ°/hr.03° 0. Table 1 .310 ft 19.1°.1°.045°/hr 6. The error for the East gyro. 3-3-3-3 Fig 6 Azimuth Gyro Drift . like azimuth misalignment. The increasing mean velocity error produces an unbounded distance error which follows a parabolic growth rate (illustrated in Fig 6). This error appears as East levelling gyro drift which causes the platform to oscillate about East and affects the North accelerometer.05 cos 55± (1 ¡ 0. and preferably less than 0. the error is 0.0003± /hr 13.5°.99996)± /hr = 0.030°/hr 0. The resultant errors may become significant under prolonged accelerations.Effect of Initial Azimuth Misalignment (North Channel) .015°/hr.3. Azimuth misalignment also results in slightly incorrect accelerations being sensed by the misaligned accelerometers.3° 0. The unbounded nature of the resulting distance error makes it essential to keep the initial azimuth alignment error as small as possible. Azimuth gyro drift (δΨ).5± the error is: 15.600 ft 13.

Thus for most aircraft applications an INS vertical channel must be aided by another source . The error growth is approximately exponential and. Gravity decreases with height according to the following relationship: R2 (R + h) 2 gh = g o or gh = go ¡ 2go h R where go = surface value of g h = height R = Earth radius Any error in determining h will affect the calculation of gh which in turn will increase the error. b. The vertical accelerometer must be corrected for the acceleration due to gravity (gh) at the particular height before its output can be integrated to give rate of change and change of height. but not all. or a parabolic function in the case of azimuth gyro drift. A local vertical INS is inherently 'Schuler Tuned' and errors induced within the Schuler loop will cause the platform to oscillate about the horizontal. errors being bounded as follows: a. Levelling gyro drift. and initial platform tilt errors yield a system velocity error which oscillates about a zero mean and so the distance error is bounded. a step input error in vertical velocity of 0. first stage integrator errors.in the first instance by barometric altimetry. Accelerometer errors. Therefore errors in the height channel are not self-limiting and the channel is unstable.000 ft after 1 hour.3 .3. as an example. azimuth misalignment and azimuth gyro drift cause a system velocity error which oscillates about a non-zero mean and thus the distance error is unbounded and oscillates about a ramp function of time. Page 179 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.3. Summary 18. 17. Most of the errors in the horizontal channels have been shown to be bounded by the Schuler oscillations but this is not the case in the vertical channel. This oscillation results in some.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 16.1 ft/sec would generate a height error of 670 ft after half an hour and 15.

d. In order to reduce the errors more quickly the error signal is in addition fed forward directly to modify the gyro torqueing signal. It is possible to overcome these disadvantages by 'mixing' the INS outputs with those of other navigation aids. Doppler/IN Mixing 24. do not increase with time and so a mixed system combines the short term accuracy of a pure INS with the long term accuracy of another aid. In addition it is possible to stabilize the vertical channel using barometric height. However. MIXED INERTIAL SYSTEMS Introduction 21. e. An INS is very accurate in the short term but the introduction of errors is inevitable. The vertical channel is inherently unstable. Fix Monitored System 26. Although the Schuler oscillations predominate in the short term (less than 4 hours). Sophisticated forms of mixing may involve several aids and use a software controlled statistical technique. although the position error is slightly reduced. The difference signals are also used to provide a degree of damping to the platform. 23. High long term accuracy requires very expensive components to minimize the errors. The platform is roughly Page 180 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 19. The fix monitored arrangement has the disadvantage of relying to a certain extent on an external source of information whereas the pure INS and Doppler/INS are self-contained. The problem of the unbounded position error in a pure INS or Doppler/INS can be reduced by coupling the system with an accurate fixing aid such as GPS. there is in general little to be gained in positional accuracy when the two systems are compared during the first 4 to 6 hours of flight. These aids have errors which. over the long term there are other periodic oscillations caused by interactions between the 3 axes. The shortcomings of such a system can be summarized as follows: a. 20.3 . to continuously monitor and analyse the outputs to give the best results. In a simple system the error signal is fed to the input of the first integrator. Alternatively an accurate fixing aid such as GPS could be used to bound the position error. b. Additionally a mixed system can be aligned in flight. The self alignment and reference alignment techniques are restricted to a fixed base as it is not possible for a pure INS to distinguish between the accelerations due to aircraft movement and those due to platform misalignment. The latitude and longitude outputs from the fixing aid are compared with those from the INS and the resulting error signals are fed through suitable gains to update the inertial position. 22. c. The most common mixed systems are those which use Doppler as a reference velocity source which is used to damp the Schuler oscillations. and in a conventional local vertical system these cause the platform to oscillate about the horizontal. such as weapon aiming. The system cannot be aligned in flight.3. 25. The position error resulting from gyro drift is unbounded. The vertical channel is not governed by Schuler oscillation and is inherently unstable due to the change of gravity with height. such as Kalman Filtering. The velocity error resulting from gyro drift oscillates about a non-zero mean and several applications. The reductions in velocity error achieved with a tuned second order Doppler/IN system will have a significant effect on the accuracy of weapon delivery when compared with a pure INS. although relatively large. this arrangement is known as a Tuned Second Order System. require a very accurate velocity. however in practice this leads to an unacceptable long time to reduce the error. Airborne Alignment 27.3. In a Doppler/IN system the Doppler and inertial velocities are compared to give an error signal which can be used in various configurations to modify the system performance and in particular to damp the Schuler oscillations. thus enhancing the overall accuracy of both systems. An INS which is combined with an alternative velocity source or position information can however be aligned in flight.

Consequently the weighting factor applied to each sensor of a mixed system by a fixed gain loop is unlikely to be the true measure of the relative merits of the sensors and could possibly be significantly in error. Post flight analysis of the navigation system and fault detection can be carried out. such as Kalman Filtering. This method can use any number of sensors and can select the best information available at any particular time. and additional sensors can be incorporated into the system with relatively minor changes to the computer software. 29. b. The hardwired mixed systems described in the preceding paragraphs are inflexible because the feedback gains are fixed and have to be carefully chosen at the design stage. By using a software controlled statistical technique. All the quantities in the error model are then corrected in the light of the known variances of the external information and the variances of each quantity in the error model. Alignment and gyro drift trimming are improved. 32. The inertial height output is compared with the barometric height to give an error signal which is fed back to the first integrator and this has the effect of stabilizing the accuracy in the long term whilst maintaining it in the short term. In reality the relative merits of each sensor will vary considerably and depend on such parameters as time of flight. Weapon aiming accuracy is improved including the elimination of fixed bias errors.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 aligned and then the error signals from either the external velocity or position information are used to level the platform and align it in azimuth. The accuracy of an airborne alignment is not as high as that obtained from a full self alignment but the technique does give the aircraft a rapid reaction capability and the ability to update the system during a long flight or after a transient equipment failure. The Kalman Filtering process estimates each of the parameters which give rise to an error between the INS and one or more external sensors on the basis of maximum likelihood. Extensive trials and simulation are necessary to enable the designer to define the error model and variables as accurately as possible within the computer limitations. By making better use of the information available. Kalman Filter Design 31. It is therefore necessary to supplement the vertical channel with another source of height reference in order to provide the accurate values of height and vertical velocity which are essential for weapon aiming calculations. The design of a practical Kalman Filter for use in an aircraft system is complex. The first problem is to define a set of variables that specify the system. flight conditions and altitude. KALMAN FILTERING Introduction 30. The variances of the system errors are recalculated after each external measurement has been processed so that the errors of the next measurement can be apportioned in the optimum manner. Page 181 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:18 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3.3.3 . Kalman Filtering increases the flexibility and enhances the accuracy of a mixed system thus overcoming the disadvantages of a hardwired mixed system. Other important advantages are: a. thus assigning a fixed level of relative performance to the sensors. The computer holds an estimate of the system errors and uses known error propagation equations to forecast how these errors will behave with passing time. 33.3. When an external measurement is made the error held in the computer is compared with the measured error. range from a ground aid. Advantages of Kalman Filtering 34. Once designed however the filter performance is not affected by changes in aircraft role or tactics. The vertical channel does not display the same characteristics as the horizontal channels as it is inherently unstable due to the fact that the value of g varies with height. c. these weighting factors can be optimized and continuously updated for any operating conditions. Vertical Channel Stabilization 28. The barometric altimeter whilst inaccurate in the short term is very accurate in the long term and this characteristic can be used to stabilize the INS height and vertical velocity outputs. Thus this error model will always maintain up to date values. By using a weighting factor which is continually revised the error between the external data and the INS is apportioned among all the possible error sources so that the probability of these errors occurring is greatest. In practice there is never enough information to enable the system to be perfectly modelled and there will frequently be limitations on computer time and storage.

3. 3-3-3-3 Fig 5a 3-3-3-3 Fig 5b Page 182 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Inertial Navigation Principles 3. Post Flight Analysis and Fault Detection. An estimate of system accuracy can be continuously displayed to the crew. A navigation system using a Kalman Filtering technique is far more flexible and accurate than a more conventional system and has several secondary benefits. 38. Summary 39. 37. By calculating the errors in the delivery of practice weapons in training sorties the aircraft can be calibrated and the filter programmed to eliminate these fixed bias errors. Kalman Filtering also improves the height and vertical velocity outputs which are essential for accurate weapon aiming. When using statistical filtering an estimate of the navigation system accuracy is continuously available.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. Alignment and Gyro Drift Trimming. Such a facility enables the thorough testing of the sensor to be carried out at an earlier stage than might otherwise have been possible. This post flight analysis highlights shortcomings in the airborne filter which may then be amended. Estimate of System Accuracy.3 . The filter can compensate for aircraft movement such as wind buffeting during ground alignment and also take account of the changing characteristics of components during the warm-up phase. During flight all reference data can be recorded and subsequently fed into a computer containing a much more comprehensive error model than it is possible to accommodate in an airborne computer.3. This information may be displayed to the crew directly as a figure of merit reflecting the accuracy of the navigation outputs. The times for full and rapid alignments can be reduced and the overall accuracy of the process improved. It can also take account of fixed bias errors and in particular harmonization and windscreen distortion. An important secondary application of Kalman Filtering is the post flight analysis of the navigation system. The Kalman Filter will directly affect weapon aiming accuracy because of the improved navigation performance. The advantages obtained from Kalman Filtering are limited only by the ability to accurately model the system parameters and the likely errors. A Kalman Filter can be used during alignment and for drift trimming the gyros. within the computer time and space available. Alternatively the filter can automatically reject input data that is in error by more than 3 or 4 standard deviations and an indication given to the crew. By the use of post flight analysis data can be used to show when any sensor is not presenting navigation information within the expected variance due perhaps to progressive deterioration of components or incipient failure. 36. Weapon Aiming Errors. 35. The method of using the data is the same as in flight but as the error model is more complete maximum use can be made of data which was previously unused.

Computers are often required to control and integrate data obtained from a variety of disparate sources and sensors. and cost. Page 183 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3.Airborne Computers Introduction 1. while at the same time there have been reductions in physical size. The manner in which data is transmitted between these equipments will also be addressed. and reliability. many of which will have their own dedicated or integral computer.1.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-3-3-3 Fig 5c COMPUTING AND DISPLAY Central Computing Chapter 1 . and will investigate the computer types and organizations that best fulfil the requirements. together with the various peripheral devices which are commonly used for the input and output of data. computer technology has made rapid advances in the fields of speed. power consumption. memory capacity. This chapter will review the tasks that utilize airborne computers. Over the last twenty-five years in particular.4.

