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Xp d v bo qun hng ho

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LI NI U
Xp d hng ho l mt trong nhng mn hc chuyn mn quan trng ca ngnh
iu khin tu bin.
Thng qua mn hc, sinh vin s tip cn c nhng kin thc sinh ng lin quan
n hng ho trong vn ti bin, cc phng php vn chuyn v bo qun cc loi hng
ho thng gp trong vn ti bin cng nh cc tnh ton v hng lng, hng ht ri v
hng nguy him.
Mn hc cng trang b cho sinh vin cc kin thc v lnh vc tnh ton n nh, mn
nc v hiu s mn nc, sc bn thn tu. Ngoi ra sinh vin cn c cung cp
nhng kin thc c bn c th lp s sp xp hng ho cng nh cch s dng cc
loi h s tu phc v cho vic kim tra, tnh ton lp s sp xp hng ho.
Nhm mc ch tng bc tiu chun ho gio trnh ging dy cho sinh vin ngnh
iu khin tu bin, nhm tc gi gm Th.s,TT inh Xun Mnh, Th.s,TT Nguyn Mnh
Cng, TT Phm Vn Trng, Th.s,TT Nguyn i Hi bin son cun gio trnh
mn hc "Xp d v bo qun hng ho" lm ti liu ging dy chnh thc cho sinh
vin ngnh iu khin tu bin.
Cun gio trnh bao gm 5 chng:
- Chng 1: Hng ho trong vn ti bin.
- Chng 2: Phng thc vn chuyn mt s loi hng trong vn ti bin
- Chng 3: S xp hng tu hng kh.
- Chng 4: Vn chuyn hng ri.
- Chng 5: Vn chuyn hng nguy him.
Nhm tc gi xin chn thnh cm n nhng ng gp v s cng tc nhit tnh ca
cc ng nghip trong b mn Lut Hng hi nh Th.s,TT Phm V Tun, Th.s,TT
Nguyn Tr Lun, Th.s Nguyn Cng Vnh v cc ng nghip khc c bit l nhng
kin ng gp ca Th.s,TT Bi Thanh Sn, qua cun gio trnh c hon thnh.
Nhm tc gi hy vng cun gio trnh ny s gip cho sinh vin ngnh iu khin tu
bin c thm mt ti liu chun hc tp v y cng l ti liu gip ch cho cc bn
c quan tm n lnh vc ny.
Cun gio trnh ny c th lm ti liu tham kho cho nhng bn c c quan tm
n lnh vc xp d, v bo qun hng ho trn tu bin trong v ngoi ngnh Hng hi.
Mc d nhm tc gi c rt nhiu c gng trong qu trnh bin son nhng chc
chn khng th trnh khi nhng khim khuyt. Rt mong c s gp ca bn c cho
cun gio trnh c th sa cha, b sung hon chnh hn, p ng c yu cu ca
bn c.
NHM TC GI
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
2
MC LC
Trang
CHNG 1: HNG HO TRONG VN TI BIN
1.1. Khi nim v phn loi hng ho ....................................................................... 05
1.1.1 Khi nim..05
1.1.2 Phn loi ........................................................................................................... 05
1.2 Tnh cht chung v hng ho.............................................................................. 06
1.3 Bao b v k m hiu hng ho ............................................................................ 06
1.3.1 Bao b ............................................................................................................... 06
1.3.2 Nhn hiu ......................................................................................................... 07
1.4 Cc dng v nguyn nhn h hng, thiu ht hng ho, bin php phng nga.... 08
1.4.1 Cc dng v nguyn nhn h hng thiu ht hng ho ...................................... 08
1.4.2 Phng nga hn ch h hng thiu ht hng ho............................................... 09
1.4.3 Bo qun hng trong qu trnh vn chuyn........................................................ 16
1.5 nh hng kh hu v hm hng i vi hng ho .............................................. 17
1.5.1 Cc i lng c trng ca khng kh ............................................................. 17
1.5.2 M hi thn tu v m hi hng ho.................................................................. 20
1.6 Thng gi, nguyn tc thng gi hm hng.......................................................... 21
1.6.1 Nguyn tc thng gi ........................................................................................ 21
1.6.2 Mc ch v phng php thng gi ................................................................. 22
CHNG 2: PHNG THC VN CHUYN MT S LOI HNG TRONG VN TI
BIN
2.1 Vn chuyn ng cc............................................................................................. 24
2.1.1 c im v tnh cht ca hng ng cc............................................................ 24
2.1.2 Vn chuyn....................................................................................................... 24
2.2 Vn chuyn than .................................................................................................. 25
2.2.1 Phn loi ........................................................................................................... 25
2.2.2 Tnh cht........................................................................................................... 25
2.2.3 Vn chuyn....................................................................................................... 26
2.3 Vn chuyn qung .............................................................................................. 28
2.3.1 Khi nim......................................................................................................... 28
2.3.2 Phn loi ........................................................................................................... 28
2.3.3 Tnh cht........................................................................................................... 28
2.3.4 Vn chuyn....................................................................................................... 29
2.4 Vn chuyn g .................................................................................................... 30
2.4.1 Phn loi ........................................................................................................... 30
2.4.2 Tnh cht ca g................................................................................................ 30
2.4.3 Vn chuyn g .................................................................................................. 30
2.5 Vn chuyn hng Container, hng ghp kin........................................................ 32
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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2.5.1 Vn chuyn hng Container .............................................................................. 32
2.5.2 Vn chuyn hng ghp kin, trong ca bn ......................................................... 36
2.6 Vn chuyn hng mau hng v ng vt ti sng .............................................. 36
2.6.1 Vn chuyn hng mau hng .............................................................................. 36
2.6.2 Vn chuyn ng vt sng v sn phm ca n................................................. 38
CHNG 3: S XP HNG TU HNG KH
3.1 Cc thng s ca tu ............................................................................................ 39
3.1.1 Cc kch thc c bn....................................................................................... 39
3.1.2 Cc thnh phn trng lng .............................................................................. 45
3.1.3 Dung tch tu .................................................................................................... 46
3.1.4 Dung tch xp hng ca tu............................................................................... 46
3.2 Khai thc h s tu .............................................................................................. 47
3.2.1 Bng ng cong thu tnh, thc ti trng ...................................................... 47
3.2.2 n nh (th vng) ca tu................................................................................ 53
3.2.3 Mn nc ca tu ............................................................................................. 62
3.2.4 Kim tra sc bn dc thn tu ........................................................................... 69
3.3 S xp hng tu hng kh ............................................................................... 73
3.3.1 nh ngha ........................................................................................................ 73
3.3.2 Cc yu cu ca s xp hng........................................................................ 73
3.4 Th t lp s xp hng.................................................................................... 79
CHNG 4: VN CHUYN HNG RI
4.1 Vn chuyn du m v sn phm du m............................................................. 82
4.1.1 Nhng khi nim c bn v du m v tu ch du........................................... 82
4.1.2 Cc phng php v sinh hm hng tu du...................................................... 92
4.1.3 Cng tc hng ho trn tu du ......................................................................... 96
4.1.4 Tnh ton hng ho trn tu du ...................................................................... 102
4.2 Vn chuyn hng ht ri .................................................................................... 105
4.2.1 Khi nim....................................................................................................... 105
4.2.2 Cc yu cu v n nh i vi tu ch hng ht ri ....................................... 107
4.2.3 Cc bin php c nh b mt hng ht ri ...................................................... 110
4.2.4 Cng tc chun b ch hng ht ri............................................................. 113
4.3 Xc nh khi lng hng bng phng php gim nh mn nc................... 115
4.3.1 Gim nh ln u (Initial survey) Bc 1 .................................................... 115
4.3.2 Gim nh ln cui (Final Survey) Bc 2................................................... 117
4.3.3 Xc nh khi lng hng bc, xp Bc 3.................................................. 117
4.3.4 Bo co gim nh mn nc.......................................................................... 118
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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CHNG 5: VN CHUYN HNG NGUY HIM
5.1 Phn loi hng nguy him..................................................................................... 119
5.2 Yu cu vn chuyn hng nguy him....................................................................124
5.3 Gii thiu IMDG Code -2002. ........................................................................... 124
5.3.1 Cu trc c bn ca IMDG Code-2002 ........................................................... 124
5.3.2 Cc iu khon lin quan n vn chuyn hng nguy him theo IMDG Code 125
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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CHNG 1: HNG HA TRONG VN TI BIN
1.1. Khi nim v phn loi hng ha
1.1.1 Khi nim
Hng ho vn chuyn trong vn ti bin l tt c cc vt phm, thng phm, c
cc phng tin vn ti bin tip nhn vn chuyn di dng c hoc khng c bao b
theo tp qun hng hi quc t.
Hng ho vn chuyn trong vn ti bin c c trng bi cc iu kin vn chuyn
nh ch bo qun , phng php ng gi, phng php chuyn ti, phng php xp
d, tnh cht l ho ca hng,..
1.1.2 Phn loi
Cng vi s pht trin khng ngng ca khoa hc k thut th hng ha ngy cng
nhiu v a dng. C rt nhiu cch phn loi hng ha tu theo mi mt phng din.
Trong vn ti bin vic phn loi hng ha l nhm tm ra cc nhm hng c nhng c
im gn vi nhau c cc bin php phn b, xp xp v bo qun hp l trong qu
trnh vn chuyn.
1.1.2.1 Phn loi theo tnh cht l ha ca hng
Theo tnh cht l ha ca hng ta c th lit k ra y rt nhiu loi hng nhng gp
li ta c th phn thnh ba nhm hng sau:
- Nhm hng th nht: L nhm hng c tnh xm thc (cc hng trong nhm ny c
kh nng lm nh hng ti cc hng ha khc xp gn chng). Cc loi hng c tnh ht
v ta m, mt s loi hng nguy him, cc loi hng ta mi (da th p mui...) cc
loi hng bay bi...
- Nhm hng th hai: Gm cc loi hng chu s tc ng ca cc loi hng xp trong
nhm th nht khi xp chung vi chng mc nht nh. Cc loi hng d hp th
mi v nh ch, thuc l, gia v....
- Nhm hng th ba: Gm cc loi hng trung tnh, l nhng loi hng khng chu
s nh hng v khng tc ng xu n cc hng xp gn n. Cc loi hng trung tnh
nh st thp, thp cun, thit b my mc, .....
S phn loi hng theo tnh cht l ha ca chng gip ta phn b hng xung hm tu
hp l ngn nga c s h hng hng do s tc ng qua li gia chng vi nhau.
1.1.2.2 Phn loi theo phng php vn ti
Phn loi hng theo phng php vn ti nhm t chc ng cc quy trnh vn ti
v chuyn ti hng. y l phng php phn loi ph bin trong VTB hin nay. Theo
phng php ny hng c chia lm 3 nhm:
- Nhm hng bch ha (general cargoes) (hng tnh theo n chic): Nhm hng ny
gm cc n v hng vn chuyn ring r c bao b hoc khng c bao b (kin, bao,
thng, hm, chic, ci...). Hng bch ha c th c ch trn tu vi mt loi hng hoc
nhiu loi hng vi cc hnh dng bao b khc nhau. Hin nay hng bch ha c xu
hng ng trong cc Container v vn chuyn trn cc tu Container.
- Nhm hng ch x (bulk cargoes): l hng ch theo khi lng ln, ng nht, trn
b. V d: qung, ng cc, than ch ri... . Nhng loi hng ny khi lng hng thng
xc nh theo phng php o mn nc (gim nh mn nc) v thng c ch
trn cc tu chuyn dng. Nhm hng ch x c chia thnh hai nhm l nhm hng
lng v nhm hng cht rn ch x.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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- Nhm hng vn chuyn i hi c ch bo qun ring: l nhng loi hng do
tnh cht ring ca chng i hi phi c bo qun theo nhng ch c bit quy
nh trong vn ti. Nu khng tun theo nhng quy nh ny th hng s b h hng hoc
gy nguy him cho tu (Xem bng 1.1)
1.2. Tnh cht chung v hng ha
Nm c tnh cht ca tng loi hng gip ta phn b hng hp l xung tu, t chc
xp d vi cc phng tin v thi gian thch hp v lm tt cng tc bo qun hng
trong qu trnh vn chuyn. Ta cn c bit ch ti cc tnh cht sau y ca hng ha
trong qu trnh vn chuyn.
- Tnh cht vt l ca hng: nh tnh di ng, m, nhit bc hi v ng kt, tnh
ht v ta mi, nhit bt la, t trng, th tch ring...
- Tnh cht v ha hc ca hng nh s oxy ha, tnh c, tnh n, thnh phn ha hc
ca hng....
- Tnh cht do thuc tnh sinh hc ca hng ho nh s ln men, i thi, mc nt, ny
mm...
- Tnh cht c hc ca hng nh sc chu nn, ko, bn, co gin...
Nhm hng bch ho Nhm hng ch x
Nhm vn chuyn
theo ch ring
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Bao
mm
Hng
ng
kin
Hng
ng
hm
Hng
thng
ln
Hng
tnh
chic
Kim
loi v
sn
phm
kim
loi
Hng
thng
y
trn
Hng
cng
knh
Hng
rt
lng
Hng
cc
ri
G
Hng
ht ri
Hng
nguy
him
Hng
mau
hng
Gia
cm,
gia
sc,
sn
phm
ca
chng
Bng 1.1 Bng phn loi hng ha
1.3. Bao b v k m hiu hng ha
1.3.1. Bao b
Bao b l nhng kt cu lm bng cc vt liu khc nhau dng bo qun hng ha
trong qu trnh vn chuyn, lu kho, ch i s dng.
Yu cu chung i vi bao b: bn chc, thch hp vi hng bn trong, d bc xp vn
chuyn, cn c tiu chun ha...
Bao b trong ngnh vn ti bin cn phi chu ng c s x lc ca tu, s thay i
nhit , m v cc iu kin khc na xut hin trong cc chuyn i di ngy trn
bin.
Cn c vo mc ch s dng ngi ta phn bao b lm hai loi:
1.3.1.1. Bao b bn trong (bao gi)
Bao b trn trong (bao gi) l mt b phn khng tch ri khi hng, chng trc tip
tip xc vi hng ha, cng hng ha n tay ngi tiu dng (nh chai, l, hp, ti,
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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nylon giy chng m...). Bao gi c th 1 lp, 2 lp, 3 lp tu theo tiu chun mi loi
hng.
- Chc nng chnh ca bao b bn trong l lm gia tng kh nng bo qun hng, c tc
dng qung co v trang sc cho hng p thm.
- Yu cu vi bao gi bn trong l phi m bo v sinh, kn.
1.3.1.2. Bao b bn ngoi
C tc dng chng c cc tc dng c hc t bn ngoi, hn ch tc dng ca ma,
nng, nh sng, bi... Bao b bn ngoi thng lm bng: g, v, giy cng, giy mm,
tn kim loi, thy tinh, snh s, cht do...
1.3.2. Nhn hiu
Yu cu i vi nhn hiu: Phi ghi r rng bng mc hay sn khng phai, nhe, ni
dung n gin, d nhn thy, ni dung ph hp vi hng bn trong.
C rt nhiu loi nhn hiu khc nhau, mi nc u c cc quy nh ring v nhn
hiu ca mnh nhng cng c nhng nhn hiu quy nh chung ca quc t.
Xut pht t mc ch s dng ngi ta phn nhn hiu ra cc loi sau.
1.3.2.1. Nhn hiu thng phm
Do ni sn xut ghi, n gn lin vi sn phm ca ni sn xut.
- Ni dung ghi thng l: tn hng, ni sn xut, trng lng c b, khng b, thnh
phn cu to, c im k thut, cch s dng.
1.3.2.2. Nhn hiu gi hng
Do ngi gi hng ghi ti cng gi. Ni dung thng l tn ngi gi, ni gi, ngi
nhn, ni nhn v mt vi cc k hiu ring theo quy nh hoc quy c... Loi nhn hiu
ny rt a dng v hnh thc
V d v vic vn chuyn cao su
1.3.2.3. Nhn hiu hng xut nhp khu
G : Ch loi cao su
46 : Ch cht lng cao su
343: S vn chuyn
46
G
343
Ni gi : Thnh ph H Ch Minh
Ni n : H ni
MD : K hiu ni sn xut ra sn phm
A : K hiu v hng (tra trong danh mc hng)
5/52 : S th t kin / tng s kin ca l hng
M D
A5/52
TP HCM
Du hiu nhn dng ca ngi gi hng i vi l hng
YOKOHAMA Tn cng d hng
201/300 S th t kin/tng s kin
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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Ni dung thng ghi: Tn hng, tn nc xut, s th t kin, tng s kin, trng
lng c b, khng b, ni n hoc ngi nhn, nhng du hiu gi hng (i vi nhng
loi hng cn s bo qun c bit)...
Vi hng nhp khu, nhn hiu thng c ghi bng ting ca nc nhp khu.
1.3.2.4. K hiu (du hiu) hng
Nu hng ha vn chuyn i hi phi c s ch chm sc c bit th ngi gi
hng phi v hoc dn ln trn cc bao, kin hng mt du hiu biu th tnh cht ca
hng ha ngi lm cng tc bc xp, vn chuyn bit v ch ti nh: hng d v,
khng lt ngc hng, hng s m, s nh nng... Bn cnh cc k hiu ny thng km
theo nhng dng ch vit bng ting Anh nh:
- Handle with care : Nh tay, cn thn
- Use no hooks : Khng c dng mc
- Top : Pha trn
- Bottom : Pha di.
Hnh 1.1: K hiu
1.4. Cc dng v nguyn nhn h hng, thiu ht hng ha, bin php phng nga.
1.4.1. Cc dng v nguyn nhn h hng thiu ht hng ha
1.4.1.1. H hng:
Trong vn ti bin, h hng hng ha rt hay xy ra v xy ra di nhiu dng khc
nhau. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn quan trng l do s vi phm quy trnh k thut ca
ngi lm cng tc vn ti v xp d trong cc vn sau:
Chun b hm hng, s dng thit b cu, mc hng khng thch hp vi hng, xp
hng cha ng, khng theo s , k thut xp d cha tt, vn m lt cha m
bo, bao b hng khng tt, kim tra bo qun trong qu trnh hnh trnh cha tt.
Trong thc t hng hi, hng ha thng h hng di cc dng sau:
* H hng do b , v, dp, nt
Thng xy ra i vi cc loi hng cha trong cc hm, kin, bao, thng...
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
9
Nguyn nhn: do bao b khng m bo, do thao tc cu khng cn thn, do mc hng
sai quy cch, do thiu cn thn trong xp d, do chn lt khng tt, do sng lc v s
rung ng ca tu trn sng, do phn b hng khng ng k thut...
* H hng do b m t.
Nguyn nhn ch yu lm hng vn chuyn b m t thng l do ming hm hng
khng kn nc nc bin, nc ma lt xung, do s r r ca cc ng ng dn
du, nc chy qua hm, do b ngm nc t di l la canh, ballast ln, do s r r ca
cc loi hng lng xp cng hm...
* H hng do nhit qu cao:
Thng xy ra i vi mt s loi hng nh: rau qu ti, tht, m, c...Nguyn nhn
ch yu l thiu hoc khng tun th ng ch nhit v m trong cng tc bo
qun, h thng thng gi hoc iu ha khng kh khng tt, do xp gn bung my...
* H hng v lnh
Mt s loi hng nu nhit xung qu thp s b ng kt gy kh khn cho vic d
hng (nh du nhn, than, qung..).
* H hng do ng vt, cn trng c hi gy nn
Thng xy ra i vi cc loi hng ng cc, thc phm... Cc ng vt c hi nh
chut, mi mt v cc cn trng khc s lm h hng hng ho.
* H hng do hi thi, bi bn:
Nguyn nhn do v sinh hm hng khng tt, bi bn v hng ho c vn cn st li.
V d: Nu chuyn trc ch xi mng, qung... m chuyn sau ch hng ng cc, ch
thuc... nu v sinh hm khng k d dn n lm h hng mt phn hng do bi bn.
* H hng do b chy n:
Thng xy ra i vi mt s loi hng nh than, qung, lu hunh, pht pho v mt
s loi hng nguy him khc.
Nguyn nhn: Do bn thn hng c kh nng pht nhit, tch t kh v chng ta cha
tun th ng k thut bo qun theo cc nguyn tc ring ph hp vi hng, h thng
thng gi cha tt, cng tc kim tra hng cha tt, khng pht hin kp thi cc hin
tng pht sinh ca chng.
* H hng do cch ly, m lt khng tt:
Nguyn nhn do mt s loi hng c tnh cht k nhau m xp gn nhau, hng nng
xp trn, hng nh xp di, xp chiu cao chng hng qu quy nh, hng ha xp st
sn v thnh vch tu khng c m lt...
1.4.1.2. Thiu ht hng ha
C rt nhiu nguyn nhn gy ra thiu ht hng ha: cc dng h hng hng cng c
th dn n thiu ht, do nhn thiu t cng nhn do ri vi khi bc xp, do r r, do b
sng cun mt, do bc hi, do thiu ht t nhin ca hng.
Thiu ht t nhin ca hng: l hin tng gim st khi lng hng do tc ng ca
nhng nguyn nhn t nhin trong iu kin k thut bo qun bnh thng.
Hin tng thiu ht t nhin ca hng ch xy ra i vi mt s loi hng. Cc nh
mc hao ht t nhin thng c quy nh gii hn (%) phn trm i vi trng lng
hng ph thuc vo trng thi ca hng lc a xung tu v khong cch vn chuyn.
1.4.2. Phng nga, hn ch h hng thiu ht hng ha
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
10
1.4.2.1. Chun b tu
Phi chun b tu chu o trc khi nhn hng vn chuyn.
- Cc hm, khoang cha hng phi c v sinh sch s t yu cu i vi tng loi
hng.
- Kim tra v a vo hot ng bnh thng cc thit b nng, cu hng.
- Kim tra s kn nc ca hm hng: kim tra cc ng ng dn du, nc chy qua
hm, cc ng thot nc, ng o nc lacanh, ballast, cc l la canh, cc tm np ming
hm hng, h thng thng gi hm hng...tt c phi iu kin, trng thi tt.
- Cng tc chun b tu, hm hng phi c ghi vo nht k tu.
1.4.2.2. Vt liu m lt, cch ly
y cng l mt yu t kh quan trng c th phng nga c h hng, thiu ht
hng ha. Vt liu m lt phi chun b y , thch hp i vi tng loi hng v
tuyn ng hnh trnh ca tu. Cc vt liu m lt phi m bo cch ly c hng vi
thnh, sn tu v vi cc l hng vi nhau v m bo khng hng b x dch, trong
qu trnh vn chuyn. Trong mt s trng hp nu iu kin cho php c th dng chnh
bn thn hng ha (cc loi hng chu va chm, nn, khng v...) lm vt liu chn
gia cc l hng khc vi nhau nhng phi m bo khng lm hng l hng chn .
Cc vt liu m lt thng l cc loi bt, chiu ci, ct, giy nylon, g vn, g
thanh...
1.4.2.3. Mt s im lu khi lm hng
y l mt nhim v quan trng i vi tu c bit l cc s quan boong v thy th
trc ca, nht l s quan ph trch hng ha. iu ny c th lm cho tu trnh c
nhng khiu ni hoc bi thng hng ha sau ny. Pha tu phi c ngi cng gim st
hng ha vi nhn vin kim kin ca tu, nu tu khng thu kim kin th tu phi
ng ra lm nhim v ny.
Hng ha a xung tu phi m bo cht lng, quy cch v s lng nh trong cc
phiu gi hng. Nu pht hin hng, l hng no khng m bo th kin quyt khng
nhn hoc phi c nhng ghi ch thch hp v tnh trng ca hng vo chng t ca l
hng .
Trong qu trnh lm hng nu c s h hng hng (, v, dp nt...) th tu phi lp
bin bn bi min trch nhim cho tu v khng nhn ch nhng hng ny. Bin bn
phi c ch k t nht ca nhng thnh phn nh: i din tu, kim kin, kho hng, i
din cng nhn v gim nh vin (nu c).
Tu phi theo di s lm vic ca cng nhn bc xp, phi lu xp hng theo ng
s , c th t chi s lm vic ca nhm cng nhn no khng xp hng ng theo yu
cu ca tu v ngh thay nhm cng nhn khc.
1.4.2.4 Phn b hng xung cc hm hp l
C th din gii ra y nhiu vn nhng tm li l ngoi vic m bo an ton cho
tu, thuyn vin, m bo tn dng c sc cha v trng ti tu, tin lm hng... th
m bo sao cho mi loi hng vi tnh cht c, l, ha, sinh ca chng c xp vo
nhng ch thch hp vn chuyn v khng lm nh hng xu n cc hng ha xp
quanh n. Chng hn nh:
- Cc loi hng ta mi mnh (c, da mui...) khng nn xp gn cc loi hng c tnh
ht mi mnh (nh ch, thuc, go, ng...)
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
11
- Cc loi hng ta m (lng thc, hng lng...) phi c xp cch ly vi cc hng
ht m (bng, vi, ng...)
- Cc loi hng ta bi mnh (nh xi mng, phn ch ri, lu hunh, tinh qung...)
khng c xp cng thi gian vi cc loi hng m c th b hng bi bi (bng, vi,
si...)
- Cc loi hng d chy n cn xp xa vi cc ngun nhit nh bung my, ng khi...
- Cc loi hng lng cha trong thng nn xp vo cc hm ring nu xp chung vi
cc hng khc th nn xp di cng v st v vch sau ca hm.
1.4.2.5. Phng php cht xp ca mt s loi hng
1.4.2.5.1. Hng hm kin:
Cc hng ny thng c dng khi vung hoc ch nht. Nn xp vo nhng hm
vung vn tn dng dung tch v nng cao hiu sut xp d. Chiu cao chng hm nn
xp thch hp i vi mi loi hm. Cc hm to, nng nn xp di v gia hm, cc
hm nh xp bn cnh v ln trn. Gia cc hm vi nhau v vi thnh tu phi c k,
chn thch hp trnh va p, x dch. Thng cc hm c xp chng bng hm
hoc lch hm.
Hnh 1.2: Cht xp khi Granit trong hm
Granite blocks - adequate dunnaging essential
Granite blocks. Comletion of loading
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
12
Cartons of bananas in stow
Hnh 1.3: Cht xp cc thng cc tng chui trn tu
1.4.2.5.2. Hng bao b
Thng l cc loi ng cc ng bao nh bt, ng...l nhng loi hng mm khng
b hn ch bi kch thc, d xp, nhc im l a s cc loi hng ny u s m nn
phi c m lt tt. Thng xp theo phng php chng bao, chng na bao hoc xp
cp ba, cp nm bao tu theo mc cn thng gi nhiu hay t v chc chn ca
ng hng. Thng cc bao c xp dc tu.
Hnh 1.4: Cht xp hng bao
Stowed haft bag Stowed bag and bag
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
13
Hnh 1.5: Cht xp hng bao trong hm hng
1.4.2.5.3. Hng b kin:
Thng l cc loi hng nh nh cc kin ay, bng, si, gai.... phng php xp
tng t hng hm kin.
Hnh 1.6: Cht xp cc kin giy
Fishmeal bg
stow
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
14
STOWED BILGE AND CANTLINE-HALF
CASK
1.4.2.5.4. Hng thng:
Thng l cc thng ng cht lng. C 2 loi thng:
Thng g: Loi c = const
Loi c gia > 2 u
Thng kim loi: Thng l thng c hnh tr.
- Vi thng g: Nu ca m y th xp quay y ln trn, nu ca m gia th
xp ngang thng ca ln trn.
- Vi thng kim loi: Xp ng thng ca quay ln trn.
Hnh 1.7 Cht xp hng thng
Hnh 1.8: Cu to thng g
Bung
Quarter Hoop
Chime
Head
Chime Hoop
Quarter
Bilge
Bilge Hoop
Staves
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
15
1.4.2.5.5. Hng ng v thanh kim loi
Thng l cc loi hng: thanh ray, cc loi ng ng, cc thanh st, dm st...
Yu cu xp khng c hng bin dng, y thng l cc loi hng nng nn xp
di v xp vi cc loi hng nh khc tn dng dung tch hm.
Phng php xp:
- Thanh ray: + Xp dc tu
+ Xp vung
- ng ng c u loe: Xp so le u ui.
- Cc dm, thanh st: Nn xp dc tu.
Hnh 1.9: Cht xp ng thp v cc thanh kim loi
Steel and
pipes
lashed in
stow
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
16
Hnh 1.10: Cht xp ng thp trn tu
1.4.2.5.6. Hm cha cc bnh cht lng
Cc hm cha cc bnh ng cht lng thng l cc ha cht th lng hoc cc loi
axt c ng trong cc bnh thy tinh c t vo cc hm g c m cc vt liu
mm trnh v. Khi xp cc hm ny phi ht sc nh tay, ht mi mt lp hm nn k
mt lt g vn mng, cc hm bn trn nn t vo khong gia hai hm di.
1.4.3. Bo qun hng trong qu trnh vn chuyn
Nhim v bo qun hng trong hnh trnh ch yu tp trung vo nhng vic sau:
Untreated steel pipes in stow
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
17
- Gi gn sao cho nc (t bt k ngun no) khng r r, chy vo hm lm t hng.
- Kim tra, duy tr c ch nhit v m thch hp i vi hng vn chuyn.
- Kim tra v dng cc bin php cn thit khng cho hng b dch chuyn, nht l
i vi cc hng trn boong, c bit trong thi gian thi tit xu.
1.5 nh hng kh hu v hm hng i vi hng ha
1.5.1 Cc i lng c trng ca khng kh
1.5.1.1 m tng i (Relative Hummidity-RH)
m tng i l t s gia sc trng hi nc v sc trng hi nc bo ho
nhit cho tnh bng phn trm (hay l t s tnh bng phn trm gia lng hi
nc thc t trong khng kh vi lng hi nc trong khng kh bo ha cng mt n
v th tch, cng nhit ).
RH =
s s
A
A
e
e

e : Sc trng hi nc thc t- Vapor pressure . (n v ca e, e


s
: mb hoc mmHg)
e
s
: Sc trng hi nc bo ha - Saturated vapor pressure.
A: Lng hi nc cha trong mt n v th tch khng kh ( m tuyt i).
A
s
:Lng hi nc cha trong mt n v th tch khng kh trng thi bo ho (
m tuyt i trng thi bo ho).
(n v ca A, A
s
l g/m
3
khng kh hoc grain/ft
3
)
m tng i cho ta bit s m t ca khng kh.
nc ta m tng i trung bnh vo cc ma nh sau:
+ Ma ng RH= 80%
+ Ma h RH= 85% - 90%
+ Trong sng m RH = 95% - 100%
Khi nhit tng th kh nng bo ha m tng. Gi s trng thi ban u khng
kh bo ha m. Khi nhit tng th trng thi bo ha b ph v, m khng
kh (RH) gim, tc l trong iu kin mi (trng thi mi) khng kh vn chp nhn thm
c mt lng hi nc na. Khi nhit gim th p ng vi trng thi khng kh
mi khng kh c s thi bt mt lng hi nc nht nh di dng nc ngng t.
Khng kh bo ha (Saturated Air): l hin tng m ti mt nhit no khng
kh cha trong mnh n tt c mi s m t m n c th cha c, khi lng hi
nc ln cao m nhit c nh th hi nc s b ngng t.
1.5.1.2 m tuyt i
m tuyt i l trng lng ca hi nc trong n v th tch khng kh kh.
Trong k thut, m truyt i l s pound (1pound=0.454kg) ca hi nc trn 1ft
3
khng kh kh hay l s grain(1grain=0.065gram) ca hi nc trn 1ft
3
khng kh kh.
Cng thc tnh gi tr m tuyt i A:
A =
Trng lng hi nc
=
W
Th tch ca mt n v khng kh kh v
Trong : Wl m ring c tnh theo cng thc: W=
p
e
K
K l hng s (gi tr ca K ph thuc n v tnh m ring.).
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
18
v l th tch ca mt n v trng lng khng kh kh.
p l p sut kh quyn
1.5.1.3 im sng (Dew point)
Nhit im sng l nhit ca khng kh m ti nhit ny th hi nc cha
trong khng kh t ti trng thi bo ho.
Nhit im sng c xc nh nh l nhit thp nht m khng kh khng th
gi c hi m hin ti n c v phi thi bt lng hi m tha di dng ngng
t thnh nc. Nhit im sng ca bt k mu th khng kh no cng hon ton
ph thuc vo m tuyt i.
1.5.1.4. Nhit k kh t
y l thit b o nhit gm hai nhit k t song song trong mt hp g c c
nhiu l nh. Cc l nh ny c tc dng gip cho khng kh c th lu thng gia bn
trong v bn ngoi. Hp g ng nhit k phi c t ti ni khng b nh hng bi
sc nng ca bt k vt th no cng nh c dng kh thi nh. Mt trong hai nhit k
c bc gi c kh nng thm nc tt ti bu nhit k. u kia ca gi nhng ngp
trong nc trong hp nha nh pha bn di
Khi bu nhit k c gi tm t th nc ca gi s b ha hi. Khi qu trnh ha hi
xy ra n cn thu nhit ca vt gn n l bu nhit k lm cho bu nhit k b lnh i
v lm cho gi tr ca bu nhit k t lun nh hn so vi nhit k cn li (gi l nhit
k bu kh). Nh vy, kh nng ha hi s ph thuc trc tip vo m tng i. Khi
m trong khng kh cao th kh nng ha hi s chm hn v s chnh lch gia bu
kh, t s nh. Khi m khng kh thp, r rng l kh nng ha hi s din ra mnh
lit hn v kt qu l hiu nhit k kh t phi ln hn. Nh mi tng quan ny, t
hiu s nhit k kh t ta xy dng c bng tra m tng i ca khng kh.
Humidity
Dry bulb Temperature
32
o
40
o
50
o
60
o
70
o
80
o
90
o
100%
Wet bulb temp. 40
o
50
o
60
o
70
o
80
o
90
o
Dew point 32
o
40
o
50
o
60
o
70
o
80
o
90
o
WT.of Moisture
lb per 100 cub ft
0.303 0.41 0.58 0.829 1.15 1.58 2.17
90%
Wer bulb temp 39
o
48.5
o
58
o
68
o
78
o
88
o
Dew point 30
o
37.5
o
47
o
57
o
67
o
77
o
87
o
WT.of Moisture
lb per 100 cub ft
0.274 0.37 0.52 0.74 1.03 1.43 1.95
80%
Wer bulb temp 37.5
o
47
o
56.5
o
66
o
75
o
85
o
Dew point 28
o
34
o
44
o
54
o
64
o
74
p
84
o
WT.of Moisture
lb per 100 cub ft
0.243 0.33 0.45 0.65 0.92 1.27 1.74
70%
Wer bulb temp 36
o
45.5
o
54.5
o
63.5
o
72.5
o
82
o
Dew point 24
o
30
o
41
o
50
o
60
o
70
p
79
o
WT.of Moisture
lb per 100 cub ft
0.215 0.28 0.41 0.58 0.825 1.1 1.52
60%
Wer bulb temp 35
o
44
o
54
o
61
o
70
o
79
o
Dew point 21
o
27
o
35
o
46
o
55
o
65
o
74.5
o
WT.of Moisture
lb per 100 cub ft
0.182 0.245 0.35 0.49 0.69 0.96 1.3
Bng 1.2 Bng tra m tuyt i v nhit im sng
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
19
Nhit
k t
Hiu s nhit k kh v t (t-t')
o
c.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
-7 7 -10 -13 -17
-6 6 -8 -11 -15
-5 5 -7 -10 -13
-4 4 -6 -8 -11 -15
-3 3 -5 -7 -10 -13
-2 2 -4 -6 -8 -11
-1 1 -3 -5 -7 -9
0 0 -2 -3 -5 -8 -10
1 1 0 -2 -4 -6 -8
2 2 1 -1 -3 -4 -7
3 3 2 0 -1 -3 -5 -7
4 4 3 1 0 -3 -3 -5
5 5 4 3 1 0 -2 -3
6 6 5 4 3 1 0 -2 -4
7 7 6 5 4 3 1 0 -2
8 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 0
9 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 0
10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
11 11 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 3 2
12 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
13 13 12 11 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
14 14 13 12 12 11 10 10 9 8 7
15 15 14 13 13 12 11 11 10 9 8
16 16 15 14 14 13 13 12 11 11 10
17 17 16 15 15 14 15 13 13 12 11
18 18 17 16 16 15 16 14 14 13 13
19 19 18 17 18 16 17 15 15 15 14
20 20 19 18 19 17 18 16 16 16 15
21 21 20 19 20 18 19 17 18 17 17
22 22 21 20 21 19 20 19 19 18 18
23 23 22 21 22 20 21 20 20 20 19
24 24 23 22 23 21 22 22 21 21 20
25 25 24 23 24 22 23 23 22 22 21
26 26 25 24 25 23 24 24 23 23 22
27 27 26 25 26 24 25 25 25 24 23
28 28 27 26 27 25 26 26 26 25 24
29 29 28 27 28 26 27 27 27 26 25
30 30 29 28 29 27 29 28 28 28 26
31 31 30 29 31 28 30 30 29 29 27
32 32 32 31 33 29 31 31 30 30
33 33 33 33 33 31 32 32 31
34 34 34 34 34 34 33 33
35 35 35 35 35 35 34
Bng 1.3: Bng xc nh nhit im sng
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
20
Hiu nhit ca bu kh t
S

