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P. 1

Heat Exchanger Experiment|Views: 70|Likes: 0

Published by Erlynne Carla Santos

chem eng

chem eng

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/129086767/Heat-Exchanger-Experiment

08/13/2013

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Abstract/summary

Regarding to the experiment objectives that are to determine the differences in temperature between a parallel flow and a counter flow and to determine the most efficient of concentric heat exchanger whether the parallel flow or counter-current flow, this experiment is based on the transfer of heat at a different temperature gradient. We used concentric heat exchanger. This instrument was combined with thermometers and flow rate meter, thus we can control and indicate the temperatures of THin, THout, THmid, TCmid, TCin, and TCout and also the water flow rate (hot and cold). The experiment divided into 2 section A and B. A, constant flow rate, temperature varies and B, constant temperature, varies flow rate. In experiment A, parallel flow is more efficient than counter flow. For parallel flow, the average efficiency is 29.31% while the overall heat transfer coefficient, U is 1.096 W/m2K at 60 °C and 1.12 W/m2K at 70 °C. Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 26.67% while the overall heat transfer coefficient, U is none at 60 °C and 0.94W/m2K at 70 °C. In experiment B, counter flow is more efficient than parallel flow. For parallel flow, the average efficiency we get is 34.62% while the overall heat transfer coefficient, U is 1.10 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1.53 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min. Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 35.39% while the overall heat transfer coefficient, U is 1.44 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1.4 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min. The experiment was completely and successfully done.

2. Introduction

1

The process of heat exchanger between two fluids that are at different temperatures and separated by a solid wall occurs in many engineering application. The device used to implement this exchange is termed a heat exchanger, and specific applications may be found in space heating and air conditioning, power production, waste heat recovery, and chemical processing. Heat exchanger is typically classified according to flow arrangement and type of construction. The simplest heat exchanger is one for which the hot and cold fluids move in the same or opposite directions in a concentric tube (or double- pipe) construction. In the parallel- flow arrangement, the hot and cold fluids enter at the same end, flow in the same direction, and leave at the same end. In the counter flow arrangement, the fluids enter at opposite ends, flow in opposite directions, and leave at opposite ends.

The heats were transfer between the two fluids by convection mode which is from the hot fluid to the wall and also by conduction which is occur within the wall itself and back to the convection which is from the wall to the cold fluid. This concentric tube heat exchanger is the simplest one of heat exchanger between the other types of heat exchanger. This type mainly used for small flow rates of fluid. Another type heat exchanger is shell and tube heat exchanger. This heat exchanger has some number of shell-and-tube passes and the simplest form which involves single tube and shell passes. This type usually

2

Aims/Objectives The objectives of this experiment: • • Understand the operating principles of concentric tube heat exchanger. Determine the most efficiency of concentric heat exchanger whether the parallel flow or counter-current flow.installed with baffles where it increase the convection coefficient by inducing the formation of turbulence flow and a cross-flow velocity component. 3. Determine the differences in temperature between a parallel flow and a counter flow. • 3 .

This type of heat exchangers can also be built with the internal tube made with longitudinal fins which could be placed either in its internal surface or in its external one or both. otherwise. with the phase change usually occurring on the shell side. sometimes called boilers. Two-phase heat exchangers can be used to heat a liquid to boil it into a gas (vapor). if the fluids enter from opposite sides and flow through the contrary direction we have the countercurrent flow. or cool a vapor to condense it into a liquid (called condensers). heat exchanger types is the concentric tube heat exchanger. Usually the countercurrent flow is more efficient from the heat transfer point of view. Theory Heat exchangers with only one phase (liquid or gas) on each side can be called onephase or single-phase heat exchangers.4. These exchangers are built of coaxial tubes placed the ones inside the others. One of the most common. 4 . This configuration is useful mainly if one of the fluids is a gas or a liquid with a very high viscosity and it's very difficult to have a good thermal convection coefficient. When both the fluids enter from the same side and flow through the same direction we have the parallel flow (concurrent flow). conductive-convective.

Sixth Edition. out )] [Cmin (TH. is the internal exchange surface area between the two fluids LMTD is a log mean temperature difference. out TC. in TC.To find the efficiency. Fundamental of Heat and Mass Transfer. out TC. in . H(TH. ε= q qmax × 100% = [mH. in) (TH.1 = (TH.(TH. John Wiley and Sons The heat transfer from the hot fluid to the cold fluid is given by the following equation: q =U × A × LMTD Where: U.TC. and it's given by: ∆Tlm = ∆ Τ2 − ∆T. is the overall heat transfer coefficient. out) .1 . in . in TC. ε. A. ln ∆ Τ .cp. out) ln (TH. in) 5 . in)] × 100% = ______% *the value for cp can be evaluated from Table A_6. ∆ Τ2 . Efficiency.TH.