4. The control and management functions that are carried out by computer include: a. Digital . c. Equipment self-test routines. Control of inertial and doppler navigation systems. Data transmission control and management. Digital land mass data manipulation. EW data processing. Fuel and engine monitoring and control. d. Hyperbolic fix processing (Decca). b. Radar data processing. Airborne Computer Types 7. Airborne computing tasks can be broadly divided into three main groups: a. Navigation and Weapon Aiming. e. Whereas many functions could be completed totally automatically.1 .1. f. Control and Management. b. Page 184 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. Air data processing. Presentation. There are three types of computer currently being used in airborne applications: a. 3.General Purpose and Special Purpose. e. Each of these applications involves the manipulation of large amounts of data so that they can be presented in a form which is usable by either the crew or other systems. In flight recording. Weapon aiming calculations.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Airborne Computer Tasks 2. b. EW equipment management.4. c. Examples of data processing applications are: a. Analogue. Image processing (eg IR and television). 6. c. Hybrid (mixed analogue and digital). Examples of the navigation and weapon aiming problems which are normally solved by computer are: a. Control and management. Flight control systems (eg fly-by-wire) b. b. 5. c. d. Data Processing. including Kalman filtering. Data processing. it is normally desirable that the crew should be able to make any necessary decisions and maintain some measure of control over the computer. Co-ordinate conversion (eg Lat/Long to Grid). c. d. Navigation and weapon aiming.

the dense packing of components has increased the problems of heat dissipation. analogue machines had the advantages of avoiding the sampling errors associated with digital techniques. It is possible for this arrangement to provide better integrity than the single system if essential programs and data are stored in both Page 185 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. Ground based computers usually operate in clean air-conditioned surroundings with little chance of mechanical damage. the optical computer. d. and the special purpose computer which is designed by the manufacturer to perform a specific task. c. whereas the airborne environment is essentially hostile to electronic equipment which may be subjected to large temperature changes. Single Processing. However the analogue computer is inflexible in its applications. 15. The decision as to which computer arrangement is appropriate in any aircraft will depend on the scale of the computing task and the number of systems to be controlled or integrated. Digital computers are in widespread use for airborne applications and are likely to remain the prevalent computer type for the foreseeable future. accuracy. Computer Organization 13. Whereas an 18-bit word is sufficient for most navigation. In addition to suffering to some extent from the drawbacks of analogue machines. Analogue computers accept and process data as continually varying quantities. weapon aiming. In addition. Precision 12. Digital Computers. Thus high standards of hardware ruggedness are necessary. but they have largely been supplanted by digital computers. This organization was favoured when computers were first installed into aircraft and were very bulky items.4. In the early days of digital computers. but although large scale integrated circuitry has been beneficial in these respects. Distributed processing 14. The characteristics of analogue and hybrid computers will briefly be summarized. There are two general types.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 A further type. Dual Processing. Multiprocessing. represented by physical parameters. There are essentially four options: a. In a dual processing organization two digital computers work independently. and the requirements of the systems that the computer is required to drive. reliability. 9. weight. It is clearly advantageous for the computer to have low size. other systems (such as imaging tasks) require greater precision. failure of the single processor results in the loss of all computing capability.1. Analogue Computers. but the remainder of this chapter will be concerned with the digital computer. and power requirements. modern digital systems are now able to operate at speeds which make them essentially 'real time'. however this advantage must be weighed against additional cost and sometimes increased difficulty of maintenance. and on whether real time operation is required. Although there are still many analogue machines in service (eg GPI 4). The characteristics of the special purpose type are optimized for the task in hand and it therefore tends to be more efficient. b. Hybrid Computers. vibration. Single processing. while still retaining memory. and very low integrity as there is no redundancy or reversionary capability. sharing the workload. The Airborne Environment 11. control. it is unlikely that future military aircraft will use analogue computing systems to any significant degree. and programming flexibility. 8. and of being inherently 'real time' machines. but although such systems are still to be found (eg Jaguar). Dual processing. eg voltage or shaft angle.1 . 10. In a single processing arrangement all tasks are performed in a single computer. and acceleration forces. they also require analogue/digital and digital/analogue conversion devices. the general purpose computer which can be adapted for a variety of uses by suitable programming. Hybrid computers are still sometimes used in inertial navigation systems. The precision to which a digital computer can work is a function of wordlength and the required wordlength will be determined by the quality of the various sensor inputs. and management functions. Hybrid computers use a mixture of analogue and digital techniques. they are unlikely to be used in new installations. and the current trend is away from 18 or 24 bit words to 32 or 64 bit words. and does not have the ability to store large quantities of data. They were originally used to overcome the slow speed of digital machines where real time operation was required. is still at the development stage. The arrangement has very poor real time performance. The development of digital computers has been such that their sampling errors are now generally much lower than those generated by the mechanical tolerances in the analogue computer.

such that if the primary processor for any particular function fails. Failure of a dedicated computer in such a system would probably entail the loss of that element and critical tasks may therefore have to be protected by the provision of redundant machines. Multiprocessing. but if this capability is required a multiprocessing or distributed organization is much to be preferred.4. Non-impact printers are typified by ink-jet and laser printers.1. Such printers are significantly faster (24. The processed information from an airborne computer will be needed either by other aircraft systems. 16. In a distributed system separate computers are used for the various tasks. The arrangement is shown in Fig 1. Dual systems can offer a limited real time performance. Page 186 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:19 2002 Central Computing 3. the dedicated computers will continue to operate and a well designed system will make their information available. Magnetic tape may be used both to input and output information. relatively slow (typically 1000 lines/minute). but generally cheap. These printers are noisy. so enabling the crew to iteract with the computer. An elaborate supervisory program allocates processor time according to predetermined priorities. In addition to simple warning lights and flight instruments. Distributed Processing. Where it is necessary for the crew to input or receive data it must be in a form which is readily interpreted. Extreme care is needed if program changes are to be made to ensure that any change to one routine does not affect others.1 . The multiprocessing system has high integrity and good real time performance.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 computers. In a multiprocessing arrangement two or more CPUs operate with one memory. 3-4-1-1 Fig 1 Distributed Processing System Input/Output Devices 18. The principle is essentially the same as that used in domestic audio recording. or by the crew. but at the cost of complex and difficult programming. 17. Because magnetic tape is a serial device it tends to be rather slow in operation and is typically used to load programs or record data for post-flight analysis. however. Printers are output devices and may be classed as impact or non-impact. A variety of devices are used in aircraft to accomplish this. b. Impact printers operate by means of a print head striking an inked sheet or ribbon overlaying the paper. System integration will suffer if the controlling computer fails. but with one of these exercising some control over the others.000 lines/minute) and much quieter. the other can take over the task (this may of course entail the loss of some less essential capabilities). The controlling computer is used to reduce operator workload by performing some of the switching functions needed for the management of the system and to provide centralized control of reversionary routines in the event of equipment failure. even if in a degraded mode. The distributed system can have a good real time performance and there is less of a programming problem compared with a multiprocessing arrangement. but also expensive. Printers. Magnetic Tape. rather than as a digital data stream. the following devices may be encountered: a.

Copper wire is still the commonest form of transmission medium. Hand controllers are typically used to move cursors on a radar. and along which binary signals are transmitted in the form of pulses of light. are impervious to electro-magnetic interference.4. Touch screens may also be used and these are generally faster and more accurate than keyboards. d. 21. Because optical fibres use light waves to transmit signals they do not suffer from electrical interference caused by high voltages. b. but is still in the development stage. Optical fibres are in common use as transmission media. or injection laser diodes (ILDs). lightning. A VDU is a high quality cathode ray tube with either a full colour or two-tone screen. or a special type designed to fulfil a specific function. over longer distances. Direct Voice Input (DVI). Cables of this type are easily handled. Some analogue transmission systems have been reviewed in Part 3. Optical Fibre. heavy. usually clad in plastic. Bit Parallel Word Serial (BPWS). and switches may be used to input data. have inherent security. but faster. but slow. radio frequencies. d. and heavier. In this form both the words in the data stream. compared to copper wire. c. In this form the words within the data stream are transmitted in parallel. is to connect them to a digital transmission system using analogue/digital converters. Parallel transmission is more expensive. In summary. and operate in the near infra-red region of the spectrum. Page 187 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. or co-axial cable. In this form the bits within a data word are transmitted in parallel. but the trend now. or electro-magnetic pulse. The light sources are either light emitting diodes (LEDs). DATA TRANSMISSION Introduction 19. complex.1. Photodiodes at the receiving end of the cable convert the light signals back into electrical signals. magnetic fields. Bit Serial Word Serial (BSWS).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. but the words in the stream are transmitted serially. optical fibres can transmit greater amounts of data. Similarly they are themselves non-radiating and therefore do not interfere with other electronic equipment. A channel is the connection needed to transmit a word. moving map display. and ILDs at up to a few GHz. The bandwidth of the medium far exceeds that of copper wire. of limited bandwidth. and the constituent bits of a data word. Section 1 of this volume. but are bulky. This may be either a standard QWERTY type as found on a typewriter. Manual Input Devices. They consist of lengths of glass fibre. Bit Parallel Word Parallel (BPWP). With suitable software it can display both alphanumerics and diagrams. A variety of hand controllers (joysticks and roller balls). lighter. or indeed other computers. In some systems there is a 'soft' keyboard in which the function of a key is dictated by the computer software according to the mode of operation. and data can easily be edited. In this form both blocks of words and their constituent bits are transmitted in parallel. or HUD. Binary signals are represented by electrical pulses. Copper Wire. Bit Serial Word Parallel (BSWP). and is displayed on the VDU adjacent to the key. Serial transmission requires fewer wires and is relatively cheap and light. and are physically much smaller. and less cumbersome. There are four options: a. Visual Display Unit (VDU) and Keyboard. Once a digital computer is installed in an aircraft there will be a need to transmit data between the computer and other systems such as sensors and displays. and prone to corruption by electro-magnetic interference. LED sources can operate at bandwidths up to 100 MHz. where there are still analogue devices in a system.1 . Channel Configurations 22. In a DVI system the computer is programmed to recognize a limited vocabulary of command and data words having first been taught the operator's speech characteristics. and are safer to use in a potentially explosive environment. but the bits within a word are transmitted serially. The VDU is normally associated with a keyboard to enable manual entry of data by the crew. and may be in the form of a screened twisted pair. and the number of wires required will depend on the form in which data is to be transmitted. The system is inherently faster than keyboard entry. e. are transmitted serially. Transmission Media 20.