c

b

u

k
h

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
30 100 89 78 67 57 47 36 26 17 7
35 100 91 82 73 65 54 45 37 28 19 12 3
40 100 92 84 76 68 60 53 45 38 30 22 16 8
45 100 92 85 78 71 64 58 51 44 38 32 25 19
50 100 93 87 80 74 67 61 55 50 44 38 33 27
55 100 94 88 82 76 70 65 59 54 49 43 39 34
60 100 94 89 84 78 73 68 63 58 53 48 44 39
65 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 61 56 52 48 44
70 100 95 90 86 81 77 72 68 64 60 55 52 48
75 100 95 91 87 82 78 74 70 66 62 58 55 51
80 100 96 92 87 83 79 75 72 68 64 61 57 54
85 100 96 92 88 84 80 77 73 70 66 63 60 56
90 100 96 92 88 85 81 78 75 74 68 65 62 59
95 100 96 93 89 86 82 79 76 72 69 66 63 60
100 100 97 93 90 86 83 80 77 74 71 68 65 62
Hiu nhit ca bu kh t
S

c

b

u

k
h

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 23
30
35
40 4
45 13 7 1
50 22 16 11 6 1
55 29 24 19 16 10 6 1
60 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2
65 39 35 31 28 24 20 17 13 10 6 3
70 44 40 36 33 29 26 23 19 16 13 10 7
75 47 44 40 37 34 31 27 24 21 19 16 13
80 51 47 44 41 38 35 32 29 26 23 20 18
85 53 50 47 44 41 38 36 33 30 28 25 22
90 56 53 50 47 44 41 39 36 34 32 29 26
95 58 55 52 49 47 44 42 39 37 35 32 30
100 59 57 54 51 49 47 44 42 39 37 35 33
Bng1.4 Bng xc nh m tng i
1.5.2. M hi thn tu v m hi hng ha
Hu ht cc khiu ni v hng ha l do hng ha b h hng trong qu trnh vn chuyn,
trong rt nhiu trng hp h hng l do m hi gy ra.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
21
M hi c to thnh do hi nc trong khng kh b lnh di im sng ngng
ng thnh cc ht nc. Cc ht nc c th ng li trn kt cu tu gi l m hi thn
tu hoc trn hng ha gi l m hi hng ha. Trng hp m hi thn tu, m hi c
th chy thot i hoc chy vo hng ha. Cn trng hp m hi hng ha thng xy
ra khi hng ha lnh m khng kh vo li m.
1.5.2.1. M hi thn tu (ship's sweat): L hin tng c nhng ht nc bm vo cc
thnh, vch, trn hm hng, cc khoang cha hng.
- Hin tng m hi thn tu xy ra khi im sng ca khng kh trong hm hng
vt qu nhit ca cc phn cu trc ca tu.
- Hin tng m hi thn tu thng xy ra khi tu hnh trnh t vng nng ti cc
vng lnh hn.
Nguyn nhn: Khi tu chy t mt cng vng nng n vng c nhit lnh hn,
th nhit bn ngoi tu dn dn gim xung lm cho nhit ca thnh, vch hm
hng cng gim dn cho n khi thp hn nhit im sng ca khng kh trong hm
hng th s lm pht sinh cc git nc bm trn thnh, vch hm hng gi l m hi thn
tu hay m hi hm hng.
Nu nhit bn ngoi gim xung t ngt trong khi nhit khng kh bn trong
hm vn cn gi mt mc kh cao th s to mt lng m hi rt ln lm m t, nh
hng cht lng hng ha.
1.5.2.2. M hi hng ha (Cargo sweat)
L hin tng c nhng ht nc bm trn b mt hng ha.
Hin tng m hi hng ha c th xy ra khi tu hnh trnh t vng lnh sang nhng
vng c kh hu nng hn.
Nguyn nhn: Khi tu chy t mt cng vng lnh n vng c nhit cao hn,
m khng kh ln hn th nhit v m khng kh trong hm hng cng s tng ln
tng ng. Tuy nhin v nhit ca bn thn hng ha tng chm hn so vi nhit
khng kh trong hm hng nn s xut hin tnh hung nhit im sng khng kh
trong hm cao hn nhit ca bn thn hng ha dn n kt qu lm pht sinh m hi
trn b mt hng ha (gi l m hi hng ha).
S lu thng khng kh v nhit trong hm: Hm tu c cu trc kn, ton bng st
thp, n lun b tc ng bi iu kin mi trng bn ngoi.
+ Khi hnh trnh t vng lnh sang vng nng th v tu dn dn b nung nng ln
di tc ng ca mi trng v trong hm s xut hin lung khng kh nng c xu
hng di chuyn t v tu vo trong hm tc khng kh nng hn s a m vo
trong hm.
+ Khi t vng nng sang vng lnh hn th hin tng xy ra ngc vi trng hp
trn. (trng hp ny hay xy ra hin tng mi hi thn tu).
1.6.Thng gi, nguyn tc thng gi hm hng
1.6.1. Nguyn tc thng gi
Hng ha xp trong hm c th b h hng bi cc hin tng m hi thn tu v m
hi hng ha v cc tc ng xu khc ca nhit v m khng kh trong hm trong
qu trnh hnh trnh ca tu qua cc vng c cc c trng kh hu khc nhau. Trong iu
kin cho php vic thng gi hm hng ng lc, kp thi v ph hp i vi tnh cht
mi loi hng gip ra c th ngn nga hoc hn ch c h hng hng xy ra. tin
hnh thng gi hay khng thng gi cn da trn hai nguyn tc c bn sau:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
22
- C th tin hnh thng gi hm hng bng khng kh bn ngoi nu im sng
khng kh ngoi hm nh hn hoc bng im sng khng kh trong hm.
- Khng c thng gi hm hng bng khng kh ngoi tri nu im sng khng
kh bn ngoi ln hn im sng khng kh trong hm.
Ngoi hai nguyn tc c bn trn cng vi s theo di khng kh trong v ngoi hm
ta cn phi xt n tnh cht ca loi hng ha trong hm m ra bin php thng gi
hu hiu. Xt v mt nh hng ca mi trng xung quanh th hng ha c chia lm
hai loi chnh nh sau:
- Hng c tnh ht m (Hygroscopic Cargo): y ch yu l cc loi hng gc thc vt
nh cc loi ng cc, cc loi bt ng cc, bng, g, thuc si...Loi hng ny d b s
tc ng ca m, chng c th ht m, gi m v ta hi m. Hng ht m lm tng
hin tng m hi thn tu khi nhit thay i, nht l khi ch hng t vng nng sang
vng lnh. c bit, hin tng ny xy ra mnh khi nhit bn ngoi gim t ngt.
- Hng khng ht m (Non - hygroscopic cargo): L cc loi hng gc t cc vt liu
cng nh cc sn phm st thp, my mc, cc bng t nung, cc hng ha ng
thng, ng hp... . Cc loi hng ny d b tc ng bi hin tng m hi hng ha gy
han g, bn, lm bin mu...dn n h hng c bit khi ch hng t vng lnh sang
vng nng hn.
T hai nguyn tc thng gi v hai loi nhm hng c bn trn c 4 trng hp c
trng sau cn c bit lu khi tin hnh thng gi hm hng.
a. i vi hng ht m:
- Hnh trnh t vng lnh sang vng nng (Cold to warm voyage): Lc u im
sng khng kh trong hm thp hn im sng khng kh ngoi hm. Trong qu trnh
chuyn dn v vng nng im sng khng kh trong hm cao dn ln nhng cha t
n hoc ln hn im sng khng kh ngoi hm th khng cn thit thng gi. Ti
thi im m hm hng ti cng d s ngng t c th xut hin trn b mt hng (m
hi hng ha) nhng s mt i khi hng ha c d khi hm hng.
- Hnh trnh t vng nng sang vng lnh: Theo mc chuyn dn ti vng lnh
nhit v im sng khng kh bn ngoi thp dn v lm lnh cc mn v boong tu
dn n s ngng ng hi nc ti cc mt trong thn tu. Hng ht m trong iu kin
ny s ta m mnh. Trng hp ny cn thng gi hm hng lin tc vi cng cng
mnh cng tt ngay t khi chm vo vng lnh. y l trng hp kh khn to c
s thng gi tho mn nht l khi im sng bn ngoi qu thp.
b. i vi hng khng ht m
- Hnh trnh t vng lnh sang vng nng (Cold to warm voyage). Trng hp ny
nhit ca hng thp hn im sng khng kh bn ngoi nhiu nn khng c thng
gi. Nu thng gi khng kh nng m t bn ngoi vo s gy ngng t hi nc lm h
hng hng.
- Hnh trnh t vng nng ti vng lnh: Trng hp ny m hi thn tu chc chn
xy ra nhng hng ha khng b nh hng tr khi s ngng ng cc thnh vch, trn
nh git vo hng. Vic thng gi mc bnh thng.
1.6.2. Mc ch v phng php thng gi:
1.6.2.1. Mc ch thng gi hm hng:
- Lm gim nhit hm hng, gi cho hng ha khng b hng v nng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
23
- Lm nhit im sng khng kh trong hm hng thp hn nhit thnh, vch
hm v nhit trn b mt ca hng ha trnh m hi hm hng gy m t hng
ha.
- Lm lu thng khng kh gim h hng i vi nhng loi hng d b bin cht
hoc thi ra do thiu khng kh.
- phng hng t chy.
- Thi kh c, hi, nhim trong hm hng ra ngoi.
1.6.2.2.Phng php thng gi:
*Thng gi t nhin:
- Mun cho khng kh trong hm thot ra m (hn ch) khng cho khng kh bn
ngoi vo hm ta quay cc ming ng thng gi xui theo chiu gi khng kh trong
hm thot ra.
- Mun cho khng kh trong v ngoi hm lu thng tun hon, ta quay mt ming
ng ngc chiu gi cn ming ng kia xui theo chiu gi.
Lu rng thng gi khng ng cn hi hn l khng thng gi. Cng phi thy rng
thay i hng thng gi so vi hng gi s lm thay i rt nhiu lng gi vo trong
hm. Hng chy ca tu so vi hng gi cng nh hng n dng khng kh.
* Thng gi nhn to:
- Trn mt s tu ti cc ng thng gi c lp cc qut gi 2 chiu, ta c th tin hnh
cho y khng kh ra hoc ht khng kh t ngoi vo theo mun v cng hay lu
lng gi vo, ra cng c th thc hin c i cc ch tc ca qut.
- Thng gi nhn to c th ch ng trong mi tnh hung khng ph thuc vo iu
kin thi tit bn ngoi m c hiu qu cao so vi cc phng php khc. H thng
thng gi nhn to cho php to c nhit v m khng kh a vo hm theo
mun. H thng ny thng c lp t c nh trn cc tu chuyn dng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
24
CHNG 2: PHNG THC VN CHUYN MT S LOI
HNG TRONG VN TI BIN
2.1 Vn chuyn ng cc
2.1.1 c im v tnh cht ca hng ng cc
Nhm hng ng cc c vn chuyn dng ng bao c th k n nh la nc, la
m, ng, .Cc loi hng ny c mt s tnh cht c trng nh:
- Tnh cht t nng l kh nng t nng m y l kt qu ca qu trnh sinh ha m
chng c th lm phn hy v gim gi tr s dng ca hng ha.
- Khi b m t chng s gia tng th tch v gim phm cht
- C tnh ht v nh hi m. Hin tng ny ph thuc vo iu kin thi tit khu vc
tu hot ng
- C tnh hp th mi v xung quanh k st n
- D b hy hoi bi cn trng tn ti trong hng
2.1.2 Vn chuyn
Hng ng cc c th c vn chuyn di dng ng bao hoc ch ri trn cc tu
hng bch ho hoc tu ch hng ri chuyn dng.
Do c im v tnh cht ca ng cc nh ni trn, trong qu trnh giao nhn vn
chuyn phi ch thc hin nhng bin php sau:
- Chun b v lm v sinh hm hng sch s, kh ro. Khng c g, bi bn hoc
hng ho c st li. Cc h la canh phi c dn sch, lm kh v y bng bao ti kn
ht nhng vn cho nc thm qua.
- Trong thi gian giao nhn hng cn kim tra k m ca hng ha nhn xung tu.
Khng nhn vn chuyn nhng bao hng c m ln.
- Khng nhn vn chuyn hng ang trong trng thi t nng, thiu giy chng nhn
cht lng ca c quan kim dch, hoc t khai hng ho ca ngi gii hng.
- Bao b hng ha phi sch s, khng b rch v, k m hiu r rng.
- Trong thi gian thao tc lm hng trnh khng dng mc st mc vo bao, nn s
dng li mm bc, xp hng.
- Dng li hoc bt ph khu vc lm hng gia tu v b trnh hng ri vi xung
nc.
- Khng nn cng nhn, tr hng ng cc vi cc loi hng bay bi nhiu.
- Cng tc giao nhn hng ng cc khng thc hin trong iu kin tri ma v thi
tit xu.
- S dng cc vt liu chn lt cch ly hng vi cc vch hm c bit i vi sn
hm hng.
- Tu theo yu cu ca s xp hng, kch thc ca cc bao hng m c cc phng
thc xp chng thch hp cho vic thng gi hng ha.
- Hng ng cc nu c vn chuyn di dng ng bao th hng bao s xp theo
chiu dc tu, phn st vch quay u bao vo pha vch hm. ng hng bao phi c
xp chc chn.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
25
- Hng ng cc ch ri phi tun th nghim ngt cc yu cu v cht xp, bo qun
v duy tr n nh tu ch hng ht theo B lut quc t v vn chuyn hng ht ri
(Grain Code).
- Trong qu trnh vn chuyn nu c nghi ng hin tng h hng hng ha xy ra th
phi p dng cc bin php khc phc kp thi nh thng gi, thng thong bng khng
kh kh. Cc bin php ny phi nht thit ghi vo nht k hng hi. Nu cc bin php
p dng khng thu c hiu qu th thuyn trng cn thng bo cho ngi gi hng
hay i din ca h.
2.2 Vn chuyn than
Thnh phn nguyn t chnh ca than l cacbon, ngoi ra cn c cc nguyn t hp
cht d bay hi: H, CO, CO
2
, CH
4
, SO
2
,... v cc thnh phn khong khng chy nh cc
mui sunpht, pht pht, cacbonat, nc v cc khong cht v c khc.
2.2.1 Phn loi:
C nhiu cch phn loi. Theo hm lng cacbon ta phn than thnh cc loi sau:
- Than bn: Do cy c, cc loi tho mc, thc vy nh b chn vi di m ly lu
nm hnh thnh. Than bn c hm lng nc ln, t cacbon hm lng cht khng chy
kh cao.
- Than nu: Do cy g b chn vi di t lu nm hnh thnh, than ny d chy v
nhiu khi, hm lng cc bon nh hn 70%, nhit chy khong 320
0
C, nhit nng
khong 5000 n 6000 kcal/ kg.
- Than : C hm lng cacbon nhiu hn than bn, than nu. Khi t nhiu khi,
ngn la mnh v ta nhit nhiu.
- Than antraxit: C hm lng cacbon nhiu hn nhiu cc loi than k trn. Loi than
ny bt la chm nhng khi chy ngn la mnh, nhit lng ta ra ln t khi hoc
khng c khi. Than ny trng b ngoi en bng, ng nh nh kim loi.
Loi
than
%C
Tp cht
(%)
t
o
chy
(t
o
c)
Nhit nng
(kcal/1kg)
Cng dng
Bn 25 31 70 75 295 <4000 un bp
Nu <70 <52 320 6700 Sn xut kh than
75 90 25 5 385 8400
Sn xut than nhin liu
ng lc, t l.
Antraxit 93 98 7 2 420 8000 t l
500 8700 Nhin liu sn xut in
Bng 2.1: Phn loi than
2.2.2 Tnh cht:
- Tnh ng kt: Tnh cht ny thng xy ra i vi than bn v than nu. Nu hm
lng nc trong than t 5% tr ln v nhit thp (bng hoc nh hn 0
o
C) th than
b ng cc kt tng li vi nhau.
Than bn v than nu v mt cu trc dng v nh hnh, bn thn chng ln nhiu
tp cht khong nh loi t c kt dnh cao. Khi hm lng nc bng hoc ln hn
5% khi lng, than chuyn dn vo trng thi keo, cc tp cht khong v phn cha b
cc bon ha s l mt th va gn cc ht than li vi nhau, c bit khi nhit thp.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
26
- Tnh t nng: Tnh t nng c th thy mt s loi than. Qu trnh ny sinh ra kh
d chy v kh c bao gm c carbon monoxide. Loi kh ny khng c mi v nh hn
khng kh gy tc ng xu i vi hng cu khi ht phi.
Than mi khai thc hoc ng lu ngy thng c hin tng t chy. Kh nng t
chy t l thun vi hm lng cht bc cha trong than. Cc cht bc ny to thnh do
qu trnh phn hy cc hp cht hu c trong than hoc qu trnh xy ha than.
- Tnh d n:
Hn hp gia khng kh v cc cht khng thot ra t cc qu trnh phn hy cc hp
cht ha hc v xy ha trong than mt t l nht nh s gy n khi gp tia la.
Mt trong cc cht kh thot ra to thnh hp cht d n nht l kh m tan (Methane).
Kh m tan nh hn khng kh do vy s bay ti khu vc pha trn ca hm hng hoc
cc khu vc kn. Nu nh hm hng khng kn th chng c th r r khuych tn vo cc
khu vc ln cn
Trong hn hp khng kh nng kh mtan t 5% n 16% s gy n khi gp tia la.
- Tnh phn ha:
+ Phn ha vt l: Khi nhit ca c khi than khng u nhau gy ra s co gin
than cng khc nhau dn n hin tng than b nt v kt qu lm than b v vn ra lm
di hm lng nhit ca than.
+ Phn ha ha hc: thc cht l s phn hy cc cht hu c trong than di tc
ng ca cc yu t nh m, xy khng kh v cc yu t sinh hc khc dn n kt
qu lm gim hm lng cc cht d chy trong than v ph hy cu trc ca than.
- Tnh ng c: Cc cht kh thot ra t than do cc qu trnh hot ng ha hc, sinh
hc, vt l trong than to ra c th gy ng c cho ngi khi lm vic, tip xc lu vi
than. Mt trong cc cht kh c l CO, CO
2
, CH
4
...
- Tnh n mn: Mt s loi than c th tc ng vi nc v sn sinh ra cc loi acid
m n s c tc ng n mn cc kt cu thp hm hng. Ngoi ra, qu trnh ny cng c
th sinh ra kh Hydrogen. y l loi kh khng mi v nh hn khng kh v c gii
hn bn la khi dng hn hp khng kh chim t 4% n 75% th tch.
2.2.3 Vn chuyn:
Than c vn chuyn trn cc tu chuyn dng hoc trn cc tu hng bch ho bnh
thng.
*Mt s lu chung:
- Trc khi xp hng cc hm hng phi c v sinh sch s, cc l la canh phi c
dn sch v dng bao ti hoc cc loi vt liu khc c th thm nc che kn ming l la
canh, c bit l khi ch cc loi than vn, cm. Cc thanh g lt mn (spar ceiling) tu
cn c tho d ct i.
- Khng nn than cao qu ln trnh cc cc than ln c th lm hng cc
kt cu trong hm v than d b v vn.
Cc hm ch than phi c cc ng o nhit dn ln boong cng nh cc thit b o
nhit theo ton b chiu cao hm.
- Khng nhn cc loi than c nhit ln hn 35
o
C v c m qu ln.
- Ch tin hnh cc cng vic di hm sau khi thng thong k, c bit cn c
my phn tch kh o, kim tra nng kh m tan trong hm. Nu nng kh mtan
ln hn 1% th khng c php xung hm.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
27
- Trong mi hm ch ch than cng loi. Tuyt i khng c ch cc loi hng d
chy v n chung vi than. Nu ch than v cc loi hng khc na th cc loi hng ny
phi c xp vo cc khoang ring.
- Than xp trong cc hm phi c san bng v sao cho tin li cho vic thng gi.
- Tuyt i khng c mang cc ngn la trn n gn cc ng thng gi hoc xung
hm than ni c th tp chung kh n. Khng c tu tin s dng bt k ngun chiu
sng no ngoi cc n c bo h chng n c bit soi sng trong hm than.
- Khi ch than i xa v cc loi than c gc ngh t nhin nh hn 35
o
(cc loi than
cc nh: as feas and beans; cc loi than antraxit...) cn lp thm cc vch dc gi, cc
vch dc ny t theo mt phng trc dc tu hoc cch mt phng trc dc khng qu
5% chiu rng tu. Cc vch dc ny c th gin on theo chiu thng ng nhng
khong cch gia cc tm khng qu 20 cm.
- Yu cu khng gian cha than phi c kh nng ngn chn c s r r ca nc
cng nh s thm nhp ca cc ngun nhit khc nhau trn tu
- Than phi c xp cch ly vi cc loi hng nhm 1,2,3,4,5 trong IMDG code.
* Cc yu cu chung trong vn chuyn than:
- Trc khi xp hng ngi gi hng s phi cung cp cho thuyn trng bng thng
bo v c tnh ca than (Coal cargo declaration) v cc khuyn co v qui trnh xp
hng cng nh bo qun hng trong khi hnh trnh. H cng phi thng bo v m,
hm lng lu hunh v c bit l kh nng hng c th pht sinh kh m tan hoc t
nng.
- Thuyn trng phi nhn c y cc thng tin nh trn trc khi chp thun
cho hng xp xung tu. Nu c thng bo v kh nng pht sinh kh m tan hay kh
nng t nng ca hng th nht thit phi tham kho cc ch c bit trong hng dn.
- Trc v trong khi xp hng, Thuyn trng phi quan st v kim tra nhng yu t
sau:
+ Tt c khoang cha hng v h la canh phi c lm sch v kh. Tt c cc loi
hng ha ca chuyn trc phi c vt sch.
+ Tt c cc ng dy in v cc thit b in phi m bo an ton trong khi s
dng .
+Tu phi c trang b y cc dng c o lng nng ca kh m tan,
oxygen, carbon monoxide, PH ca nc trong cc h la canh.
+ Khng c ht thuc l cng nh cng nh cc cng tc khc c th pht sinh
ngn la trn trong khu vc hng ha cng nh khu vc ln cn. Cc cng tc g g,
hn. hay cc ngun pht tia la phi b cm, tr phi khu vc c thng thong
thch hp v phi khng nh hon ton khng xut hin kh m tan.
+ Khng xp hng vo cc vch c ngun pht nhit.
+Trc khi khi hnh thuyn trng phi m bo rng b mt ca hng ha phi
c nh ty to b mt tng i bng phng trnh cc ti kh v ngn chn khng
kh lt vo bn trong khi than. Np hm hng phi c ng cht trnh s thm nhp
ca khng kh v nc bn ngoi.
+Thnh phn khng kh trong hm pha trn b mt hng ha phi c kim tra
hng ngy v kt qu phi c ghi li.
+Tr phi c cc ch dn trc tip khc, tt c cc hm hng ch than phi c thng
gi b mt trong vng 24 gi u tin tnh t sau khi khi hnh.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
28
+ Sau 24 gi u tin sau khi khi hnh nu nng kh mtan gim xung mc
thp th phi ng cc ca thng gi. Nu nng kh m tan cn cao th phi tip tc
thng gi cho ti khi c th ng thng gi c.
+ Cc khu vc lm vic kn trn tu thng xuyn phi c kim tra pht hin
cc kh c c th lt vo t khu vc hm hng.
+ Thng xuyn kim tra PH trong cc h la canh pht hin nguy c n mn.
Nu pht hin c nhiu nc la canh th nht thit phi bm nc ra v gi cho la canh
trng thi kh ro.
2.3 Vn chuyn Qung
2.3.1 Khi nim:
Qung l nhng loi t, trong cha mt hm lng kim loi hoc kim no .
2.3.2 Phn loi:
- Qung kim loi: Ch nhng loi qung c hm lng kim loi c th hoc xt cao
nht ca n l ln nht so vi cc nguyn t khc.
V d: qung st, qung ng...
- Qung kim: Nhm qung ny rt phong ph. Tnh cht nhng loi qung ny c
quyt nh ch yu bi nguyn t kim hoc nhm ci nguyn t kim chim hm
lng cao nht so vi cc nguyn t khc.
V d: cc khong ln (P
2
O
5
), khong silict (SiO
2
)
2.3.3 Tnh cht:
- C t trng ln v th tch ring nh.
Loi qung
tnh qung
T trng
(T/m
3
)
Th tch ring
u (m
3
/T)
Loi tinh
qung
T trng
(T/m
3
)
Th tch ring
u (m
3
/T)
Qung st
1,2 1,4 0,71 0,38
Tinh qung st
2.42,7 0,370,42
Qung niken
1,3 1,4 0,71 0,77
Tinh qung titan 2,8
0,354,0
Qung ng
1,27 2,0 0,5 0,79
Tinh qung km
1,82,4 0,350,55
Qung km
2,6 2,7 0,37 0,38
Tinh qung ch
2,24,0 0,250,31
Qung apatit
3,0 3,2
0,7 Tinh qung ng
2,02,7 0,350,50
Qung bxt
1,2 1,4 0,71 0,83
Bng 2.2: T trng v th tch ring ca mt s loi qung
- Tnh di ng: Nu loi qung hoc tinh qung c gc ngh t nhin (Angle of repose)
nh hn 35
o
th coi l hng nguy him v hng ha c kh nng chuyn ri khi v tr
ban u di tc ng ca sng. Do vy nht thit phi p dng cc bin php phng
thch ng theo lut ch hng ri.
- Tnh nho chy: Do bn thn qung c m ln, di tc ng rung ca tu lm
nc ni ln pha trn qung b nho v khi tu b lc hng ha s dch chuyn v mt
bn mn lm nghing tu, nh hng nghim trng ti tnh n nh tu.
- Tnh ng kt: Vi nhng loi qung c m ln (so vi m tiu chun hoc
m gii hn ca bn thn qung) gp nhit thp (nh hn 0
o
C) th b ng kt thnh
tng tng gy kh khn cho vic xp d v vn chuyn.
- Tnh sinh g v hao mn: Do qung b xi ha, sinh g dn n hao mn.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
29
- Tnh bay bi: Qung c tnh bay bi, nht l vi tinh qung.
- Tnh ln: Tnh ln thng xy ra vi tinh qung. Trn bin trong iu kin thi tit
xu, ng hng qung c th ln ti 20%.
- Tnh ta hi c, ta nhit: Mt s loi qung c tnh cht bc hi c v c tnh
cht t nng.
2.3.4 Vn chuyn
Qung c th c chuyn ch trn cc tu bch ho hay trn tu chuyn dng.
Vn an ton ca tu ch qung ph thuc rt nhiu vo vic duy tr m ca
chng trong gii hn an ton. Thng thng, m hng ha c thng bo qua vn
bn gi ti cho Thuyn trng. m thc t ca hng ha cng c th c xc nh
bng cc thit b phn tch m trang b trn tu.
Cn lu nhng vn sau khi nhn v vn chuyn qung:
- Khng nhn hng trong nhng ngy ma, ngy c m t cao.
- Khi nhn qung hoc tinh qung phi kim tra m ca hng, nu m thc t
ln hn m cho php ca qung phi c bin php phng m bo an ton th mi
nhn vn chuyn. Nhn chung khng nn nhn hng khi khng c h s m km theo.
-Khi nhn vn chuyn nhng loi hng qung c t trng ln (h s cht xp khong
0.56m
3
/T hay nh hn) phi c bit ch trng ti vic phn b hng sao cho trnh c
cc ng sut qu ln tc ng ln v tu. Cc tu bch ha thng c thit k ch
cc loi hng c h s cht xp khong t 1.39 n 1.67m
3
/T. Do vy khi ch loi hng
qung c h s cht xp nh th vic phn b hng khng hp l c th gy ra ng sut
cc b ln cng nh i vi ton b thn tu. Do thc tin nh vy kh c mt quy tc
chung cho vic phn b hng trn tt cc cc tu. Thng thng vic phn b hng phi
c thng bo trong s tay xp hng (Loading and stability information booklet)
- Khi nhng thng tin nh trn m khng c thng bo y khi ch hng c t
trng ln th:
+ Vic phn b hng pha trc v sau mt phng sn gia phi khng c s khc
bit ln.
+ Khi lng hng ln nht c php xp trong bt k hm no cng khng c
vt qu: P
max
= 0,9.L.B.d. Trong L l chiu di hm tnh bng mt, B l chiu rng
trung bnh ca hm tnh bng mt, d l mn nc ma h tnh bng mt.
+ Khi m hng vn chuyn khng c nh ty hoc nh ty mt phn th chiu
cao ln nht khi hng c tnh nh sau: h
max
=1,1.d.SF trong SF l h s cht xp
c tnh bng m
3
/T.
+ Nu nh qung vn chuyn c nh ty bng phng th khi lng hng nhn
c i vi cc hm bn di c th tng thm 20% .
+ i vi cc hm pha trn trc chn vt hay pha sau khng gian bung my, cc
hm bn di cng c th gia tng thm 10% khi lng.
- i vi tu hng ri khng chuyn dng khi ch qung c t trng ln thng phn
b hng theo phng n phn b cch hm (Jumping load hoc Alternative load) nu nh
trong h s tu cho php .
- Tnh n nh i vi tu ch qung thng ln dn ti tu c chu k lc nhanh gy
tc ng xu ti kt cu tu. Do vy thng thng qung c vn chuyn trn cc tu
chuyn dng. Cc tu chuyn dng thng thit k mt tng hm (single deck) c cc kt
cha ballast hai mn ln cng nh cc kt treo mn.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
30
2.4 Vn chuyn G:
2.4.1 Phn loi:
Xt v hnh thc vn ti, c th chia g lm hai loi chnh sau y:
- G qua gia cng: y l loi g c gia cng phc v cho cc mc ch s
dng khc nhau.
- G cha gia cng: y l loi g cn di dng th, nguyn cy.
2.4.2 Tnh cht ca g:
G c mt s tnh cht sau y:
- Cng knh.
- D x, ln, c bit l i vi g cy xp trn boong.
- D cong vnh, nt n, c bit l i vi g s ch, d b mc, mc nm nu
khng c bo qun tt.
- C hm lng m rt ln, ng thi c kh nng ht m v ta m mnh. Khi ,
trng lng g s b thay i ln, nh hng n sc ch v n nh ca tu.
m ca g c th tnh bng cng thc sau:
W
nc
= % 100
1
1
P
P P
Trong : P l trng lng g t thi im ang xt.
P
1
l trng lng g kh tuyt i.
m ca g l lng nc tnh bng % i vi trng lng ca g kh.
2.4.3 Vn chuyn g:
G c th c vn chuyn bng tu bch ho hoc tu ch g chuyn dng .
Khi c vn chuyn g trn boong, cn tham kho "Quy tc thc hnh cho tu ch g
trn boong, 1991" ca IMO (Code of Safe Practice for Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes,
1991) nm vng quy tc cht xp, chng buc cng nh lm dy vn an ton cho
thuyn vin i li.
2.4.3.1 Vn chuyn bng tu chuyn dng (Log Carrier Vessel):
Hnh 2.1: Du chuyn ch (Load line mark)
Deck line
300mm
25mm
Summer
Freeboard
T
S
W
WNA
240mm
450mm
540mm 540mm
TF
F
LF
LTF
LT
LS
LW
LWNA
V R
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
31
Vn chuyn g trn tu chuyn dng s c th tn dng c ti a dung tch v trng
ti ca tu.
Tu ch g chuyn dng c nhng c im c bn sau:
- y thng l cc tu mt tng hm, c kt cu chc, khe, hm hng ln, ming
hm hng di v rng, np hm hng c kt cu khe, mn gi cao, chc chn.
- Kt y i ln c th cha c mt lng ln nc dn (Ballast Water).
- Trn boong c cc thit b phc v cho vic chng buc, c nh hng ( cc ct
chng, l cm ct chng, thit b dng hng ro, h thng thit b dy chng buc chuyn
dng...).
- Cn cu ca tu ch g c sc nng ln, c gn du chuyn ch g hai bn mn.
- tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti ca tu, thng thng, tu ch g phi c sc
ch trn boong t nht 1/3 lng g trn tu.
2.4.3.2 Vn chuyn bng tu bch ho (General Cargo Vessel):
Vic vn chuyn g bng tu hng bch ho s khng tn dng ht c kh nng
chuyn ch ca tu v kt cu boong, hm hng, b tr trang thit b chng buc... khng
ph hp vi c im ca loi hng ny.
Mun ch g trn boong, ngi ta phi lm thm cc ct chng ph.
2.4.3.3 Nhng ch khi vn chuyn g:
- Trc khi xp g, cn chun b hm hng, boong tu, thit b chng buc... tht chu
o.
- m bo n nh, xp g to, nng xung di, g nh ln trn.
- Nu ch g trn boong, cn ly y cc lng d tr nh du, nc ngt cng
nh nc dn (c tnh n kh nng ch hng ti a c th ca tu). Vic ly nc dn
vo kt no phi tnh ton trc v ly y trnh nh hng ca m men mt thong
cht lng lm gim n nh ca tu.
- Trc khi xp hng trn boong, phi dn sch rc, thng cc l thot nc trn
boong, m lt hp l nc bin nh ln boong c th thot d dng. y kn cc
ming hm hng, c bin php che chn, bo v trnh h hng cho cc thit b trn
boong do g va vo. Chun b chu o trang thit b chng buc g trn boong nh: ct
chng, puli, dy cp chng, tng , xch chng buc...
- G xp trn boong cn xp sao cho b mt trn cng tng i bng phng, to li i
thun tin, an ton cho thuyn vin, lm dy vn an ton cho thuyn vin.
- Chiu cao ng g xp trn boong phi gii hn quy nh m bo n nh cho tu
trong sut chuyn i (c tnh n s gia tng trng lng ca g trn boong do ngm
nc, nh hng ca mt thong t do ca cc kt cht lng) v khng lm nh hng
n kh nng quan st t bung li cng nh cc hot ng khc
- Chiu cao ng hng trn boong c th tnh theo cng thc kinh nghim nh sau:
+ Tu mt tng hm: h = 0,75 x (B - H)
+ Tu hai tng boong: h = 0,75 x (B - H) - h
2boong
Trong H: Chiu cao mn
B: Chiu rng
h
2boong
: Khong cch gia hai boong
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
32
Vo ma h, chiu cao ng g trn boong ly theo theo h s tu nhng v ma
ng, chiu cao g trn boong khng c vt qu
3
1
B
max
ca tu.
- Trong sut qu trnh lm hng, tu phi lun ni, cn bng, khng t vo cu, x
lan...
* Kim tra lng g xp trn boong cha:
Quay tt c cu tu v mt mn, nng vt nng t 3 n 4 tn m tu nghing khong
3
o
n 4
o
th ngng nhn hng trn boong.
Theo quy nh, chiu cao th vng sau khi hiu chnh m men mt thong cht lng
phi ln hn hoc bng 0,15m.
M men nghing c tnh nh sau:
M
n
= n . q . (l +
2
B
)
GM =
sin D
Mn
phi ln hn hoc bng 0,10 m.
Trong :
n l s cn cu.
l l khong cch t mn tu n vt nng.
Trong khi chy bin, ta c th kim tra GM ca tu thng qua vic o chu k lc, sau
tnh GM thng qua bng "Rolling Period Table" vi i s vo bng l chu k lc ca
tu tnh bng giy v lng dn nc hoc mn nc ca tu.
Cng c th tnh GM thng qua cng thc kinh nghim:
2