Counter flow 6 .

Apparatus 1. Concentric Heat Exchanger.Parallel flow 5. 2. Water. 7 .

Repeat step 4 til 7 with co-counter flow. Set the valve for counter flow. Set the hot flowrate at 2500 cm³/min and cold water flowrate at 2500 cm³/min. Constant flowrate. TCmid. Let the system stable until THin is 60 ˚C and take the temperature at THout. 8. Procedure A. 3. 2. 5. 7. Set the temperature at 60 ˚C 6. A. 4. Constant temperature.6. 1) Set the valve for co-counter flow. TCin. Switch on the main switch. Switch on the temperature and pump switches. flowrate varies. 8 . TCout. temperature varies 1. THmid. Repeat step 4 til 6 by varying the temperature at 70 ˚C.

6) Repeat step 2 til 5 with counter flow. Constant flow rate. Result A. 70 58 63. 5) Repeat step 3 and 4 by varying the hot water flowrate to 3500 cm³/min. TCmid. 3) Set the hot water flowrate at 2500 cm³/min and cold water flowrate at 3000 cm³/min. TCout. temperature varies: Heat Exchanger THin THout Temperature THmid TCin TCout TCmid Hot Flow Rate (cm3/min) Cold Flow Rate (cm3/min) Parallel Flow i.8 2500 2500 Counter Flow i. 4) Let the system stable and take the temperature at THout. TCin.2) Set the temperature at 69 ˚C.5 29 40 34. 60 51 56 29 38 32 9 . 60 51 55 29 37 33 ii. THmid. 7.

70 58 64 20 41 34 Parallel Flow i. 10 . Counter Fow i.ii. ii.

69 57. 69 57 62 29 28.5 29 40 35 3500 3000 Counter Flow i. A.ii. 69 56 62 29 39.5 63. 69 58 63 29 41 34 3500 11 . Constant temperature varies flow rate: Heat Exchanger THin THout Temperature THmid TCin TCout TCmid Hot Flow Rate (cm3/min) Cold Flow Rate (cm3/min) Parallel Flow i.5 34 2500 ii.5 33 2500 ii.

ii. Counter Flow i. ii. 12 .Parallel Flow i.

13 .

187 kJ/kg. Cmin = mH x. parallel flow (60 °C) QH= 2500 cm3/min QC= 2500 cm3/min mH= QH x ρ = 0.C = 4.H = 0.174 kJ/s * we consider this one is Cmin because the value is smaller Efficiency. constant flow rate. in . Calculations Sample calculation: Exp A. in)] = 0. ε = q qmax × 100% = [mH.175 kJ/s =mC x. H(TH. John Wiley and Sons. in .cp.H = 4.0417 kg/s 60 °C ~ Cp.C = 0. out )] [Cmin (TH.s The value for cp can be evaluated from Table A_6. Cp. Sixth Edition.TH.179 kJ/kg.8.s 29 °C ~ Cp.0417 kg/s mC = QC x ρ = 0.19 % 14 .174 kJ/s (60 – 29) °C = 29. Cp.175 kJ/s (60-51) °C × 100% 0.TC. Fundamental of Heat and Mass Transfer. temperature varies: i.

parallel flow (2500cm3/min) QH= 2500 cm3/min QC= 3000 cm3/min mH = QH x ρ = 0. John Wiley and Sons.H = 4. Fundamental of Heat and Mass Transfer.179 kJ/kg. out )] [Cmin (TH.s 29 °C ~ Cp.05 kg/s 69 °C ~ Cp. Sixth Edition.TH. c(TH. Cp.0417 kg/s mC = QC x ρ = 0.175 kJ/s (69-57) °C × 100% 0.19 kJ/kg.82 % 15 .175 kJ/s * we consider this one is Cmin because the value is smaller =mC x. ε = q qmax × 100% = [mc.Sample calculation: Exp B. flow rate varies: i. constant temperature.209 kJ/s Efficiency.s The value for cp can be evaluated from Table A_6.209 kJ/s (69 – 29) °C = 35. Cp. in . in)] = 0. in .TC.C = 0.H = 0.cp. Cmin = mH x.C = 4.

constant flow rate.067m2 x 21.067 m2 U= q___ A X ΔTlm ΔTlm = ΔT1 – ΔT2 / ln(ΔT1/ ΔT2) Exp A. temperature varies.39 K = 1.096 W/m2K 16 .Sample calculation: Area (given) = 0.57 kJ.K/s____ 0. parallel flow (60 °C) U = ___1.