and possibly correction. In addition it monitors the status of remote terminals and if. 24. The primary disadvantages of the system are its complexity and slow speed. Time division multiplexing is an example of synchronous control which provides a means of reducing the amount of hardware required by sharing transmission channels. preceded by a command word which includes such details as the number of words in the ensuing stream. data is transmitted as a stream of data words.4. In an asynchronous system. it tends to be slow. There is a single shared link which switches between each pair of transmitters and receivers under the control of a clock. The data word will often have some bits designed for the detection. for example. Also. when a peripheral has information to transmit it tells the processor which arranges a connection. of corruption in the data. etc are transmitters and R1.1 . peripherals will be accessed in a strict sequence under some form of central control. The transmission medium is a twisted pair of copper wires which limits the bandwidth to to 1 MHz and suffers from the other disadvantages of electrical transmission. and costly part of the system and its major function is to ensure that information is routed correctly between remote terminals. Asynchronous. Data highways are asynchronous arrangements whereby all devices are connected to a common data busbar and the flow of data is controlled by a highway (or bus) controller on a 'handshaking' basis. Page 188 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. one source of information failed. and the destination address. complex. There are two types of control. Time Division Multiplexing. Under synchronous control. The system is organized such that up to 30 remote terminals can be connected to a common data highway. On completion. future developments will probably involve optical fibre transmission. inflexible. The transmission of data streams must be controlled to ensure that the appropriate information reaches the correct destination. A remote terminal can be embedded in a particular avionic component. The controller will be informed that a peripheral wishes to transmit and the appropriate receiver will be commanded to receive.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Transmission Control 23. allowing another peripheral to use the line. Therefore. and inefficient. The concept is illustrated in Fig 2 where T1. The bus controller is the the most important.1. Data Highways. Mil Std 1553 (NATO STANAG 3838) Data Bus. A significant advantage of the system is that the avionic system can be expanded or modified without the costly and time consuming exercise of changing the aircraft wiring. In most systems. and modification to the bus controller software. or disconnections from. An asynchronous system is more complex than a synchronous one. 25. the bus. the bus controller would automatically arrange for systems requiring that information to receive it from a secondary source if available. Asynchronous control is becoming more widely used as experience and technology improves. and maintains it until the message has been passed. The command will be acknowledged and the data transmitted. b. 3-4-1-1 Fig 2 Time Division Multiplexing 26. A change of equipment involves connections to. T2. normally based on a clock. although such a system is relatively simple to design and construct. R2. The bus controller can allow any remote terminal to communicate with any other. but is faster and more efficient. Each peripheral is connected for the length of time necessary to pass the maximum number of permitted data words regardless of how much information is actually transmitted. synchronous and asynchronous: a. or can stand alone and service up to five avionic systems. bus controllers and remote terminals represent a significant part of the system cost and it would not be cost effective for an aircraft with only a few digital avionic equipments. Synchronous. The Mil Std 1553 data bus was introduced in 1973 by the US Department of Defense as a standard format for aircraft data buses and all new US aircraft were to employ the system. the connection is broken. 27. etc are receivers.

initialization. A series of interrupt pulses generated by a real time clock will be used.4. After each instruction is complete a check will be made on the contents of an interrupt status word (ISW) in a special register. The iteration rate will be determined by consideration of the maximum error in a variable that can be permitted and the maximum rate at which the variable can change. A real time system is a combination of computer hardware and software which has the ability to process data sufficiently quickly that it can keep pace with events and influence or control responses with minimal time lag. but requires careful initial design and accurate forecasting of system workload. 5. In order to achieve the required real time performance with a digital computer the tasks will be grouped into a number of priority levels with the most important tasks (generally those with the highest iteration rates) having the highest priority. If a particular bit is set to 0 this indicates that an interrupt has not been generated and the computer will go on to Page 189 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3.Real Time Programs Introduction 1. An airborne computer will usually have several different programs to run. such as a navigator's control unit. and C at the same level. For convenience of organization the iteration rates of programs on the same level may be changed to ensure that they are multiples or submultiples of each other.2 . the multiprocessing or distributed processing arrangements are the most suitable. Communication between machines may cause delays especially if dissimilar computers are used as different word lengths and input/output characteristics dictate the need for complicated interface units. In the case of airborne systems the acceptable time lag will be in the order of milliseconds. thus. 2. The timing. The multiprocessor allocates tasks to a CPU on the basis of priorities which leads to a very flexible but complicated system.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Central Computing Chapter 2 . Iteration Rates 3. A. but to increase the iteration rates of both B and C to 10 Hz. Each program will take a certain amount of time and must be repeated at certain intervals. The heart of the supervisory program is the main scheduler routine which determines the order in which processing is done. 6. In this situation it would be more convenient to run A at 5 Hz as needed. it may be that a certain aircraft navigation system cannot tolerate an error in pitch of greater than 1 if it is to meet the specified accuracy.1. may also be used. Table 1 . as was suggested in Chap 1. and C a rate of 9 Hz. B. which also handles the input and output of data and the servicing of interrupts. Iteration rates would not normally be reduced as this would in most cases entail either a lower safety margin or decreased accuracy. As an example. with program A requiring a rate of 5 Hz. The distributed arrangement allocates specific tasks to dedicated computers. for example. an iteration rate of 10 Hz means that the program must be completed every 100 ms. and scheduling of work is accomplished by a supervisory program. B a rate of 7 Hz. Interrupt signals from a peripheral. The number of times each program is repeated in 1 second is termed the iteration rate and is expressed in Hertz (Hz). but which nevertheless is probably the most suitable when tasks occur at random times.Typical Iteration Rates System Air Data Computer Autopilot (stability) (control) Head-up Display Weapon Aiming Routine Navigation Iteration Rate 20 Hz 100 HZ 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 10 Hz Priority and Interrupt System 4. control. A system's ability to operate in real time depends principally on the amount of CPU time available and. provided that sufficient CPU time is available. The sequence of events is as follows: a. Some typical iteration rates for various airborne computing tasks are shown in Table 1. For example. and allocates resources to the various programs. This avoids the need for a complex supervisory program. If the maximum pitch rate of the aircraft is 20° the iteration rate must be at least 20 Hz and in practice a higher rate would be chosen to give a safety margin. it may be necessary to run three programs.

If the interrupt is of lower priority than the program currently being run the interrupt will be ignored. At point B (t = 20 ms) a hardware interrupt signal is generated which demands that the Level 2 program is serviced again. At point A (t = 5 ms) the Level 2 program is complete and the last instruction causes an automatic reversion to the next lowest priority level . b. and the location of the first instruction of the new program will be loaded into the program counter. The allocation of computer time and the associated hardware interrupt signals is illustrated in Fig 1 and described below: a. e. or weapon aiming calculations. As an example. b.Level 3. The iteration rate required is 10 Hz and so interrupts are generated every 100 ms. Level 2 is used for programs requiring an iteration rate of 50 Hz. An interrupt signal is generated every 20 ms to ensure that a rate of 50 Hz is achieved. If it is of a higher priority the contents of various registers. At t = 0 the CPU begins the Level 2 program. 3-4-1-2 Fig 1 Priority System Page 190 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Central Computing 3. c. The nav/attack system may be operated in several modes and in this example it will be assumed that the computer is operating in the routine navigation mode in which Level 2 programs require 5 ms per iteration and Level 3 programs require 50 ms per iteration. and there are no further programs to be run at that level. Level 1 is the highest priority level and is used only for switch on. and fault conditions. the last instruction will cause the registers to be loaded with the values pertinent to the next most important program which will then be run until it is complete or interrupted. Before the computer leaves Level 3 the address of the current instruction and intermediate data results are automatically stored in protected memory locations. Level 4 is used for self-test routines and programs are run only when time is available in the CPU after the tasks at the higher levels have been completed. switch off. 8. such as the accumulator. Only 15 ms of the 50 ms needed by the Level 3 program has been made available at this stage. having the following 4 program priority levels: a. d. d. c. If a 1 is present the rest of the ISW will be examined to determine the priority level of the interrupt.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the next instruction. consider a computer being used in a nav/attack system.1. The new program will then be run until it is complete or is in its turn interrupted by a still higher level program.4. Level 3 services routine navigation equations and the generation of display information. such as an Inertial Navigation Schuler loop. will be stored.2 . If however a 1 is present an interrupt has been generated. 7. c. b. When a program is complete.

4. Suppose that the operator carries out an attack using a weapon aiming mode which requires 5 ms of calculation at Level 2. Program running will now alternate between Levels 2 and 4. The whole cycle is then repeated. The principles of operation of a cathode ray tube (CRT) are covered in detail in Volume 9. when the Level 3 program can be commenced. 9. this chapter will review the basic operation before describing the manner in which the CRT can be used for airborne displays. but the Level 2 has priority and the Level 3 interrupt is stored until the Level 2 program is complete (point E). or by reducing the Level 3 tasks.1 . The total time required at Level 2 is now 10 ms. Thus no time is available to service the self-test programs at Level 4 and these must be dropped for the duration of the attack. The time spent at various levels will vary with the mode of operation. Fig 1 is a simplified diagram showing the components of a CRT which are contained in an evacuated tube with a phosphor coating deposited on the inside of one glass end. Displays Chapter 1 . The time available between Level 2 iterations is spent at Level 3 where the stored data and instruction addresses are used to ensure continuity. CRT Operating Principle 2. The sequence now repeats with the Level 2 program being serviced every 20 ms to maintain the 50 Hz iteration rate. f. At point C (t = 70 ms) the Level 3 program has been completed and time is available for Level 4 programs. In most cases this will be possible without significantly degrading the overall system performance. For convenience.CRT Displays Introduction 1. In every 100 ms period the time required by Levels 2 and 3 is now 100 ms (5 x 10 ms at Level 2 and 1 x 50 ms at Level 3). As Level 3 requires 50 ms in every 100 ms to achieve a 10 Hz iteration rate some adjustment must be made. At the other end of the tube an electron gun produces a beam of electrons Page 191 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:20 2002 Displays 3.2. ie during the period of the attack some less important facility or information will be lost. either by accepting a lower iteration rate for the Level 3 programs. Suppose the weapon aiming mode selected requires 7 ms of time at Level 2 giving a total of 12 ms per iteration. It may be necessary to adjust the Level 3 tasks at some stages of flight.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 d. 10. Level 3 must be serviced again to achieve the required 10 Hz iteration rate. At point D (t = 100 ms) interrupt signals are received for Levels 2 and 3. e. In every 100 ms period the Level 2 program now requires 60 ms (5 x 12 ms) leaving only 40 ms available at Level 3.

Each of these techniques will be described in more detail later. The phosphor glows at a specific frequency or frequency range (colour). Each separate picture is known as a field and the total picture.2. the raster scan technique which is that used in domestic television. The colour of the spot is determined by the choice of phosphor and some examples are shown in Table 2. normally a series of parallel horizontal lines. and the effect is enhanced by the choice of a phosphor with an appropriate persistence. which may be needed in a cockpit. For any given application a compromise has to be made between desirable attributes. to move the spot of light around the screen. A commonly used variation. There are two methods by which a total image is produced. to achieve this it is necessary to provide a higher deflection power. The size of the spot is normally fixed by the focusing and will be dictated by a number of design factors. 3-4-2-1 Fig 1 Simplified Construction of a Cathode Ray Tube Image Quality 4. Extra brightness. In most airborne applications a short tube length is desirable so that the device can be more easily accommodated. and focusing of the spot may be achieved by magnetic or electrostatic techniques or by a combination of methods. In a raster scan system the spot is moved over the whole area of the screen in a regular pattern. also carries the penalty of lower resolution. is called a frame. The total image in a CRT display is built up by the rapid movement of the spot of light traced by the electron beam. involves producing two or more images in rapid succession by interleaving the horizontal lines of the scan.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 which are accelerated along the tube by an extra-high tension (EHT) voltage. however. ie the sum of the individual fields. as well as a greater difference between the resolution at the centre and edges of the display. However. and to accept a lower resolution. The brightness. The electron beam can be focused or deflected. oscilloscopes. The image is built up by varying the brightness of the spot in synchronization with the raster. The persistence of the spot is a measure of its decay time and is defined by the length of time it takes for the brightness to fall to 10% of its peak brightness following the electron beam's cessation or movement. A phosphor's persistence is described as shown in Table 1. the resolution of the final image can never be finer than the spot size. and for a specific length of time when struck by the high velocity electrons. until they strike the phosphor at very high velocity. for example. and its intensity can be altered to control brightness in order to form an image. Raster Scan 5. The persistence of the phosphor is utilized together with the eye's persistence of vision to build up a complete image from what is in reality a moving spot and the correct choice of persistence is therefore very important.1 . 3. deflection. and the eye's integration of the image.Standard Nomenclature for Phosphor Persistence Time to rise to 90% of steady state brightness or time to decay to 10% of final Persistence (Word description of luminance rise time or Page 192 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. and a slower writing speed. known as interlacing. The effect is to reduce the true refresh rate without flicker becoming apparent. Table 1 . and the cursive technique which is that used in. The whole process is repeated at the refresh rate to give an apparently continuous and dynamic image.