,
_

T
B K
GM
Trong :
B l chiu rng tu (m).
T l chu k lc (Giy).
K l h s kinh nghim ph thuc vo loi tu, ln, tnh trng ti ca tu.
(K= 0,64 0,86).
* Tiu chun n nh tu ch g:
- Din tch di cnh tay n n nh tnh (GZ) n gc nghing 40
o
hoc n gc
ngp nc khi gc ny nh hn 40
o
khng c nh hn 0,080 m-rad.
- Gi tr cc i ca cnh tay n GZ t nht phi bng 0,25 m.
- Trong sut qu trnh chuyn i, chiu cao th vng sau khi hiu chnh s nh
hng ca mt thong t do cht lng trong kt cng nh s ngm nc ca g trn
boong (nu c) v s ng bng trn b mt g phi lun lun dng. Ti thi im xut
pht, chiu cao th vng khng c nh hn 0,10 m.
2.5 Vn chuyn hng Container, hng ghp kin:
2.5.1 Vn chuyn hng Container:
2.5.1.1 Gii thiu v phng php vn chuyn Container:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
33
2.5.1.1.1 Nhng u nhc im:
* V u im:
- Vn chuyn Container l mt hnh thc vn chuyn ng bin tin tin v hin nay
rt pht trin.
- Nng sut xp d v vn chuyn rt cao do chuyn dng ha trang thit b, phng
tin xp d, vn ti cng nh bn bi.
- Hng ha c bo v tt, trnh c cc h hng do thi tit, trnh c mt mt,
hao ht do mt cp, gim thi gian lm th tc.
- Thi gian hnh hi nhanh do tu c tc ln v thi gian nm bn ngn nn quay
vng chuyn rt nhanh.
* V nhc im:
- Yu cu phi c tu chuyn dng, h thng bn bi, trang thit b xp d chuyn dng
( gi thnh rt t tin), phng php qun l ph hp th mi c hiu qu kinh t cao.
- Gi thnh bao b t.
2.5.1.1.2 Yu cu, phn loi Container:
* Yu cu i vi Container:
- Phi c kch thc tiu chun quc t.
- Phi c kt cu khe bo v tt hng ha.
- Phi kn nc (i vi Container thng thng).
- Trng lng v cng nh cng tt.
- H s v Container cng nh cng tt (H s v Container l t s gia trng lng
v Container trn trng lng hng cha trong Container).
* Phn loi Container:
- Container thng thng: Dng cho vic ch cc loi hng ho thng thng.
- Container lnh (Reefer Container): Dng ch hng ng lnh.
- Container hng lng ( Liquid tank Container): Dng ch hng lng.
- Container h mn, h nh... ( Open side, open top Container...)
- Cc loi Container c bit khc.
* Kch thc Container:
Kch thc Container c tiu chun ha theo ISO nh sau:
K
hiu
Kch thc -Feet, (met)
Trng lng
c b
(Tn)
L B H
1A 40' (12,192) 8' (2,438) 8' (2,438) 30,5
1B 30' (9,144) 8' (2,438) 8' (2,438) 25,4
1C 20' (6,096) 8' (2,438) 8' (2,438) 20,3
1D 10' (3,408) 8' (2,438) 8' (2,438) 10,2
Bng 2.3: Kch thc Container tiu chun
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
34
Hin nay, cc Container cao 8' gn nh khng cn c s dng nhiu na m loi
c s dng ph bin l Container c chiu cao 8'6". m rng dung tch cha hng,
ngi ta chp nhn cc Container c chiu cao 9', 9'6". Cc Container c chiu cao
9'6" c gi l High Cubic Container.
Container ca M li c kch thc khc Container tiu chun v chiu di (45').
2.5.1.2 Vn chuyn hng Container:
Ni chung ngi ta thng dng tu chuyn dng vn chuyn Container nhng
cng c th ch Container bng tu ch hng bch ho, tuy nhin vic xp hng, m lt,
chng buc hng phi ht sc thn trng, c bit l i vi Container xp trn boong do
kt cu ca tu ch hng kh khng ph hp vi vic xp Container.
Cc tu chuyn dng ch Container thng c thit k ph hp v c c im sau:
- Hm hng vung vc, vch thng, khng c boong trung gian (tweendeck).
- Trong hm c cc khung dn hng (Shell guide) tin cho vic xp, d Container.
- C trang thit b chng buc Container chuyn dng, tiu chun. (Twist lock, Bridge
Fitting, Lashing Rod, Turn buckle, Single cone, Double cone...)
- Tu Container chuyn dng thng khng b tr cn cu. Trng hp c cn cu th
sc nng ca cn cu rt ln (trn 40 tn) v thng dng cho cc tu chy qua cc cng
khng c thit b xp d b chuyn dng.
- C h thng my tnh v phn mm phc v cho vic xp d hng ha.
- C h s bo ln, kt cu khe, np hm hng rng v khe.
Hin nay, mt s tu Container hin i ca mt s hng tu c thit k Shell Guide
t di hm ln trn boong. Loi tu ny s khng c np hm hng (Hatchless) v
Container xp trn boong s khng cn chng buc sau khi xp xong, gim bt thi gian
tu nm trong cng.
2.5.1.3 S xp hng tu Container:
S hng ha tu Container bao gm mt s tng qut (General Plan) v cc S
Bay (Bay Plan). Ngi ta thng dng mu sc th hin cc Container xp (d) ti
cc cng khc nhau, trn c ghi k hiu tn cng.
Hnh 2.2 : Chng buc Container trn boong
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
35
Hnh 2.3: S Bay-Row-Tier
Trn s Bay, thng th hin chi tit hn cc thng tin v hng ha nh: s hiu cc
container trong Bay, trng lng c b, trng lng tnh, tn cng xp cng d....
V tr ca mt Container trn tu c xc nh bi ba thng s l Bay, Row, Tier.
- Bay: l hng Container theo chiu ngang ca tu. Bay c nh s l cc s l t
mi v li (01,03,05,07,09....). Tu theo thit k ca tu m s Bay c th c nh du
86
84
82
18
16
14
12
10
08
06
04
01 03 05 07 02 04 06 08
BAY 23
Row
Tier
27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 09 07 05
26
22 18 16 10 06
86
82 82
86 86
82
84 84
18
16
16
18
16
18
14
14 14
12 12 12 12 12
10 10 10 10 10
08
06
04
02
08
08 08 08
06 06
06 06
04 04
04
02 02
Bay and Tier
E
D
C
A
B
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
36
khc nhau i cht. Thng th vi cc Bay ch nh s l s phc v cho vic xp cc
Container 20', cn i vi cc Bay nh s c l v chn th Bay c th xp c
Container 20' v 40'.
V d: Bay 05
06
07 th c th xp mt Container 40' hoc hai Container 20'.
- Row: l dy Container theo chiu dc ca tu. Row c nh s th t t gia tu
ra hai mn, mn phi s l (01,03,05,07,09,11...), mn tri s chn (02,04,06,08,10...).
Nu tng s Row l l th Row gia mang s 00.
-Tier: l s lp Container theo phng thng ng. Tier c nh s chn
(02,04,06,08,10....) nu di hm hng, trn boong bt u bng s 82,84,86,88,90...
2.5.2 Vn chuyn hng ghp kin, trong ca bn:
Hng ghp kin v trong ca bn c p dng nh l mt hnh thc tng nng sut
xp d.
Hng ha s c xp ghp kin hoc xp trn cc ca bn c kch thc tiu chun v
cu to ph hp c th lm hng bng xe nng hng.
Yu cu khi xp hng ghp kin v trong ca bn phi xp kht, trnh v khi tu
lc. Khi xp hng ghp kin hoc hng trong ca bn ln tu, ngi ta dng xe nng hng
xp hng ln lt t st vch, mn ra gia tu. Khi khng gian gia hm hng cn li
khng cho xe nng hng lm vic th hng s c cu xung hm hng bng cc ai
cu v gi nguyn cc ai ny cho n cng d. Ti cng d, ngi ta s d ch hng
gia hm ln trc v sau cu xe nng hng xung thao tc d cc kin hng ho
trong ca bn khc.
Kch thc ca bn cng c tiu chun ha nh sau:
0,8m x 1,0m
1,2m x 1,6m
1,2m x 1,8m.
2.6 Vn chuyn hng mau hng v ng vt ti sng:
2.6.1 Vn chuyn hng mau hng:
Hng mau hng l cc loi hng c ngun gc t ng thc vt nh tht, c, trng, b
sa, rau, c qu...
c im ca loi hng ny l lun cha mt lng m bn thn kh ln, lun din
ra cc hot ng sinh ha, sinh l lm thay i thnh phn ha hc, hng v v cht
lng hng. Do vy, i vi loi hng ny, cn phi c ch bo qun ph hp c bit
v nhit v m.
Thng thng, loi hng ny thng c ch bng tu chuyn dng (Reefer vessel)
hoc trong cc Container lnh (Reefer Container) di hai dng sau:
- Hng p (Frozen Cargo): nhit bo qun hng thng c duy tr nhit
lnh su (thng thng t 10
o
F, khong -12
o
C tr xung). Kiu ny thng dng
chuyn ch cc loi tht, c.
- Hng p lnh: (Chilled Cargo): nhit bo qun loi hng ny khng duy tr lnh
su. Kiu bo qun hng nh th ny c dng cho mt s loi sn phm tht, c, b,
sa, trng hoc rau c qu, hoa qu. Tu theo tng loi hng v theo hng dn ca
ngi gi hng m phi duy tr nhit cho ph hp ( t xp x 0
o
C i vi sn phm
tht v trn di 10
o
C i vi cc loi rau, c, qu, hoa qu.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
37
2.6.1.1Vn chuyn tht:
Tht thng c ch di dng p khng bao b nh tht tru, tht b, tht cu,
tht ln...
Ngi ta tht tng tng to, xp ng ln nhau hoc treo trn cc x treo. Chiu cao
ng tht tu theo sc chu nn ca chng. V d ng tht tru, b thng cao hn ng
tht cu non, b non... i vi tht gia cm, chng thng c ng trong cc ti nilon,
xp vo khay hoc hp cc tng.
Nhit vn chuyn tht v gia cm thng vo khong 15
o
F ( -10
o
C ).
Trc khi xp hng xung tu, hm hng phi c v sinh sch s, kh ro, kh
trng v kh mi hi. Trc khi lm lnh hm hng, cc thanh g m lt phi c t
trc v tr nht nh (theo chiu ngang tu).
Tht treo trn x bng mc phi m bo sc chu ca x, phi cch nhau khong 0,3m
v phi chng gi, khng cho chng va vo vch hm lnh khi tu rung, lc trong qu
trnh hnh hi. Khi lm vic trong hm lnh phi mang y bo h, khng cho
ngi khng c nhim v vo hm lnh.
Khi nhn tht cn phi ch nhng im sau:
- B mt tht phi sn, kh, khng dnh mu, khng chy nc.
- Khng thy du hiu tht b ln men, mc, kt dnh.
2.6.1.2 Vn chuyn c:
C thng c ch di hai dng p v p mui.
Nhit vn chuyn c thng vo khong 10
o
F (-12
o
C).
Cc loi c ln thng c ch di dng khng c bao b, duy tr bo qun lnh su
(ti -18
o
C).
Cc loi c nh thng c xp vo st, thng cc tng. Nn xp chng c khe h
tin thng thong.
Nu c c ch di dng p mui th phi c vt liu thm nc.
2.6.1.3 Vn chuyn trng:
- Trng thng c ch di dng ti hoc p mui.
- Trng c xp vo cc st, thng cc tng trn cc khay hoc c vt liu chn lt
cho trng khi b v trong qu trnh vn chuyn.
- Thng u tin xp trng nhng ni bng phng, t rung lc. Nhit bo qun
trng trn di 0
0
C cht t.
2.6.1.4 Vn chuyn rau xanh v hoa qu:
- Rau xanh v hoa qu c c im l m bn thn rt ln nn d b vi khun xm
nhp.
- Rau xanh v hoa qu trong qu trnh vn chuyn vn din ra qu trnh sinh ha, chn
sau v rt d b kh ho, dp nt, thi.
- Rau xanh v hoa qu c bo qun nhit mt trn di 10
o
C tu loi. Ring
cc loi to, nho, l, o, mn, nhit vn chuyn khong t -1
o
C n 2
o
C.
- Rau xanh v hoa qu thng c xp vo cc st, hp cc tng v c ch trn
cc tu chuyn dng hoc Container lnh.
Trong qu trnh chuyn ch, phi theo di, duy tr nhit ca hng theo yu cu ca
ngi gi hng v phi c bin php thng gi thch hp.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
38
2.6.2 Vn chuyn ng vt sng v sn phm ca n:
2.6.2.1 Vn chuyn ng vt sng:
- Yu cu ch bo qun v chm sc c bit, d b cht do b bnh, tai nn, nh
nhau. vn chuyn loi hng ny, ngi ta thng s dng tu chuyn dng. C th
ch c trn mt boong v trong hm hng.
- ng vt ln th phi ngn tng con, ng vt nh th ch theo l. Trc khi nhn
xung tu, ng vt phi c giy chng nhn kim dch, ngi vn chuyn phi kim tra.
Khi vn chuyn phi c thc n d tr km theo v c nhn vin th y.
- Tu phi c dn v sinh sch s, kh trng. Nu dng tu khng chuyn dng
ch th phi ng sn cao 30cm d qut dn phn, rc. Phi c lan can cho ng vt
da vo khi tu lc. Lan can ny phi khe v cao chng khng nhy ra ngoi.
- Vic cho n ung phi tin hnh thng xuyn vi v sinh, lun thng gi to
khng kh trong lnh cho ng vt.
- Nu khi vn chuyn c dch bnh th phi cch ly con vt b bnh, cha chy, phng
nga v bo co cho cng ti v ch tu bit. i vi nhng th vt qu him th phi
nht ring v c bin php chm sc c bit. i vi nhng ng vt cht th khng
c nm xung bin, phi gi trong hm lnh.
- Phn ng vt khng c thi xung vng nc ca cng.
2.6.2.2 Vn chuyn sn phm ng vt.
2.6.2.2.1 Vn chuyn da:
Da thng c vn chuyn di hai dng l kh v p mui.
Da kh thng c b thnh kin hoc trong st, bao. Trong qu trnh vn chuyn
phi lun gi hm hng kh ro. Khi nhn hng phi xem da c b t, nm mc khng.
Da p mui thng c ch di dng khng bao b, cng c th c ng vo
thng cc tng. Khi ch loi hng ny phi c vt liu ngn gia hng v sn tu. Khi xp
hng, da phi c xp hai mt gip vo nhau v rc mui u khp b mt ca chng.
Trong qu trnh vn chuyn, gi cho da khng b dnh nc ma, nc bin, thng
xuyn thng thong hm hng. Phi c vt liu thm ht nc do mui to ra.
Da mui ta mi mnh nn khng c xp ln cc loi hng kh v cc hng hp th
mi khc.
Sau khi tr hng phi v sinh hm hng ngay bng nc ngt trnh g hm hng.
2.6.2.2.2 Vn chuyn lng sc vt:
Lng sc vt thng c vn chuyn di dng c ty ra sch hoc cha c
ty ra.
Lng c b thnh tng kin, xp nh hng bao kin. Khi nhn lng phi kim tra
m v cht lng, trnh lm rch bao, kin, lun gi hm hng kh ro.
2.6.2.2.3 Vn chuyn xng:
Xng thng c vn chuyn di dng c lm sch ht phn tht, c phi
kh, kh mi v c b thnh tng b hoc ng trong st. Khi xp d, trnh qung
qut mnh lm v xng.
Khi vn chuyn, lun gi cho hm hng kh ro, trnh xng b mc hoc thay i
mu sc.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
39
CHNG 3: S XP HNG TU HNG KH
3.1 Cc thng s ca tu:
3.1.1 Cc kch thc c bn:
- Chiu di ton b (Length Over All-LOA): L chiu di ln nht tnh theo chiu dc
tu.
Kch thc ny rt quan trng i vi vic b tr cu bn cng nh trong qu trnh
iu ng tu.
- Chiu di tnh ton (Length Between Perpendicular- LBP): L khong cch trn
ng nc ma h t mp trc ca sng mi tu ti mp sau ca tr bnh li hoc
ti tm ca trc bnh li nu khng c tr bnh li.
Cc ng thng ng i qua giao im ca ng nc ma h vi cc im ni trn
ti mi v li c gi l cc ng vung gc mi (Forward Perpendicular-FP) v
ng vung gc li (After Perpendicular-AP).
Kch thc ny phc v cho vic tnh ton v hiu chnh mn nc, xc nh hiu s
mn nc v lm gim nh mn nc tnh ton hng ha. Ngoi ra LBP cn dng
trong php tnh, hiu chnh s o hoc tnh ton khong trng thc trong kt cha cht
lng.
- Chiu cao ln nht (Maximum Height): L khong cch thng ng o t mp di
ca sng y ti nh cao nht ca tu.
Kch thc ny cn c quan tm trong khai thc tu, c bit l khi tu chy trong
khu vc c ng cp in hoc cu bc ngang qua lung.
Hnh 3.1: Chiu di v chiu cao tu.
- Chiu rng ln nht (Maximum Breadth): L khong cch ln nht tnh theo chiu
ngang tu.
- Chiu rng nh hnh (Breadth Moulded- Bmld): L khong cch o t mp ngoi
ca sn tu mn ny n mp ngoi ca sn tu mn bn kia ti mt phng sn gia.
- Chiu su nh hnh (Depth Moulded-Dmld): L khong cch thng ng gia tu
o t nh sng chnh n mp di ca boong chnh.
- Chiu cao mn (Height-H): L chiu cao tnh t mp di ky tu n mp trn ca
vch du ng boong chnh.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
40
Hnh 3.2: Chiu rng thn tu.
- Mn kh ma h (Summer Free Board): L khong cch thng ng gia tu tnh
t mp trn ng boong n xung mp trn ca ng du chuyn ch ma h.
- Mn kh ca tu (Free board): L khong cch thng ng gia tu tnh t mp
trn ng boong n ng nc ca tu.
Hnh 3.3: Du chuyn ch.
- cong dc (Sheer): L chnh ca ng boong t gia tu vi cc im tn
cng pha mi v li ca tu.
- cong ngang (Camber): L chnh ca boong t mn so vi trc dc tu.
- Mn nc (Draft- d): L khong cch thng ng t ng nc ti ky tu. Trong
thc t, tu c th t th bt k (nghing, chi) nn khong cch ny s khc nhau ti
cc v tr khc nhau theo chiu di tu.
Thng thng mn nc ca tu c ly ba v tr: mi, li v gia tu.
+ Mn nc mi (d
F
): L khong cch thng ng tnh t giao im ca ng
vung gc mi vi mt phng ng nc n ky tu ko di.
+ Mn nc li (d
A
): L khong cch thng ng tnh t giao im ca ng
vung gc li vi mt phng ng nc n ky tu.
Chiu dy tn v
Chiu rng nh hnh
Cong giang
Chiu rng
C
h
i

u

s

n
h

h

n
h
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
41
+ Mn nc gia (d

): L khong cch thng ng tnh t mt phng ng nc


n ky tu ti mt phng sn gia tu.
Hnh 3.4: Mn nc v thc o mn nc.
- Hiu s mn nc (t): L gi tr hiu s ca mn nc mi v mn nc li ca tu
t = (d
F
- d
A
)
Hnh 3.5: Thc o mn nc gn trn thn tu.
Trong thc t, mn nc ca tu c gn c hai mn tu pha mi, li v gia tu.
Cc thc mn nc ny t khi trng vi cc ng vung gc mi, li v mt
phng sn gia do hnh dng ca v tu. Cc gi tr mn nc c c trn cc thc
mn nc ny gi l mn nc biu kin. c c mn nc thc ca tu khi c hiu
s mn nc, ta cn phi hiu chnh vo mn nc biu kin mt lng hiu chnh nht
nh, k hiu l d
F
, d
A
, d

.
Thc mn nc c biu th bng ch s La m hoc ch s A rp c s o theo h
Mt hoc Foot.
Thc o nc theo h Mt c cc ch s cao 10cm, khong cch gia hai ch s l
10cm.
Thc mn nc theo h Foot c cc ch s cao 6 inchs, khong cch gia hai ch s
l 6 inches.
Khi c mn nc ta ly ng nc v chn con s lm chun.
* L do phi hiu chnh s c mn nc:
+ Do tu nghing, chi dn n s c mn nc ti hai mn tu khng bng nhau.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
42
2
' '
'
FP FS
F
d d
d
+

Trong :
d'
FS
: L mn nc biu kin mn phi
d'
FP
: L mn nc biu kin mn tri
+ Do thc mn nc ca tu khng trng vi cc ng vung gc hoc mt
phng sn gia v tu b chi (c hiu s mn nc).
T hnh 3.4 ta thy:
d
F
= d'
F
d
F
d
F
= l
F
x tg
d
F
= d'
F
l
F
x tg
Trong l gc chi ca tu.
) (
' ' ' '
A F
A F
d
A F
l l LBP
d d d d
tg
l +


Hiu s mn nc biu kin:
t' = d'
F
- d'
A
T cc cng thc trn ta c mn nc thc ti cc ng vung gc v mt phng
sn gia l:
) (
'
'
A F
F
F F
l l LBP
t l
d d
+

t
) (
'
'
A F
A
A A
l l LBP
t l
d d
+

t
) (
'
'
A F l l LBP
t l
d d
+

t


* l
F
, l
A,,
l : l khong cch t cc thc mn nc mi, li ti cc ng vung
gc trc, sau v mt phng sn gia. Cc gi tr ny cho trong h s tu, phn Hiu
chnh s c mn nc.
Ch : Vic ly du (+) hoc (-) trong cc cng thc trn tu thuc vo v tr ca cc
thc mn nc so vi cc ng vung gc v tu thuc vo chiu chi ca tu.
Trong cc h s tu, ngi ta thng thit k sn Bng hiu chnh s c mn nc
(Draft Correction Table) tin s dng cho vic tra cc s hiu chnh mn nc . i
s vo bng l mn nc biu kin v hiu s mn nc biu kin.
V d: Bng hiu chnh s c mn nc tu GEMINI FOREST
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
43
APPARENT FORE DRAFT MIDSHIP DRAFT AFT DRAFT
TRIM
CORRECTION
(m)
CORRECTION
(m)
CORRECTION
(m)
(m) Lf =0.600 Lm =0.600 La =5.500
0.2 8.2 6.8 8.4 3.0 9.0
-2.000 0.010 0.010 -0.094
-1.800 0.009 0.009 -0.085
-1.600 0.008 0.008 -0.075
........ ......... ......... .........
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.200 -0.001 -0.001 0.009
0.400 -0.002 -0.002 0.019
0.600 -0.003 -0.003 0.028
Bng 3.1: Bng hiu chnh s c mn nc
Mn nc trung bnh (Mean Draft - d
M
): L gi tr trung bnh ca cc mn nc ca
tu c tnh n n vng ca tu.
C th din gii cch tnh mn nc trung bnh nh sau:
(*)
Gi tr mn nc trong cng thc (*) tng ng vi gi tr tnh theo cng thc sau:
- Mn nc tng ng d
eqv
(Corresponding Draft hoc Equivalent Draft): Trong
bng thy tnh, cc gi tr lng dn nc (Disp.), mn nc, honh tm F ca mt
phng ng nc (LCF) cng nh cc thng s khc c cho trong trng hp tu
t th cn bng mi li.
Tuy nhin, xc nh c lng dn nc ca tu thng qua bng thy tnh trong
iu kin c hiu s mn nc (Trim - t) th ta phi tin hnh hiu chnh nh hng ca
hiu s mn nc n mn nc trung bnh tnh n un vng xc nh c
mn nc tng ng (d
eqv
) vi lng dn nc cn tm.
d
eqv
= d
M
+
d
Trong :
d
=
d1
+
d2
. l s hiu chnh mn nc do nh hng ca hiu s mn
nc.
APPARENT TRIM x (Lf , Lm, La)
DRAFT CORRECTION d = ---------------------------------------------------
116.800m
2
) ( A F
Mean
d d
d
+

2
) ( +

d dMean
Mean Of Mean d
2
) ( +

d d Mean Of Mean
Mean Quarter d
8
6 A F
M
d d d
d
+ +


Xp d v bo qun hng ho
44

d1
l s hiu chnh a mn nc trung bnh v tm F ca mt phng ng
nc.

d2
l s hiu chnh N m t (Do hnh dng v bao thn tu lm tng gi tr mn
nc khi c hiu s mn nc t).
d
eqv
= d
M
+
d1
+
d2
(**)
Ti mt lng dn nc nht nh, tm F ca mt phng ng nc l mt im c
nh. thay i t th, tu s quay quanh tm F. Khi tu cn bng mi li, mn nc ti
tm F bng vi cc mn nc khc ca tu. Khi tu c hiu s mn nc, tu thuc vo
v tr ca tm F so vi mt phng sn gia m mn nc ti F s khc vi mn nc
trung bnh ti mt phng sn gia mt gi tr no .
C th tnh ton
d1
(a mn nc trung bnh v mn nc ti F) t hnh 3.6 nh
sau:

d1
= EF x tg = LCF x tg. (Xem hnh 3.6)
Xt tam gic ABC ta thy y l tam gic ng dng vi tam gic HEF.
LBP
t
BC
AB
tg
LCF- Longitudinal Centre of Floatation: Honh trng tm mt phng ng nc.
Trng hp ny LCF c tnh so vi mt phng sn gia.
Khi
) ( ), ( 1 ft m
LBP
t LCF
d

d1
mang du (+) khi F nm pha sau mt phng sn gia v tu chi li.
F nm pha trc mt phng sn gia v tu chi mi.

d1
mang du (-) khi F nm pha sau mt phng sn gia v tu chi mi.
F nm pha trc mt phng sn gia v tu chi li.

d2
l s hiu chnh N m t. S hiu chnh ny lun dng v c tnh nh sau:
Tnh
d2
:
a
MTC MTC
LBP LBP
t
TPC
LBP a dM a dM
d
2 2
1
2
2
+


Trong : d
M
l mn nc trung bnh c tnh n nh hng vng n ca tu.
a l s gia mn nc so vi mn nc trung bnh d
M
MTC
dM + a
; MTC
dM- a
l m men lm thay i 1cm hiu s mn nc ti
mn nc d
M + a
v d
M- a.
tin tnh ton, theo h mt thng ly a = 0,5 m.
Khi c th vit li cng thc trn nh sau:
(m)
5 . 0 2 2
1 5 . 0 5 . 0
2
2


+ dM dM
d
MTC MTC
LBP LBP
t
TPC
LBP
LBP TPC
MTC MTC t dM dM
d



+ ) (
2
1 5 . 0 5 . 0
2
2
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
45
Trong trng hp tnh theo h Feet, gi tr s gia mn nc a c ly l 6 inches.
Nh vy cng thc tnh
d2
s l:
LBP TPI
MTC MTC t dM dM
d