44 17 .7 24.508 2.81 34.134 5.12 - 70 2.0 35. temperature varies T.717 7.29 0.36 7.% Average efficiency.10 1.57 2.19 29.1 8. B Counter flow 2500 3500 2500 2.43 29.7945 2.19 26.K/s) qmax (kJ. A Counter flow flow 60 70 60 1.◦C q (kJ.67 29.K/s) qmax (kJ.42 38.% Average efficiency.82 33.53 1.94 B. % ΔTlm U (W/m2K) Parallel Exp.90 0 1.0 8.62 33.31 21.93 27.575 5.096 1.394 7.1 1. q (kJ.A. % ΔTlm U (W/m2K) Parallel Exp.14 33.K/s) Efficiency.39 27. Constant temperature varies flow rate Flow rate.K/s) Efficiency.23 1. Constant flow rate.394 29.22 28.

44 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1. U is 1. TCmid. In experiment A.flow 3500 2.39 28. we fix the flow rate but vary the temperature. we fix the temperature but vary the flow rate.49 1. the average efficiency we get is 29. To archive the objectives of the experiment.53 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min. TCin. 29 °C for both parallel and counter flow.096 W/m2K at 60 °C and 1.31% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. THout. U is 1. For parallel flow. the average efficiency we get is 34. this experiment is based on the transfer of heat at a different temperature gradient.4 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min. U is 1. 18 . Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 35.4 9. and TCout and also the water flow rate (hot and cold). Discussions Regarding to the experiment objectives that are to determine the differences in temperature between a parallel flow and a counter flow and to determine the most efficient of concentric heat exchanger whether the parallel flow or counter-current flow.36 31. The flow rate is to be 2500 cm3/min while the temperatures are at 60 °C and 70 °C for both parallel and counter flow. thus we can control and indicate the temperatures of THin.62% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. The flow rate is to be 2500 cm3/min and 3500 cm3/min for hot flow rate and 3000 cm3/min for cold flowrate while the temperatures are fix at THin. Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 26. 69 °C and TCin. For parallel flow.10 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1.673 8. This instrument was combined with thermometers and flow rate meter. The flow of water through this concentric heat exchanger can be whether parallel or counter flow by adjusting the flow valves.97 35. THmid.94W/m2K at 70 °C.12 W/m2K at 70 °C. In experiment B.67% while the overall heat transfer coefficient.39% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. we used concentric heat exchanger. U is none at 60 °C and 0.

The reading for the digital thermometer is differing than the barometric thermometers also cause the error to occur. The truth should be counter flow is more efficient than the parallel flow. . The correct and perfect result may be obtained if we can minimize the errors. There are no problems occur in experiment B. the counter flow is more efficient than parallel flow can be proved. this is self mistake.We notice that in experiment A. The flow rate is easily to control than controlling the temperature. The eye position of eye should be parallel to the thermometer meniscus. The flow rates which always easily change during the experiment may also cause this problem. we may be forgotten to press enter key after setting the temperature needed. the result shows that the counter flow is more efficient than parallel flow. The common error occurs is the eye position while taking the reading from the thermometer. This may because of several errors occur during the experiment progress. the parallel flow is more efficient than counter flow. 19 . Besides.

U is 1.94W/m2K at 70 °C. Conclusion • In experiment A. Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 26. counter flow is more efficient than parallel flow. Meanwhile for counter flow the average efficiency we get is 35.62% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. U is none at 60 °C and 0. U is 1.10.53 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min.67% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. U is 1. parallel flow is more efficient than counter flow.39% while the overall heat transfer coefficient. • In experiment B.31% while the overall heat transfer coefficient.10 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1. the average efficiency is 29.096 W/m2K at 60 °C and 1.44 W/m2K at 2500 cm3/min and 1. For parallel flow.4 W/m2K at 3500 cm3/min.12 W/m2K at 70 °C. For parallel flow. 20 . the average efficiency we get is 34.

A. • • http://en. E.. 1983. E. • Fundamental of Heat and Mass Tramsfer ( 6th Edition. References • • Perry. • • 12. Avoid any leakage of the instrument.) John wiley & sons(Asia) Pte Ltd Saunders. McGraw-Hill. Green. 1984. O. Recommendations • • • • The eye position should be perpendicular to the meniscus and the scale. Bennett. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical. R. McGraw-Hill.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger 21 . Momentum.H. Monitor the temperature during experiment to make sure it is constant. (1988). Heat and Mass Transfer. and D.11. Repeat the experiment at least 3 times to get accurate values and to make comparisons. 3rd edition. Monitor the flow rates during experiment to make sure that the flow rate remains constant. and J.. Heat Exchanges: Selection. Myers. the instrument should be working properly Avoid direct contact with water because it is hot. Design and Construction.wikipedia. 6th edition. C. Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook.

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