8. Similar variations can be detected within the other lines.4. of which 585 are used for imaging. Fig 2a shows the display which consists of a black and a white letter 'T' on a grey background.2. in a domestic television with 625 lines.1 . It will be seen that during the period of line 1 the video signal shows grey throughout. The way in which a raster scan forms an image is shown in Fig 2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 brightness ± 1 sec 100 ms − 1 sec 1 ms − 100 ms 10 µ s −1 ms 1 µ s − 10 µ s <1µs decay) Very long Long Medium Medium short Short Very short 6. After a time equivalent to scanning the ten lines. During this 'flyback' the brightness of the spot is normally reduced to zero. back to grey to form the space between the letters. and there is no interlacing. In a UK television system this gives just over 700 resolvable elements horizontally. The vertical resolution of a raster scan system is set by the number of lines used. Fig 2d shows the variation of the video signal. ie the variation in brightness of the spot from black through grey to white with time. In practice this figure is degraded by other factors. and finally back to grey at the end of the letter. In addition to the image forming waveforms there will be additional pulses. moves to black to begin forming the top of the black letter 'T'. When the spot reaches the end of any line the accrued 'y' movement ensures that after the flyback the spot is at the start of the next line down. Fig 2c shows the 'y' deflection of the spot as it moves down the screen. not shown in Fig 2. The horizontal resolution is set by the video bandwidth and the line frequency. to ensure correct synchronization of the time bases. For simplicity the scan has only 12 lines of which 10 are used for imaging. At the end of each line the spot returns to the left hand end (minimum 'x') as represented by the vertical part of the waveform. the spot returns to the top of the display. The 'x' value increases within each line causing the spot to move across the screen. It will be seen that there is 'y' movement coincident with 'x' movement thus accounting for the slope of the lines evident in Fig 2a. the smallest theoretically resolvable detail is equal to the line width which is 1/585 of the picture height. Table 2 . During line 2 the video starts at grey. 3-4-2-1 Fig 2 Formation of Raster Scan Image Page 193 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. This frame flyback coincides with the time occupied by the non-imaging lines 11 and 12. Finally. then to white to start to form the white letter 'T'.Characteristics of Typical Phosphors Phosphor P1 P4 P12 P34 P43 Emission Colour Fluorescene Phosphorescence Persistence (Initial Glow) (After Glow) Yellow-green Yellow-green Medium White Orange Blue-green Green White Orange Yellow-green Green Applications and Remarks Oscillographs Radars HUDs Monochrome TVs Medium to Medium-short Long Radars Very Long Visual Info storage Medium Rare Earth Phosphor used for HUDs 7. Fig 2b shows the line timebase which has a sawtooth form and represents the 'x' deflection of the spot. Thus for example.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Cursive Writing 9. Because of the limited persistence of the phosphors any line has to be re-drawn at regular intervals (the refresh rate). and it is in practice impossible to produce realistic dynamic images with shades of grey.2. 3-4-2-1 Fig 3 Example of Production of a Simple Cursive Image Page 194 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. in a similar way to a pencil drawing on paper. which in most applications is either on or off. the display can be much brighter than with a raster scan.1 . The spot position is set by 'x' and 'y' signals and the intensity by a 'z' signal. Although the term cursive writing may be used to describe any non-raster imaging technique. it is used here to describe the way in which the electron beam is used to draw line symbology. The way in which a cursive system can be made to form a letter 'R' by simultaneously varying the 'x'. in which all of the screen must be covered within each refresh period. The disadvantages of the cursive technique are that three signals are required to produce the image. The production of symbology can often be simplified by storing specific images such as lines and circles in computer memory and recalling and positioning them as required. 'y' and 'z' parameters is shown in Fig 3.4. Because only the specific symbol required is drawn.

2. green and blue phosphor as required. and vibration causes fewer difficulties. high contrast display capable of being viewed in direct sunlight. As the electron beam scans across the face. The beam index CRT is a bright. The highly accurate synchronization needed by a fast-scanning high bandwidth electron beam is achieved by using ultra-violet radiation feedback from metal backed index strips in the face of the screen. there is less loss of energy in the electron beam. 3-4-2-1 Fig 4 The Beam-Index Tube Principle Page 195 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:21 2002 Displays 3. and hence three times the bandwidth.4. of the conventional tube. which therefore writes at three times the rate. Fig 4 shows the beam-index tube principle. there are some uses for which a multi-colour display would be desirable or necessary. Because there is no shadowmask as in the conventional colour CRT. in which strips of coloured phosphor are arranged in columns on the screen. The shadowmask tube (in which a mask behind the screen carries the colour apertures through which 3 electron beams must be aimed to build up a chromatic image) is the type used in most domestic television receivers. 12. the beam index CRT and the penetration CRT. it illuminates the red. There are three practical colour tubes available. There is only one electron gun in the beam index CRT. 11.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Colour Displays 10. Although it has airborne applications it is sensitive to vibration. the shadowmask CRT.1 . Although a monochromatic display is quite suitable for many airborne applications. providing a relatively low contrast display for the cockpit environment. and susceptible to stray magnetic fields.

than for the portrayal of real world images.2. each of which glows with a different colour. 3-4-2-1 Fig 5 Penetration CRT Principle Page 196 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3.4. The penetration CRT has several layers of transparent phosphor deposited on the faceplate. It is therefore more suitable for the presentation of symbology. By varying the EHT. but currently the available colours are limited. The tube is much brighter and more robust than the shadowmask tube. the penetration of the electron beam into the phosphor layers can be varied.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13.1 . while Fig 6 shows how the colour varies with changes in voltage for a typical screen. and hence the colour can be controlled. eg flight instrument displays. and the tube lacks the ability to display subtle variations of tone. A simplified diagram showing the construction of a penetration tube is at Fig 5.

2.1 .Variation of Colour with Voltage 3-4-2-1 Fig 2a Simplified Raster Display 3-4-2-1 Fig 2b Sawtooth Waveform Driving 'x' Deflection of the Spot Page 197 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-1 Fig 6 Penetration Screen .4.

1 .4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-1 Fig 2c Ramp Waveform Driving 'y' Deflection of the Spot 3-4-2-1 Fig 2d Video Signal Page 198 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:22 2002 Displays 3.2.

d. The top electrode layer is transparent so that the display elements can be viewed through it (Fig 1). and with a refresh rate of 50 Hz. Any individual element can be addressed by a signal passing through one electrode strip in each layer (Fig 2).in particular requiring considerable depth behind the display face. 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Displays Chapter 2 . or under active development for use. an array of 1024 x 1024 elements can be addressed by 2 ten digit X and Y inputs. They are bulky . Plasma Panel. Although CRTs will have a place in airborne displays for the foreseeable future. or elements can be 6 randomly addressed by means of their unique X. the top and bottom layers are strip electrodes. a display of comparable resolution to a 625 line TV picture would require a matrix consisting of 585 x 704 elements . 4. Active Matrix LCD (AMLCD). b.840. This arrangement is suitable for binary signalling and. they have a number of disadvantages. The display is constructed as a three layer sandwich. they operate at very high voltages.4. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). and interfacing them with digital equipment is complex. Five types of flat panel displays are currently in use. e. each element can only be addressed for (50 x 10 ) secs during each frame and so the ideal element will have a very short 'turn on' time and will remain on until extinguished (inherent memory). Display Types 5. These disadvantages can be overcome to some extent (and in certain applications) by the use of flat panel electronic displays. A problem with this type of system is that for a typical display of 10 6 −1 pixels. Light Emitting Diode (LED). Electroluminescent Display. such as the Light Emitting Diode (LED) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).a total of 411.2 . 2. Flat panel displays normally consist of a matrix of individual elements and the display resolution will be defined by the number of these elements.Flat Displays Introduction 1. For example. The problem of controlling the voltages across such a large number of individual elements is usually overcome by using a X-Y (Cartesian co-ordinate) addressing procedure.2. Y label. c. for example. 3-4-2-2 Fig 1 Construction of a Matrix Display Page 199 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. set mutually at right angles. in avionic systems: a. The middle layer comprises the display elements. Such systems can be scanned in a raster manner as in a conventional CRT.

The primary materials used are gallium arsenide.2 . in which a shallow p-n junction is formed. but at present is uneconomical and inefficient. Fig 3 shows the construction of a typical LED. yellow and green LEDs are currently available and the development of a blue LED continues.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 2 Matrix Addressing Light Emitting Diode (LED) 6. and gallium arsenide phosphide. Red. the upper surface of the p material is largely uncovered so that the flow of radiation from the device is impeded as little as possible.4. While electrical contact is made to both regions.2. Page 200 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. gallium phosphide. A light emitting diode is a semiconductive junction which emits light when a current is passed through it.

Liquid crystal is an organic compound which. although all three have been used in LCDs. rod shaped. Liquid crystal displays are unlike other flat displays in that they are not light emitters but rely on an external light source for their operation. with the top grooves aligned at 90° to the bottom grooves. The grooves induce a corresponding alignment of the molecules so that their alignment within the liquid crystal twists through 90° (the twisted nematic structure). the inner surfaces of the top and bottom glass or perspex walls are grooved. 3-4-2-2 Fig 4 Nematic Molecular Structure Page 201 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3.4. while having the physical characteristics of a liquid. 3-4-2-2 Fig 3 Construction of Typical LED Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 7. has a molecular structure akin to a crystalline solid. molecules are aligned parallel to each other but not in regular layers (Fig 4).DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 LEDs are most suitable for 'on-off' displays rather than in applications requiring a grey scale. LEDs have no inherent storage and displays must be refreshed at a rate fast enough to avoid flicker. the structure known as nematic is by far the most common. In the display cell. 9.2 . The top and bottom of the display cell is covered by linear polarizing plates such that the plane of polarization of one plate is at 90° to the other. 8.2. There are three classes of liquid crystal which vary in their molecular structure and. In this structure the elongated.