+ ) (
2
1 6 6
2
2 (ft)
Thay cc gi tr
d1
v
d2
vo cng thc (**) ta s tnh c d
eqv
.
d
eqv
chnh l mn nc tng ng vi lng dn nc tra trong bng thy tnh.
Hay ni cch khc, ta dng d
eqv
tra ra lng dn nc trong bng thy tnh. Lng
dn nc ny ch cn khc lng dn nc thc t mt lng hiu chnh t trng nc
bin.
Hnh 3.6: Mn nc ti F
3.1.2 Cc thnh phn trng lng:
- Lng dn nc (Displacement - D): l trng lng ca phn th tch nc m tu
chim ch.
- Trng lng tu khng: (Light Ship D
o
): L ton b trng lng tu khng, bao
gm v, my, cc trang thit b, ph tng.... nhng khng bao gm nhin liu, nc ngt
(tr nc trong ni hi).
- Trng ti tng cng (Deadweight - Dwt): L trng lng tnh bng tn ca hng ha,
nhin liu, nc ngt, thuyn vin, hnh khch, lng thc, thc phm, hng s tu...
c ch trn tu (thng c tnh n ng mn nc ma h).
Dwt = D
c
+ D
st
+ D
ballast
+ Constant
T cc khi nim v lng dn nc v trng lng tu khng, c th xc nh Dwt
bng cng thc sau:
Dwt = D - D
o
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
46
- Trng ti thun tu (Cargo Deadweight - D
c
): L trng lng hng chuyn ch trn
tu.
- Lng d tr (D
st
): L trng lng ca du m, nc ngt...
- Hng s tu (Constant): L s chnh lch gia trng lng tu khng hin ti vi
trng lng tu khng theo thit k.
i vi mi con tu, trong h s tu s cho gi tr Constant ban u lc mi ng. Qua
qu trnh khai thc, Constant s thay i, do vy ta phi thng xuyn xc nh li.
3.1.3 Dung tch tu:
- Dung tch ton phn (Gross Tonnage - GT): L mt i lng khng c th nguyn
v l hm s ca tt c cc th tch l thuyt ca tt c cc khng gian kn ca tu.
GT = K
1
x V
Trong :
+ K
1
l h s c tra trong bng ca Cng c Quc t v o dung tch tu bin
Tonnage-69 vi i s l V.
K
1
= 0,2 + 0,02.Log
10
.V
+ V l tng th tch ca cc khng gian kn ca tu (m
3
), tt c cc khng gian
c bao bc bi thn tu, cc kt cu ngn dc, cc vch c nh hay di ng, cc boong
hoc cc np y tr cc mi che c nh hay di ng
- Dung tch c ch (Net Tonnage - NT): L mt i lng khng c th nguyn v l
hm s ca tt c cc th tch l thuyt ca tt c cc khng gian dnh cho cha hng ca
tu, ca chiu cao mn, chiu chm tu v s hnh khch c php chuyn ch.
- Gross Tonnage v Net Tonnage c cho trong h s tu v c trong Giy chng
nhn dung tch ca tu (International Tonnage Certificate). y l cc thng s khai thc
quan trng ca tu. Cc gi tr ny thng lm c s tnh cc loi l ph ca tu (cng
ph, hoa tiu ph, ph lai dt...) cng nh tnh ln ca i tu thuc mt Cng ty hay
ca Quc gia.
- Ngoi cc loi dung tch trn, cn c dung tch qua knh o Panama v knh o
Suez tnh theo cch tnh ring ( C giy chng nhn o dung tch ring cho cc knh o
ny v dng cho mc ch tnh ph qua cc knh o ny).
3.1.4 Dung tch xp hng ca tu:
- Dung tch hng bao kin (Bale Capacity - m
3
hoc Ft
3
): y l khong khng gian o
gia cc x ngn cch hoc o n cc sn mn tu trong hm hng ca tu. Gi tr ny
c cho trong h s tu i vi tng hm hng mt v c dng tnh ton kh nng
cha hng bao kin ca tu.
- Dung tch hng ri (Grain Capacity - m
3
hoc Ft
3
): y l khong khng gian cha
hng o n st tn mn ca hm hng. Gi tr ny cng c cho trong h s tu i vi
tng hm hng mt v c dng tnh ton kh nng cha hng ri ca tu. Dung tch
hng ri thng ln hn dung tch hng bao kin.
- H s rng cht xp (Allowance for Brocken Stowage): y l mt h s biu th
rng ca hm hng khi xp mt loi hng ring bit no . N c tnh bng phn trm
ca th tch hm hng v chnh l khng gian rng trong hm hng nhng khng th
dng cho vic xp hng c.
Gi tr ny ph thuc vo cu trc, kch thc v hnh dng ca hm hng, ph thuc
vo chng loi, kch c v hnh dng ca hng ha. H s rng i vi cc loi hng ha
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
47
c th c tham kho qua t liu ca cc cng ty xp d.
3.2 Khai thc h s tu:
H s tu l mt b gm nhiu ti liu cha ng cc thng s k thut, biu bng,
bn v, chi tit ...ca tu cho bit cc thng tin, hng dn phc v cho cc tnh ton lin
quan n tu, hng ha, n nh, sc bn, mn nc ...trong khai thc tu.
Trong h s tu, chng ta cn c bit quan tm n mt s ti liu sau y c th
c cc thng tin cn thit cho tnh ton hng ha, tnh v kim tra n nh, sc bn, mn
nc ca tu
- Cun thng tin v xp hng v n nh (Loading and Stability Information Booklet):
y l ti liu rt quan trng, cung cp y cc thng tin v cc thng s khai thc,
thng s k thut, cc biu bng, cc h ng cong thy tnh, bng thy tnh, b tr kt,
thng s kt, cc bng hiu chnh mn nc, hiu chnh nh hng ca mmen mt
thong, cc hng dn, tiu chun IMO lin quan n tnh ton, kim tra n nh tu, sc
bn thn tu, cc phng n xp hng mu...
- S tay xp hng (Loading Manual): Ti liu ny cha ng cc hng dn, thng tin
quan trng phc v cho cng tc xp hng i vi tu.
- S tay xp hng ht (Grain Loading Booklet): Ti liu ny cha ng cc hng
dn, thng tin quan trng cng nh cc tiu chun tnh ton, n nh phc v cho vic
xp hng ht ri.
- Cc bng tra v kt (Tank Table ): Ti liu ny cho cc thng tin lin quan v cc kt
cha trn tu (Ballast Water, Fresh Water, Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil, Lub. Oil) phc v cho
vic tra cu, tnh ton cht lng v nh hng ca chng n n nh, t th ca tu.
3.2.1 Bng ng cong thy tnh, thc ti trng:
3.2.1.1 H to :
xy dng h ta , ngi ta dng h thng gm ba mt phng ta vung gc
vi nhau c m t theo hnh v di y:
- Mt phng i xng (zOx): l mt phng thng ng cha ng thng trc dc tu,
chia i chiu rng tu. Mt phng ny cn c gi l mt phng trc dc tu.
- Mt phng sn gia (zOy): l mt phng vung gc vi mt phng i xng v chia
i chiu di tnh ton ca tu.
- Mt phng c bn (xOy): l mt phng nm ngang, vung gc vi hai mt phng trn
v i qua im thp nht ca y tu. i vi tu c ky bng th mt phng ny trng vi
mt phng cha ky tu.
T ba mt phng ta trn ngi ta xc nh mt h ta Oxyz gn lin vi thn
tu.
Theo quy c, trc Ox c chiu dng v pha mi; Trc Oy c chiu dng v pha
mn phi; Trc Oz c chiu dng hng ln trn (Tt c ly gc t im O).
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
48
3.2.1.2 Cc k hiu:
- G (Center of Gravity): Trng tm tu: L im t ca vc t trng lc tng hp ca
tu.
- G
o
(Light Ship Center of Gravity): Trng tm tu khng
- B (Center of Buoyancy): Tm ni ca tu: L im t ca vc t lc ni tc dng
ln tu hay chnh l trng tm ca khi nc m tu chim ch. Khi tu ni trng
thi cn bng th lc ni v trng lc ca tu tc dng cng trn mt ng thng ng,
bng nhau v ngc chiu nhau.
- M (Metacenter): Tm nghing ca tu: l tm ca qu o tm ni B. y chnh l
tm ca qu o ca tm ni B khi tu nghing. Mt cch tng qut y l qu o c
cong thay i. Khi tu nghing vi gc nghing nh ( 15
0
), c th coi qu o do
tm ni B vch ra l cung trn c tm l im M c nh.
- F ( Center of Floatation): Tm mt phng ng nc. y l tm hnh hc ca phn
mt phng ng nc c gii hn pha trong v bao thn tu.
- K (Keel of Ship): Sng y ca tu.
Hnh 3.8: Qu o tm ni
Hnh 3.7: Ba mt phng to v h to Oxyz
O
x
z
Mt phng
sn gia
Mt phng
i xng
Mt phng
C bn
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
49
- TPC/TPI (Tons Per Centimeter/ Tons Per Inch): S tn lm thay i 1cm/1inch chiu
chm trung bnh ca tu.
- MTC/MTI (Moment to change Trim one Centimeter/ Moment to change Trim one
Inch): M men lm thay i 1 cm/1inch chiu chi ca tu. y chnh l ln mt m
men lm thay i 1cm/ 1inch chiu chi ca tu.
- KB ( Vertical center of Buoyancy): Chiu cao tm ni. L cao ca tm ni B tnh
t ng c s (thng ly l Ky tu).
- KG (Vertical center of Gravity): Chiu cao trng tm. L cao ca trng tm G tnh
t ng c s (thng ly l Ky tu).
- KGo: Chiu cao trng tm tu khng.
- TKM (Transverse Metacenter height): Chiu cao tm nghing ngang. L cao tm
nghing ngang tnh t ng c s (thng ly l Ky tu).
- LKM (Longitudinal Metacenter height): Chiu cao tm chi. L cao tm chi tnh
t ng c s (thng ly l Ky tu).
- GM (Metacentric Heght): Chiu cao th vng. L khong cch theo chiu thng
ng, tnh t trng tm tu n tm nghing ngang ca tu. i lng ny dng nh
gi th vng ban u ca tu.
- LCB (xB, MID.B) Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy: Honh tm ni B tnh t
mt phng sn gia.
- LCG (xG, MID.G) Longitudinal Center of Gravity: Honh trng tm tnh t mt
phng sn gia.
- LCF (xF, MID.F) Longitudinal Center of Floatation: Honh tm mt phng ng
nc tnh t mt phng sn gia.
Ch :
- i vi cc h s tu c gc ta t ti ng vung gc sau th LCB, LCG,
LCF... c tnh n ng vung gc sau. Trong trng hp ny chng s khng c
du.
- nm c quy c vit tt v du ca cc yu t trn, cn phi nghin cu trc
phn hng dn v cc quy c vit tt v du trong h s tu.
3.2.1.3 H ng cong thy tnh, bng thy tnh.
* Bng thy tnh (Hydrostatic table):
Bng 3.2: Bng thu tnh
Cch s dng bng thu tnh: T mn nc hoc lng dn nc, ta tra vo bng s
c cc gi tr tng ng cn tm nh :LCB, LCF, MTC, TPC...
HYDRO STATIC TABLE
DRAFT DISPT MID.B MID.F M.T.C T.P.C KB T.KM L.KM
(M) (K.T) (M) (M) (T-M) (T) (M) (M) (M)
2.00 3611 -3.074 -3.036 132.70 19.43 1.019 15.84 452.3
2.01 3631 -3.074 -3.036 132.81 19.44 1.024 15.78 450.4
2.02 3650 -3.074 -3.035 132.81 19.44 1.030 15.73 448.6
2.03 3669 -3.074 -3.034 133.02 19.45 1.035 15.66 446.6
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
50
* H ng cong thy tnh (Hydrostatic curves):
Hnh 3.9: H ng cong thy tnh
Trn h ng cong ny, trc tung biu th mn nc ca tu.
Trc honh c chia t l theo cm. Cc ng cong c v v cho t l gi tr tng
ng vi 1cm.
Cch s dng ng cong nh sau: T mn nc, vo ng cong, dng sang ngang,
ct cc ng cong ti cc im tng ng, dng xung trc honh s c cc im ng
vi s cm. Nhn s cm ny vi t l cho trn cc ng cong, ta c cc gi tr cn tm.
Theo h ng cong thy tnh trong hnh 9, cc ng cong biu din LCF v LCB c
gi tr ca chng ti v tr mt phng sn gia bng 0, gi tr v pha trc mt phng
sn gia c du (+), pha sau mt phng sn gia c du (-).
3.2.1.4 Thc trng ti (Dead Weight Scale):
Hnh 3.10: Thc trng ti
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
51
Hnh trn l mt dng ca thc trng ti.
T mn nc, ta c th tra ra MTC, TPC, trng ti ti cc t trng nc bin khc
nhau cng nh trng ti iu kin nc ngt.
3.2.1.5 Bng ng cong honh giao ( Cross Curves Table):
y l mt h ng cong c xy dng phc v cho vic xc nh gi tr KN v
t tnh ton c gi tr GZ theo cc gc nghing cho sn.
xc nh gi tr KN, t lng dn nc cho theo trc honh, ta dng vung gc ln
h ng cong, ln lt ct h ng cong tng ng vi cc gc nghing . Dng cc
im ct ny sang trc tung xc nh gi tr KN, t tnh c GZ = KN- KG x Sin
Di y l dng ca h ng cong honh giao:
i vi mt s tu, dng ng cong ny cn c cho di dng bng tra tin li
cho vic tnh ton. Lc y, ch vic ly hai i s l lng dn nc v gc nghing
tra ra gi tr cn tm.
Hnh 3.11 : ng cong honh giao
3.2.1.6 Thc hoc bng iu chnh mn nc mi li khi xp (d) 100 tn hng:
Cu to ca thc:
- Trc ngang biu th cc v tr xp hng theo chiu di tnh ton ca tu.
- Trc ng cho cc gi tr lng bin i mn nc mi, li.
- Ti mt lng dn nc nht nh c mt cp mn nc chun. Vi cp mn nc
chun ny, mt ng dng xc nh lng bin i mn mi d
i
(F) v mt ng
dng xc nh lng bin i mn li d
i
(A).
Cch s dng :
Ti v tr l hng, dng xung cp mn nc chun. ng ny s ct cp mn nc
chun ny ti cc im tng ng. Dng cc im ny sang pha trc ng tm lng
thay i mn nc mi, li. Khi Mn nc mi, li mi s bng mn nc mi, li
ban u cng hoc tr lng lng bin i mn nc va tra c.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
52
Hnh 3.12 Thc hiu chnh mn nc mi li
* Bng iu chnh mn nc mi li (Trimming Table -Loading Weight = 100t):
Bng c xy dng da trn cc mn nc (Lng dn nc) chun. Tt c cc kt ,
hm hng, cc sn tu (Frame) u c a vo bng tnh ton. tra lng bin
i mn nc mi li, ta dng cc i s l mn nc (Lng dn nc) v tn ca kt
(Hm hng) hoc v tr cc sn (Frame) ca tu m ti c xp thm hoc d mt
lng cht lng hoc hng ha no .
Di y l mt v d v bng iu chnh mn nc mi li khi xp hoc d mt lng
hng no :
M/V SOUTHERN STAR - Trimming Table (Loading Weight 100 tons)
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
53
Hnh 3.13: Bng iu chnh mn nc mi li
3.2.2 n nh (th vng) ca tu:
3.2.2.1 Khi nim:
n nh ca tu l kh nng quay tr v v tr cn bng ban u sau khi ngoi lc gy
nghing bn ngoi ngng tc ng (gi, sng...).
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
54
M.
G .
.B
M. G
.B
M.
G .
.B
a) Cn bng bn
GM>0
b) Cn bng phim nh
GM=0
c) Cn bng khng bn
GM<0
K K K
Vi mt vt th, c ba trng thi cn bng: cn bng bn, cn bng khng bn v cn
bng phim nh
- Cn bng bn l trng thi cn bng m khi vt b ngoi lc tc ng lch khi v
tr cn bng n s t tr li hoc c xu th tr li v tr cn bng ban u.
- Cn bng khng bn l trng thi cn bng ca mt vt m khi b tc ng ca ngoi
lc y khi v tr cn bng th n b mt cn bng, khng th tr li v tr cn bng ban
u na.
- Cn bng phim nh l trng thi cn bng ca mt vt m khi b ngoi lc tc ng
y lch khi v tr cn bng ban u th v tr mi, n t xc lp mt trng thi cn
bng mi.
i vi con tu, da vo v tr tng quan ca tm nghing M v trng tm G m c
th xy ra mt trong ba trng hp cn bng nh trn.
Hnh v 3.14 m t ba trng hp cn bng ca tu nh sau :
- Ti hnh 3.14.a: Trng tm G nm pha di tm nghing M, khi tu nghing, trng
lc t ti G v lc ni t ti B s to thnh ngu lc. Ngu lc ny to ra m men c xu
hng a tu tr li v tr cn bng ban u. Trng hp ny, tu trng thi cn bng
bn, hay tu n nh.
- Ti hnh 3.14.b: Trng tm G trng vi tm nghing M, lc ny trng lc v lc ni
nm trn mt ng thng i qua tm nghing M, m men do chng to ra l bng 0,
khng c xu hng chng li chuyn ng nghing ca tu. Trng hp ny tu trng
thi cn bng phim nh, hay tu khng n nh
- Ti hnh 3.14.c: Trng tm G nm bn trn tm nghing M, lc ny ngu lc to
thnh do trng lc t ti G v lc ni t ti B s sinh ra mt m men cng chiu vi
chiu nghing ca tu (c th gi l m men lt) v nh vy s lm cho tu nghing thm.
Trng hp ny, tu trng thi cn bng khng bn hay tu mt n nh.
.
Hnh 3.14: Cc trng thi cn bng ca tu
Ta c: GM = KM - KG.
GM > 0 : tu n nh
GM 0 : tu khng n nh
3.2.2.2 Cch tnh ton:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
55
M
G
B

M
hp
K
P
F
b
Hnh 3.15: Chiu cao th vng
3.2.2.2.1 n nh tu ti gc nghing nh (<15
0
):
im M l tm ca qu o tm ni B, gc
nghing nh, qu o ny c coi l cung trn v
do im M c coi l c nh. n nh ca tu
gc nghing nh, cn gi l n nh ban u ph
thuc vo v tr tng quan gia tm nghing M v
trng tm G. Khi G nm thp hn M, tu s n
nh.
M men sinh ra do cp lc P v F
b
gi l m
men hi phc v c ln c tnh nh sau:
M
hp
= P x GM x Sin
Hay M
hp
= D x GM x Sin
Vi D l lng dn nc ca tu.
M men hi phc cng ln, tu c tnh n nh
cng cao.
T cng thc trn ta thy, cng mt lng dn
nc D, cng mt gc nghing , ln ca m men hi phc ph thuc vo ln ca
GM.
Ti nhng gc nghing nh, n nh ca tu c nh gi bng ln ca GM v
GM c gi l chiu cao th vng ca tu
T hnh v ta c:
GM = KM - KG
Trong :
KM l chiu cao tm nghing, c cho trong bng thy tnh hoc thc trng ti ca
tu vi i s l lng dn nc D ( hoc mn nc ).
KG l chiu cao trng tm ca tu c tnh theo cng thc:
D
KG P KG D
KG
i i o o +

Trong :
D
0
: L trng lng tu khng cho trong h s tu.
KG
0
: L chiu cao trng tm tu khng cho trong h s tu.
P
i
: L cc thnh phn trng lng trn tu.
KG
i
: L chiu cao trng tm ca cc thnh phn trng lng so vi ky tu.
D: L lng dn nc ca tu.
D
0
x KG
0
: L m men tu khng so vi ky tu.
P
i
x KG
i
: L tng m men cc thnh phn trng lng so vi ky tu.
* nh hng ca m men mt thong cht lng trong cc kt cha khng y n
chiu cao th vng ca tu:
Xt mt kt cht lng cha khng y, ban u trng tm ca kt nm ti G
1
, trng
tm ca tu l G. Khi tu nghing mt gc , cht lng s dn sang mn thp, trng tm
G
1
ca kt s chuyn thnh G
1
lm trng tm ca tu dch chuyn n G. im G gn
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
56
vi tm lc ni B hn G ban u v do m men do cp lc F
b
v P gim i, dn n
m men hi phc gim, tnh n nh ca tu gim.
Gi GG l on dch chuyn trng tm tu do tu nghing khi c kt cht lng khng
y.
M men hi phc ca tu s l :
M
hp
= D x (GM x Sin - GG)
Ko di Vc t trng lc P ln trn, gp mt phng
trc dc tu ti G
0
. Khi
M
hp
= D x (GM x Sin -GG) = D x G
0
M x Sin
Nh vy m men hi phc trong trng hp ny
bng vi trng hp tu c trng tm ti im G
0
Ni cch khc ta coi trng tm tu b nng ln
mt on bng GG
0
.
Do vy khi c nh hng ca mt thong cht lng
Trong kt cha khng y chiu cao th vng ca
Tu s c tnh nh sau :
G
o
M = KM - KG GG
0.
Trong GG
0
l phn
hiu chnh bi nh hng ca m men mt thong do
kt cht lng khng y (lm gim chiu cao th
vng), c tnh bng cng thc:
GG
0
=
D
Ix


(m)
- I
x
l m men qun tnh ca mt thong cht lng trong kt i vi trc i qua trng
tm kt, song song vi trc dc ca tu. I
x
=
K
b l
3

(m
4
)
(l, b l chiu di, chiu rng ca kt ; K l h s hnh dng ca mt thong cht lng
trong kt.
K= 12 vi kt hnh ch nht, K= 36 vi kt hnh tam gic vung, K=48 i vi kt
hnh tam gic cn)
- l t trng cht lng cha trong kt (t/m
3
).
- I
x
x l M men mt thong cht lng (Free Surface Moment -M
FS
) trong kt cha
khng y (t-m).
- D l lng dn nc ca tu.
Trong thc t, tin tnh ton, ngi ta lp thnh bng tra sn tra m men qun
tnh mt thong cht lng trong kt cha khng y v cho gi tr bng l gi tr ln nht
(Thng cho trong Tank table) v cho gi tr lng gim chiu cao th vng GG
0
do nh
hng ca mt thong cht lng (Loss of G
0
M by Free Surface Effect)
Ch :
- Cc trng vt c tnh di ng theo chiu ngang ca tu khi tu b nghing nh cc
vt treo, hng ha c tnh di ng cng lm nh hng n n nh ca tu tng t nh
nh hng ca cc kt cha cht lng khng y.
- Chiu cao th vng G
0
M c trng cho n nh ban u ca tu.
M.
G

M
hp
K
P
F
b
Hnh 3.16: nh hng mt thong
cht lng n chiu cao th vng
G
1
G'
1
B
G'
G
0
P
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
57
Bng 3.3: nh hng ca m men mt thong ti GM
Khi tu b nghing do tc ng ca ngoi lc (sng bin...), m men hi phc cng ln
th tu tr li v tr cn bng ban u cng nhanh. Ph thuc vo ln ca GM m s
xy ra hin tng sau :
- Tu b lc cng (Stiff) : Chu k lc ca tu nh (tu lc nhanh). Trng hp ny gy
nh hng n kh nng c nh hng ha, nh hng n sc khe ca thuyn vin.
Nguyn nhn do GM qu ln. Cn phi c bin php nng trng tm ca tu, qua
lm gim GM lm tng chu k lc ca tu.
- Tu b lc mm (Tender) : Chu k lc ca tu di, tu lc chm, mm mi. Nguyn
nhn do GM nh. Tuy nhin nu GM qu nh s dn n tu lc qu mm, tnh n nh
ca tu km.
T ta thy, khi tnh ton xp hng cn phi quan tm n chiu cao th vng GM
sao cho va m bo n nh li va m bo cc yu t cn thit khc .
* Mt s cch hiu chnh chiu cao th vng GM :
+ Dch chuyn hng theo chiu thng ng :
Khi dch chuyn mt khi lng hng "w" i mt on "h" theo chiu thng ng th
chiu cao th vng thay i mt lng l:
D
h w
GM


GM < 0 khi hng c dch chuyn t thp ln cao.
GM > 0 khi hng c dch chuyn t cao xung thp.
Trng hp tu y hng th c th p dng phng php i ch hai l hng c
cng th tch nhng trng lng khc nhau. Lc w chnh l chnh lch trng lng
gia hai khi hng cn h s l khong cch gia trng tm ca hai khi hng ny.
Trng hp xp hoc d mt l hng c trng lng l "w" vo mt v tr no th
chiu cao th vng s thay i mt lng bng:
w D
h w
GM
t


Trong : h l khong cch gia trng tm l hng vi trng tm G ca tu. Ly du
(+) nu xp thm; Ly du ( - ) nu d hng.
+ Bm x nc Ballast:
Khi bm vo hoc x ra mt lng nc Ballast c trng lng "w" tn th chiu cao
th vng thay i mt lng l :
********** LOSS OF GoM BY FREE SURFACE EFFECT (UNIT IN M) *********
Lpp =122.90m Bm =19.60m Dm =13.2 m
TANK NAME MAX. I S.G. MEAN DRAFT (m) & DISPLACEMENT (t)
m
4
t/m
3
2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000
3611 4590 5582 6585 7598
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FOR PEAK TANK 119.7 1.025 0.034 0.027 0.022 0.019 0.016
DEEP TANK 443.9 1.025 0.126 0.099 0.082 0.069 0.060
NO.1. W.B.T. (C) 4878.7 1.025 1.385 1.089 0.896 0.759 0.658
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
58

,
_

t
t
1 1
2
z GM
d
d
w D
w
GM
Xt du cho GM:
Trng hp bm vo: Nu z
1
< KG th GM > 0; Nu z
1
> KG th GM < 0.
Trng hp bm ra: Nu z
1
< KG th GM < 0; Nu z
1
> KG th GM > 0.
Trong :
KG l chiu cao trng tm tu trc lc bm x Ballast.
GM
1
l chiu cao th vng ban u.
Z
1
l chiu cao trng tm khi nc.
d l lng thay i mn nc ca tu sau khi bm x ballast.
* Kim tra n nh ca tu thng qua chu k lc:
C th kim tra chiu cao th vng ca tu thng qua chu k lc bng cng thc kinh
nghim sau:
2

,
_

T
B K
GM
Trong : T l chu k lc ngang ca tu o bng giy.
B l chiu rng ca tu.
k l h s kinh nghim. K = 0.64 - 0.7 vi tu hng y ti.
K = 0.74 - 0.8 vi tu hng nh ti
K = 0.75 vi tu ch g y ti.
K = 0.76 - 0.86 vi tu khch.
Trong thc t, tin cho vic kim tra GM ca tu, trong cc h s tu, ngi ta
lp sn bng kim tra GM thng qua chu k lc ca tu (Rolling Period Table). Cng
thc kinh nghim nu trn ch nn dng khi khng c y h s tham kho ca tu.
V d: Bng Rolling Period Table ca tu Gemini Forest
Bng 3.4: Bng chu k lc
i s vo bng ny l chu k lc v mn nc ca tu ta s tra c gi tr G
0
M
bng. Sau nhn gi tr ny vi h s thc nghim tnh sn cho tu ny l 0.573, ta
s c G
0
M thc t.
3.2.2.2.2 n nh ca tu gc nghing ln ( > 15
0
):
********** ROLLING PERIOD TABLE ***********
T=2*C*B/ (GM) : GoM =(2*C*B/T)^2
C=0.373+0.023(B/d)-0.043(L/100) : L=Water Line Length (m)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DRAFT (m) 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ts GoM
5.0 18.29 15.40 13.60 12.39 11.52 10.86 10.35
6.0 12.70 10.69 9.45 8.60 8.00 7.54 7.19
7.0 9.33 7.85 6.94 6.32 5.88 5.54 5.28
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
59
Ti cc gc nghing ln, qu o tm ni B khng
cn l mt cung trn na nn tm nghing M khng
phi l c nh. Do , ta khng th dng chiu cao
th vng GM nh gi n nh ca tu. Ngi ta
dng ng cong cnh tay n n nh tnh GZ
nh gi n nh ca tu nhng gc nghing ln.
T hnh v ta c:
on GZ biu th cnh tay n n nh ca tu khi
tu nghing mt gc .
Lc , m men hi phc bng: M
hp
= D x GZ
Trong GZ = KN - KJ
KJ = KG x Sin.
KN ng vi cc gc nghing c tra trong h s
tu ti bng ng cong honh giao ( Stability Cross Curves) vi i s l lng gin
nc.
KG l chiu cao trng tm ca tu. Nu xt n nh hng ca mt thong cht lng
th:
KG
0
= KG + GG
0
. ( GG
0
l s nng cao trng tm tu do nh hng ca mt thong
cht lng)
Lc KJ = KG
0
x Sin.
G
0
Z = KN - KG
0
x Sin
Dng ng cong G
0
Z:
Bc 1: Tnh chiu cao trng tm KG, (xt n nh hng ca mt thong cht lng l
KG
0
).
T lng dn nc tra vo Cross Curves ng vi cc gc nghing xc nh KN.
Bc 2: Lp biu tnh vi cc gc nghing:
Sin
KN
KG
0
. Sin
GZ
1 2 3 4= 2-3
10 0.174
15 0.259
20 0.342
25 0.423
30 0.500
35 0.574
40 0.643
45 0.707
50 0.766
60 0.866
75 0.966
90 1.000
M.
G
B

M
hp
K
P
F
b
Hnh 3.17: n nh gc ln
Z
N
J
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
60
0 1a 10 a 20 a 30 40 50 57
0
3 60 70 80 90
GZ
1
GZ
2 GZ
3
GZ
4
GZ
4'
GZ
5
A

GZ
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
b b
Bc 3: Dng ng cong cnh tay n n nh tnh.
Bc 4: nh gi n nh thng qua th (tnh din tch di ng cong GZ).
S dng quy tc Simpson s 1:
* A(40
o
) =
3
a
(GZ
1
+ GZ
2
x 4 + GZ
3
x 2 + GZ
4
x 4 + GZ
5
) m- .
= A(40
o
) m-/ 57
o
3 (m-rad).
Trong a l khong chia theo hnh 3.18 l 10
o
mt. GZ
1-5
l ln ca GZ ti cc
gc nghing 0
o
,10
o
,20
o
,30
o
,40
o
.
*A(30
o
40
o
) =
3
b
(GZ
4
+ GZ
4'
x 4 + GZ
5
) m-.
= A(30
o
40
o
) m- / 57
o
3 (m-rad)
Trong b l khong chia theo hnh 3.18 c gi tr 5
o
mt. GZ
4
, GZ
4'
, GZ
5
l ln
ca GZ ti cc gc nghing 30
o
, 35
o
, 40
o
.
Cc din tch khc c th tnh tng t
Ta cng c th tnh din tch di cnh tay n GZ mt cch gn ng bng cch tnh
cc din tch tam gic v hnh thang. (V d din tch gia khong 20
o
v 40
o
l hnh
thang, din tch cn li tnh theo din tch tam gic).
Tiu chun n nh IMO A.167:
a. Din tch di cnh tay n n nh (ng cong GZ) khng nh hn 0,055 m-rad
tnh n gc nghing 30
0
v khng nh hn 0,090 m-rad khi tnh ti gc nghing 40
0
hoc gc ngp nc nu gc ny nh hn 40
o
.
Ngoi ra, phn din tch di ng cong GZ nm gia gc nghing 30
o
v 40
o
hoc
gc ngp nc nu gc ny nh hn 40
o
khng c nh hn 0,030 m-rad.
b. ln ca cnh tay n GZ ti thiu phi bng 0,20 m ti gc nghing bng hoc
ln hn 30
o
.
c. Cnh tay n n nh tnh GZ phi t gi tr cc i ti gc nghing tt nht l
vt qu 30
o
nhng khng c nh hn 25
o
.
d. Chiu cao th vng ban u sau khi hiu chnh nh hng ca mt thong cht
lng G
o
M khng c nh hn 0,15 m.
Hnh 3.18: ng cong cnh tay n n nh tnh.
G
0
M
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
61
3.2.2.2.3 Mt s bi ton lin quan n ng cong GZ:
* Xc nh m men nghing tnh ln nht m tu c th chu ng c:
Do tc dng ca ngoi lc,
tu b nghing ngang, GZ s
tng dn, m men hi phc
ca tu cng tng dn. Khi
m men hi phc cn bng
vi m men nghing th tu
khng nghing tip na .
M
ng
= M
hp
= D x GZ
Nh vy M men nghing
ln nht m tu c th chu
c s bng D x GZ
max
. Trn
th on gi tr GZ ln
nht trn trc tung chnh l
gi tr GZ
max
, cn hnh chiu
trn trc honh (ti im A)
s cho gi tr gc nghing
ln nht m ti M men hi phc l ln nht.
* Xc nh gc nghing ng ca tu khi chu tc ng ca ngoi lc ng v gc
nghing tnh khi ngoi lc ng vn gi nguyn:
Ngoi lc ng l nhng lc
c gi tr thay i: sng bin,
gi...
Tc dng ca ngoi lc ng
c tnh bng cng do n gy
ra.
Tu s khng nghing tip
na khi cng ca m men
nghing bng vi cng do m
men hi phc sinh ra.
M
ng
= M
hp
= D x l
q
.
T h s tu, ta tnh c
m men nghing ng (cn c
vo lc ng).
l
q
=
D
Mngd
V cnh tay n quy i l
q
ct ng cong ti E, ng vi gc nghing tnh trn trc
honh.
Tnh cng da vo th.
- Cng ca m men nghing ng l din tch hnh ch nht ABDF.
- Cng ca m men hi phc l din tchABC.
Hai din tch ny c phn chung l din tch ABDE.
hai cng ny bng nhau th din tch AEF phi bng din tch CDE.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
GZ

A
C
E
l
qdmax
F
Hnh 3.20: Xc nh m men nghing ng
D
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
GZ

B
C
D
A
E
l
qd F
Hnh 3.19: Xc nh gc nghing ng
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
62
Dng mt thc thng dch chuyn song song vi trc tung cho n khi din tch DCE
bng din tch AEF th dng li. Gi tr gc nghing ti B chnh l gc nghing ng.
* Xc nh m men nghing ng ln nht m tu chu ng c v gc nghing
ng:
Theo tnh ton M
ng
= D x l
q
Vy c m men nghing ng ln nht ta c th tm cnh tay n quy i ln nht.
T hnh 20, dng mt thc thng dch chuyn song song vi trc honh cho n khi
din tch AEF bng vi din tch ECD th dng li. Ta s c gi tr l
qmax
trn trc tung.
Nhn gi tr l
qmax
vi D ta s c M
ng max.
im D l giao im ca l
qmax
vi ng cong
GZ ng vi gi tr gc nghing ng ln nht .
3.2.3 Mn nc ca tu:
3.2.3.1 Cch biu din, cch c:
Hnh 3.21: Mn nc ca tu
Hnh 3.22: Biu din thc mn nc
* Thc mn nc ca tu thng c gn c hai bn mn tu ti cc v tr pha mi,
gia tu, pha li.
* Khi c mn nc ta phi c c hai bn mn v sau ly gi tr trung bnh mn
nc mi, gia, li. Vic lm ny nhm hiu chnh nghing ngang cho mn nc.
dF =
2
S P
dF dF +
; dM =
2
S P
dM dM +
; dA =
2
S
dA dA
P
+
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
63
Trng hp c sng to hoc gi th kh c mn nc mt cch chnh xc c hai mn.
Khi ta c th chn mt mn m sng, gi thun tin cho vic c mn nc (v d
mn tri), cn mn kia s tnh theo cng thc: d
s
= d
p
x B.tg .
Cng c th dng mt ng nha trong, c nh du bng mt ming xp d c v
th ng xung nc cnh v tr thc mn nc. Khi vic c mn nc s d dng v
mc nc trong ng s n nh, khng dao ng.
Ngoi ra c th c mn nc mc cao, thp nhiu ln v ly trung bnh hoc chn
thi im nc lng gia cc t sng c mn nc.
3.2.3.2 Mt s tnh ton v mn nc:
3.2.3.2.1 Quan h gia t trng nc bin v mn nc ca tu:
Theo nh lut Acsimet, khi tu ni cn bng ti mt mn nc no , lc y ca
nc tc dng vo tu s cn bng vi lng dn nc ca tu, ng bng trng lng
ca khi nc m tu chim ch. Gi th tch ca tu l V, t trng nc l lc ta c
lc y ca nc l: F
n
= V x .
Khi tu ni cn bng, lc y ca nc cn bng vi lng dn nc ca tu:
D = V x
Ti vng nc c t trng
1
th tch chim ch ca tu l V
1
. Khi D = V
1
x
1
Ti vng nc c t trng
2
th tch chim ch ca tu l V
2
. Khi D = V
2
x
2
Nh vy V
1
x
1
= V
2
x
2
hay
1
2
2
1

