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Assignment #23 Tommy Freiburger Period: 6 2/12/13

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Will My Building Withstand an Earthquake? Architect Frank Lloyd Wright was an innovator in designing buildings that could withstand earthquakes. For example, Wright designed the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, which withstood that citys severe 1923 earthquake with only minor damage. Many modern cities located in earthquake prone areas have enacted building codes designed to reduce damage to structures, thereby reducing the incidents of injury or death. Architects often go beyond these safety codes to ensure public safety. For example, the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco is stronger than required by the citys building code. It also has features built into its base that are designed to dramatically reduce how much the building will sway during an earthquake.

Problem: What design strategies keep structures safe in an earthquake? Hypothesis: If my structure of 20 centimeters tall can withstand an earthquake, then the design strategy of cross bracing will have been the most important factor in keeping it safe and minimizing damage. Materials: 40 Toothpicks 5 mini marshmallows or 25 grams of clay Sheet of paper (to build structure on and put names and group number on) Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Make your hypothesis if you havent already done so. On the back or bottom of this sheet, sketch a plan how you and your partner are going to build your structure. How are you going to use the materials? Draw an example of your structure. Have the teacher check and sign off on your drawing. Before you start building get a group number 8. Once the teacher has given you your group number, you may start building your model. After you have finished making your model, fill out the data table for your group below. Place your model on the counter with a piece of paper underneath it and be sure your names and group number are on it. Collect data from all the other groups so that your data table is filled out. Results: Class Data Table for Period # _____ Group Height of Width of # of Anchored to Low #8 model base cross the paper (yes center of (centimeters) (centimeters) braces or no) gravity (majorit y of the mass is lower than halfway down (yes or no) Rigid (clay) or Flexible (marshmallow) (choose one) Time lasted on the shake table (seconds)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

22.2 13.7 .5 22.0 19.5 9.6 13.0 12.0 9.4 15.1

12.9 5.0 7.0 12.0 5.5 6.8 5.9 13 6.6 5.9

3 0 1 1 0 0 8 16 1 3

No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Flexible Flexible Flexible Flexible Rigid Flexible

1 1 15 15 15 15 15 15 1 15

11 12 13 14 15 16

10.5 12.5 14.0 16.2 8.0 16.0

10.5 5.6 11.0 4.0 7.0 10.5

0 0 5 0 4 0

Yes No No No No No

No Yes Yes Yes No Yes

Flexible Rigid Rigid Rigid Flexible Rigid

15 1 1 1 3 1

Observations: Are structure stayed still and intact during the given time span of 15 seconds. Although we didnt win, I think our structure made it through the earthquake due to our 16 cross braces and being anchored.

Conclusion According to the textbook on page 204-205 shear walls, base isolators, tension ties, cross braces, dampers, and flexible pipes are good design strategies because they help keep a building intact during an earthquake or seismic safe. In this lab we designed strategies keep structures safe in an earthquake. I hypothesized that if my structure of 20 centimeters tall can withstand an earthquake, then the design strategy of cross bracing will be the most important factor in keeping it safe and minimizing damage. Over the course of 15 seconds our structure tilted 0, moved 0 centimeters and intact. Although we didnt win, I think our structure made it through the 15 seconds due to our 16 cross braces and anchoring. Fifty percent of the structures made it through the 15 seconds. One hundred percent of the people who anchored their structures made it through the 15 seconds. Eighty seven percent of the structures that made it through the 15 seconds were flexible. Thirteen percent were rigid. In conclusion my hypothesis was incorrect. Anchoring was the most important factor in keeping the structures safe and minimizing damage during an earthquake.