The polarized light entering the cell will no longer have its plane of polarization twisted through 90° and it will not therefore be transmitted by the second polarizer and the cell will appear dark. for example. Current developments are towards matrices to produce full colour displays which may lead to LCDs replacing CRTs in. the molecules tend to align themselves with the field thus destroying the twisted structure. the cell therefore has a transparent appearance. Coloured displays are possible by adding dyes to the liquid crystal material or by the use of special polarizers. 11. The structure and operation of a twisted nematic LCD is shown in Fig 5.2 . and the twisted nematic structure causes the plane of polarization to be rotated through 90 so that the light is able to pass out through the second polarizer unimpeded. The normal display is one of dark characters on a light background although this can be reversed by arranging the polarizers parallel rather than at 90°. When a voltage is applied across the cell. the molecules return to the original twisted nematic structure. When the field is removed. helmet mounted displays.2.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 10. When light passes through the initial plate it is polarized. 3-4-2-2 Fig 5 Structure and Operation of Twisted Nematic LCD Page 202 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3.

and a voltage to energize the element on the appropriate row. 3-4-2-2 Fig 6a AMLCD Element Page 203 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:23 2002 Displays 3. Fig 6b shows a cross-section of an AMLCD.4.2 . The display needs to be refreshed periodically due to leakage currents. In this case rows and columns of the matrix are disposed on the same substrate. as shown in Fig 6a. The element is then turned off while the other rows of the display are successively addressed. In an AMLCD the voltage applied on each element is actively controlled by a transistor.2. 14.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Active Matrix LCD (AMLCD) 12. A grey effect can be obtained by modulating the amplitude of the input video voltage. the upper substrate carrying the earth electrode. ensuring that the liquid crystal receives the correct voltage during the address time. and is isolated from stray voltages when it is switched off. 13. An element (or pixel) is addressed by applying the video voltage corresponding to the signal to be displayed on the column.

but the electrodes are insulated. The field generated across the gas is insufficient to strike a discharge and in order to light a particular pixel the AC voltages on the appropriate row and column are increased for one half cycle. Subsequent cycles are at Page 204 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. An AC display has a similar basic concept. the structure is illustrated in Fig 7b.4. A DC display consists essentially of a gas filled space between two electrodes (Fig 7a). both DC and AC systems are available. pressure and the electrode gap and type. Plasma (or gas discharge) displays use an electrical discharge in a gas to produce light. typically 180V. A voltage is applied to all the row electrodes and its antiphase to all column electrodes. 16. The DC technique has no inherent memory and therefore requires constant refreshing. 17.2.2 . the gas molecules ionize and emit light.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 6b Representative Cross Section of AMLCD Display Plasma Panels 15. but which depends on the gas type. This causes a capacitive current to flow and build up a charge at the insulating layers. When the DC potential across the electrodes exceeds a certain value.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the normal AC voltage but this is sufficient to maintain the discharge previously created.2 . Displays may be either AC or DC driven and the structure of each type is somewhat different. To switch off the pixel. Electroluminescent Displays 19. 18. 3-4-2-2 Fig 7a DC Plasma Display 3-4-2-2 Fig 7b AC Plasma Display Page 205 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. Electroluminescent displays consist of a layer of phosphor.4. row and column voltage must be selectively lowered. Plasma displays are not generally suitable for producing grey scales and are primarily available in neon orange colour for use in on-off displays. AC types of plasma displays have inherent memory for each element. sandwiched between two electrodes.2. which glows when an electrical field is applied across it.

and for signs in passenger compartments. normally by evaporation.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 20. the production status of such devices is some way in the future and currently electroluminescent devices are used for instrument panel lighting. Fig 8b shows the construction of a DC device. A full video capability has been demonstrated for electroluminescent devices and the technique has potential as a replacement for CRTs in helmet mounted displays. 21. Light is emitted from the CuxS depleted particles when a normal DC voltage is applied. 3-4-2-2 Fig 8a Structure of Thick Film AC Electroluminescent Device Page 206 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3. All colours are available dependent on the phosphor selected and a full colour display is therefore considered feasible. 22. as formation lights. However.2. As an alternative the phosphor can be deposited. The phosphor particles emit light when an AC voltage is applied.4. as a thin layer onto a dielectric base (thin film technique). Fig 8a shows the structure of an AC device in which phosphor particles are suspended within a transparent insulating medium (thick film technique) and sandwiched between two electrodes one of which is transparent. The phosphor particles have a coating of either Cu 2S or CU3S (generally termed CUxS) which is removed from the the anode side of the particles in contact with the anode by the application of an initial high current pulse.2 .

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-2-2 Fig 8b Structure of DC Electroluminescent Device Displays Chapter 3 . Such a map allows very Page 207 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:24 2002 Displays 3.2.Projected and Electronically Displayed Maps Introduction 1.3 . The most widely used navigation aid for low level VMC operations is the topographical map.4.

6. aircraft is the projected map display (PMD) driven by an inertial or mixed inertial navigation system. It is this aspect which is largely driving the development of purely electronic Page 208 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. The third. A typical system is illustrated in Fig 1. and tend to be driven by an inertial or other automatic navigation system. The first (inner) layer is a Fresnel lens which converts the light cone from the projection lens into a light cylinder in the plane of the operator's eye datum. or wear and tear.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 accurate pinpoints to be obtained. in order to increase the resistance to strong ambient light.000 map and 50 metres on a 1:50. and by manufacturing tolerances in the electro-mechanical projection system. The majority of current systems use maps projected from a film strip. matched to the observer's eye.2. and a coverage of up to 4 million square miles at a scale of 1:500. Projected Moving Maps 3. In practice some area coverage will usually be sacrificed in order to have a selection of map scales available. However. and also presents information about the aircraft's position in relation to its surroundings in a relatively easily assimilated way. The life of the film strip tends to be limited by the currency of the map rather than by fading. the map is photographed in segments onto 35mm film. or by applying a correcting distortion during the photographic process. Early systems used strips of paper maps wound on rollers with an overlying cursor to indicate position.000 can be reproduced on a 20 metre strip. and there may also be check lists and terminal charts included. the use (in small aircraft cockpits) of conventional maps covering large areas presents handling problems. and although reasonable levels of reliability have been achieved. high speed. 4. and image degradation towards the circumference. The screen is designed to concentrate the image luminance within a limited field of view. In normal operation the change over from one frame to the next is automatic and is usually accomplished in under three seconds.4. However. The fairly complex electro-mechanical system is one of the drawbacks of current PMDs.000 map.3 . the use of many moving parts leads to mechanical wear and failure. In a typical PMD. in which scale change is accomplished by increasing magnification rather than by changing the map. progress is being made in the realm of electronically produced maps. The most usual technique for displaying a moving map in low-level. outer. Fig 2 shows a simplified diagram of the internal construction of an example PMD. moving and electronic map systems have been devised to overcome these difficulties. 7. and these may become more prevalent in the future. Errors due to map scale and convergency limitations are reduced to relatively insignificant levels by automatically applying a correction to the map drive system. 3-4-2-3 Fig 1 Schematic of Projected Map Display (PMD) 5. The map is reproduced onto 35mm film and back-projected using conventional optics to give a bright image on a translucent screen. The accuracy of a PMD is governed by the accuracy of the driving navigation system. layer is a polarizing filter which eliminates reflections from both inside and outside the PMD which might otherwise obscure the image. the rollers and cursor were driven by outputs from a doppler or radio navigation aid. Typical values for the overall accuracy of the system are ¼ nm on a 1:500. 2. where it will be seen that the screen has three layers. The image is formed on the second layer which is designed to minimize hot spots towards the centre.

The phosphor must be selected so that it can be used both as a back-projection screen and for writing the electron beam. principally radar. The ported CRT is a conventional CRT with a transparent window in the envelope through which the film image can be optically back-projected on to the phosphor surface. Since the electron gun and the projector cannot both be on the optical axis of the system. 3-4-2-3 Fig 3 Combined CRT and Projected Display Using a Ported CRT Page 209 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. Two techniques are used: a. the equipment uses considerable cockpit space for just a single function. However. The other disadvantage of the technique is that the film strip is not produced at squadron or station level and cannot be easily amended to reflect late changes. and the current trend is to combine the moving map with the display from other electronic systems.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 alternatives. or to incorporate up-to-date tactical information. A simplified diagram of a ported CRT system is illustrated in Fig 3. The PMD overcomes the problem of handling paper maps in a small cockpit.2. one of the images must be distorted to allow them both to be correctly harmonized for simultaneous viewing. Combined Displays 9.4. Ported CRT.3 . 3-4-2-3 Fig 2 Simplified Diagram of PMD Construction 8.

The optically combined display combines the optical and electronic images using conventional optics and semi-reflecting surfaces.4. This technique overcomes the distortion problem and makes the phosphor independent of the projection system.3 . Optically Combined Display.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 b.2. 3-4-2-3 Fig 4 Arrangement of an Optically Combined Display Page 210 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. The arrangement of an optically combined display is shown in Fig 4.

but also an adjustment to light conditions which are often considerably different.unwanted data sets can be de-cluttered from the display as required. roads. Features such as coastlines.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 10. 13. which is effectively at infinity. have the advantage that the source data in the form of paper maps is already available at the scales and coverage required. Another major existing vector series is the 8-nation Digital Land Mass Simulation (DLMS) product. optical disc and random access memory (RAM). danger areas. Displays Chapter 4 . restricted airspace and obstructions. including airfields. Digitized maps. woodland etc are constructed in vector format and combined on the display to provide a usable map. Electronically Displayed Maps 11. The collimated head-up display (HUD) is a development of the gyro gunsight and is used to project an instrument display at Page 211 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:25 2002 Displays 3. This requires not only a change of focus. This combines Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) with Digital Feature Analysis Data (DFAD). For example. Intervisibility techniques allow for line of sight information and radar shadow areas to be displayed in a dynamic fashion as an aircraft moves across the map. Combined display systems overcome some of the problems of keeping the map up to date. to facilitate more efficient updating. and surveying the outside world. Mission data can be produced in a ground-based facility and transferred to the aircraft at initialization or inserted manually by the aircrew at any stage throughout the mission. Digital maps are those that contain separate feature types as data sets in a digital data base. Most of the displayed maps are digitized versions of the familiar paper originals. These include holographic.4. b.4 . The major disadvantage of the digital map concept is that. bubble. A preferred solution is to replace the projected map by an electronically derived version in one of two forms: a. Digital (or vector) Maps. An electronic scanner is used to scan the paper map in a raster fashion either as a complete entity or as separate overlays. railways. Thus the pilot’s eyes have frequently to switch between reading instruments situated at no more than a few feet away. contours. magnetic. Each can now provide sufficient data storage for a fast jet ground attack mission and can be manufactured with adequate ruggedness to survive the harsh airborne environment. Various data storage techniques have been investigated. which are also referred to as "raster" maps. this can be achieved by the use of head-up or helmet mounted displays. 12.Head-Up and Helmet Mounted Displays Introduction 1. Both techniques are capable of over-writing the topographical map with cursive symbology thus allowing routes. and tactical information to be added or amended. THE COLLIMATED HEAD-UP DISPLAY Principle 2. It is a far more satisfactory arrangement if the instruments are read under the same conditions of focus and illumination as the outside world. Examples of existing digital map products are the familiar coastline maps already used in many applications and a new Digital Chart of the World (DCW) product developed by the US Defence Mapping Agency ( this is a world-wide digital version of the 1:1M scale ONC Series of charts). but the problems inherent in an electro-mechanical device remain. Both types of maps allow superimposition of latitude/longitude grids and other mission data. currently. can be scanned separately from the base topographical map. Digital (or vector) maps are more efficient in terms of data storage requirements and they offer great flexibility in what is displayed on the screen . Both optical disc and RAM have been used in UK airborne applications for data storage. Digitized (or raster) Maps. the air information. only limited data base production has taken place.2. Disadvantages include the fact that a digitized map is expensive in terms of digital storage requirements and also that complex algorithms are required to process and reduce the data for display on small CRTs while still retaining the required detail. DTED is used in combination with digitized or digital topographical maps to provide relief information on electronic displays. Normal cockpit displays entail the pilot dividing his time between observing the outside world and reading the instruments.