V
V
Do th tch ngm nc ca tu t l vi mn nc nn ta c:
1
2
2
1

d
d
Nhn xt: Mn nc ca tu t l nghch vi t trng nc bin m tu hot ng.
* Tnh ton lng hiu chnh nc ngt (Fresh Water Allowance- FWA): y l
chnh mn nc ca tu gia hai vng nc bin (t trng 1,025 T/m
3
) v nc ngt (t
trng 1,000 T/m
3
).
FWA (mm) = 25 d
SW
.
Trong cng thc trn d
SW
l mn nc bin t trng 1,025 T/m
3
tnh bng mt v c
th dng cho mn nc bt k.
Ti mn nc y ti hoc gn y ti FWA c th tnh qua cng thc sau:
TPC
D lacement SummerDisp
mm FWA
4
) (
) (
Lu : Trong cc h s tu, ni chung thng s FWA (ti mn nc ma h) u c
tnh v cho sn trong Capacity Plan hoc cho trong cc h s khc nh Loading
Manual, Loading and Stability Information Booklet...
* Tnh lng hiu chnh nc l (Dock Water Allowance-DWA):
25
) 1025 (
) (

FWA
mm DWA
Trong l t trng nc l nhn vi 1000.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
64
Cng thc ny ch p dng i vi mn nc bng hoc gn bng mn nc ma h.
3.2.3.2.2 Tnh hiu s mn nc :
Hnh 3.23 M men chi
Xt tu trng thi cn bng mi li th G v B nm trn mt ng thng ng. Nu
ta t mt trng vt pha sau trng tm tu th trng tm tu dch chuyn t G ti G nh
m t hnh 3.23. Trng lc tc ng qua G t trn xung di v lc ni tc ng qua
B t di ln trn. Trng lc v lc ni to nn mt ngu lc c tc dng lm cho tu c
khuynh hng chi v pha li nh trong hnh v. Mmen chi do ngu lc to ra ph
thuc vo ln ca khong cch ngn nht gia hai lc tc dng (Khong cch
BGc tnh theo trc dc tu).
Khi tu c khuynh hng chi v li th phn ngp nc pha li nhiu hn dn ti tm
ni ca tu cng dch chuyn v pha li sao cho B nm trn ng thng ng vi G
th tu xc lp mt trng thi cn bng mi.
Xt theo h quy chiu gn vi thn tu Oxyz, cp ngu lc "trng lc-lc ni" to
ra m men chi M
c
= P x GB. Hay c th biu din l :
M
c
= D x (LCG - LCB).
Ti mt mn nc nht nh, hiu s mn nc mi li (t) t l vi m men gy chi.
Gi tr m men lm thay i 1cm (1inch) MCTC (MCTI) hiu s mn nc c cho
trong h s tu ( bng thy tnh hoc thc trng ti).
M
c
= MTC x t.
D x (LCG - LCB) = MTC x t
W
G G
B
WL
d
W
G G
B
d
B
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
65
t =
D x (LCG - LCB )
(m)
MTC x 100
t =
D x (LCG - LCB)
(ft)
MTI x 12
Trong :
D: l lng dn nc ca tu.
LCB: l honh tm ni tra trong bng thy tnh vi i s l D .
MCTC: l m men lm thay i 1cm hiu s mn nc tra trong bng thy
tnh vi i s l D.
D
LCG P LCG D
LCG
i i o o +

Nh n x t: Tu s chi li nu G nm pha sau B v s chi mi nu G nm pha


trc B .
3.2.3.2.3 Xc nh mn nc mi li:
* Xc nh mn nc mi li bng tnh ton:
Tnh lng dn nc: D = D
0
+ D
c
+ D
st
+ D
Ballast
+ Const.
T D vo bng thy tnh ta tra c mn nc tng ng vi D l d
eqv
v LCB.
Tnh ton LCG v t:
100
) (

MTC
LCB LCG D
t (m)
12
) (

MTI
LCB LCG D
t (ft)
Hnh 3.24: Hiu chnh mn nc mi li
t
F
d
LCF
L.B.P
Thu trc mi
Thu trc li
d
A
d
F
A
B
M
c
D
LCG P LCG D
LCG
i i o o +

Xp d v bo qun hng ho
66
Xt hnh 3.24 ta tnh c mn nc ti cc ng vung gc mi, li nh sau:
LBP
t
LCF
LBP
tg FM AM dA
,
_

Xt mt cch tng qut th


LBP
t
LCF
LBP
dA t
,
_

2
Ch : Ly du (+) khi F nm trc mt phng sn gia; Ly du (-) khi F nm pha
sau mt phng sn gia.
Do : d
A
= d
eqv
d
A
(Ly du (+) khi tu chi li; Ly du (-) khi chi mi).
LPB
t
LCF
LBP
d d eqv A t t
,
_

2
t d d A F t
Trong cng thc tnh d
F
ta ly du (-) khi tu chi li; Ly du (+) khi tu chi mi.
* Xc nh mn nc ca tu bng th xc nh mn nc mi li
th mi li biu th mi quan h gia lng gin nc, m men i vi mt phng
sn gia v mn nc ti ng thy trc pha trc v pha sau ca tu
Khi tu c hiu s mn nc cng nh lng gin nc ln th p dng th ny
xc nh mn nc mi li chnh xc hn so vi cch dng bng
Cu to th:
Trc honh biu din tng m men tnh M
x
vi mt phng sn gia
Trc tung cho gi tr mn nc d hoc lng dn nc D.
Cch s dng:
T mn nc mi li hin ti ta a vo th xc nh c mt im trn mng
li th. T im ny ta ging sang ngang v thng xung s c gi tr lng gin
nc v m men i vi mt phng sn gia trng thi hin ti.
Lng gin nc v m men ca tu trng thi sau khi xp c tnh bng tng cc
gi tr lng gin nc v m men hin ti vi trng lng, m men b sung. T gi tr
m men i vi trng thi sau khi xp d thm ta xc nh c im th hai. T im
th hai ny ta xc nh ngc li s c mn nc mi li ca tu sau khi xp d mt vi
khi lng no .
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
67
Hnh 3.25 th xc nh mn nc mi li
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
68
3.2.3.2.4 Hiu chnh mn nc mi li:
* Hiu chnh mn nc mi li bng tnh ton:
- Dch chuyn mt lng hng c trng lng w theo chiu dc tu:
Khi dch chuyn hng theo chiu dc tu, s to ra m men gy chi M
c
= w x l.
M men ny s to ra mt s thay i v hiu s mn nc l:
t =
MTC
Mc
; Hay t =
MTC
l w
Trong w l khi lng hng dch chuyn; l l khong cch dch chuyn.
Khi dch chuyn hng, tu s quay quanh tm F cho n khi cn bng ti mn nc
mi, li mi.
Cng t hnh v 24 ta c:

,
_

,
_

t
LBP
LCF
t
LBP
t
LCF
LBP
dA
2
1
2
Ly du (+) nu F nm pha trc mt phng sn gia; Ly du (-) nu F nm pha
sau mt phng sn gia.
d
F
= t - d
A
Lc mn nc mi li mi s l:
dA
mi
= dA
c
d
A
dF
mi
= dF
c
d
F
Ch : ly du (+) hay (-) i vi d
A
v d
F
l tu theo chiu dch chuyn hng ha.
- Xp mt lng hng c trng lng va phi:
L hng c trng lng va phi c ngha l l hng m khi xp xung hoc d ln s
ch lm cho mn nc ca tu thay i mt vi cm. Trong trng hp ny, cc gi tr
TPC, MTC, LCF... ch thay i mt lng rt nh, c th coi nh vn gi nguyn.
Ta c th tnh ton theo hai bc sau:
+ Bc 1: Gi nh xp l hng c trng lng w ln tu ti v tr tm mt phng
ng nc F. Khi khng c s thay i hiu s mn nc m tu ch b tng u
mn mt lng bng:
TPC
w
d
+ Bc 2: Dch chuyn l hng n v tr d nh xp hng. Khi ta tin hnh tnh
ton nh vi bi ton dch chuyn hng trn.
Ta c:
MTC
l w
t


l: khong cch t v tr d nh xp hng ti tm F.
LBP
t
LCF
LBP
dA

t
,
_

2
A F d t d
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
69
Mn nc mi li mi s l:
d
Ami
= d
Ac
+ d d
A
;
d
Fmi
= d
Fc
+ d d
F
Ch : - Ly du (+) hay (-) l tu thuc vo v tr xp l hng.
- Trng hp d hng cng lm tng t, tuy nhin ta phi tr i gi tr d.
* Hiu chnh mn nc mi li bng bng tnh sn:
Ta c th s dng bng (Trimming Table - Loading Weight 100 tons) hoc thc bin
i mn nc mi li khi xp (d) 100 tn hng.
3.2.3.3 Bi tp:
- Xc nh mn nc ca tu bng tnh ton.
- Xc nh mn nc ca tu bng bng tnh sn.
3.2.4 Kim tra sc bn dc thn tu:
3.2.4.1 Kim tra sc bn cc b:
Sc bn cc b y c th hiu l kh nng chu ng c ca kt cu sn hm
hng hoc sn boong, np hm hng khi ta xp hng ti cc v tr .
Thng thng, trong h s tu, ngi ta thng cho cc gi tr v ti trng ph (Deck
load Capacity hoc Tank top Strength hoc Design Load) ca sn hm, sn boong, np
hm hng tin tham kho cho vic kim tra khi xp hng.
V d: Ti trng thit k (Design Load) ca tu "Gemini Forest" nh sau:
- Sn hm: 10 t/m
2
- Boong trung gian: 3.9 t/m
2
Khi xp hng, chng ta cn quan tm n sc chu sn hm trnh vt qu sc chu.
Hng xp c gng dn u trnh tp trung ng sut (Trng lng ti a c th xp vo
mt hm c cho trong h s tu hoc c th tnh bng din tch sn hm nhn vi ti
trng thit k sn hm).
Trng hp xp hng nng nh st cun, my bin th... th phi c bin php chn lt
bng vt liu thch hp ( v d g k dy v di ) sao cho c th dn u lc nn ca
hng, khng vt qu sc chu thit k.
3.2.4.2 Kim tra sc bn dc thn tu bng phng php tnh ton:
Kim tra sc bn dc thn tu l tin hnh kim lc ct (Shearing Force) v m men
un (Bending Moment) ti cc mt ct ngang ca tu ng vi cc trng thi sng bin
khc nhau.
Hnh 3.26: Cc trng thi sng bin c trng
Still Water HoggingWave SaggingWave
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
70
- Tu nm trn mt nc yn lng (Still Water)
- Tu nm trn nh sng (Hogging)
- Tu nm trn bng sng (Sagging)
kim tra sc bn dc thn tu (Longitudinal Strength) ngi ta s tnh ton lc ct
v m men un trn mt nc yn lng, sau v th lc ct, m men un v so snh
cc gi tr ny vi gi tr cho php theo thit k ca tu. Nu gi tr tnh c nm trong
khong cho php th phng n ti trng l t yu cu.
Vi mi con tu, ngi ta s chn mt s mt ct quan trng (ti cc sn tu - Frame
No.) v tnh sn cc gi tr cho php i vi lc ct (SF) v m men un (BM) cc iu
kin "Ocean going" v "In Harbour", ng thi lp cc biu tnh mu cho trong h s tu
tin tnh ton.
Cch tnh lc ct (SF- Shearing Force) v M men un (BM-Bending Moment) ti
mi mt ct nh sau:
SF = W- B
BM = M
w
- M
b
Trong :
W : l trng lng ti mt ct
B : l lc ni ti mt ct
M
w
: l m men un gy ra bi trng lng (i vi mt ct).
M
b
: l m men un gy ra bi lc ni (i vi mt ct).
W = W
l
+ W
d
Mw = M
wl
+ M
wd
Trong :
W
l
: l trng lng ti mt ct trong iu kin tu khng.
W
d
: l trng lng ca cc ti trng thay i (khng bao gm trng lng tu khng).
M
wl
: l m men un bi trng lng trong iu kin tu khng.
M
wd
: l m men un bi cc ti trng thay i (khng bao gm trng lng tu
khng).
* ng vung gc mi (FP) hoc ng vung gc li (AP) l ng c s cho vic
tnh m men.
Khi : SF = W
d
+ (W
l
- B)
BM = M
wd
+ (M
wl
- M
b
)
Ngi ta t S
n
= (W
l
- B)
B
n
= (M
wl
- M
b
)
Cc gi tr S
n
, B
n
c tnh sn v lp thnh bng i vi tng mt ct (Frame No)
chn sn kim tra v cho trong h s tu da trn c s l lng dn nc.
Cc gi tr W
d
v M
wd
s c tnh bi S quan ca tu theo biu tnh trong h s tu
vi cc gi tr ti trng thc t ti cc mt ct (Frame No) chn sn.
Sau khi tnh c SF v BM vi mi mt ct, so snh vi cc gi tr lc ct v m men
un cho php ng thi tin hnh v th SF v BM. Gi tr m men un v lc ct
cho php c cho trong h s tu (Allowable Value). Nu SF v BM nm trong
khong cho php th phng n ti trng l t yu cu.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
71
V d i vi tu Gemini Forest:
Hnh 3.27: th BM v SF
Ch : C hai gii hn cho SF v BM l "Ocean going" v "In Harbour". Ta nn so snh
gi tr SF v BM tnh c vi gii hn "Ocean going" m bo an ton cao.
ALLOWABLE VALUE (OCEAN GOING)
Cp
OCEAN GOING
ALLOWABLE BENDING
MOMENT (MS)
ALLOWABLE SHEARING
FORCE (FS)
MAX
(KN.m)
MIN
(KN.m)
MAX
(KN)
MIN
(KN)
FR. 27 13000 -13000
0.3 L
FR. 53.81
278000 -105000
FR. 105 13000 -13000
0.7 L
FR. 124.04
278000 -105000
FR. 161 13000 -13000
300.000
200.000
100.000
BM (+)
0
BM (-)
-100.000
-200.000
-300.000
20.000
10.000
SF (+)
0
SF (-)
-10.000
-20.000
Gii hn cho php ca m men un BM. (+): Hogging; (-): Sagging
Gii hn cho php ca lc ct SF. (+): Hogging; (-): Sagging
Bending Moment (KN-M) Shearing Force (KN)
AE AP Fr. 27 Fr.53.81 Fr.105 Fr.124.04 Fr.161 FP FE
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
72
ALLOWABLE VALUE (IN HARBOUR)
Cp
HARBOUR
ALLOWABLE BENDING
MOMENT (MS)
ALLOWABLE SHEARING
FORCE (FS)
MAX
(KN.m)
MIN
(KN.m)
MAX
(KN)
MIN
(KN)
FR. 27 15885 -16108
0.3 L
FR. 53.81
469911 -311770
FR. 105 16212 -16212
0.7 L
FR. 124.04
469911 -311770
FR. 161 15738 -15541
Bng 3.5: Gi tr m men un v lc ct cho php trn mt nc yn lng
4.2.4.3 Kim tra sc bn dc thn tu bng biu ng sut (Stress Diagram):
Biu ny dng kim tra m men un ca tu .
Trc tung biu th mt na tng s hc m men ca cc ti trng thay i (
2
Mx
) i
vi mt phng sn gia.
Trc honh biu th trng ti ca tu.
ng 1-1 biu din cc gi tr m men un trn mt nc yn lng.
ng 2-2 biu din cc gi tr ca m men un nh sng.
ng 3-3 biu din cc gi tr m men un bng sng.
Cc ng 4-4 v 5-5 l gii hn trn v di ca m men un cho php.
T gi tr DWT v
2
Mx
ta tra vo biu s c mt im (A).
- Nu im A nm trn ng 1-1 th phng n ti trng ca ta l ti u, tu khng
vng khng n.
- Khi im A nm pha trn ng 1-1 th tu b n (Hogging), cn khi im A nm
pha di ng 1-1 th tu b vng (Sagging).
- Nu im A nm trong vng xanh (Green Band) th phng n ti trng l cho php
tuy nhin cn phi m bo vic tiu th nhin liu, nc ngt trong khi hnh trnh s
khng lm cho im A di chuyn ra khi vng xanh.
- Nu im A nm ti vng vng (Yellow Band) th phng n ti trng ca tu khng
tt. Tu s b n nhiu (Hogging) nu im A nm gia ng 2-2 v 4-4. Nguyn nhn
l do hng c phn b nhiu hai u mi v li . Khi cn iu chnh hng t hai
u v gn mt phng sn gia a im A vo vng xanh. Tu s b vng nhiu
(Sagging) nu im A nm gia ng 3-3 v 5-5. Nguyn nhn do hng c phn b
nhiu gia tu. Khi cn phi iu chnh hng t gia tu ra hai u a im A
vo vng xanh.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
73
- Vng (Red Band) l cc vng nguy him. Gi tr m men un vt qu gii
hn cho php, khi phi tin hnh xp xp li s hng ha.
3.3 S xp hng tu hng kh:
3.3.1 nh ngha:
S hng ha tu hng kh l bn v bao gm cc mt ct dc, ngang v ng ca
tu, trn c th hin cc thng s nh loi hng, s lng, trng lng, th tch, v tr
ca hng, cng xp hng, cng tr hng...
Tu theo yu cu, s hng ha cn c th phi bao gm c trnh t xp (tr) hng
m bo sc bn thn tu, m bo mn nc v hiu s mn nc. Mn nc khi tu
khi hnh ti cng xp v mn nc khi tu n cng d hng cng cn thit phi th
hin trong s hng ha.
C th dng cc mu sc, k hiu khc nhau th hin cc loi hng ha khc nhau
trong s hng ha.
3.3.2 Cc yu cu ca s xp hng:
Mt s xp hng tu hng kh phi bo m cc yu cu sau:
- Tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti ca tu (Full and Down).
- m bo n nh v hiu s mn nc.
- m bo sc bn cc b v sc bn dc thn tu.
- m bo tnh cht c l ha ca hng, m bo th t xp xp v tr hng ti cc
cng.
3.3.2.1 Xp hng tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti ca tu (Full and Down):
Xp hng tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti ca tu ngha l i gii bi ton sao cho
c th tm c lng hng ha xp ln tu tho mn cc iu kin sau:
- Tng trng lng hng ha xp ln tu bng trng ti thun tu ch hng ca tu.
Dwt Dwt
H nh 3.28: Biu ng sut.
Mx
2
Mx
2
Red Band
Hogging
Y.B
4
4
Green
Band
2
2
1
3
3
Y.B
5
5
Red Band
Sagging
A
1
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
74
- Tng th tch hng ha xp ln tu bng th tch cha hng ca tu.

'

+ + + +
+ + + +
h m
c m
V V V V V
D P P P P
...
...
3 2 1
3 2 1
Gi h s xp hng ca tu l .
Gi th tch cha hng ca tu l V
h
(m
3
, Ft
3
).
Gi trng ti thun tu ch hng ca tu l D
c
(T).
Khi :
=
Dc
Vh
(m
3
/T, Ft
3
/T)
Gi h s xp ring ca hng ha l SF (Stowage Factor).
Gi th tch ca hng l V.
Trng lng ca hng ha l P.
Khi :
SF =
P
V
(m
3
/T, Ft
3
/T)
Xt v mt l thuyt, nu khng tnh n h s rng ca hm hng khi xp hng th s
xy ra cc trng hp sau y:
- SF = : Khi phng n xp hng tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti.
- SF < : Khi phng n xp hng ch tn dng ht trng ti m khng tn dng
ht dung tch (hng xp ln tu l hng nng).
- SF > : Khi phng n xp hng ch tn dng ht dung tch m khng tn dng
ht trng ti (hng xp ln tu l hng nh).
Nh vy xt tng qut th iu kin xp hng tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti tu
l:
- Khi tu ch mt loi hng th SF =
- Khi tu ch nhiu loi hng th hng ha phi bao gm c hng nng v hng nh, c
c hng bt buc phi ch v hng t chn ng thi phi tho mn h phng trnh:

'

+
+
h nh nh n n
c nh n
V SF P SF P
D P P
. .
Trong :
P
n
l trng lng hng nng; P
nh
l trng lng hng nh.
SF
n
l h s xp ring ca hng nng; SF
nh
l h s xp ring ca hng nh.
* Trong thc t cn phi tnh n h s rng cho php ca hm hng khi xp hng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
75
* Gii bi ton xp hng tn dng ht dung tch v trng ti tu bng phng php
tnh ton:
Ta i gii h phng trnh:

'

+
+
h nh nh n n
c nh n
V SF P SF P
D P P
. .
Trong h phng trnh ny, ta cn tm trng lng ca hng nng v hng nh (P
n
,
P
nh
), cc thng s khc nh SF
n
, SF
nh
, D
c
, V
h
bit hoc c th tnh trc c.
T h phng trnh ta c:
n
nh nh h
n
SF
SF P V
P
.

Trong :
n c nh P D P
Khi c nhiu loi hng th ta phi so snh SF ca chng vi ca tu tm ra hng
nng v nh, sau ly trung bnh SF
tbn
v SF
tbnh
, chuyn sang gii h phng trnh hai
n ta s tm c P
tbn
, P
tbnh
. Lm nh vy cho n khi gii c kt qu cui cng.
V d C 4 loi hng c h s xp ring l SF
1
<SF
2
<<SF
3
<SF
4
.
Ta cn phi tnh P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
.
Th t tnh ton nh sau:
SF
tbn
=
2
1
(SF
1
+SF
2
); SF
tbnh
=
2
1
(SF
3
+ SF
4
)
P
tbn
=
2
1
(P
1
+ P
2
) ; P
tbnh
=
2
1
(P
3
+ P
4
)
Ta i gii h phng trnh:

'

+
+
h tbnh tbnh tbn tbn
c nh n
V SF P SF P
D P P
. .
Ta rt ra:
tbn
tbnh tbnh h
tbn
SF
SF P V
P
.

Trong :
tbn c tbnh P D P
Sau khi tnh c P
tbn
, P
tbnh
ta li lp cc h phng trnh hai n tnh P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
.

'

+
+
tbn tbn
tbn
SF P SF P SF P
P P P
. 2 . 2 1 . 1
2 1
(1)

'

+
+
tbnh tbnh
tbnh
SF P SF P SF P
P P P
. 4 . 4 3 . 3
4 3
(2)
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
76
V
h
(m
3
, Ft
3
)
M

SF
nng
SF
nh
V
nng
A
P
nng P
nh D
c
(T)
V
nh
O
Gii hai h phng trnh (1) v (2) s cho ta cc gi tr P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
.
* Gii bi ton tn dng dung tch v trng ti bng phng php th:
V thc cht cng l i gii h phng trnh:

'

+
+
h nh nh n n
c nh n
V SF P SF P
D P P
. .
th s c xy dng vi trc tung l V
h
, Trc honh l D
c
.
Dng on thng OM c h s gc tg =
Dc
Vh
= . (im M c to bng D
c
v V
h
).
V cc ng biu th SF
i
Khi cc hng nng s c SF nm pha di ng OM.
Cc hng nh s c SF nm pha trn ng OM.
Bng cch k song song vi mt trong cc SF nng hoc nh, ta s c giao im ca
on song song ny vi mt trong cc SF (v d l im A theo hnh 3.30). Dng t im
giao nhau sang hai trc to , ta s c cc V
i
v P
i
.
H nh 3.29: Tn dng dung tch v trng ti bng th
3.3.2.2 Xp hng m bo n nh:
m bo n nh cho tu, khi xp hng ta phi tun theo nhng nguyn tc c bn
di y:
- Xp hng nng xung di, hng nh ln trn.
- Khi tu c hai boong th c th xp hng theo t l v trng lng l:
Hm y/Boong gia/Boong trn = 6/3/1
- Khi tu c mt boong, hng xp trn boong khng c vt qu 30% tng lng
hng trn tu (i vi cc tu ch g chuyn dng hoc tu Container th t l ny c th
cao hn hoc theo cc nguyn tc ring).
- Sau khi phn hng xong phi kim tra tnh ton GM, nh gi n nh theo cc tiu
chun n nh tng ng vi loi tu m bo rng n nh ca tu l tho mn.
3.3.2.3 Xp hng m bo tnh cht c l ha:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
77
Nhng nguyn tc sau y cn c quan tm m bo tnh cht c l ha ca
hng:
- Tm hiu k c tnh ca hng ha trc khi xp d.
- Khng xp nhng hng thuc cc nhm k nhau gn nhau hoc chung mt hm.
- Hng ha c tnh chu va p, chu nn, hoc c bao b chc chn c xp xung
di hng ha d v hoc c bao b yu.
- Cc kin hng ln, bao b cng nn xp nhng hm rng, vung vc. Nhng hng
ha kin nh, bao b mm c th xp ti nhng ni hp.
- Hng d v, bao b yu nn xp nhng ni tin li cho cng tc xp d, c chn lt
ph hp.
- Nhng hng ha d b hng v m t phi xp nhng ni tin thng gi, trnh
nhng khu vc d m hi.
- Nhng loi hng ha d b h hng bi nhit cao th phi trnh nhng khu vc c
ngun nhit nh vch bung my.
- Hng ha s lnh th ma ng khng c xp trn boong.
- i vi hng nguy him phi quan tm n cc quy nh v vn chuyn hng nguy
him trong IMDG-Code, tm hiu bng tch bit hng nguy him c bin php ngn
cch, bo qun ph hp. Ni xp hng nguy him phi c la chn m bo xp d
c thun tin, d dng v c th xp hng nguy him sau cng m li d c trc
tin.
- Phi c y vt liu chn lt v thit b chng buc ph hp.
3.3.2.4 Xp hng m bo sc bn dc v sc bn cc b :
* m bo sc bn dc:
m bo sc bn dc thn tu khi xp hng th gi tr tnh ton m men un v lc
ct phi nm trong khong cho php. Nu ta tnh ton phn b hng ha v cc thnh
phn trng lng khc trn tu u sut chiu di thn tu th s m bo c sc bn
dc thn tu. Phng php xp hng theo t l dung tch s m bo c sc bn dc
thn tu.
Theo phng php ny, hng ha s c phn xung tng hm hng theo t l dung
tch ca chng i vi tng dung tch cha hng ca tu.
Gi Dung tch cha hng ca tu l V
h
Gi dung tch cha hng ca hm hng th i l V
hi
Gi trng ti ch hng ca tu l D
c
Gi trng lng hng phn xung hm hng th i l P
i
Khi :
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
78
c
h
hi
D
V
V
Pi
Do phng php ny thng khng tho mn c yu cu v hiu s mn nc nn
sau khi phn hng xung tng hm, nu thy khng tho mn v hiu s mn nc th c
th iu chnh lng hng trong cc hm hng (trong khong 10% trng lng hng ca
tng hm) m khng lm nh hng ln n sc bn dc thn tu.
Trong thc t, ngi ta thng tnh ton sn xem tng hm hng mt trn tu chim
bao nhiu phn trm tng dung tch cha hng ca tu. Khi xp hng ch vic nhn cc
phn trm ny vi lng hng, ta s c lng hng cho tng hm.
V d:Tu A c 2 hm hng vi dung tch l:
H1 = 8000 m
3
H2 = 12000 m
3
Tng dung tch ch hng ca tu l Vh = 20.000 m
3
Khi t l dung tch tng hm s l:
% 40 % 100
20000
8000
1 H
% 60 % 100
20000
12000
2 H
Mun phn lng hng l 9000 tn xung cc hm th ta lm nh sau:
T H 3600 9000 % 40 1
T H 5400 9000 % 60 2
* m bo sc bn cc b:
Sau khi tnh ton phn hng xung cc hm hng th cn phi kim tra xem trng
lng hng ny c vt qu ti trng ti a cho php ca hm hng khng. Nu khng
vt qu th phng n l t yu cu.
P
i
P
max
Ti trng ti a cho php i vi tng hm hng thng c cho trong h s tu hoc
c th tnh ton nh sau:
P
max
= S x P
kt
Trong :
- P
max
l ti trng ti a cho php.
- P
kt
l ti trng ph tnh bng T/m
2
ca vt liu lm sn hm hng.Gi tr
ny cng c cho trong h s tu.
- S l din tch sn hm hng (m
2
). Gi tr ny c trong h s tu hoc c
th o trc tip.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
79
3.3.2.5 Bi tp:
3.4 Th t lp s xp hng:
S hng ha c th c lp theo cc bc sau y:
Bc 1: Chun b v tp hp y cc thng s, ti liu cn thit ca tu, cc biu
bng, h s tu phc v cho vic tnh ton hng ha nh: cc kch thc ch yu ca tu,
sut tiu hao nhin liu, h s tu (Loading and Stability Information Booklet, Loading
Manual...), bng thy tnh, bng tra kt (nc ngt, ballast, du...), dung tch hm hng
cng nh cc biu bng khc.
Bc 2: Tm hiu cc yu t lin quan n cng tc hng ha trong chuyn i nh:
Ni dung c bn ca hp ng thu tu, cc iu khon lin quan n hng ha v lm
hng (lng hng theo hp ng, tn, chng loi hng ha...), tn cng xp, cng d (
xc nh tuyn ng v qung ng tu chy), nh mc xp d ti cc cng, nhng
ch dn v vn chuyn, bo qun hng ha, nhng gii hn c th c (gii hn v mn
nc ti cng xp, cng d hoc gii hn v phng tin xp d, chiu cao mn kh ti
a...).
Nhng yu t trn s c tm hiu trong "Hng dn chuyn i ca Ch tu hoc
Ngi thu tu - Sailing Instruction".
Ngoi ra tnh hnh thi tit, vng, ma tu hot ng cng phi c tm hiu k cng.
Bc 3: Tnh thi gian chuyn i v lng d tr.
T tn cng xp v cng d, ta c th thit k tuyn ng cho tu v qua xc nh
c qung ng tu chy.
- Tnh thi gian chuyn i:
d ch d ch t t t + .
vi:
, ) qt b ch t k
v
S
t + +

1
24
dt
d
d
x
x
d t
M
D
M
D
t + +
Trong :
t
ch.
: Thi gian chuyn i.
t
ch
: Thi gian tu chy.
t

