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Modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries Olav Seeter Telemark College Department of Technology Institute of Process Technology Kjglnes Ring, N-3914 Porsgrunn Norway ‘Thesis for the Dr.Ing. Degree Porsgrunn, December 1998 Abstract This thesis presents a three-dimensional CFD code for modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries. The theory is given and the following specific sub-model are evaluated and validated: 1) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for densely packed regions, 2) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for single objects and 3) the quasi-laminar combustion model. ‘The sub-model validation part of the thesis, shows that a simple model for flow resistance and turbulence generation in densely packed beds is able to reproduce the medium and large scale MERGE explosion experiments within a band of factor 2. The model for single representation is found to predict explosion pressure in better agreement with the experiments with a modified k-e model. This modification also seems to give a less grid independent solution. One laminar model is found not suitable for gas explosion modelling, due to strong grid dependence. Another laminar model is found to be relatively grid independent and is found to work in good harmony with the turbulent combustion model. ‘The code is validated against 40 realistic gas explosion experiments. The main results are that the code is found to be relatively grid-independent with respect to predict explosion pressure in different offshore geometries. The code shows in addition that it is capable of predicting the influence of: ignition point location, vent arrangements, different geometries, sealing effects and gas reactivity. 'The validation study concludes with statistical and uncertainty analyses of the code performance. With the statistical technique suggested from MEGGE (Model Evaluation Group for Gas Explosions), the uncertainty of the EXSIM94 code can be determined as follows: 1. the code gives in average an overprediction of a factor of 1.06 (geometric mean bias). there is a 95% confidence that the geometric mean bias (MG) is predicted with a factor 1.53 above or below MG id