The symbols are produced in a waveform generator. together with navigation and weapon aiming information. or radar. low optical efficiency. As an example. The presented image is collimated. without the need to change eye focus. FLIR. LRMTS) to provide aircraft attitude. 4. The use of refractive optics is still the most common technique although there are disadvantages in terms of restricted field of view. In addition to symbolic displays. but not the instantaneous. the display brightness can be adjusted manually by the pilot. so that the CRT symbols and the outside scene can be viewed as a composite image. The reflector. and the distance between it and the eye (via the combiner). cost. Fig 1 shows a block diagram of a typical HUD installation. 3-4-2-4 Fig 1 Block Diagram of Typical Fighter Aircraft HUD Installation 3. A control unit is provided to allow the pilot to select the appropriate symbols for any particular stage of flight. Field of View. equivalent to sunlight on cloud. Radar. for a 12 cm diameter lens at an eye to lens distance of 70 cm. A servo mechanism moves the glass. FOV (Fig 4). heavy components. thus shifting the FOV in the vertical plane and increasing the total. The major problem with a limited FOV is that of marking a target. Some PDUs increase the vertical FOV by using a movable combiner glass. 7. and reflected on a glass screen in front of the pilot. but any advantages in terms of field of view (FOV) have been outweighed by considerations of size. weight. after which it is controlled by a photocell to compensate for changes in the illumination of the outside scene. 5.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the pilot’s eye level. The pilot’s display unit (PDU) incorporates a very bright CRT to ensure that the symbols can be viewed against a very high background brightness. In practice the total FOV in azimuth will be extended due to the separation between the pilot’s eyes. the single eye FOV will be approximately 10°. Refractive Optics 6. the effect of the porthole and the Page 212 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. The field of view of a conventional refractive HUD is determined principally by the size of the output lens. or updating from a visual pinpoint.4. or combiner glass. and a further increase will result from small head movements (Fig 3). and optical efficiency. is semi-transparent and reflects the CRT image while allowing the outside world to be viewed through it. altitude. Initially. The optical system in the HUD may be either refractive (lenses and prisms) or diffractive (holographic). In addition. The reflected output lens acts as a porthole through which the virtual image produced by the HUD is viewed (Fig 2). reflective optics have been used. The symbols may be driven by a variety of aircraft sensors (eg IN. displayed on a CRT.2. which is at a large angle-off from the aircraft centre line. and bulky. and velocity. ie focused at infinity. such as LLTV. the use of holographic technology has the potential to allow sensor imagery to be shown.4 . ADC.

4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 resultant restrictions on head movement can be tedious for the pilot. 3-4-2-4 Fig 2 Single Eye Instantaneous Field of View 3-4-2-4 Fig 3 Increased FOV due to Binocular Vision and Head Movment 3-4-2-4 Fig 4 Increasing the Vertical FOV by Moving the Combiner Page 213 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3.2.4 .

Diffractive Optics 10. Typically only 40% of the light produced by the CRT will reach the pilot’s eye. Light entering from the outside scene may be reduced to about 70% which may cause a significant reduction in forward visibility. and variable geometry. is used as the combiner.4. 9. they tend to protrude into the cockpit. and since the output lens and the associated optics must be mounted on the pilot’s side of the combiner. improved reflectivity.2. 3-4-2-4 Fig 5 Example of Typical UK HUD Symbology . High quality lenses and prisms are heavy and expensive items. Compared to the refractive system. The equipment must be installed such that adequate clearance for ejection is maintained. In any optical system there will be losses in light transmission. Optical Efficiency.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 8. The trend in HUD construction is towards the use of diffractive optics in which a holographic element. leading to a reduction in its life. Size and Weight. while at the same time being close enough to the pilot’s eye to yield an acceptable FOV. tuned to the frequency of the CRT light output. the holographic combiner has a higher transmission efficiency. and to compensate for this loss the CRT must be run at a very high output level.4 .General Mode Page 214 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3.

Thus the technique allows CRTs to be run at lower power levels. and from aircraft type to aircraft type. Page 215 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 11. with the attendant gains in life. HUD Symbology 14. The symbology used is as follows: a. Aircraft symbol denoting either the fore and aft aircraft axis. 13. The combiner is produced by exposing a film of photosensitive emulsion to laser light under specific conditions. After development the film is sealed between glass plates. The recorded diffraction pattern in the emulsion has the property of acting as a mirror to light of the same wavelength as the laser used in production.4 . or some computed vector as required by a particular flight mode. representing zero pitch. The format used will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The reflectance of the narrow band of CRT frequencies can reach 80%. The element can be produced in either a curved or a flat form as necessary to fit the space available in the cockpit and this permits a wider FOV and less intrusion into the ejection line. rather a typical fast jet format will be illustrated in both a general and a weapon aiming mode. and the resulting unit is used as the combiner glass. the aircraft velocity vector. b. and allows the outside scene to be viewed with only minimal reductions in brightness and contrast.4. while being transparent to light of other wavelengths. It is not possible in this chapter to describe all of the displays available. or equipments. Furthermore the symbology may be amended during the lifetime of an aircraft as its role. Fig 5 shows a typical HUD general mode which would be used during all stages of flight except for weapon delivery. Horizon bars.2. 12. A HUD can be designed to portray virtually any information in an infinite variety of formats. change. while the transmission of other frequencies from the outside world is typically in excess of 90%. 15.

Target bar. Impact line. and others which may be selected manually. to overlie the target. d. Time circle. that the CCIP and target bar coincide before the target reaches the top of the impact line. air-to-air missile aiming. h. delivery accuracy can be refined by changing phase and slewing the target bar. both as a digital read-out and as a pointer movement indicating rate of change. Height. and gun aiming solutions. normally automatically. either IAS or Mach No. A HUD will have a number of different modes and sub-modes. e. The top of the line represents the minimum safe pass distance. f. or to enable the navigation system to be updated by slewing the symbol to overlie a visual pinpoint. in which case the figures will be preceded by a letter ‘R’. As shown the display indicates barometric height. The values associated with the scale will vary with aircraft type. Heading (or track) scale with a superimposed steering bug (∪). to indicate LRMTS pointing and operation. 17. The values associated with the scale will vary with aircraft type. 16. Airspeed indication. Angle of attack. the pilot must ensure that the impact line overlies the target bar. for safe clearance. The impact line represents the track along which the weapons will fall and the pilot’s task is to fly the aircraft such that the impact line overlies the target position.2. but alternatively radar height may be shown.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 c. Once the pilot can see the target.4. now a solid line. 2 d. when the target bar and CCIP coincide. some of which will be selected automatically dependent on the mode of operation of the navigation and attack system. HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) SYSTEMS Page 216 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. Pitch bars at 5° intervals with a 1:1 scaling.4 . Continuously Computed Impact Point (CCIP). b. c. where it will be stabilized by the system. The gapped target bar represents the system’s computed target position. Until then. and. g. The CCIP represents the point on the ground where the weapons will impact if released at that instant. Vertical speed. for example. An example of an air-to-ground weapon aiming mode is shown in Fig 6 with the following symbology: 3-4-2-4 Fig 6 HUD in Target Tracking-Acquisition Mode a. and the gap 11 times the pass distance. In some systems and modes additional symbols may be used. The time circle unwinds anti-clockwise from 60 seconds to release (50 seconds to release illustrated). The weapon is released.

some compromise Page 217 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:26 2002 Displays 3. In twilight or dawn periods it might be better to present only one sensor at any one time. Although not yet widespread in use. The dichroic coatings necessary for image projection and the laser protection elements reduce real world transmissivity to about 70%. on demand. the TI may be dangerous for the 24 hour mission since the emissivity of natural materials will vary over the period. The IIT works on a different principle from the TI and is better suited to adverse weather conditions during night or twilight. foreground is not detectable against background and. A so-called zero contrast (or washout effect) during rainfall is sometimes observed especially during twilight or at dawn. There are drawbacks.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 General 18. HMDS technology was first used operationally in attack helicopters where the need to meet ejection safety criteria did not exist.affording a resolution of some 50% of that of the human eye. target designation and pilot cueing. With the increasing complexity of airborne detection and display systems and the associated additional workload on the pilot. The display of thermal imagery (TI) or output from other electro-optical (EO) sensors is provided to the pilot by means of the CRT. A HMD may be designed to allow the pilot to switch between IIT and TI at will. This is aimed at removing the disadvantage of the Head-up Display (HUD) in that the display is only available to the pilot whilst he is looking at the HUD combiner and not when he looks away. on his normal field of vision.2. HMD systems (often termed Integrated Helmet Systems (IHS)) become an inherent part of the aircraft avionics and weapons systems enabling off boresight weapon aiming. To overcome this.4 .4. the IIT and TI may be combined. once symbology is projected on to the eyepiece or visor. however. select both. the pathway can attenuate both brightness and definition . Between source and projection. Displays 19. more and more designers are focusing on integrating sensor information into the flying helmet. a true IHS will be configured with the day and night capabilities combined as shown in Fig 7. At these times. Alone. for example. Thus. for example. Moreover. The TI and IIT images are integrated in Combiner 2 and the resultant image is superimposed on the direct view in 3-4-2-4 Fig 7 IHS Configuration Combiner 1. pylons or cables become an extreme hazard. Clearly. or switch off the flight symbology altogether. High brightness is required because of the complicated optical train that HMDs use whether the image is displayed on a combiner eyepiece or on the visor. To permit aircraft to operate throughout the 24 hour spectrum a HMD normally incorporates a miniature cathode ray tube (CRT) and an image intensifier tube (IIT). These HMD systems allow the pilot to benefit from displays of aircraft symbology superimposed. Miniature CRTs may present the forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) imagery and also provide flight and weapon aiming information in a similar manner to a conventional HUD. transmissivity to the real world is affected.

2.4 . containing the minimal electronic components. A schematic diagram of the layout is shown in Fig 9.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 and adjustment is necessary to provide the right balance of real world transmissivity and symbology brilliance. is clipped over the personalized helmet. all electro-optical parts are protected by the helmet shell. The requirements of the display system have to integrate with Page 218 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Displays 3. Fig 8 shows the combined optical paths and an example of their attenuation. Wherever possible. 3-4-2-4 Fig 8 Optical Paths and Attenuation 3-4-2-4 Fig 9 Distribution of Components Protection and Comfort 20.4. Rather they are mounted in a cockpit unit or main equipment bay electronic unit. thus allowing use by more than one pilot. In most cases the display module. As few electronics as possible are actually located on the helmet.

An increase in exit pupil necessitates an increase in weight so there has to be a sensible trade-off if comfort is to be maintained. A visor (or visors) to attenuate glare and prevent eye damage from lasers is part of the helmet. This is essential to avoid an increase in tiredness leading to loss of concentration and for safety in conditions encountered during ejection or during forced landings. Exact and easy adjustment of interpupillary distance if exit pupil is restricted. Parallelism of both IITs.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 the flying helmet in such a way that the fundamental properties of the flying helmet are not compromised.2. Overall. The helmet fit. Optimum adjustment of combiners should not change on switching between IIT and CRT channels. such as en-route navigation. Low weight and correct CG for helmet. Field of view between 35° and 40°. the HMDS requires the following properties: a. equipment has to be positioned carefully to maintain the optimum helmet C of G and keep the helmet moment of inertia within acceptable limits. Furthermore. g. Therefore. For enduring tasks. the wearer does not suddenly lose the image. especially at night. Tracking 21. 3-4-2-4 Fig 10 A Typical IHS Page 219 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Displays 3. the natural stability of the eye could de-couple involuntary head motion (due to turbulence for example) from the aiming system.4. f. Brightness and contrast are adjustable . c. To give binocular advantage and to cover for failure. although lower figures can be acceptable for specific tasks. When respective units are being employed separately the single image is still viewed from two different sources. the latter having the advantage of lower weight. must be such as to maintain the eye(s) within the exit pupil(s). e.4 . Large exit pupil for flexibility. Monocular systems are satisfactory for short term tasks or during daytime. two CRTs (for the thermal or other imagery) and two IIT units are usually fitted. Helmet tracker system with low image lag rates. Whilst helmet comfort is of paramount importance. A HMD will not function without a helmet tracking system to determine the pilot’s head position relative to the cockpit.or autocontrast can be selected to counter extremes of ambient light. A binocular capability is preferred to retain depth perception although there are systems which project symbology to one eye only. j. h. No obscuration of IIT and CRT-based images. The potential of eye pointing has yet to be determined but it could provide a more natural method of designating objects. Combiners preferably in one plane but must have high stability. The exit pupil is the optical ‘window’ through which the superimposed image is viewed. in general the fitting requirements of HMDs assume more significance. Parallelism and stability of combiners. An exit pupil larger than 15 mm provides a very acceptable system in that if the helmet moves. b. A diagram of a typical IHS is shown in Fig 10. The aim is always to avoid an increase in weight whilst retaining helmet impact resistance. Optical surfaces are either made of glass or optical plastics. This is reduced by increasing the image refresh rate and introducing predictive algorithms. a binocular device overcomes binocular rivalry problems. The design must take into account the range of interpupillary distances and allow the eye to be positioned in the centre of the exit pupil with a correctly fitting helmet. Properties 22. and therefore its stability. d. i. Losses in the system which depend largely on processing power may result in the display lagging or jumping as the pilot moves his head.