: Thi gian tu .
t
qt
: Thi gian quay tr (thng ly bng 10% ca S/24.v)
t
dt
: Thi gian d tr.
S : Qung ng tu chy (N.M).
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
80
v : Vn tc tu (Knots).
k
b
: H s bo ( ly k
b
= 0.3 i vi nhng vng c 45% thi gian trong nm
tr ln c bo; k
b
= 0.2 i vi nhng vng c t 25% n 45% thi gian trong nm c
bo; k
b
= 0.15 i vi nhng vng c t hn 25% thi gian trong nm c bo).
D
x
, D
d
: Lng hng xp, lng hng d.
M
x
, M
d
: nh mc xp, nh mc d.
- Tnh lng d tr:
Cn c vo thi gian chuyn i, sut tiu hao nhin liu cng nh tiu hao nc ngt,
lng thc thc phm ly y lng d tr cho tu.
Bc 4: Tnh ton lng hng phn b xung cc hm hng sao cho tn dng ht
dung tch v trng ti, hoc ph hp vi yu cu xp hng ti a ca hp ng thu tu,
t hiu qu kinh t cao. Lng hng xp trn tu phi tho mn cc yu cu ra ca
chuyn i nh hn ch v vng ma khai thc (tho mn yu cu ca load line
Convention) c xt ti tc ng ca hin tng un vng, mn nc ca cc cng i v
cng n c xt ti tc ng ca t trng nc ti cc cng, sc cha ca hm hng, yu
cu ca hp ng.
Bc 5: Tnh ton v kim tra n nh, mn nc v hiu s mn nc, sc bn thn
tu ti cng xp.
tnh ton cng nh kim tra n nh tu xem mc 3.2.2 trang 54. tnh mn nc
xem mc 3.2.3 trang 62, tnh sc bn cng nh kim tra sc bn xem mc 3.2.4 trang
70.
Bc 6: Tnh ton v kim tra n nh, mn nc v hiu s mn nc, sc bn thn
tu ti cng d.
Bc 7: Tm tt cc kt qu tnh ton ca cc bc 5 v 6, lp trnh t phn hng
xung cc hm hng, v s xp hng ha.
Hnh 3.30: S hng ho
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
81
61
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
82 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
CHNG 4: VN CHUYN HNG RI
4.1 Vn chuyn du m v sn phm du m
4.1.1 Nhng khi nim c bn v du m v tu ch du:
4.1.1.1 Phn loi du v tnh cht ca du:
4.1.1.1.1 Phn loi du m:
a. Theo tnh trng ca du:
- Du th (Crude Oil): y c th hiu l du nguyn khai, cha qua ch bin. Thnh
phn c bn bao gm:
Cc bon ( Carbon): 83 - 87 %
Hydr (Hydrogen): 11 - 14 %
Lu hunh ( Sulfur): 5 % hoc t hn
Ni t (Nitrogen): 0,4 % hoc t hn
xy (Oxygen): 0,5 % hoc t hn
Kim loi (Metal): 0,5 % hoc t hn
- Du thng phm (Petroleum Product): Bao gm cc loi nh xng, du ho, du
diezel, du nng (Fuel Oil), du nhn...
- Kh : Bao gm Kh du m (Petroleum Gas) v kh t nhin (Natural Gas).
b. Theo mu sc ca du:
Khng mu: Du nh, xng...
Mu sm: Du nng.
c. Theo nhit bt la: Chia lm 3 cp du
Du cp 1: C nhit bt la < 28
0
C : Xng, du nguyn khai...
Du cp 2: C nhit bt la t 28
0
C n 65
0
C: Du ho, Kerosene...
Du cp 3: C nhit bt la > 65
0
C: Du madut, du nng...
Cn lu rng nhit du hng khi vn chuyn phi nh hn nhit bt la ca n
t nht l 5
0
C.
Nu nhit ca bt c loi du hng no khi vn chuyn nh hn nhit bt la ca
chng cha n 5
0
C th phi coi tt c l du cp 1.
4.1.1.1.2 Tnh cht ca du m:
- Tnh d chy: Du c tnh d chy ti mt iu kin v nhit no khi c ngn
la trn i qua.
- Tnh d n: Hn hp hi du v xy nu nm trong khong gii hn no c kh
nng gy n khi gp tia la.
- Tnh sinh in: Do du c nht nn trong qu trnh bm rt du, ma st gia du
v ng ng gy ra s tch in ti cc ng ng. S tch in nh vy s rt nguy
him v s c th xy ra tnh trng phng in, gy chy n trn tu du. khc phc
hin tng trn, ngi ta phi tin hnh ni t cho tu v ng ng trc khi thc hin
vic bm rt du.
- Tnh bay hi: Du c tnh bay hi rt mnh, c bit i vi cc loi du nh v nhit
cao. Tnh cht ny gy ra s hao ht du v l nguy c gy chy n rt cao.
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83 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Tnh ng kt: Khi gp nhit thp, du m c th ng kt, c bit l du nng.
trnh hin tng ng kt v c th bm rt du c, ngi ta cn phi b tr thit b
hm du.
- Tnh dn n: Du c tnh dn n v th tch do s thay i nhit . Cc loi du nh
c tnh dn n rt ln. Ngi ta xy dng bng chuyn dng trong cho cc "h s hiu
chnh th tch" tng ng vi mi loi du (VCF: Volume Correction Factor) nhit
thc t so vi nhit tiu chun (Bng 54B TCVN 6065-1995/ASTM-D.1250/
API.2540/ IP.200 p dng cho du thng phm)
Th tch t
o
thc t = Th tch t
o
tiu chun / VCF
Ngoi ra, tnh dn n ca du cn c biu din bng lng thay i th tch:
V = x t
o
C
Trong :
V: l s thay i th tch.
t
o
C: l s gia nhit
: l h s dn n cho trong bng chuyn dng i vi tng loi du.
- Tnh c: Mi loi du m u c tnh c cho sc khe. C ba con ng gy ra
ng c bi du m l: ht th, nut vo ng ming v tip xc qua da. Ng c du
m th hin di dng cp tnh hoc mn tnh.
Cc loi kh c trong du m c th gy ng c cho c th, biu hin nh: au mt, l
m, mi mt, chong vng, chng mt, t lit thn kinh, ngng th, t vong.
Cc loi kh l:
Hydrogen Sulfide - H
2
S: Kh ny c mi trng thi v c th ngi thy khi hm lng
ca n trong khng kh t 1 ppm n 2 ppm. Nu ht vo khng kh c ln H
2
S vi hm
lng t 1000 ppm n 1500 ppm (part per million) th chc nng h hp ca con ngi
s b t lit v dn n t vong.
Benzene: Gii hn ngng (TLV- Threshold Limit Value) l 25ppm (0,025% th tch).
Khi ch c cm gic c mi Benzene. Khi ht vo khng kh c ln Benzene vi hm
lng ln ti 20.000 ppm (2% th tch) trong vng t 5 n 10 pht, s gy t vong.
Hi xng: Gii hn ngng TLV l 0,05% th tch. Khi hm lng hi xng t 2,2%
n 2,6%, nu ht vo t 10 n 12 ln, s cm thy chong vng, chng mt.
- Tnh n mn: Du m c kh nng n mn i vi kim loi, c th lm r b mt ca
kt cha.
4.1.1.1.3 Mt s khi nim v nh ngha v du m:
- T trng ca du m (Density): L khi lng ring trong chn khng ca mt n
v th tch du m ti mt iu kin nhit tiu chun no . Density c th nguyn l
kg/Litter hoc kg/M
3
.
T trng tiu chun theo h Mt l t trng 15
o
C (Density at 15
o
C).
- T trng tng i ca du m ( Relative Density - Specific Gravity): l t s gia
trng lng ca du m v trng lng ca nc ct c cng th tch ti mt iu kin
tiu chun no .
- T trng tng i ca du m theo h Anh ( Relative Density - Specific Gravity
60/60
o
F): l t s gia trng lng du v trng lng ca nc ct c cng th tch ti
60
o
F.
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84 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- T trng tng i ca du m theo h M (API Gravity at 60
o
F):
- T trng theo h M c thit lp trn c s t trng h Anh theo quan h hm s
sau:
API. Gravity at 60
0
F =
141,5
- 131,5
Sp.Gravity 60/60
0
F
hoc Sp. Gravity 60/60
0
F =
141,5 .
API + 131,5
- nht (Viscosity): c nh ngha l t s gia thi gian chy qua ca mt khi
lng xc nh cht lng trn thi gian chy qua ca cng khi lng nc ct mt
nhit no . i lng ny c trng cho tnh di ng ca du.
- im bt la - Nhit bt la (Flash Point): L nhit thp nht m hn hp hi
du v khng kh bc chy khi gp ngn la trn i qua.
Tt c cc loi du c im bt la nh hn 28
0
C c xp vo loi du cp 1 v c
coi l cht lng d chy trong vn chuyn hng nguy him.
- im chy - Nhit chy (Combustion Point - Fire Point): L nhit thp nht m
hn hp hi du v khng kh bc chy khi a ngn la trn ti gn sau 5 giy.
Nhit chy thng cao hn nhit bt la khong t 10
0
C n 20
0
C.
- im t chy - Nhit t chy ( Ignition Point): L nhit thp nht khi b gia
nhit m hn hp hi du v khng kh c th t bc chy hoc n ( Khng cn ngn la
trn).
Nhit t chy thng kh cao.
- Gii hn n hoc gii hn chy (Explosive Limits or Flammable Limits)
Hi du m bc ln trn ln trong khng kh theo t l phn trm trong mt khong
gii hn nht nh v th tch s gy n hoc chy khi c tia la. Nu hm lng hi du
nm ngoi khong gii hn ny th s chy n khng xy ra. Khong gii hn bao
gm gii hn di (LEL - Lower Explosive Limit hoc LFL - Lower Flammable Limit)
v gii hn trn (UEL - Upper Explosive Limit hoc Upper Flammable Limit).
V d: Kh Methane CH
4
c LEL l 5,3% v UEL l 14.0%
Kh Propane C
3
H
8
c LEL l 2,2% v UEL l 9,5%
Octane C
8
H
18
c LEL l 1,0% v UEL l 6,0%
Xng c LEL l 1,0% v UEL l 6,0%.
Kh Hydrogen Sulfide H
2
S c LEL l 4,3% v UEL l 45,5%
4.1.1.2 Nhng khi nim c bn v tu du (Oil Tanker)
Theo cc iu khon chung ca SOLAS th tu ch du l mt loi tu hng c cu
trc v p ng cho vic vn chuyn hng lng d chy.
4.1.1.2.1 Phn loi tu du
a. Phn loi theo loi hng lng m chng chuyn ch:
- Tu ch du th (Crude Oil Tanker).
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85 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Tu ch du thng phm (Product Tanker).
- Tu ch ha cht (Chemical Tanker).
- Tu hn hp ch du v hng ri rn (OBO)
Ngoi ra cn c cc tu ch kh ha lng (LPG - Liquid Petroleum Gas v LNG -
Liquid Natural Gas).
b. Phn loi theo ln:
- Tu du a mc ch : 16.500 Dwt - 24.999 Dwt (Ch du thng phm)
- Tu du c trung bnh: 25.000 Dwt - 44.999 Dwt (Ch du thng phm, du th)
- Tu du c ln 1 (LR1): 45.000 Dwt - 79.999 Dwt (Ch du thng phm, du th)
- Tu du c ln 2 (LR2): 80.000 Dwt - 159.999Dwt (>100.000 Dwt -Ch du th)
- Tu ch du th c rt ln VLCC: 160.000Dwt - 320.000Dwt
- Tu ch du th c cc ln ULCC: T 320.000Dwt tr ln.
i vi hai loi LR1 v LR2 c trng ti nh hn 100.000 Dwt th c chia thnh hai
loi ch yu sau: Tu ch du thng phm sch (Clean Product Carriers) v tu ch du
thng phm bn v d nh du nng ( Dirty Product Carriers).
4.1.1.2.2 Mt s h thng c bn trn tu du:
a. H thng hm hng (Cargo tank):
Trn cc tu du hin c, h thng kt hng c chia thnh cc kt trung tm (Central
Tank)v cc kt mn (Wing Tank). Do c im tu c cu trc y n, v n nn s
c mt s kt hng trn tu c n nh cha nc dn (Water Ballast) khi hnh hi
khng hng.
Trn cc tu du mi (Hp ng ng mi k t 06/07/1993 hoc c bn giao t
06/07/1996- MARPOL 73/78) phi c y i v v kp th kt hng ca tu s c lp
vi cc kt Ballast v trong iu kin hnh hi khng hng, nc dn ch c bm vo
cc kt Ballast cch ly (SBT).
Lu rng, lng Ballast phi m bo cho tu trong chuyn hnh trnh khng hng
(Ballast Condition) tho mn cc yu t sau:
- Mn gia ca tu khng c nh hn 2.0m + 0,015L.
- Hiu s mn nc v pha li khng c ln hn 0,015L.
- Chn vt phi ngp hon ton trong nc.
Trn cc tu du, ngay st pha trc ca bung bm lun c hai kt cha nc bn
(Slop Tank) b tr nh hai kt mn.
Trn mt s tu du hin i, pha trn kt hng cn c b tr khoang dn n. y l
cc khoang c ca kn du m khng gian ca n dng cha lng du dn n do
nhit tng.
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86 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Hnh 4.1: Tu ch du th
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Hnh 4.2 : Tu ch du v kp, y i.
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H nh 4.3 : T u ch du thng phm
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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Hnh 4.4: Tu ch kh du ha lng (LPG)
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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b. H thng ng ng, van, bm ca tu du (Pipes, Valves and Pump System):
- H thng ng ng lm hng chnh ca tu du bao gm h ng ng trn boong
(Top lines), h ng ng y kt hng (Bottom lines) trong c h ng ng chnh
c ng knh ln (Main lines) c s dng cho c nhn v tr hng v h ng ng
nhn hng ni gia h ng ng trn boong v h ng ng y kt hng (Drop
lines). H thng ng bm vt kh (Stripping lines) c t thp hn h ng ng
chnh.
Ngoi cc h thng ng ng ny cn c cc h thng ng Ballast, ng lm v sinh
hm hng...
- H thng van lm hng: Bao gm h thng van cng nhn, tr hng (Manifold
Valves), cc van phn nhnh (Crossover Valves), cc van thuc h thng ng nhn hng
(Drop Valves) v cc van chn (Isolating Valves)... Cc van ny c th c m bng tay
ti ch hoc thng qua h thng iu khin t xa h tr thy lc m van.
- H thng bm: H thng bm hng truyn thng trn tu du thng c b tr ti
bung bm sau kt hng cui cng, st vi bung my. Cc bm ny s ni vi h thng
ng ng chnh y kt (Main lines) v lin h vi Manifold thng qua mt h thng
ng ng tr hng.
Trn mt s tu du hin i, ngi ta b tr cc bm hng ngay ti tng kt hng mt
(DeepWell Pump). iu ny lm hn ch nguy c gy chy n do vic d lt hi du v
tch t hi du trong bung bm.
Ngoi ra cn c cc bm phc v cho mc ch vt kh (Stripping).
c. H thng thng hi (Venting System):
H thng ny c chc nng ch yu l m bo duy tr p sut trong kt hng trong
phm vi an ton. H thng ny bao gm cc ng ng (Venting Lines), cc van khng
ch (Vent Valves), cc van th (Breather Valves), cc van an ton iu p (Preasure
Valves- P/V).
d. H thng ra hm hng (Tank Cleaning System):
- H thng ra bng nc: Bao gm bm ra hm, cc my ra c nh c lp t
trong kt hng hoc cc my ra di ng, h thng ng ng v kt cha.
- H thng ra bng du th (Crude Oil Washing-COW): Bao gm h thng my ra
c nh trong kt, cc bm hng v h thng ng ng, h thng ng ng v bm vt
kh, h thng ng ng dn du th ring bit ra hm, h thng ch bo mc du
trong kt hng. (Theo MARPOL73/78 cc tu ch du th hin c trng ti t 40,000
Dwt tr ln v cc tu du mi dng ch du th c trng ti t 20.000 Dwt tr ln
phi trang b h thng COW)
e. H thng kh tr (Inert Gas System- IGS):
Theo cc iu khon ca SOLAS 74, h thng kh tr phi c trang b trn cc tu
ch du thng phm v tu ch du th c trng ti t 20,000 Dwt tr ln. Cc tu hin
c, nu lp t thit b ra hm cng sut cao (High Capacity Washing Machines-
H.C.W.M) phi trang b h thng kh tr.
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91 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Hnh 4.5: H thng kh tr (IGS).
Kh tr c s dng trn tu du vi hai mc ch c bn:
- Lm tr khng kh trong kt hng chng chy n (hm lng xy trong kt nh
hn 11% s khng th xy ra chy n). m bo an ton, hm lng xy trong kt
hng phi lun gi mc nh hn 8%.
- Gi cho p sut trong kt hng nm trong phm vi an ton.
Kh tr (bao gm cc thnh phn chnh l CO
2
, O
2
, SO
2
, Nit, hi nc, bi kim
loi...) c ly t kh thi ni hi hoc my chnh hoc t thit b to kh tr (Inert Gas
Generator) vi hm lng xy nh (2,5%-5%) s c a qua thit b lc kh (Scrubber)
h nhit , lc bt bi, cc ht kim loi, v loi b cng nhiu cng tt SO
2
, tip
qua b phn kh ht hi nc (Demister) ri c cp vo h thng qut gi (Blower)
qut vo cc kt hng thng qua h thng ng ng , van. phng hi du c th
chy ngc tr li qut gi v ni hi dn n chy n ngi ta thit k thit b chng
ngc (Deck Water Seal), van chng ngc (Non Return Valve), Van chn (Isolating
valve). m bo cho h thng hot ng an ton ngi ta cn lp t cc van iu p
(Presure Control Valve), van an ton (P/V breaker)...cng cc thit b phn tch hm
lng xy duy tr tnh trng v p sut ca kh tr cng nh ca kt hng ang c
cp kh tr.
Ngoi h thng kh tr s dng kh thi (Flue gas) cn c h thng kh tr s dng kh
Nit. Tuy nhin, loi ny kh t tin, i hi phi mua v c kt cha ni t ha lng trn
tu.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
92 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Kh tr c s dng trong cc trng hp sau:
- Lm tr khng kh trong kt trng.
- Tr hng hoc bm x nc dn sch: Cp kh tr vo kt ang tr hng hoc ang
x nc dn sch duy tr p sut ca kt v lm tr khng kh trong kt.
- Ra kt : Cp kh tr vo kt gi tr khng kh trong kt v gi p sut an ton
trong kt c bit l i vi COW.
- Kh kh (Gas Freeing): Sau khi ra kt xong th a kh tr vo kt y hi
du ra ngoi, sau thng thong kt bng khng kh bn ngoi.
Ngoi ra kh tr cn c s dng trong trng hp nhn hng hoc nhn nc dn
bn, khi cn b xung kh tr vo kt hng trong chuyn i do b hao ht bi x p...
f. Khong trng v thit b o khong trng (Ullage and Ullage Gauge)
Khong trng chnh l khong cch tnh t mt hng ti nh kt.
Thit b o khong trng c th l thc (Ullage Tape) hoc thit b o dng sng
radar c th hin th ti bung iu khin, hoc phao ch mc (Float Gauge).
Ngoi ra cn c thit b o a nng (Multi Function Measuring Unit) c th dng
xc nh c khong trng, mt phn cch gia du, nc v nhit .
4.1.2 Cc phng php v sinh hm hng tu du:
Trn cc tu du, vic v sinh kt nhm cc mc ch sau:
- V sinh kt cha nc dn sch cho chuyn chy bin khng hng.
- V sinh kt nhn hng khc, trnh nguy c pha ln hng lm gim phm cht ca
hng sp nhn c bit l khi nhn cc loi du tinh khit hn hoc du nhn th vic v
sinh kt, loi b du c cn st li trong ng ng, lm kh kt c i hi rt cao.
- V sinh kt m bo tnh trng sch v an ton trc khi tu vo sa cha.
- V sinh kt kim tra, bo dng, sa cha trong kt.
- V sinh kt loi b bt cn cu trong kt, duy tr lng hng tip nhn.
4.1.2.1 Phng php v sinh th cng:
Dng nhn cng trc tip ra kt hng v s dng nc bin ra. Vic ra kt hng
c tin hnh trong thi gian chy Ballast.
Quy trnh ra nh sau:
- Thng thong kt ln 1.
- Sy nng kt ti nhit khong 70
0
C - 80
0
C du bn bm trn vch chy bt
xung di.
- Thng thong kt ln 2.
- Cho ngi xung dng vi rng phun nc nng t 30
0
C-50
0
C ra sch vch kt t
trn xung di v sn, ng thi bm nc trong kt ra (Lu cc quy nh phng
chng nhim).
- Thng thong ln 3.
- Cho ngi xung dn cn du cn li, sau lau sch v sy kh kt.
Lu :
- Ch cho ngi xung kt, nu kim tra thy hm lng xy trong kt t hm lng
21%.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
93 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Tuyt i cm la cng nh kh nng xy ra tia la trong lc ra kt.
- Cc phng tin cu ho phi c chun b sn sng.
- Phng php ny kh nguy him cho con ngi, ch cn dng trn cc tu ch du
c nh.
4.1.2.2 Phng php v sinh c kh:
Vi phng php ny ngi ta dng cc thit b ra c kh l cc my ra di ng
(Portable Washing Machine) hoc cc my ra c nh gn trong kt hng (Fixed
Washing Machine).
Vi my ra di ng, thuyn vin phi treo my ra qua ca ra kt v iu chnh
cao ca my ra m bo trnh t ra theo cao cng nh phi chuyn vi rng, u
phun...
y l my ra hot ng theo nguyn l thy lc, c u phun quay trn, nng sut
ra kh cao. My ra c ni vi h thng vi rng cung cp nc ra trn boong.
Vi cc my c nh, ngi ta b tr lp t c nh cc my ra nng sut cao
phn trn ca kt cn cc my ra nng sut nh hn di thp v mt s v tr khut.
Tuy nhin my ra c nh nng sut cao ch c s dng khi tu c trang b h thng
kh tr (IGS) v nht thit phi lm tr khng kh khi ra hm.
C th ra kt theo chu trnh h hoc chu trnh kn.
Theo chu trnh h, nc bin c bm ra kt, nc bn ln du trong kt c
bm vo cc kt cha nc bn (Slop tanks). Nc s c bm ra ngoi cn du cn
c gi trn tu.
Theo chu trnh kn, nc bin s c ly vo Slop tanks trc, sau dng nc
y bm ra kt. Nc bn t kt ra c bm v Slop tanks ri quay vng li
ra kt. Thc hin theo chu trnh ny cn cp kh tr vo kt trnh hin tng phng
in.
C th dng nc lnh ra kt hoc nc nng ra tu theo yu cu.
Nhit nc nng ra kt nn ly bng Pour Point ca hng du cng thm 40
0
C.
Ra bng nc nng c hiu qu cao i vi cc loi th du c nhiu sp, cu cn v
Pour point cao.
Pour point l nhit thp nht m du m bt u chy c.
* Nhng lu khi tin hnh ra kt hng:
- Cn bit rng, c cc phng n ra ti u m bo an ton th cn phi bit chnh
xc tnh trng khng kh trong kt hng.
Khng kh trong kt hng trc khi tin hnh ra c th mt trong nhng dng sau
y:
+ Khng kh khng c kim sot (Atmosphere A): hm lng hi du trong
khng kh c th nm trong hoc nm ngoi gii hn chy n.
+ Khng kh ngho hi du (Atmosphere B): Hm lng hi du trong khng kh
thp hn khong LFL. Khi tin hnh ra, cn phi duy tr hm lng hi du khng vt
qu 50% ca LFL.
+ Khng kh c lm tr (Atmosphere C): Khng kh c lm tr bi Kh
tr v hm lng xy trong kt khng qu 8%.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
94 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
+ Khng kh c qu nhiu hi du (Atmosphere D): Hm lng hi du cha
trong khng kh qu nhiu, vt qu UFL. Khi tin hnh ra hm, hm lng hi du
trong kt phi c duy tr t nht l 15% th tch.
- Duy tr hiu s mn nc ln cng nh lm nghing tu i cht v bn ming
ht gip cho vic bm ht kh c thun li (Trim= 2,5% LBP).
- Duy tr p sut phun nc ra trong gii hn cho php m bo ra sch v an
ton. i vi my ra di ng nn duy tr p sut t 10kg/cm
2
tr xung. i vi my
ra c nh th tu loi m quyt nh p sut ra khc nhau.
- Nhit nc ra nu dng nc nng th chn bng Pour Point + 40
0
C. i vi
Atmosphere A th nhit nc ra khong 60
0
C phng trnh hin tng tnh in.
Ngoi ra nng sut my ra khng c vt qu 60 m
3
/h.
- Quyt nh s dng bao nhiu u phun v cch thc bm ht cn cn c vo nng
sut ca bm vt kh, nng sut ca thit b hm, nng sut ca bm nc ra...
- Thi gian ra hm lu hay mau tu thuc vo phng php ra, chng loi hng, yu
cu v sch, tnh trng kt hng...
- V tr t u phun phi c d kin trc, p sut ca kt trong qu trnh ra phi
c duy tr trong phm vi an ton.
- Nu ch hng c tinh khit cao th phi trng kt hng bng chnh loi hng .
- Tun th nghim ngt quy nh chng nhim bin theo MARPOL 73/78.
* Cc ch khc:
- Lp trnh t ra kt v cung cp y thng tin v vn an ton.
- Cho mi thuyn vin lm quen vi quy trnh ra kt hng.
- Khng cho ngi l ln tu.
- Khng cho ngi khng c nhim v ra ngoi boong khi ra kt hng.
- Phn cng S quan gim st vic ra kt hng.
- Khi cha kim tra an ton, cm vo trong kt kn.
- Chun b sn sng cc trang b, dng c cha chy, chng du trn.
- Kim tra an ton cc n chiu sng dng trong khi ra kt.
- Kim sot phng chy nghim ngt, cm mi ngun nh la.
- Cm m cc ca ra vo cabin, t thng gi tun hon trong cabin, khng ly gi
tri.
- ng tt c cc l thot nc trn boong bng cc nt cao su chuyn dng.
- Ngn nga tai nn do tnh in.
- Vt kh nc ra trong lc ra kt.
- Kh kh c trong kt sau khi ra kt.
- Thuyn vin xung lm vic trong kt phi trang b y qun o, m, giy bo h
m bo an ton. kh tnh in, cn tip xc vi cu trc kim loi h ca tu, khng
c mang bt c th g bng thp c th gy tia la do v nh ri.
4.1.2.3 Phng php ra kt dng nc kt hp vi cht ty:
Vi phng php ny, cht ty c dng kt hp vi nc to kh nng ra sch
kt tt hn. Tuy nhin cht ty c th lm tng hin tng tnh in trong qu trnh ra,
gy cn tr kh nng phn ly du ln trong nc ra.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
95 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
4.1.2.4 Phng php ra bng du th (Crude Oil Washing-COW)
Theo cc quy nh ca MARPOL 73/78, cc tu ch du th hin c trng ti t 40,000
Dwt tr ln v cc tu du mi t 20,000 Dwt tr ln phi c trang b h thng ra kt
hng bng du th (COW).
Mc ch ca h thng COW l:
- Hp l ha hot ng v sinh kt hng.
- Hp l ha vic lm hng, bao gm c hon chnh vic d du th.
- Ngn nga nhim mi trng bin.
Li ch ca h thng COW:
- Lm gim lng cn cu cn li trong kt v n c bm ht ln cng vi hng.
- Tng lng du nhn trong chuyn ti.
- Ngn nga nhim mi trng bin
- Lm gim lng mui ln trong du do ra bng nc bin trn cc tu hin c.
- Lm gim cng vic ra kt, tit kim nhin liu trn cc tu hin c.
- Gim thi gian cn thit cho vic kh kh trc khi tu vo .
- Tng an ton khi vo sa cha.
- Ngn nga hin tng g kt hng.
- Tng an ton trong khi ra kt.
Nhng hn ch ca h thng COW:
- Lm tng thi gian d hng so vi phng php truyn thng.
- Lm tng cng vic trong khi d hng.
- Lm thot hi du ra ngoi khng kh.
Thit b dng cho COW bao gm:
- H thng kh tr IGS
- H thng my ra c nh.
- H thng bm v ng ng c nng sut ph hp. ng ng cho COW phi c
lp vi ng Main line.
- H thng bm vt kh v b tr ng ng vt kh.
- H thng ch bo mc du trong kt.
- Cc thit b an ton cho bm.
Vic ra kt bng du th thng c tin hnh trong thi gian tu d hng m
khng thc hin trong thi gian chy Ballast. Do vy cn phi thng nht v c thit lp
trnh t thao tc COW cng vi vic lm hng.
Khng c bm nc Ballast vo kt cha c ra bng du th.
Nc Ballast bm vo kt ra bng du th nhng cha c trng qua nc th b
coi l nc dn bn.
Cc phng php ra bng du th bao gm:
- Phng php nhiu giai on (Multi Stage): Phng php ny dng ra kt cng
lc vi vic d hng. bt u ra t khng gian trng bn trn xung di cho n khi
mc du cch y khong 1,5 m (Top Wash). Sau cng vi s bm vt kh kt hng,
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
96 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
tin hnh ra lp st y v sn (Bottom Wash). Ngoi ra cn thc hin ra mt s v tr
khut (Spot Wash).
- Phng php mt giai on (Single Stage): Phng php ny p dng khi kt hng
c bm cn. Lc vic b tr my ra cn ph hp vi nng sut bm vt.
C ba kiu cung cp du th ra kt nh sau:
- H thng chu trnh bn m (Semi-Open Cycle): Du dng ra kt c a vo t
kt ang d hng, du sau khi ra kt s c bm ra kt hng pha sau hoc Slop tank.
- H thng chu trnh kn (Closed Cycle): Du dng ra kt c a ti t kt
hng pha sau hoc Slop tank, du sau khi ra kt li c bm v chnh cc kt v
tip tc quay vng ra.
- H thng chu trnh m (Opened Cycle): Du ra kt c ly chnh kt ang d
hng v c bm tr cng vi du hng.
Cc ch khi thc hin COW:
- Lp s xp, d hng ph hp vi vic b tr ra kt bng du th gim thiu
thi gian lm hng.
- Kim sot hm lng xy trong kt khng vt qu 8% th tch.
- Lun gi p sut trong kt cao hn p sut kh quyn trnh khng kh lt vo kt.
- Phng chng vic r du. Trc cc ng ng v sinh kt phi c th p sut
bng 110% p sut lm vic. Kim tra ng ng v cc bch ni cn thn, vn cht c,
lm kn nu cn. Duy tr p sut bm ch khong 10 kg/cm
2
.
- Vic cp du ra kt phi khng lm ln cc loi du khc nhau v ph hp vi cc
chu trnh cp du th.
- Phng chng nhim khng kh do thot hi du t vic ra hm.
- My ra kt phi c chun b ph hp, th an ton, chng hin tng phng tnh
in, chng r du...
- Cc ch khc v phng chy n, b tr ngi trc canh, thit lp h thng lin lc
hiu qu.
4.1.3 Cng tc hng ha trn tu du:
4.1.3.1 Xp hng:
4.1.3.1.1 S xp hng (Loading Plan):
S xp hng c i ph lp phi m bo nhng yu t c bn sau:
- Tn dng ti a dung tch v trng ti ca tu.
- Xp hng theo iu khon v hng ha trong hp ng thu tu.
- Kh nng phn b hng hp l m bo phn cch hng ha, bo qun hng ha
v thun tin cho trnh t xp hng cng nh tr hng.
- m bo mn nc v hiu s mn nc.
- m bo sc bn dc thn tu v n nh ca tu.
S xp hng phi th hin c s lng Manifold, h thng ng ng, van c
s dng, lu lng nhn hng ti a c th, quy trnh lm y kt (Topping Off) sao cho
kt lm y cui cng phi c dung tch d phng trong trng hp khn cp cho n
tn bc xp hng cui cng (thng chn kt trung tm gia tu), trnh t v thi gian
cho vic bm x Ballast...
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
97 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
4.1.3.1.1 Cc bc chun b trc khi vo cng xp hng:
a. Kim tra v th cc trang thit b lm hng v cc thit b khc.
- Th h thng IGS cng nh h thng bo ng, ngt khn cp.
- Kim tra s r r hi du qua cc ca m kt hng trn boong v h thng thng kh.
C th vn cht cc c, thay giong m nu thy c hin tng r r.
- Kim tra, th cc thit b bo mc du trong kt.
b. t cc nt cao su cho cc l thot nc trn boong.
c. Kim tra, bo dng cc van thu du trn khn cp trn boong v kt cha du trn.
d. Chun b sn sng cc thit b phng chng nhim du trn.
e. t thm trn boong pha di Manifold chng nh la do va chm hoc ri
kim loi xung boong khi tho, lp Manifold.
f. Kim tra hng lm hng (Manifold), chng r r, khng c g, rc bn, thay giong
mi.
g. Kim tra sch ca ng ng ra kt, ng cht cc van ca h ng ng ra
kt trc khi nhn du.
h. Kim tra v duy tr hm lng xy trong kt khng vt qu 8%.
i. p sut trong kt phi c iu chnh v p sut kh quyn trc khi vo cng
tin cho vic ly mu, o mc nc cn li...
j. Chun b sn sng cc thit b phng cha chy.
k. t cp cu ho (Fire Wire) ti mi v li tu cch mt nc khong 1- 2 mt.
l. Kim tra, bo dng v chun b cn cu m bo an ton cu ng cp du.
m.Chun b cc phng n chng ng cng khi tu lm hng ti vng lnh.
n. Kim tra, bo dng h thng chiu sng trn boong v thit b in .
o. Hp thuyn vin ph bin k hoch, cc bin php an ton v phn cng nhim v
cho tng c nhn.
4.1.3.1.2 Quy trnh xp hng:
- Da trn c s s xp hng, i ph phi tho thun vi ngi ph trch ca cng
v cc vn lin quan n k hoch lm hng, chng loi, chi tit v hng ha, trnh t
bm x Ballast, cc vn lin quan n trang thit b ca tu, ca cng, tc xp hng
lc bt u, tc ti a v tc lc lm y (Topping Off), cc quy trnh khn cp,
lng hng cn trong ng cp du sau khi ngng bm, vn thng tin lin lc,
nhng hn ch nu c, khu vc ht thuc, quy nh li ra v cabin,...
- Hon thnh bn danh mc kim tra an ton vi cng (Ship/ Shore Safety Check List).
- B tr trc lm hng v theo di tnh trng xung quanh tu.
- Kim tra kt hng trc khi xp hng v cp giy chng nhn m bo nu t yu
cu (Dry Inspection Certificate).
- Ni ng lm hng v cn lm hng.
- ng v c nh tt c cc van thot mn.
- Lp ng chy cho hng (Lined up). Cn kim tra khng nh chc chn cc van
phi m cng nh cc van phi ng c ng chy cho hng chnh xc.
- Ni t cho tu v ng ng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
98 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Khi bt u xp hng, lu lng hng phi nh. Sau khi kim tra chc chn khng
c r r, bt thng th tng dn lu lng ln ti a.
- Phi phn cng thuyn vin trc ti Manifold kim tra tnh trng tip nhn hng,
nhit , p sut ti Manifold cng nh s r r nu c.
- Ballast c bm x cng vi qu trnh xp hng theo trnh t tnh sn khi c
s cho php ca cng. Cc bin php phng trnh nhim do ln du phi c m bo.
Mt nc xung quanh tu phi c ngi quan st thng xuyn.
- Kim tra thng xuyn khong trng ca cc kt ang nhn hng m bo hng
c nhn ng vi s , trnh trn du.
- n giai on cui ca qu trnh xp hng, cn iu chnh lu lng xp hng
trnh trn du. lm y kt (Topping Off), tt nht l tng kt mt trnh khng
kim sot c. Khi mt kt no gn t khong trng d tnh, th m van ca kt
khc ri mi ng van ca kt nhn hng.
Nn chn kt lm y cui cng l kt gia tu khng lm thay i hiu s mn
nc v khng lm nghing tu. Lc ny, lu lng xp hng phi gim n mc ti
thiu.
Khong trng ca kt cn c khng nh cng vi mn nc ca tu v t a ra
lnh kt thc xp hng.
- Khi kt thc xp hng, cc van ca tu ch c ng sau khi c xc nhn van trn
b ng.
- Vic tho ng v cn cp du phi c i ph gim st. Phi ht sc thn trng
trnh gy nhim (Phi x ht du trong ng trc khi tho).
- Sau khi hon tt vic xp hng, Manifold phi c ng li, dng gi y nt du
cn trong ng trn boong vo cc kt, cui cng mi ng ht van ca cc kt.
- ng cc ca kt hng, l o khong trng...
Sau khi xp xong hng, phi xc nh khong trng ca tt c cc kt hng, o nhit
hng ca tng kt, xc nh lng nc ln trong du v tnh ton lng du xp vo
cc kt hng (T khong trng, hiu chnh nghing, chi ri tra ra th tch hng trong kt
da vo ti liu "Tank Table" ca tu). Hiu chnh th tch theo nhit v nhit tiu
chun v xc nh trng lng ca du ti iu kin tiu chun.
Ly mu hng s c tin hnh theo yu cu ca ngi thu tu hoc theo s cn
nhc ca Thuyn trng. Mu du s c ly gn y, gia su v gn b mt
hng, trn ln v chia lm i vo hai chai du mu, dn nhn, nim phong. Mt trong
s chai du mu c lu gi trn tu, chai cn li gi i ha nghim.
Khi nhn du, ban ngy cn phi treo c ch " B " , ban m bt mt n .
Cn lu rng cc bin php cn p dng trong cc trng hp khn cp phi c
hun luyn v thc hnh thun thc i vi mi thuyn vin.
Hot ng lm hng c th phi dng ngay v c th phi tho ng khn cp trong mt
s trng hp sau:
- C cnh bo sng thn, ng t.
- Chy gn tu.
- C bo, ma dng.
- B tu khc va chm hoc lo ngi c th b va chm vi tu khc.
- Pht hin hi du xung quanh tu c hm lng mc nguy him.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
99 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- C tu khc cp mn hoc ri mn tu mnh.
- Tnh trng neo u ca tu b e do bi thi tit xu, bin ng.
- Do yu cu ca cng.
- Pht hin thy c du xung quanh tu .
- Pht hin nguy c chy n, gy mt an ton cho tu.
4.1.3.1.3 Nhng ch khi tu chy bin y ti:
a. m bo cht lng hng ha:
m bo c cht lng hng ha khi tu xp nhiu hn mt loi du th cn phi
c bin php cc loi hng khc nhau s khng th b pha ln.
b. Hm du:
Theo ch dn ca ngi thu tu, hng du c th c hm v kim sot nhit
trnh ng c, phc v cho vic vn chuyn v bm tr hng.
c. Cc bin php phng trnh hao ht hng do bay hi:
- Kim tra thng xuyn v bo qun cc van th (Breather Valves). Chng phi c
t ch duy tr p sut bnh thng trnh phi x kh khng cn thit.
- Cc ca m lin quan n kt du phi c bo dng c th m bo kn kh,
trnh r lt gy hao ht hng.
- Phun nc trn boong : C th phun nc bin ln boong lm gim nhit trn
boong, t lm gim nhit v p sut khong trng trong kt, hn ch vic x kh do
p sut trong kt cao hn p sut t cho cc van th.
- Ghi chp p sut ca kt hng ngy.
d. Cc bin php an ton chng r r du:
- Kim tra hi du bng my phn tch kh (Gas Detector), o cc kt, khoang st vi
kt du pht hin du b r r v ghi nht k kim tra hng ngy.
-Kim tra khong trng ca kt du hng ngy pht hin tnh trng bt thng, t
c bin php x l. Kt qu kim tra phi c ghi chp vo s o khong trng.
4.1.3.2 D hng:
4.1.3.2.1 Lp s d hng (Discharging Plan)
S d hng c lp bi i ph v phi c Thuyn trng duyt. m bo
an ton trong qu trnh d hng, s d hng phi th hin c nhng yu t sau:
- Trnh t d hng, trnh t bm Ballast, thi gian cn thit d hng, bm Ballast,
cc ng ng, bm dng cho vic d hng.
- Kim tra m bo trng thi ca tu khi thc hin qua cc bc d hng (Mn nc,
hiu s mn nc phi ph hp vi trnh t tr hng, m bo bm vt d dng ...)
- ng sut ca v tu phi nm trong khong cho php trong sut thi gian d hng.
- Tnh hnh ti cng d hng (Kiu bn cng, tnh trng ca kt cha trn b, cc hn
ch v mn nc, tnh khng, gii hn v p sut bm, COW, kh nng tip nhn
nc bn hoc x Ballast...).
- Th hin quy trnh ra bng du th (Kt cn ra bng du th, du ra...).
- Quyt nh lu lng bm tr hng (Lu lng ny tng ng vi lu lng ti
a ca du chy trong ng hng du l 7m/s v nng sut cung cp IG ca IGS).
- S d hng phi c s ng ca cc bn lin quan.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
100 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
4.1.3.2.2 Cc bc chun b trc khi vo cng d hng:
a. Kim tra v th cc trang thit b lm hng v cc thit b khc.
- Th p sut cho cc ng ng d hng v ng ng v sinh kt pht hin r r.
p sut th bng khong 119% p sut lm vic. Cc khim khuyt nu c phi c
khc phc ngay. Du bm ln th p sut phi c x ht khi ng, a v kt.
- Khi ng , th h thng kh tr (IGS).
- Kim tra hi du r lt qua cc ca m trn boong, h thng thng kh, l o vi,
l quan st...Cn thit phi vn cht c, thay giong mi.
- Kim tra s hot ng v chnh xc ca thit b ch bo mc du trong kt.
- Kim tra h thng COW.
b. t cc nt cao su chn cc l thot nc trn boong.
c. Kim tra tnh trng cc kt chng trn, cc van trn boong.
d. Chun b sn sng cc thit b vt liu phng chng du trn.
e. t thm trn boong, pha di Manifold khi lp hoc tho ng ni phng chng
nh la do va chm kim loi.
f. Kim tra hng lm hng (Manifold), chng r r, khng c g, rc bn, thay giong
mi.
g. Kim sot p sut trong kt hng lun mc cho php ( khong 700mm H
2
O ).
h. Kim sot hm lng xy trong khong trng ca kt khng vt qu 8%.
i. Chun b sn sng cc thit b phng cha chy.
j. t cp cu ho (Fire Wire) ti mi v li tu cch mt nc khong 1- 2 mt.
k. Kim tra, bo dng v chun b cn cu m bo an ton cu ng cp du.
l. Chun b cc phng n chng ng cng khi tu lm hng ti vng lnh.
m. Kim tra, bo dng h thng chiu sng trn boong v thit b in .
o. Hp thuyn vin ph bin k hoch, cc bin php an ton v phn cng nhim v
cho tng c nhn.
4.1.3.2.3 Quy trnh d hng:
Trn c s s v trnh t d hng, i ph phi bn bc, thng nht vi i din
ca cng nhng vn nh:Cc thng tin an ton, khu vc c php ht thuc, li ra
vo cabin, nhng hn ch s dng ngn la trn v thit b nu n, cc bng ch dn,
thng bo, cch thc thng tin lin lc gia tu v cng, cc bin php khn cp, trnh t
tr hng, d kin s lng hng, tc tr hng khi bt u v tc ti a, p sut
Manifold, s lng Manifold, mn nc hoc cao Manifold ti a, quy trnh ra bng
du th (COW), trnh t v thi gian bm Ballast, bin php x kh trong ng ng,
cch thc kim tra hng sch (Dry check), cc bin php chng trn ln hng...
- Hon thnh bn danh mc kim tra an ton vicng (Ship/Shore Safety Check List).
- B tr trc lm hng v theo di tnh trng xung quanh tu.
- Ni ng lm hng v cn lm hng.
- ng v c nh tt c cc van thot mn.
- Lp ng chy cho hng (Lined up). Cn kim tra khng nh chc chn cc van
phi m cng nh cc van phi ng c ng chy cho hng chnh xc.
- Ni t cho tu v ng ng.
- Thit lp li i v cu thang an ton cho tu.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
101 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Trc khi d hng, S quan cng vi gim nh vin ca cng o vi, nhit v
tnh ton lng du, lng nc di y kt.
- Vic quyt nh bt u tr hng c thc hin sau khi i ph kim tra xc
nhn tnh chnh xc ca h thng ng ng v van cho ng chy ca hng ng thi
thng bo cho b phn My trc khong 30 pht chun b bm lm hng.
- Khi bt u d hng, lu lng d hng phi nh. Sau khi kim tra chc chn
khng c r r, bt thng th tng dn lu lng ln ti a.
- Phi phn cng thuyn vin trc ti Manifold kim tra tnh trng tip nhn hng,
nhit , p sut ti Manifold cng nh s r r nu c.
- Phn cng thuyn vin trc v kim tra khu vc bung bm, quan st xung quanh tu
cng nh tnh trng ng ng trn boong.
- Ngay khi bt u tr hng, tin hnh cp kh tr vo kt m bo duy tr p sut
trong kt. c bit lu kim tra hm lng xy phi di 8%.
- Kim tra thng xuyn khong trng ca cc kt ang tr hng m bo hng
c tr ng vi s v nm c s lng hng tr.
- p sut v lu lng ti a khi tr hng c thc hin theo quy nh ca hp ng.
Do cn kim tra ng h p sut ti Manifold duy tr ng vi hp ng.
- Kim tra khong trng ca c cc kt cha tr hng pht hin cc trng hp bt
thng nu c.
- Trong trng hp cn thit, theo yu cu ca ngi nhn hng, du c th c hm
thun li cho vic bm tr hng. Khi vic hm du phi lm theo s ch dn.
- Kim sot p sut trong kt thng qua vic iu chnh lng IG cp vo trnh vic
x hi du ra ngoi khng kh.
- Duy tr hiu s mn nc 2,5% LBP vic bm vt hng c thc hin tt.
- Khi gn kt thc tr hng, bo cho b phn my trc 30 pht gim tc bm v
chun b dng bm. Khi kt thc d hng, cc van trn tu phi c ng trc, sau
thng bo cho cng.
- Vic tho ng v cn cp du phi c i ph gim st. Phi ht sc thn trng
trnh gy nhim (Phi x ht du trong ng trc khi tho).
- Sau khi hon tt vic d hng, Manifold phi c ng li, dng gi y nt du
cn trong ng trn boong vo cc kt, cui cng mi ng ht van ca cc kt.
- ng cc ca kt hng, l o khong trng...
- Tu cng vi i din cng kim tra kt hng xc nhn tnh trng tr ht hng v
cp bin lai hng sch "Dry Certificate".
Khi tr du, ban ngy cn phi treo c ch " B " , ban m bt mt n .
Cn lu rng cc bin php cn p dng trong cc trng hp khn cp phi c
hun luyn v thc hnh thun thc i vi mi thuyn vin.
Hot ng lm hng c th phi dng ngay v c th phi tho ng khn cp trong mt
s trng hp sau:
- C cnh bo sng thn, ng t.
- Chy gn tu.
- C bo, ma dng.
- B tu khc va chm hoc lo ngi c th b va chm vi tu khc.
- Pht hin kh du xung quanh tu c hm lng mc nguy him.
- C tu khc cp mn hoc ri mn tu mnh.
- Tnh trng neo u ca tu b e do bi thi tit xu, bin ng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
102 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- H thng kh tr b trc trc.
- Do yu cu ca cng.
- Pht hin thy c du xung quanh tu .
- Pht hin nguy c chy n, gy mt an ton cho tu.
4.1.4 Tnh ton hng ha trn tu du:
4.1.4.1Gii thiu bnghiu chnh v o tnh xng du theo tiu chun TCVN 6065-
1995/ASTM-D.1250/API.2540/IP.200
Trong lnh vc du m hin c 3 h o lng c cng nhn trn ton Th gii thng
qua bng o lng du m (Petroleum Measurement Table) v c ban hnh di tn
gi tiu chun ASTM-D.1250/API.2540/IP.200.
Nm 1993, tiu chun ASTM-D.1250 chnh thc c a v p dng trong hot
ng o tnh, giao nhn v hch ton xng du ti Vit nam.
Nm 1995, bng o tnh trn c chnh thc ban hnh di tn gi Tiu chun Vit
nam TCVN 6065-1995.
Bng o tnh xng du ny hin c bin tp bao gm cc bng :1, 2, 3, 4, 22, 33, 51,
52, 53B, 54B v 56.
o tnh xng du theo h mt phi s dng cc bng sau:
- Bng 51: Chuyn i Sp.Gravity 60/60
o
F v API.Gravity 60
o
F v Density 15
o
C.
- Bng 52: Chuyn i cc n v o dung tch US.Gallons, Impe.Gallons, Barrels, Lt
tng ng vi Density 15
o
C.
- 53A/B: Hiu chnh Density o c nhit thc t v 15
o
C. (Bng 53A dng cho
du th, bng 53B dng cho du thng phm).
- 54A/B/C/D: Hiu chnh th tch xng du (Lt, M
3
) o c nhit thc t v
15
o
C. (Bng 54A/B/C/D ln lt dng cho du th/Du thng phm/ Du sn phm c
bit/Du nhn).
Bng 54B dng hiu chnh th tch (Lt, M
3
) du thng phm t nhit thc t
v 15
o
C (bng cho h s hiu chnh th tch - Volume Correction Factor /VCF)
Temp.
o
C
Density at 15
0
C (kg/M
3
) Temp.
o
C 970.0 972.0 974.0 976.0 978.0 980.0 982.0 984.0 986.0 988.0 990.0
Factor For Correcting Volume to 15
o
C
25.00 0.9930 0.9930 0.9930 0.9930 0.9931 0.9931 0.9931 0.9931 0.9931 0.9932 0.9932 25.00
25.25 0.9928 0.9928 0.9928 0.9929 0.9929 0.9929 0.9929 0.9929 0.9930 0.9930 0.9930 25.25
25.50 0.9926 0.9927 0.9927 0.9927 0.9927 0.9927 0.9928 0.9928 0.9928 0.9928 0.9928 25.50
25.75 0.9925 0.9925 0.9925 0.9925 0.9925 0.9926 0.9926 0.9926 0.9926 0.9926 0.9927 25.75
26.00 0.9923 0.9923 0.9923 0.9923 0.9924 0.9924 0.9924 0.9924 0.9924 0.9925 0.9925 26.00
26.25 0.9921 0.9921 0.9921 0.9922 0.9922 0.9922 0.9922 0.9923 0.9923 0.9923 0.9923 26.25
26.50 0.9919 0.9920 0.9920 0.9920 0.9920 0.9920 0.9921 0.9921 0.9921 0.9921 0.9921 26.50
26.75 0.9918 0.9918 0.9918 0.9918 0.9918 0.9919 0.9919 0.9919 0.9919 0.9919 0.9920 26.75
27.00 0.9916 0.9916 0.9916 0.9916 0.9917 0.9917 0.9917 0.9917 0.9918 0.9918 0.9918 27.00
27.25 0.9914 0.9914 0.9914 0.9915 0.9915 0.9915 0.9915 0.9916 0.9916 0.9916 0.9916 27.25
27.50 0.9912 0.9913 0.9913 0.9913 0.9913 0.9913 0.9914 0.9914 0.9914 0.9914 0.9915 27.50
Bng 4.1: Bng 54B ASTM.D1250- Hiu chnh th tch du m thng phm v 15
o
C.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
103 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Bi tp v d:
Th tch du trong kt ti nhit 27
o
C l 1000 M
3
. T trng ca loi du ny ti
15
o
C c cho l 0,988 kg/Lt. Xc nh th tch du ti 15
o
C.
Bi gii:
- i n v t trng ca du sang kg/M
3
= 988 kg/M
3
.
- Vo bng 54B vi ct nhit l 27
o
C, ct t trng l 988.0 kg/M
3
tra c h s
hiu chnh th tch v 15
o
C (VCF) l 0,9918.
- Th tch du 15
o
C s l : 1000 M
3
x 0,9918 = 991,8 M
3
Cch tnh ton du thng phm bng cch dng bng 54B c thc hin nh sau:
- Gi t trng du 15
o
C l: D
15
o
C.
- Xc nh nhit ln nht trong chuyn i : t
0
max
- Th tch du tng ng vi t
0
max s l th tch kt hng: V
t
.
- Dng bng 54B cho du thng phm chuyn i th tch v 15
o
C
V
15
o
C
= V
t
x VCF
max
VCF
max
tra trong bng 54B vi i s l t
0
max v t trng ca du 15
o
C
- Xc nh nhit du ly l: t
o
l
- Th tch du ly s l: Vt
o
l
=
l
C
VCF
V
0
15
VCF
l
tra trong bng 54B vi i s l t
0
l
v t trng du 15
o
C
- Th tch khong trng s l V
tr
= V
t
Vt
o
l
- T th tch du ly Vt
o
l
vo bng Tank Table tra ra chiu cao khong trng.
- Trng lng du ti 15
o
C = D
15
o
C
x V
15
o
C.
Dng ca Tank Table:
Ullage (m) Sounding (m) Volume (M
3
) KG (m) LCG (m) I
x
(M
4
)
Bng 4.2: Bng tra kt (Tank table)
Lu :
- Thng thng lng du ti a c th xp ln tu ch nn t 98% dung tch ca kt.
Tuy nhin i vi mt s loi du c h s dn n ln th lng du xp ti a c th t
hn.
- Lng du d tnh xp c tnh ton s b:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
104 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Trng lng hng = Trng ti tu - lng d tr - const
4.1.4.2 Tnh ton chiu cao khong trng (Ullage):
Gi chiu di ca kt l L .
Khong cch t ng o n mt vch kt l l.
Chiu cao khong trng o c l h
tr o.
Chiu cao khong trng thc l h
tr thc.
Hiu s mn nc ca tu l t.
Chiu di tnh ton ca tu l LBP.
h l s hiu chnh chiu cao khong trng do nh hng ca hiu s mn nc.
Khi h c tnh nh sau:
h =
( L/2 - l ) x t
LBP
h
tr thc
= h
tr o
h
Du ca h c xt nh sau:
Ly du (+) cho h khi ng o nm cng chiu vi chiu chi ca tu.
Ly du (-) cho h khi ng o nm ngc chiu vi chiu chi ca tu.
Trng hp xc nh lng nc ln trong du:
h
n thc
= h
n o
h
L
L/2
h
tr o
h
tr thc
ng o
l
h du
h nc thc
(h
n thc
)
Pha li Pha mi
h
n o
h
n o
Hnh 4.6: V tr ng o v cch tnh ton chiu cao khong trng
h
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
105 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Tuy nhin du ca h s l:
Ly du (+) cho h khi ng o nm ngc vi chiu chi ca tu.
Ly du (-) cho h khi ng o nm cng chiu vi chiu chi ca tu.
Trn thc t, tin tnh ton, trn tu ngi ta lp cc bng hiu chnh cho tng kt
hng do nh hng ca hiu s mn nc (Trim Correction Table).
Di y l mt dng ca Trim Correction Table:
Tank Name:
Sounding
(m-cm)
Trim by
the head
(m)
Trim by the sterm
(m)
1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
h
0.90
1.00
Bng 4.3: Bng hiu chnh s o kt do nh hng ca hiu s mn nc
Gi tr h c xc nh bng cch vo bng vi hai thng s l Sounding hoc
Ullage v Trim.
4.2 Vn chuyn hng ht ri (Carriage of Grain in bulk)
4.2.1 Khi nim:
4.2.1.1 Cc thut ng:
Theo B lut quc t v Vn chuyn an ton hng ht ri (International code for the
safe carriage of grain in bulk) p dng cho tt c cc tu khng k kch thc, gm c
cc tu c dung tch ton phn nh hn 500, tham gia vo vic vn chuyn hng ht ri,
cc thut ng v khi nim trong vn chuyn hng ht ri c hiu nh sau:
a. Thut ng "Ht" bao gm la m, ng, la i mch, kiu mch, mch en, go, cc
loi , ht v cc dng ch bin ca cc ht c c tnh tng t nh cc ht trng thi
t nhin.
b. Thut ng "H s cht xp" (Stowage factor), vi mc ch cho vic tnh ton
mmen. Thut ng "Khoang cha y, nh ty" (Filled compartment, trimmed)
cp n bt k khoang cha hng ht no sau khi rt v nh ty theo yu cu ca B
lut, hng ht ri mc cao nht c th c.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
106 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
c. Thut ng "Khoang cha y, khng nh ty" (Filled compartment, untrimmed)
cp n mt khoang cha hng ht m c rt y n chng mc c th khu vc
quy hm hng nhng phn pha ngoi cha c nh ty theo quy nh ca B lut.
d. Thut ng "Khoang cha mt phn" (Partly filled compartment) cp n bt k
khoang cha hng ht no m hng khng c xp y nh cc phn m t trn.
e. Gc ngp nc (Angle of flooding-
f
) l gc nghing m ti cc l khot khng
th ng kn nc thn tu, thng tng hoc cc kho trn boong, b ngp nc. Khi
p dng nh ngha ny cc l khot nh m vic ngp nc lin tc khng th xy ra th
khng cn thit coi nh l l h.
f. Thut ng "Nghing do hng ht dch chuyn", c ngha l th tch i vi mt n
v khi lng hng xc nh bi cc thit b xp hng.
g. Thut ng "Khoang ph hp c bit" (Specially suitable compartment) cp n
mt khoang hng m c cu trc vi t nht hai vch dc kn ht, thng ng hoc
nghing m khp vi cc m ca ming hm hng hoc v tr sao cho hn ch c s
dch chuyn ngang ca hng ht. Nu t nghing th cc vch ny phi c gc nghing
khng nh hn 30
0
so vi mt phng nm ngang.
4.2.1.2 Giy php (Document of authorization)
a. Cc tu ch hng ht phi c cp giy php ph hp vi cc quy nh ca B lut
ny bi chnh quyn hnh chnh hoc bi mt t chc c cng nhn bi bn tham gia
Cng c thay mt cho Chnh quyn hnh chnh.
b. Giy php phi i km theo hoc kt hp vi s tay hng dn cht xp hng ht
Thuyn trng c th p ng c cc yu cu v n nh. S tay ny cng phi p
ng cc yu cu Thng tin lin quan n n nh v cht xp hng ht ca B lut.
c. Cc ti liu nh giy php, cc s liu v n nh cht xp hng ht v cc s ,
bn v lin quan c th c son tho bng ngn ng chnh thc ca nc xut bn.
Nu ngn ng khng phi l ting Anh hoc ting Php th phi c mt b dch sang
mt trong hai th ting .
d. Mt bn sao cc ti liu nh giy php, cc s liu v n nh cht xp hng ht v
cc s , bn v lin quan phi c trn tu Thuyn trng xut trnh khi chnh
quyn cng ca nc k kt Cng c kim tra.
e. Mt tu khng c giy php s khng c ch hng ht tr khi Thuyn trng
chng minh c vi Chnh quyn hnh chnh hoc Chnh quyn cng xp hng ca
nc tham gia Cng c rng iu kin xp hng cho chuyn i d nh l tha mn cc
yu cu ca B lut ny.
4.2.1.3 Thng tin lin quan n n nh v cht xp hng ht:
a. Tu phi c y cc thng tin lin quan Thuyn trng bo m rng tu hon
ton tun theo cc quy nh ca B lut ny khi vn chuyn hng ht cho cc chuyn i
quc t.
b. Cc thng tin m chnh quyn hnh chnh c th chp nhn bao gm:
- Cc s liu c trng ca tu
- Lng dn nc tu khng, chiu cao v honh trng tm tu khng.
- Bng hiu chnh mt thong t do ca cht lng.
- Sc cha v ta trng tm cc kt.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
107 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- ng cong hoc bng gc ngp nc, khi gc ny nh hn 40
0
, ti tt c cc lng
dn nc cho php.
- Cc ng cong hoc bng thy tnh ph hp vi khong mn nc khai thc.
- Cc ng cong honh giao tnh ton n nh, gm c ng cong ti gc
nghing 12
0
v 40
0
.
c. Cc thng tin m Chnh quyn hnh chnh ph chun gm:
- Cc ng cong hoc cc bng th tch, cc ng cong hoc cc bng chiu cao
trng tm ca cc th tch, cc ng cong hoc cc bng mmen nghing th tch gi
nh cho tt c cc khoang, cc khoang cha y hoc cha y mt phn, gm c s nh
hng ca cc vch ngn tm thi.
- Cc bng hoc ng cong mmen nghing cc i cho php i vi cc lng dn
nc v chiu cao trng tm khc nhau Thuyn trng c th minh ha s tun th
cc yu cu v n nh. Yu cu ny ch p dng i vi cc tu t ky vo hoc sau
ngy B lut ny c hiu lc.
- Chi tit v kch thc ca cc vch ngn tm thi, nu c, v cc iu khon cn
thit p ng cc yu cu v n nh bt buc, yu cu v n nh vi tu hin c, yu
cu v n nh ty chn vi cc tu khng c giy php chuyn ch mt phn hng ht
ri.
- Cc ch dn v xp hng dng cc lu mang tnh tng hp cc yu cu ca B
lut.
- Mt v d thc t lm hng dn cho Thuyn trng; v
- Cc iu kin khi hnh v n ca mt chuyn xp hng in hnh v nu cn thit,
c cc iu kin xp hng xu nht.
4.2.2 Cc yu cu v n nh i vi tu ch hng ht ri:
4.2.2.1 Cc yu cu v n nh i vi tu ch hng ht ri c giy php:
Cc c tnh n nh nguyn vn ca bt k tu ch hng ht ri no, trong sut qu
trnh chuyn i, phi ch ra rng t nht tho mn cc tiu chun sau y:
a. Gc nghing ngang do s dch chuyn ca hng ht khng c ln hn 12
0
hoc
gc nghing m ti mp boong ngp nc i vi cc tu ng vo hoc sau 1/1/1994
ly gi tr no nh hn.
b. Trn th n nh tnh, din tch thc hoc din tch d gia ng cong cnh tay
n nghing ngang v ng cong cnh tay n mmen hi phc tnh tnh t giao im
ca hai ng cong n gc nghing ngang c s chnh lch cc i gia hai tung
gia hai ng cong , hoc 40
o
hoc gc ngp nc ly gi tr no nh nht, trong
mi iu kin xp hng khng c nh hn 0,075 m-rad; v
c. Chiu cao th vng ban u, sau khi hiu chnh nh hng ca mt thong t do
cht lng trong cc kt, khng c nh hn 0,3m.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
108 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Nu theo yu cu ca chnh quyn cng xp hng ca bn tham gia cng c th trc
khi xp hng ht ri, Thuyn trng phi chng minh kh nng tun theo cc tiu chun
v n nh theo yu cu ca phn ny trong sut qu trnh chuyn i.
Sau khi xp hng, Thuyn trng phi bo m rng tu cn bng ng trc khi ra
bin.
Hnh 4.7 Tiu chun n nh tu ch hng ht ri
Theo hnh 4.10 tnh cc gi tr
0
,
40
nh sau:

0

Mmen nghing th tch gi nh do hng ht dch chuyn ngang (VHM)
H s cht xp x Lng dn nc (SF x D)

40
0,8 x
0

ng cong cnh tay n m men hi phc c xc nh t cc ng cong honh
giao m cc ng cong honh giao ny phi s lng dng chnh xc ng cong
theo mc ch ca yu cu ny v cc ng cong honh giao ny phi c c ng cong
ti 12
0
v 40
0
.
Mmen nghing ngang: M
H
=
Mmen nghing th tch (VHM)
H s cht xp (SF)
tg =
M
H
( 12
0
)
D xGM
corrected
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
109 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Mmen nghing th tch c xc nh t th ng cong "Volumetric heeling
moment-VHM" (xem hnh 4.11) (ng cong ny c cho i vi mi mt hm)
Hnh 4.8: ng cong M men nghing th tch gi nh(VHM)
4.2.2.2 Cc yu cu n nh la chn i vi cc tu khng c giy php vn chuyn
mt phn hng ht ri.
Mt tu khng c giy php c th c php xp hng ht ri vi iu kin l:
- Tng trng lng hng ht ri khng c vt qu 1/3 trng ti tu.
- Tt c cc khoang cha y san, phi t cc kt cu ngn dc tu, ko di sut
chiu di khoang v su xung pha di mt khong cch t nht bng 1/8 chiu rng
ln nht ca khoang hoc 2,4m tnh t mp di ca boong hoc np hm hng, ly gi
tr no ln hn, tr khi cc lng cho (saucers) c kt cu ph hp c th c chp
nhn thay th cho vch ngn dc trong v di ming hm hng tr trng hp i vi
ht lanh v cc loi ht khc c c tnh tng t.
- Tt c cc ming hm hng ca cc khoang cha y san, phi c ng v cc
np phi c c nh ti ch.
- Tt c cc mt t do ca hng ht trong cc khoang cha y mt phn phi c san
bng ph hp.
- Trong sut chuyn i chiu cao tm nghing sau khi hiu chnh nh hng ca mt
thong t do ca cht lng trong cc kt phi bng 0.3m hoc bng gi tr tnh theo cng
thc sau y, ly gi tr no ln hn.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
110 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
GM
r
0875 , 0
) 645 , 0 25 , 0 (