The error signal is passed to a demand actuator which moves the appropriate control to return the aircraft to its original attitude. A position feedback loop ensures that the control applied is proportional to the demand signal. Autopilot Control of Aircraft Attitude 2.1 . Section 2.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Chapter 1 . 3-4-3-1 Fig 1 Attitude Hold Loop Page 220 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems 3. Chapter 4. Automatic flight control systems (AFCS) are discussed in Volume 2.3. The attitude store output is compared with the direct attitude signal in a summing amplifier . Long term attitude monitoring is usually provided by a displacement gyro system (see Fig 1). would impose a considerable work load upon the pilot and in some cases would be impossible. without autopilot assistance. When attitude hold is selected the input to the memory is disconnected so that the recorded attitude becomes a fixed datum. If the aircraft deviates from its set attitude the two signals are no longer equal and the summing amplifier produces an error signal.the signal inputs are equal at the moment of engagement and the output of the amplifier is zero. Aircraft attitude information is passed to a memory unit in the amplifier/processor where it is stored. Part 2.Autopilot and Flight Director Systems Introduction 1. This chapter will examine the practical applications of autopilots to show how the AFCS can be used to alleviate pilot work load and to carry out tasks which.4. The control of aircraft attitude is essential to the manoeuvring of the aircraft by autopilot.

The automatic throttle control system monitors airspeed and pitch rate against datum parameters set by the pilot or as a product of auto ILS. Manoeuvring the Aircraft 5.4. (5) Navigation Computers. TFR. Signals from weapon aiming. attack or search systems can be used to fly the aircraft in predetermined search and attack patterns. thus preventing overcontrolling and the possible overstressing of the aircraft. Datum signals can be produced to fly the aircraft at constant barometric height. Signals can be derived from terrain following radar or radio altimeters to fly the aircraft automatically at selected heights above the ground. The autopilot responds by operating the appropriate controls to reduce the error signal as described in para 2. signals may be derived from: (1) Flight Instrument Systems. Typically. (4) Terrain Following Radars and Radio Altimeters. The system can also control engine power to achieve ideal range or endurance speeds. Complete automatic control of an aircraft requires an automatic throttle control system so that speed can be controlled during changes of altitude or whilst manoeuvring. roll and yaw demand signals are passed directly into the computer/amplifier/servo system. Signals can be derived to steer the aircraft towards a navigation feature or turning point.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 A rate feedback loop controls the rate at which the aircraft responds to the demand signal. or ILS localizers. The outputs of various aircraft systems can be fed into the autopilot manoeuvring facility by selection. roll and yaw demands. airspeed. roll and yaw. A heading reference may be a gyro-magnetic compass or an INS. Manual Control Facilities. (6) Weapon Aiming/Attack/Search Systems. Inbound or outbound radials can be derived to steer the aircraft towards or away from VOR. If the pilot wishes to enter attitude demands manually he can do so by using switches or potentiometers to produce electrical signals which are fed directly to the autopilot as pitch. Datum information for roll and pitch can be provided by vertical gyros and yaw rate information can be provided by lateral accelerometers. roll and yaw rate. Automatic Control Facilities.3. or weapons aiming and attack systems. (3) Air Data Systems. or Mach number. The attitude of an aircraft may be defined by its position in pitch. Attitude demands may be pilot or autopilot initiated. Automatic Throttle Control 3. (2) Radio Navigation Aids. The pilot may set a heading or track demand by moving an index marker on the horizontal situation indicator. Pitch. A three axis autopilot has loops for pitch. a. The controls for entering demands manually may be on a control panel or on the control column of a fast-jet aircraft.1 . Autopilot Sensors 4. Page 221 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Autopilot and Flight Director Systems 3. TACAN. Using these sensors the autopilot is able to fly the aircraft straight and level on a constant heading. b.

b. The instinctive cut-out is positioned on the control column and can be quickly and easily operated to disengage the autopilot giving full manual control authority to the pilot. (2) Rate and Angle Limiters. Control limit switches are microswitches which operate when a control reaches the end of its allowable travel. (4) Excess Torque Devices. The system enables the pilot to fly the aircraft manually to meet the autopilot demands. The rate and angle limiters prevent the overstressing of the aircraft by limiting the rate of response or angle achievable in any channel. It is therefore most important to have a comprehensive and accurate feedback to the crew of information relating to the performance of the engine. Features and devices vary greatly but typical examples are: a.although in some modern systems these are digitally produced and shown on a CRT. or audio signals.1 . Flight Information System 7. Flight director information showing indices and markers which indicate the horizontal and vertical control required to regain a demanded flight path. (3) Control Limit Switches. eg warning lights. Primary flight information showing attitude and heading. The following safety devices are typical: (1) Pilot's Instinctive Cut-out. Additionally. Commonly monitored functions are power supplies. or to check that the autopilot is following the demands correctly.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 The ability to use these systems enables the pilot to select the appropriate inputs to the autopilot for a very wide range of flying activities from a relatively undemanding navigation task to very demanding low level navigation and attack mission. (5) Monitoring Facilities. b. Autopilot Safety 6. Circuits are designed to be as simple as possible and components are used at a fraction of their rated values to ensure high reliability. Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments Chapter 1 . Safety Devices. switching circuits are given clearly defined priorities to avoid inadvertent selection of dangerous flight configurations and to avoid selection of incompatible flight control modes. Autopilot safety is ensured by a variety of design features and devices to ensure at least a 'fail-safe' capability. Design Features. Autopilots include a flight information system which provides aircrew with an integrated presentation of: a.4. possibly at night or in bad weather. or of excursions of engine parameters outside limits. Routine monitoring information is usually displayed on analogue gauges . Most autopilot functions are continuously monitored by a built-in test equipment system which is able to generate warnings and initiate automatic reversionary modes.Engine Instruments Introduction 1. These switches are able to prevent any damage from servo runaway. are usually in the form of discrete displays. the accuracy of datum information on attitude and heading and the serviceability states of systems which provide inputs to the autopilot. Excess torque devices are used either to prevent overstressing of the aircraft or to detect excessive current demands such as might occur if an electrical servo was attempting to overcome a control restriction. An autopilot must not be capable of endangering the aircraft or its crew. Flight information systems range from simple 2 instrument displays to fully processed electronic head-up or head-down displays.4. flags. Indications of failures. An aero-engine is an expensive item and its failure in flight could have serious safety implications. Page 222 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:27 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.

The torque is balanced by a hair spring and the shaft rotation is transmitted to the movement of a pointer over a dial through an appropriate gearing system. The signal is fed to an indicator which contains a synchronous motor.4.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Engine Spool Speed 2. 3-4-4-1 Fig 1 Tachometer Indicator Mechanism 3-4-4-1 Fig 2 Percentage rpm Indicator Page 223 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. 3.1 . The complete arrangement is shown schematically in Fig 1. A typical tachogenerator contains a three-phase stator and a two-pole permanent magnet rotor. The rotation of the permanent magnet produces eddy currents in the cup which in turn set up magnetic fields. Engine speed is usually shown as a percentage of maximum rpm (Fig 2). the speed of which is governed by the input frequency from the generator. The most common method of measuring engine spool speed is by a tachogenerator driven from the external wheelcase. These fields interact with the field of the permanent magnet causing a torque which turns the cup and its attached shaft. the frequency of this voltage being proportional to the engine speed. An extension of the synchronous motor shaft carries a four-pole permanent magnet which revolves inside a copper alloy drag cup. Rotation of the magnet induces a three-phase voltage in the stator windings.

The operating temperature of a turbine has a direct effect on its life and it is therefore essential that the temperature is Page 224 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. Exhaust Gas Temperature 5.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-1 Fig 3 Variable Reluctance Speed Probe and Phonic Wheel 4.4. In some multi-spool engines without a gearbox driven from the LP or IP spool.1 . Multi-spool engines require gauges to indicate different spool speeds and in some installations this is achieved by switching one gauge between separate spool speed generator signals thus obviating the need for two or more rpm gauges per engine.4. a variable reluctance speed probe located on the compressor or exhaust casing can be used with a phonic wheel machined into the spool to provide an electric current which is proportional to spool rpm (Fig 3 illustrates such an arrangement).

The rapid response type of thermocouple is used on turboprop engines where the exhaust gases have a comparatively low velocity.1 . a cold junction senses ambient air temperature as a reference point. ie idle to maximum rpm. 6. The radiated energy is focused onto a photo-voltaic cell and the DC voltage produced is amplified and passed to control and indication circuits. several are usually connected in series and positioned in the gas stream to give a representative average temperature. 3-4-4-1 Fig 4 A Typical Double Element Thermocouple System Page 225 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. an automatic compensator is fitted either to the instrument or elsewhere in the circuit. 8. the temperature loss can be calculated. In the stagnation type the sheath has a hole near its tip for the exhaust gas to enter and an exit hole staggered further away from the tip and of smaller diameter thus forcing the gas to flow through a Z-shaped passage past the elements of the thermocouple.4. When the exhaust gas temperature is measured using thermocouples. Engines fitted with pyrometers may also have a single thermocouple to measure the exhaust gas temperature during engine start-up as the pyrometer is normally calibrated only for the normal operating range of the engine. in this case the turbine blade (Fig 5). There are two main types of thermocouple in use. In practice the temperature of the gas is measured downstream of the turbine inlet either by thermocouples at the exit to the turbine in the jet pipe. The optical radiation pyrometer develops an electro-motive force (EMF) proportional to the energy radiated from the surface at which the pyrometer is directed. The gases follow a straight path past the hot junction. 7.4. b. usually made of nickel-chromium and nickel-aluminium respectively. Stagnation Type. A typical double element thermocouple installation is illustrated in Fig 4. Rapid Response Type. or by measuring the blade temperature using a pyrometer (See also Vol 8 Pt 2 Sect 1 Chap 2). Because of the high temperatures of the gas entering the turbine it is impractical to make direct measurements. To ensure that variations in the temperature of the cold junction do not affect the indicated temperature. By knowing the behaviour of the gas through the turbine. The thermocouple consists of two conductor wires. This is known as the hot junction. mounted in a ceramic insulator which is housed in a protective metal sheath. and a suitable limit set for the measured value that will ensure that the turbine inlet temperature limit will not be exceeded. stagnation and rapid response: a. This stagnation chamber reduces the gas velocity past the hot junction and avoids an adiabatic temperature rise on contact with the thermocouple.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 maintained within specified limits. Pyrometers are prone to ‘sooting’ and require cleaning and calibration at regular intervals.

Oil plays the vital role within the engine of lubricating bearings and it is essential that the oil is cooled and is supplied at the Page 226 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:28 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-1 Fig 5 Optical Radiation Pyrometer Oil System 9.4.1 .4.

Torquemeters may be electrical or hydraulic. all turboprop and helicopter installations include a system for measuring the torque being delivered to the propeller or rotor. The outer datum shaft is connected to the engine output only. A phase comparator generates a signal. There are toothed gear wheels on both shafts. As it is not possible to estimate the power being produced by a turboprop engine from considerations of turbine gas temperature and engine rpm alone. the inner of which is the shaft connecting the drive from the engine to the propeller reduction gear. Oil temperature is taken by a temperature sensitive element fitted in the oil system upstream of the bearings. and twist in this shaft is proportional to torque. and above these are situated pick-up assemblies consisting of permanent magnets on top of a coil (Fig 7). normal.4. Changes in temperature of the oil cause changes in the electrical resistance of the sensor and thus alterations of current to the indicator. inducing an EMF in the windings of the pick-up coil. to drive the pilot’s indicator.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 correct pressure if failures are to be avoided. Oil pressure is also sensed upstream of the bearings by a sensor which detects either direct changes in pressure or changes in the difference between engine feed and return oil pressure. Under no-load conditions the toothed wheels on the two shafts turn with no relative movement between them and there is no difference in the output signals from the pick-ups. or a flag type showing the pressure as high. or low.4. The torquemeter assembly comprises two concentric shafts. Engine Torque 10. The pressure indicator may be either a dial and pointer type. dependent on the phase difference.1 . As torque is applied and increased the output shaft will twist along its length. A typical electrical torquemeter system consists of a torquemeter assembly. a phase detector. This angular displacement is detected by the pick-up assembly as a phase difference in the output signal. As the gear turns. the teeth on the exciter wheels cut the magnetic lines of flux around the magnet. This movement will have no effect on the outer datum shaft and thus its toothed wheel will have an angular displacement relative to that on the drive shaft. Typical Electrical Torquemeter 11. 3-4-4-1 Fig 6 A Phase Comparison Torquemeter 3-4-4-1 Fig 7 Torquemeter Transmitter Page 227 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. and an indicator (Fig 6).

The input bevel gear is prevented from moving axially by means of tapered rollers. Thus the two gears tend to move apart in opposite linear motions.4.1 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Typical Hydraulic Torquemeter 12. The high speed input gear drives a spur gear on a free-wheel unit which in turn drives a helical gear. 3-4-4-1 Fig 8 Hydraulic Torquemeter System Page 228 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. but movement is allowed on the free-wheel unit helical gear. the harder one pushes against the other. the further up the surface it slides. A hydraulic torquemeter mechanism is built into the main gear-box input section. The power turbine from the engine is connected by way of a drive shaft to the input section of the main gear-box via a high speed input gear (see Fig 8). This gear meshes with the input bevel gear helical drive.4. The meshing of these two gears can be compared to pushing two ramps together.

4. A torquemeter valve is spring loaded against this piston.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 13.1 . or as warning lights or audio signals triggered when a preset limit is exceeded. thus retaining a specific oil pressure in the chamber. but as torque is applied the valve will start to open allowing some of the high pressure oil to enter the piston chamber. a gas turbine is an extremely smooth running power generator. This fine balance of shaft movement to oil pressure is continuously maintained. This bearing allows the piston to remain rotationally fixed but allows the free-wheel unit to rotate.4. Page 229 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. Although vibration monitoring can be based on measuring acceleration or displacement. As the unit moves forward (in the direction of the arrow) it carries with it a piston that is mounted on the outer race of a ball-bearing. At least two accelerometers are required per engine so that radial and transverse vibrations can be measured. 16. This system often has input shafts from two engines and two torquemeter mechanisms making it possible to measure and match the torque applied by each engine so that each is carrying an equal load. the oil pressure in the chamber being proportional to the valve movement which in turn is proportional to the torque applied to the free-wheel unit. Experience has shown that a vibration monitor installed on an engine is able to detect mechanical defects in rotating parts at a very early stage. current practice tends towards the measurement of velocity amplitude using a seismic accelerometer working on the piezo-electric principle. Vibration 15. Cockpit indications may be in the form of gauges. and a change in vibration due to the impending failure of a component part may be so slight as to pass unnoticed by the crew. Therefore all the gear reaction is taken up by the free-wheel unit assembly. Compared to an internal combustion engine. If no torque is being applied the torquemeter valve will be closed. Increasing the torque will cause the valve to open again thereby increasing the oil pressure in the chamber. When the oil pressure acting upon the piston in the chamber is sufficient to overcome the movement of the free-wheel unit it will tend to close off the valve. thus permitting corrective action to be taken before extensive damage occurs. A pump supplies oil under pressure to the torquemeter valve. The piston chamber is connected to an external pressure transmitter which in turn operates a cockpit torquemeter gauge indicating percentage of torque. The free-wheel unit assembly is mounted in straight roller bearings which allow the entire gear assembly to move linearly. 14.

4. 3.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments Chapter 2 . ie gallons. The same process takes place in the control circuit. Due to the design of the tanks. Fig 1 shows a diagram of a typical system electrical circuit. The corresponding alternating current induced in the secondary winding is converted to direct current by a rectifier and then fed to the deflection coil in the indicator. Variations in the supply voltage affect both circuits so that the ratio of control coil current to deflection coil current remains constant for a given tank unit impedance. and light piston aircraft gauges may show contents in volumetric terms. The current practice is for gauges to be calibrated in units of mass (kilograms). Two units are fitted in each tank and connected in parallel. the ratio of fuel to air in the gap decreases.Miscellaneous Instruments Fuel Content Gauges 1. air. except that. As the fuel level in the tank falls. 2. 3-4-4-2 Fig 1 Pacitor Fuel Gauge 4.2 .within specified limits .4. the characteristics of any particular aircraft type will be found in the Aircrew Manual. Each tank unit contains a capacitor consisting of two vertical concentric tubes which are separated by a gap filled with fuel. the current in the coil remains constant. and the only type described here. although in some older. This ensures that accuracy is maintained despite aircraft attitude changes . are of the ‘pacitor’ type which rely on the change to the electrical impedance of a condenser when the substance between the plates is varied.as the fall in fuel level at one end of the tank is compensated for by the rise at the other end Page 230 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:29 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. Fuel contents gauges indicate the amount of fuel contained in the aircraft tanks. not all of the indicated fuel may be available for use. or both. as the control condenser has a fixed value. and other engineering considerations. thereby altering the impedance of the tank unit. The tank unit varies the current flowing in the transformer primary winding to which it is connected. The majority of gauges.

In the gravimetric transmitter a chamber contains a measuring device consisting of a vane restrained by a calibrated spring. Whereas instrument and installation errors are virtually constant for any one gauge. There are two components. Calibration error is reduced by incorporating a reference condenser into the electrical circuit.4. Flow Transmitter.4. An increase in density results in an increase in permittivity and so the unit corrects for density error. Gauges are normally calibrated to a formula using the mean of the highest and lowest values in permittivity found in the range of permitted fuels together with an approximate density value. A bleed vent provides compensation for changes in viscosity at low temperatures. In the volumetric type the fuel flows through a chamber containing a rotor which turns at a rate dependent upon the fuel flow rate.2 . The rotation rate is detected by an electrical pick-off which passes an electrical signal to the indicator. The angle of the vane is detected by a pick-off and passed as an electrical signal to the indicator. The transmitter may be one of two types. 3-4-4-2 Fig 2 Compensation for Tilt in the Pacitor System Fuel Flowmeters 6. 7.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 (Fig 2). 5. The fuel flows through the chamber and impinges on the vane deflecting it through an angle which is proportional to the rate of mass flow. a transmitter and an indicator. Page 231 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. installation errors. calibration error may vary widely since it is caused by inconsistences in the electrical conducting property of the fuel. Fuel gauges are subject to instrument errors. Fuel flowmeters measure the amount of fuel being delivered to the engine. and calibration errors. This unit consists of a condenser placed in the base of the tank so that it is always totally immersed in fuel and its capacitance is determined by the permittivity of the fuel.

If a volumetric transmitter is used a value of fuel density has to be manually set into the unit so that a mass flow rate can be indicated.4. The majority of these indicators are actuated by desynn transmission systems (see Part 3. Flow Indicator. provided that power is available. Some aircraft are fitted with a visual or audio warning system operating in conjunction with the undercarriage indicator. the tendency is to Page 232 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. Typically it will be triggered when the throttle is closed beyond a pre-determined point with the undercarriage not locked down. Although there may be individual warning devices for some aircraft systems.Unit is locked up. The indicator incorporates electrical circuits which convert the signal from the transmitter into either an analogue or digital display of flow rate. Sect 1. etc. No light or flag . Red light or flag . The indicator comprises a series of lights.2 .DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 8. Some systems incorporate integrating circuits which enable total fuel used to be displayed on veeder counters. The detailed design of undercarriage indicators varies between aircraft type but the underlying principle is universal. b. Calibrated Position Indicators 11. or electro-mechanical flags. trimming surfaces. each showing the status of an individual undercarriage unit. Pointer and scale type indicators are used to show the position of flaps. A typical indicator for flap position is shown in Fig 3. Chap 1).Unit is unlocked. The failure of one of the vital systems in an aircraft can prejudice the success of the flight and may lead to the loss of or damage to an aircraft.4. operated by microswitches fitted to the undercarriage locks. 10. or may be actuated if a particular stage of flap is selected with the undercarriage retracted. tailplanes. Warning systems are therefore incorporated to indicate to the crew if there is a malfunction so that appropriate action can be taken. c. as follows: a. Green light or flag .Unit locked down. 3-4-4-2 Fig 3 Desynn Operated Flap Position Indicator Central Warning System 12. Undercarriage Indicator 9.

and the secondary amber. The basic mechanism is illustrated in Fig 5. The scope of the warnings and their layout vary from aircraft to aircraft but a typical example is illustrated in Fig 4. A fatigue meter is a counting accelerometer. and lamps (but not the systems from which the warnings are derived). In many installations the CWP will also house an engine fire warning light and extinguisher operating button (as illustrated in the example at Fig 4). which normally demand immediate action. the secondary spring and fusee chain cause the wiper brush to rotate over the commutator.4. The meter is only required to operate in flight. Fig 6 shows the fatigue meter presentation from which details may be entered in a Fatigue Calculation Sheet. Failure of a primary system will in addition illuminate red ‘attention getter’ flashing lights in the cockpit together with an audio warning.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 incorporate all warnings on to one central warning panel (CWP). The effects of acceleration forces on an airframe and the principles of operation of a cockpit accelerometer are covered in Vol 1 Pt 1 Sect 2 Chap 2 and in this volume Pt 2 Sect 3 Chap 3 respectively. 3-4-4-2 Fig 4 Typical Central Warning Panel 14. Operation of a test switch tests the warning system. 13. This arrangement ensures that only the main acceleration values are taken into account. failure of a secondary system may or may not initiate these additional warnings dependent on the aircraft type and particular failure. As acceleration forces move the mass up or down. the purpose of which is to record the number of times that each of 8 pre-determined values of acceleration normal to the flight path are exceeded. CWPs do vary significantly from aircraft to aircraft and it is essential that the specific Aircrew Manual is consulted to clarify the functioning of any system. being illuminated red. captions. The warnings are divided into primary and secondary warnings. and when the acceleration force lessens by a significant amount a release circuit allows the counter to record. Fatigue Meter 15. the primary. 3-4-4-2 Fig 5 Basic Fatigue Meter Mechanism Page 233 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3. As the wiper passes a selected segment a circuit is completed to ‘cock’ that counter.2 . and is normally activated and deactivated by an airspeed switch. and not the smaller fluctuations which do not cause fatigue damage. mounted close to the aircraft C of G.

2 .4.4.DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 3-4-4-2 Fig 6 Fatigue Meter Counter Unit Page 234 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456 Page 235 : Wed Jan 02 02:29:30 2002 Engine and Miscellaneous Instruments 3.2 .4.4.

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