SF
B Vd B Vd LB
Trong :
L: Tng chiu di ca tt c cc khoang cha y (m)
B: Chiu rng nh hnh ca tu (m)
SF: H s cht xp (m
3
/T)
: Lng r nc.
V
d
: Chiu su khong trng trung bnh c tnh theo cng thc:
V
d
= V
d1
+ 0.75 (d - 600) mm
d: Chiu dy dm dc ming hm hng.
Trong mi trng hp V
d
phi khng nh hn 100mm.
V
d1
:l chiu su tiu chun ca khng gian trng tra trong bng di y:
Khong cch t mp ming hm n
gii hn khoang (m)
su tiu chun khng gian trng V
d1
(mm)
0,5 570
1,0 530
1,5 500
2,0 480
2,5 450
3,0 440
3,5 430
4,0 430
4,5 430
5,0 430
5,5 450
6,0 470
6,5 490
7,0 520
7,5 550
8,0 590
Bng 4.4: Bng tra V
d1
- Thay mt cho Chnh quyn hnh chnh, Thuyn trng phi chng minh cho Chnh
quyn hnh chnh hoc Chnh ph k kt Cng c ca cng xp hng rng iu kin xp
hng d kin ca tu s tun theo cc yu cu v n nh i vi tu khng giy php,
vn chuyn mt phn hng ht ri.
4.2.3 Cc bin php c nh b mt hng ht ri
a. Phi thc hin tt c vic nh ty hp l v cn thit san bng tt c cc mt t
do hng ht v lm gim ti mc thp nht nh hng ca s dch chuyn hng ht.
b. Trong bt k khoang cha y no, nh ty hng ht ri phi c san lm
y tt c cc khong trng di boong v np hm hng ti mc cao nht c th.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
111 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
c. Trong bt k khoang cha y no cha nh ty, hng ht phi c lp y ti
mc ti a c th khu vc ming hm hng nhng pha ngoi khu vc ming hm
hng th c th mc bng gc ngh t nhin ca hng. Mt khoang cha y c th m
bo cho vic nh gi ny nu n tho mn mt trong cc tiu chun sau:
c.1 Chnh quyn hnh chnh c th cho php min gim vic nh ty trong nhng
trng hp khi hnh dng khong trng di boong to ra do dng chy t do ca hng
ht vo trong khoang m c lp cc ng tip hng, boong c khot l hoc cc thit b
tng t, phi c cn nhc khi tnh ton chiu su khong trng, hoc
c.2 Khoang "ph hp c bit" c th cho php c min nh ty hai u ca
khoang.
d. Nu khng c hng ht ri hoc hng ho khc xp trn bn trn hng ht th cc
np hm hng phi c c nh theo phng thc ph duyt c ch n vic dng
khi lng v cc thit b c nh dng cho vic c nh cc np hm hng.
e. Khi hng ht ri c xp trn boong gia (tween deck) m cc np boong gia
khng kn ht th cc np phi c lm kn ht bng cch dn bng dnh cc khp
ni, ph ton khu vc np boong gia bng bt hoc vi ngn cch hoc cc vt liu ph
hp khc.
f. Sau khi xp hng tt c cc b mt t do hng ht trong cc khoang cha y mt
phn phi c san bng.
g. Tr phi phi cn nhc n s nh hng ca nghing ngang do hng ht dch
chuyn, th b mt ca hng ht trong bt k khoang cha y mt phn no s phi c
c nh ngn nga hng ht dch chuyn bng vic xp trn pha trn bng hng bao.
Trong cc khoang cha y mt phn, c th la chn vic c nh b mt hng ht bng
cch chng ai hoc buc dy .
Cc khng gian khoang trn v khoang di c th c xp nh mt khoang
min l phi ch thch ng n vic chy hng ht xung khoang di khi tnh ton
mmen nghing ngang.
h. Trong cc khoang cha y san, cc khoang cha y cha san, v cc khoang
cha y mt phn, cc vch dc c th c b tr nh l mt cng c lm gim
nghing ngang do hng ht dch chuyn min l:
h.1 Cc vch dc phi kn ht.
h.2 Kt cu vch ngn dc phi tho mn yu cu.
h.3 Trong cc boong gia, vch ngn dc ko di t boong n boong v trong cc
khoang hng khc vch ngn dc ko di t mp di ca boong hoc np hm hng
xung pha di nh sau:
- i vi cc khoang cha y san v cha san nu s dng mt vch ngn dc m
vch ngn dc t pha trc hoc sau ming hm hng th vch ngn phi ko di
t mp di ca boong, su xung di khong trng thp nht ca b mt hng ht t
nht l 0,6m, gi nh hng ht dch chuyn nghing i so vi mt phng ngang 15
0
.
Tng t nh vy, ti khu vc bn trong v ngang vi ming hm hng, nu t mt
vch ngn dc trung tm th vch ngn ny phi ko di t pha di ca np hm hng,
su xung di khong trng thp nht ca b mt hng ht t nht l 0,6m, gi nh hng
ht dch chuyn nghing i so vi mt phng ngang 15
0
.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
112 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- i vi cc khoang cha khng y, mt vch ngn dc nu c lp t th vch
ngn phi ngp di b mt hng ht ng thi nh cao hn b mt hng ht mt
khong bng 1/8 chiu rng ln nht ca khoang.
i. C th s dng phng php khot lng cho thay th cho vch ngn dc khu vc
ming hm hng nhng ch vi khoang cha y san tr trng hp i vi ht lanh
v cc ht khc c c tnh tng t m vic khot lng cho khng c thay cho vch
ngn dc. Nu vch ngn dc c trang b th n phi p ng yu cu v vch ngn
dc phn trn.
j. Chiu su ca lng cho c o t y lng cho n ng boong phi nh sau:
j.1 i vi cc tu c chiu rng nh hnh n 9,1m, chiu su lng cho khng
nh hn 1,2m.
j.2 i vi cc tu c chiu rng nh hnh l 18,3m hoc ln hn, chiu su lng
cho khng nh hn 1,8m.
j.3 i vi cc tu c chiu rng nh hnh t 9,1m n 18,3m. chiu su ti thiu
ca lng cho phi tnh bng ni suy.
k. Ming ca lng cho phi c to thnh bi cu trc di boong khu vc ming
hm hng l cc x mn hoc thnh ming hm hng v cc dm dc ming hm
hng. Lng cho v ming hm hng phi c xp y hon ton bng cc bao hng
hoc hng ph hp khc bn trn vi ngn cch hoc vt liu tng ng v c
chn cht vi cc cu trc gn k c c s tip xc chc chn vi cc cu trc
n su bng hoc ln hn 1/2 su ch nh trong mc j . Nu cu trc thn tu
khng to ra c b mt vng chc nh vy th lng cho phi c c nh bng dy
cp, xch, hoc ai chng thp kp v t cch nhau khng qu 2,4m.
l. C th la chn vic lm y lng cho trong khoang cha y san bng cc bao
hng ht hoc hng ho ph hp khc hoc c th s dng phng php bc hng ht
min l:
l.1 C kch thc v cc phng tin dng c nh vic bc lng cho phi
ging nh quy nh i vi lng cho trong mc j v k.
l.2 Lng cho phi lt bng vt liu c chnh quyn hnh chnh chp nhn, c
bn
cng gin khng nh hn 2687N trn di 5cm v c trang b phng tin thch
hp chn pha trn.
l.3 Thay th cho mc l.2 trn y c th s dng vt liu c chnh quyn hnh
chnh chp nhn c bn cng gin khng nh hn 1344N trn di 5cm nu lng cho
c kt cu nh sau:
- Cc dy buc ngang tu c Chnh quyn hnh chnh chp nhn phi c t
bn trong lng cho ti cc khong cch nhau khng qu 2,4 m. Nhng dy ny phi
di cho php ko cng v buc cht li trn nh lng cho.
- m lt c chiu dy khng nh hn 25mm hoc vt liu thch hp khc v c
chiu rng t 150mm n 300mm phi c t theo chiu mi li bn trn cc dy
buc ngn cc dy buc lm rch hoc x nh vi xp trn lt lng cho.
- Lng cho phi c np y hng ht ri v c chn cht pha trn tr khi s
dng vt liu c m lt tip theo phi c t ln trn nh sau khi bc ht li
trc khi c nh lng cho bng dy chng.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
113 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
- Nu dng nhiu tm vt liu lt lng cho th chng phi c ni y bng
cch khu li hoc phi chng ln nhau.
- nh ca lng cho phi trng vi y ca cc x ngang khi cc x ny ng v
tr ca n v c th xp hng bch ho ph hp hoc hng ht ri trn nh ca lng cho
gia cc x ngang .
m. Khi dng cc bao hng ht hoc cc loi hng ph hp khc xp chn cht bn
trn cc khoang cha y mt phn th mt thong t do ca hng ht phi c san bng
v ph mt lp vi ngn cch hoc loi vt liu tng ng hoc bng mt tm sn
thch hp. Cc sn ny phi gm cc thanh t cch nhau khng qu 1,2 m v cc tm
vn dy 25mm t ln trn cch nhau khng qu 100mm. Cc sn ny c th c lm
bng cc vt liu khc min l vt liu c Chnh quyn hnh chnh coi l tng
ng.
n. Bn trn cc sn hoc lp vi ngn cch phi xp cht cc bao hng ht v t ti
cao khng nh hn 1/16 chiu rng ln nht ca b mt t do hng ht hoc 1,2m ly
gi tr no ln hn.
o. Hng ht phi c ng trong cc bao chc chn, cc bao ny phi c cht y
v ng kn ming mt cch bo m.
p. Thay th cho cc bao hng ht th c th dng cc loi hng ho ph hp khc xp
cht v c p lc tng t nh khi xp cc bao hng ht c cao khng nh hn 1/16
chiu rng ln nht ca mt thong hng ht hoc 1,2m ly gi tr no ln hn.
4.2.4 Cng tc chun b ch hng ht ri
4.2.4.1 Cng tc chun b xp hng ht ri:
xp hng ht ri nhng vn sau cn ht sc ch :
- V sinh: Tt c cc khng gian d nh b tr xp hng ht phi c v sinh sch s,
khng mi, khng b bong g v sn v v mi phng din phi thch hp nhn hng
ht. iu ny c ngha l cc hm phi c qut, ra (nu cn thit), ng thi phi
c lm kh.
Phi c bit lu lm sch cc x pha trn, cc g, ra v cc cu trc pha di cc
np hm hng.
- La canh: Cc h la canh cn phi lm sch v y kn bng bao ti hoc bng cc vt
liu thch hp khc c th kn ht nhng khng kn nc. Cc ng ht la canh v ng o
phi thng. Cc ng thng tng tweendeck phi kn ht. Cc tng hm ny phi hon
ton kh v khng c xp qu ti. iu ny c bit quan trng i vi cc cu trc
bng g nh l cc thanh lt sn, v cc vt dng lin quan n xp hng ht. G ti l
nguyn nhn gy m cho ht khi xp do vy nn trnh s dng.
- S ph hoi ca su b: Phi kim tra ton b cc khng gian d nh cha hng ht
pht hin xem c du hiu ca s ph hoi ca cn trng v cc loi gm nhm khc
hay khng. iu ny cn c c bit quan tm i vi cc tu m chuyn trc ch
hng ht. Nu c bt k du hiu no ca s ph hoi ca cn trng, cc thanh tra ca
Chnh ph hoc ngi i din ca h s khng cho xp hng v s yu cu hun trng
hoc x l no trc khi nhn hng.
- Tnh nguyn vn cu trc ca cc khoang cha hng: Cc khoang hng phi chc
chn v cu trc. Nghim cm dng xi mng vi mc ch ngn chn nh hng ca cc
l hoc cc vt nt to tnh kn nc ton b. Cc vch ngn ngang bn di boong
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
114 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
chnh phi kn nc. Phi kim tra kn nc cc li ln xung (man holes) cc kt y
i bn di hm hng v nu cn thit cc kt phi c kim tra bng p lc nc. Cc
np hm hng phi c kim tra kn nc v nu cn thit th dng ng rng phun
nc kim tra.
- Bc cc vch ngn nng: Cc vch ngn cc bung cu ho v bung my m c
nhit 110
0
F (43
0
3C) hoc cao hn th phi bc nu k cn vi n l ni xp ng, u
tng, milo, cy la min, bp v go. Vic bc tr thnh yu cu bt c ni no xp
ht ri k cn vi vch kt cha cht lng hm nng.
- Cc kt su: Khi hng ht c xp cc kt su th cc ng bm balast v cc
ng ng c cha cc cun dy hm phi trng trong kt hoc trong bung my.
Nhng kt su m khng c h thot hoc h la canh c np th u h thng ht nc
y phi c bo v.
- Cc kt mn: Khi hng ht c xp vo cc kt mn, th cn lu phng nc
vo theo ng ng bm ballast, cc van x trn boong, ng thng hi trn boong, li
ngi xung trn boong v bt c khu vc m no khc. Cn phi trnh dn nc vo
cc kt mn khi hng ht ang c cc hm trung tm.
- H thng dy in: Dy v cc thit b in ngp trong ht c th him ho gy chy
ng k. Phi ngt ht cc mch in trong cc khoang cha hng ht tr khi cn thit
vn hnh tu.
4.2.4.2 Nhng ch trong qu trnh xp hng ht ri:
- nh ty: Cc qui nh v hng ht yu cu cc khng gian cha hng phi c lp
y ti mc c th v phi c nh ty tt. S quan di tu phi kim tra v gim st
thng xuyn m bo yu cu trn. nh ty hp l c th t c bng cch xem
xt thng xuyn cng vic san hng ming quy v cc li ln xung hm. Khi xp
hng c bi th
nu cn thit c th dng lm hng theo chu k cho bt bi c th kim tra vic nh
ty. nh ty km s gy kh khn v tn chi ph cho vic iu chnh.
- nh ty ming hm: Khi tng hm trn v hm di c xp hng kt hp th phi
nh ty ming hm v li ln xung gia hai tng hm phi m. Khi tng hm trn v
tng hm di c xp ring bit th nhng ni m cn phi ng li.
- C nh hng trong tng hm trn: Khi hng trong cc tng hm trn c c nh
bng cch b hoc chng ai th cc boong gia (tween deck) cn phi ng cht phng
nga ht ri xung cc khoang di.
- C nh cc np hm ca cc khoang cha y: Nu khng c hng ht ri hoc cc
hng khc xp trn ca mt khoang cha y th cc np hm hng cn phi c c
nh theo cch c ph chun c tnh n trng lng ca np hm v nhng gia
cng dng cho vic c nh .
- Chy do in: Trong qu trnh xp hng vic b chy do in c th xy ra bi
nguyn nhn t cc mch in hoc do vic b qun cc n lm hng trong cc khoang
cha hng. Do vy phi ngt in hoc rt cu ch i vi cc mch in trong khoang
hng v ct cc n lm hng khi khng s dng.
- Du chuyn ch hng: Giy chng nhn xp hng s khng c cp nu tu xp qu
cc du chuyn ch theo ma ca n, sau khi hiu chnh t trng. Trong mi trng
hp mn kh p dng nh ch ra giy chng nhn du chuyn ch hng phi tho
mn. Giy chng nhn xp hng s tr nn v ngha nu trong bt c giai on no ca
hnh trnh tu chu ti qu du chuyn ch theo ma. Nu cn phi duy tr trong vng
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
115 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
ma nht nh, tu cn phi tnh ton khng vi phm du chuyn ch trong sut qu
trnh hnh trnh n cng ch. Khng c php bm ra phn ballast cn li sau khi khi
hnh.
- Nghing ni: Chng nhn xp hng c cp ch sau khi hon thnh vic xp hng
v trc khi khi hnh m tu khng b nghing hoc nu nghing th gc nghing phi
nh hn 1
0
.
- chnh mn nc v pha mi: Nu sau khi hon thnh vic xp hng tu c hiu
s mn nc v pha mi ln hn 0.5% chiu di tnh ton (0,005LBP) th giy chng
nhn xp hng s ch c cp khi Thuyn trng tuyn b rng iu kin ny vn an
ton cho chuyn i.
- Sc bn dc: B lut hng ht ri quc t khng quy nh v sc bn dc. Nhng nu
cc thanh tra yu cu th Thuyn trng phi chng minh rng sc bn dc ca tu khng
b suy gim.
- Np hm hng: Cn lu phng v ngn chn vic nc r vo hng ht qua cc
ch ni ca np hm hng khi tu gp thi tit qu xu.
- Qu nhit ca cc kt y i: Cn ht sc lu ngn chn h hng i vi hng ht
do qu nhit ca kt y i cha nhin liu (iu ny xy ra do vic hm nhin liu
trong kt y i qu mc). Cc s quan my cn phi c thng bo lu ti vn
ny.
4.3 Xc nh khi lng hng bng phng php gim nh mn nc
Nguyn l chung ca phng php
Khi lng hng xp xung tu l hiu s gia lng dn nc khi gim nh ln
cui ( tr tng trng lng cc thnh phn d tr) v lng dn nc khi gim nh
ln u ( tr tng trng lng cc thnh phn d tr).
4.3.1 Gim nh ln u (I nitial survey) Bc 1
4.3.1.1. Xc nh t trng nc ni tu u
T trng nc c xc nh bng t trng k (Hydrometer) trang b trn cc tu bin.
T trng k c thit k c th o c nc mn ti 1,035 T/m
3
. Mi vch trn thang
chia ca t trng k c gi tr tng ng bng 1/1000 T/m
3
. Mu nc o t trng c
ly bng gu mc nc tiu chun cho php ngi ly mu c th ly c ng nc
theo chiu chm ca tu. V tr ly mu nc tt nht phi trnh ni c ngun nc thi
t trong cu chy ra. c bit phi tht cn thn xc nh t trng nc khi tu u gn
cc ca sng ln.
Thi im ly nc mu xc nh t trng c thc hin ng thi vi cng tc
c mn nc.
Khi c nc mu, th nh nhng t trng k vo trong, ch cho t trng k hon ton
ng yn trong nc th thc hin vic c gi tr t trng.
4.3.1.2. c gi tr mn nc trn cc thc mn nc
Thc mn nc ca tu thng c xy dng theo chiu dc hai mn tu mi,
mt phng sn gia v li tu theo cc h mt, h feet, h s la m tu theo ni ng
tu. Vic c mn nc thng c t cc xung nh chy xung quanh tu hoc s dng
thang dy th ti v tr thc mn nc. Mn nc ti ng trc dc (Center Line)l
gi tr trung bnh cng ca hai gi tr mn nc c c ti hai ng mn nc i
xng v c tnh theo cc cng thc sau:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
116 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
2
d d
d
as ap
a
+

'
2
d d
d
fs fp
f
+

'
2
d d
d
S P

'
4.3.1.3. Hiu chnh gi tr mn nc v ng thy trc v mt phng sn gia
Vic hiu chnh c thc hin nh cng thc sau:
a a A
d d d t
'
f f F
d d d t
'

t d d d
'
Trong d
a
, d
f
, d

l cc gi tr hiu chnh mn nc tnh ton c hoc tra t


h s tu.
4.3.1.4. Tnh mn nc trung bnh cui cng (final mean draught or quarter mean
draught)
- p dng cng thc sau:
8
d d 6 d
d
F A
TB
+ +


- Tnh Quarter mean Draught c th thc hin qua trnh t sau:
d
M
=
2
F A
d d +
, d
M M /
=
2

+ d d
M
, d
mean Final
= d
M Q/
=
2
/
+ d d
M M
4.3.1.5. Tra lng gin nc t mn trung bnh cui (D
1
)
Ly gi tr mn nc trung bnh cui cng a vo bng thy tnh ta s tra c gi tr
lng gin nc tng ng vi nc trung bnh cui cng (Cn tnh thm mt lng gin
nc ni suy nu nh gi tr mn nc trung bnh cui cng c thm phn l)
V d: Tu Oceanic Star c mn nc hiu chnh l d
A
=11.92m; d
F
=11.68m; d

=
11.78m; Vy mn nc trung bnh cui cng d
Final mean
= 11.785m; tra trong bng thy
tnh vi mn nc d=11.78 c lng gin nc tng ng l D
bng
= 71222 MT v
TPC=65.6 T/cm. Lng gin nc ni suy l 0.5 cm x 65.6 T/ cm= 32.8.
Vy lng gin nc tng ng vi mn nc trung bnh cui cng s l :
D= 71222 + 32.8 = 71254.8 MT
4.3.1.6. Tnh cc s hiu chnh do tu chi (Trim Correction): c hai s hiu chnh
+ S hiu chnh th nht: (Trim Corr. 1)
(tn)
LBP: Chiu di tnh ton ca tu
t (trim) : Hiu s mn nc ca tu
Du ca s hiu chnh th nht c xt theo bng sau:
Tm F trc Tm F sau
Tu chi li - +
Tu chi mi + -
+ S hiu chnh th hai (NEMOTO) (Trim Corr. 2)
TPC
LBP
t LCF
D

100
1
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117 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
LBP
t
dZ
dM
D
2
2
50
(T)
Trong l s thay i m men chnh mn nc. Thng thng ngi ta ly dZ
= 1m v dM c tnh nh sau:
dM = MTC
1
- MTC
2
trong MTC
1
l gi tr m men lm thay i 1cm hiu s mn
nc ca tu c tra t bng thu tnh ti mn nc ln hn mn nc hin ti (d
TB
)
ca tu 0.50m v MTC
2
c tra ti mn nc nh hn mn nc hin ti (d
TB
) 0.50m
T gi tr d
TB
+ 0,5 tra bng thu tnh c MTC
1
T gi tr d
TB
- 0,5 tra bng thu tnh c MTC
2
Lng dn nc ca tu sau khi hiu chnh tu chi l
D
2
= D
1
t D
1
+ D
2
4.3.1.7. Hiu chnh t trng nc
025 . 1
) 025 , 1 (
2
3


D
D
: T trng nc bin ni tu
Lng dn nc tht ca tu(A):
A = D
2
+ D
3
4.3.1.8. Tnh tng trng lng cc thnh phn d tr (a)
Cc thnh phn d tr trn tu bao gm cc thnh phn nh trng lng nc ngt,
trng lng nc ballast, trng lng du FO, trng lng du DO, trng lng du
nhn, lng thc thc phm... Cc thnh phn trng lng ny u c mt c tnh
chung l c th xc nh chnh xc trng lng ca chng trn tu trong cc thi im
gim nh mn nc bng cc phng php xc nh s o cc tank kt.
4.3.1.9. Tnh hiu s ( A a )
4.3.2. Gim nh ln cui (Final Survey) Bc2
Sau khi hon thnh cng tc hng ha chng ta thc hin cng tc gim nh ln cui
c cc trnh t nh gim nh ln u m lng gin nc ta tnh c k hiu l B v
tng trng lng cc thnh phn d tr. Tnh hiu s ( B b )
4.3.3. Xc nh khi lng hng bc, xp Bc 3
- Khi tu thc hin cng tc xp hng: Khi lng hng= ( B b ) ( A a )
- Khi tu thc hin cng tc d hng: Khi lng hng= ( A a ) ( B b )
dZ
dM
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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4.3.4. Bo co gim nh mn nc
DRAFT SURVEY REPORT
Ship's Name: Southern Star Date: 14/08/05
Voyage: 41
Pusan, Korea Newcastle, Australia Kinuura,
Japan Time: 1400 Hrs
Cargo : Coal in Bulk Berth: #4 pier
Carington
INITIAL
SURVEY
FINAL
SURVEY
Date of Survey 25/08/05 01/09/05
Density of harbour water 1.022 1.022
Ship Draught
Corrected Fore Draught (FP) 7.0028 11.667
Corrected Aft Draught (AP) 8.8274 11.983
Mean Draught (Fore& Aft) 7.9151 11.830
Port Midship 7.92 11.790
Starboard Midship 7.98 11.790
Midship mean 7.95 11.790
Mean of means 7.9325 11.810
Mean of mean of means (Final mean) 7.9412
11.800
Quantity of ships elememt
Corresponding Displacement 46717.34 71353
Trim Correction (1+2) -292.45 5.31
Density Correction -135.87 208.85
Corrected Displacement (A) 46289.02 (B) 71149.46
Fuel oil 736 464
Diesel Oil 45 43
Fresh Water 265 70
Ballast Water 34753.4 57
Other (Lub. & Cyl. Oil, etc.) 18.6 18.6
Total Weight (a) 35818 (b) 652.6
(A - a) 10471.02 (B - b) 70496.86
From the above figures and basing on the ship' displacement scales provided on board,
we calculate
and report on the weight of the cargo loaded/unloaded to be as follows: (B - b) - (A -
a)/(A-a)-(B-b)
This is cargo on board : 60025.84 MT
Rounded 60026
MT
Say: Sixty thousand and twenty six metric tons
Remarks:
Master/Chief Officer: Draft Surveyor:
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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CHNG 5: VN CHUYN HNG NGUY HIM
5.1 Phn loi hng nguy him
Theo Cng c quc t v bo v sinh mng con ngi trn bin SOLAS-74 v B
lut vn chuyn hng nguy him ( IMDG Code ), ngi ta phn hng nguy him lm 9
loi v c hng dn c th v cch vn chuyn, bc d bo qun ...
- Loi 1: Cht n (Explosive Substances or Articles)
Cht n c chia thnh cc nhm nguy him sau:
+ Nhm 1.1: Bao gm cc cht, vt phm m nguy c pht n khi l tim tng.
+ Nhm 1.2: Bao gm cc cht, vt phm to ra nguy him nhng khng phi l
nguy c pht n khi.
+ Nhm 1.3: Bao gm cc cht, vt phm c tim tng nguy c chy hoc n nh,
khng phi l mi nguy him gy n khi.
+ Nhm 1.4: Bao gm cc cht, vt phm khng th hin mi nguy him nghim
trng.
+ Nhm 1.5: Bao gm cc cht rt khng nhy nhng li tn ti mi nguy him
gy n khi.
+ Nhm 1.6: Bao gm cc vt phm cc k khng nhy v khng tn ti mi nguy
him gy n khi.
Hnh 5.1: Hng nguy him loi 1
- Loi 2: Cc cht kh (Gases)
Cc cht kh l cc cht c nhng c im sau:
+ Ti nhit 50
0
C c p sut bay hi ln hn 300 kPa, hoc
+ Hon ton th kh nhit 20
0
C ti p sut tiu chun 101,3 kPa.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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Cht kh nu trn c chuyn ch trn tu trong cc dng nh: Kh nn, kh ho lng,
kh ho lng di p sut cao, kh ho lng di p sut thp v kh c ho tan trong
dung dch.
Cc cht kh ny c th phn chia thnh 3 loi c bn sau:
2.1 Cc cht kh d chy (Flammable Gases)
2.2 Cc cht kh khng d chy, khng c (Non-Flammable, Non-Toxic Gases)
2.3 Cc cht kh c (Toxic Gases)
Hnh 5.2: Hng nguy him loi 2
- Loi 3: Cht lng d chy (Flammable Liquids)
Cht lng d chy c th bao gm hai loi ch yu l:
+ Cc cht lng d chy : y l cc cht lng c chuyn ch ti nhit bng
hoc ln hn im bt la ca chng hoc l cc hp cht c chuyn ch di nhit
cao dng lng v chng sinh ra kh d chy ti nhit tng ng hoc thp hn
nhit chuyn ch ln nht.
+ Cc cht lng b trit tiu c tnh d n: y thc cht l cc hp cht d n
nhng c ho tan hoc pha vo nc hay cc cht lng khc, to ra mt hn hp
cht lng ng nht trit tiu c tnh d n.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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Hnh 5.3: Hng nguy him loi 3
- Loi 4: Cht rn nguy him (Dangerous Solid)
Cht rn nguy him l cc cht khc vi cc hp cht thuc loi cht n. Di cc iu
kin chuyn ch, cc cht ny lun d chy hoc chng l nguyn nhn gp phn to ra
m chy.
Cht rn nguy him c th phn chia thnh cc loi ch yu sau:
4.1 Cc cht rn d chy (Flammable Solids)
4.2 Cc cht rn d chy v t chy (Substances liable to spontaneous
Combustion)
4.3 Cc cht rn tip xc vi nc th sinh ra kh d chy (Substances which, in
contact with water, emit flammable gases)
Hnh 5.4: Hng nguy him loi 4
- Loi 5: Cc cht xt v peroxit hu c (Oxidizing Substances and Organic
Peroxides).
5.1 Cc cht xt d chy
5.2 Cc peroxit hu c d chy.
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Hnh 5.5: Hng nguy him loi 5
- Loi 6: Cc cht c hoc cht gy nhim bnh (Toxic Substances or Infectious).
Cc cht c l cc cht c th gy t vong hoc gy cc thng tt nguy him hoc
lm nh hng nghim trng n sc kho con ngi nu ht phi hay tip xc vi
chng.
Cc cht gy nhim bnh l cc cht m bn thn chng c cha cc mm bnh, do
vy hon ton c th gy ly nhim bnh trn gia sc hay con ngi.
Hnh 5.6: Hng nguy him loi 6
- Loi 7: Cc cht phng x (Radio active Materials)
Cc cht phng x c hiu l bt c vt liu c cha phng x no m c phng
x lm giu hoc phng x tuyt i th hin trong khai bo gi hng u vt qu
gi tr c n nh theo cc mc t 2..7.7.2.1 n 2.7.7.2.6 trong IMDG Code.
Hnh 5.7: Hng nguy him loi 7
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
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- Loi 8: Cc cht n mn (Corrosive Substances)
y chnh l cc cht c kh nng lm h hng, thm ch ph hu cc vt liu, hng
ho khc hay phng tin vn chuyn nu c s r r hoc tip xc do cc phn ng ho
hc gy nn.
Hnh 5.8: Hng nguy him loi 8
- Loi 9: Cc cht v vt phm nguy him khc (Miscellenious Dangerous Substances
and Article)
y l cc cht v cc vt phm khc vi cc cht v vt phm c phn loi
tm loi hng nguy him trn nhng c cc c tnh nguy him theo cc iu khon trong
phn A, chng VII, SOLAS-74 hoc l cc cht dng lng c chuyn ch ti nhit
tng ng hoc ln hn 100
0
C, cc cht rn c chuyn ch ti nhit tng
ng hoc ln hn 240
0
C .
Ngoi ra chng cn l cc cht mc d khng c quy nh theo cc iu khon ca
phn A, chng VII, SOLAS-74 nhng li c quy nh theo cc iu khon ca
chng III, MARPOL 73/78 b sung. Nhng c tnh ca cc cht ny c cho trong
"Danh mc hng ho nguy him", chng 3.2, IMDG Code.
Hnh 5.9: Hng nguy him loi 9
- Cc cht gy nhim bin (Marine Pollutant)
y l cc cht c hi cho mi trng sinh thi di nc, lm nh hng n qu
trnh sinh trng ca hi sn v cc sinh vt bin. Cc cht ny l cc cht gy nhim
mi trng bin theo cc iu khon ca ph lc III , MARPOL 73/78 c b sung.
Hnh 5.10: Cht gy nhim bin
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5.2 Yu cu vn chuyn hng nguy him
Trc khi vn chuyn hng nguy him ngi vn ti phi tham kho hng dn v vn
chuyn hng nguy him ca T chc hng hi quc t IMO nh SOLAS-74, B lut vn
chuyn hng nguy him (IMDG Code) v c bit ch cc iu sau:
- Hng phi c ng gi k, bao b tt, khng b hp cht trong bao b ph hy, phi
chu ng c nhng nguy him thng thng do vn ti bin gy ra. Nu dng cc vt
liu c kh nng thm hng lng m lt cc loi hng th nhng vt liu ny
phi hn ch n mc thp nht nhng nguy him do cht lng gy ra. Khi ng cht
lng trong cc bnh phi tr ra mt th tch phng n.
- bn ca cc bnh cha, c bit l kh nn v gas phi m bo. Cc bnh cha
phi c kt cu thch hp v phi c th p sut gii hn trc. Nhng bnh cha hng
nguy him trc y cha c v sinh ng mc th coi chng l nhng bnh cha hng
nguy him.
- Hng nguy him phi c tn gi theo ng tn gi k thut trong vn ti m khng
c ch gi theo tn thng mi. K m hiu phi c vit hoc dn nhng ch
d nhn thy nht v phi ch r tnh cht nguy him ca hng bn trong. Mi kin hng
phi c y k hiu, nhn hiu.
- Tt c nhng ti liu c lin quan n vic chuyn ch hng nguy him phi gi
ng tn k thut trong vn ti v ghi ng c im k thut ca hng, phi c y
giy chng nhn l bao b v vic ng gi m bo, ng thi c y k nhn
hiu. Tu phi c danh sch lit k hng nguy him ch trn tu, s hng ha phi nu
c cc v tr hng trn tu, hng phi c xp an ton v ph hp vi tnh cht ca
chng. Nhng hng k nhau phi c xp ngn cch ring bit theo ng quy tc phn
cch hng nguy him trong IMDG Code.
- Phi c t khai v giy chng nhn hng nguy him trn tu, trong c y cc
thng tin v hng nguy him, s lin hp quc (UN Number), bao b, cch ng gi, cc
hng dn cn thit trong khi xp d, vn chuyn v bo qun, cc hng dn x l
trong trng hp khn cp cng nh s cu y t ban u.
5.3 Gii thiu IMDG Code-2002:
5.3.1 Cu trc c bn ca I MDG Code-2002
IMDG Code-2002 c ban hnh theo ngh quyt A.716 (17) v cc sa i t 27 n
30 chng VII/1.4 ca SOLAS-74 cng nh chng 1(3) ph lc III MARPOL-73/78.
IMDG Code-2002 c hiu lc ton b vo 01/01/2004.
IMDG Code-2002 c cu trc gm 2 tp v 1 ph bn.
Tp 1 bao gm cc phn 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 ca B lut trong cha ng cc chng
cp ti cc ni dung sau:
- Cc iu khon chung, cc nh ngha, hun luyn.
- Phn loi hng nguy him.
- Cc iu khon v bao b, ng gi v kt.
- Quy trnh gi hng.
- Kt cu v th bao b, Container hng ri trung gian (Intermediate Bulk Containers -
IBCs), cc bao kin ln, cc kt di ng v xe tc.
- Hot ng vn chuyn hng nguy him.
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Tp 2 bao gm phn 3 (Danh mc hng nguy him c trnh by di dng bng)
vi cc ni dung sau:
- S lng hn ch c chuyn ch i vi mt s hp cht nht nh.
- Bng ch gii.
- Cc ph lc.
Tp ph bn bao gm cc ni dung c bn sau:
- Cc hng dn trong trng hp khn cp nh chy, r r (EMS Guide).
- Cc ch dn v s cu y t (Medical First Aid Guide).
- Quy trnh bo co.
- Cc iu khon v bao b, ng gi cc n v chuyn ch hng ho (Cargo
Transport Units - CTUs).
- An ton trong vic s dng thuc tr su.
- B lut quc t v an ton vn chuyn nhin liu phng x ht nhn, nguyn t, cc
cht thi phng x mc cao ng gi (INF Code).
5.3.2 Cc iukhonlin quan nvn chuynhng nguy him theoIMDG Code
5.3.2.1 Cc quy nh v cht xp cc loi hng nguy him tr hng nguy him loi 1:
Theo qui nh ca b lut IMDG phn 7, chng 1, ngoi tr hng nguy him loi 1
th cc cht, vt phm, hng ha nguy him c chia thnh cc loi cht xp (Stowage
category) A, B, C, D v E ( tng ng vi mi cht ti ct 16 ca bng danh mc hng
nguy him - yu cu v cht xp v phn cch).
i vi tu th c chia thnh 2 nhm vi cc khuyn ngh v cht xp v vn
chuyn tng ng:
- Tu hng hoc tu khch ch khng qu 25 hnh khch hoc 1 hnh khch trn 3 mt
chiu di ln nht ca tu(LOA) ly gi tr no ln hn: Gi l tu loi 1.
- Cc tu khch khc: Gi l tu loi 2.
Vic cho php xp hng nguy him trn tu c quy nh nh sau:
* Yu cu v cht xp loi A:
- Vi tu loi 1: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm (Stow on deck or under
deck).
- Vi tu loi 2: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
* Yu cu v cht xp loi B:
-Vi tu loi 1: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
- Vi tu loi 2: Ch cho php xp trn boong (Stow on deck only).
* Yu cu cht xp loi C:
-Vi tu loi 1:Ch cho php xp trn boong.
- Vi tu loi 2: Ch cho php xp trn boong.
* Yu cu cht xp loi D:
- Vi tu loi 1: Ch cho php xp trn boong
- Vi tu loi 2: Cm xp (Prohibited).
* Yu cu cht xp loi E:
- Vi tu loi 1: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
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- Vi tu loi 2: Cm xp trn tu.
5.3.2.2 Cc quy nh v cht xp hng nguy him l cht n - loi 1 (Class 1).
Vi hng ha loi1 (Class 1) theo ct 16 trong bng danh mc hng nguy him, ngi
ta chia ra 15 loi yu cu cht xp khc nhau (t loi 1 n loi 15). Vi tu, ngi ta
chia thnh 2 loi, tng ng vi vic cho php ch hay khng:
- Tu hng (C ti 12 hnh khch) gi l tu loi 3.
- Tu khch gi l tu loi 4.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 1:
- Tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
- Tu loi 4: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 2:
- Tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
- Tu loi 4: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 3:
-Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
- Vi tu loi 4: Ch cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 4:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cm xp trn tu.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 5:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn, hoc
bn trong tu.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn, hoc
xp di hm.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 6:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn, hoc
bn trong tu.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 7:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn, hoc
xp di hm.
- Vi tu loi 4: Ch cho xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 8:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn,
hoc xp di hm.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cm xp trn tu.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 9:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
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- Vi tu loi 4: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 10:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
-Vi tu loi 4: Ch cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 11:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn hoc
xp di hm trong nhng khu vc cha hng kiu "C"
- Vi tu loi 4: Ch cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 12:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn hoc
xp di hm trong nhng khu vc cha hng kiu "C"
- Vi tu loi 4: Cm xp trn tu.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 13:
-Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn hoc
xp di hm trong nhng khu vc cha hng kiu "A"
-Vi tu loi 4: Ch cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 14:
- Vi tu loi 3: Ch cho php xp trn boong trong nhng kin vn chuyn ng kn.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cm xp trn tu.
* Yu cu cht xp loi 15:
- Vi tu loi 3: Cho php xp trn boong hoc xp di hm trong nhng kin vn
chuyn ng kn.
- Vi tu loi 4: Cm xp trn tu.
Lu :
- Kin vn chuyn ng kn: L mt dng hp chc chn c kh nng chu nng ma
c cu trc c th c nh vo tu, v bao gm c Container kn, xe ti kn, toa xe ch
v kh, hoc khoang cha hng nh.
- Khu vc cha hng kiu "A" c ngha l pha trong v sn ca kin hng hoc
khoang cha hng phi c ph hon ton bng g, phn nc phi sch s khng b g
hoc c cc vy g bn. ...
- Khu vc cha hng kiu"C" c ngha l mt kin vn chuyn hng ng kn c t
cng gn cng tt mt phng trc dc tu (ng trung tm), n khng c xp gn mn
tu hn khong cch 1/8 trc ngang hoc 2.4m ly gi tr nh hn.
5.3.2.3 Vn chuyn cht n trn tu khch:
Vi cht n phn nhm 1.4 vi nhm tng thch "S" c php ch khng hn ch
khi lng trn tu khch. Khng c loi cht n no khc c php vn chuyn trn
tu khch tr khi l mt trong cc loi sau y:
- Nhng vt liu n cho mc ch cu sinh c lit k trong danh mc hng nguy
him nu tng khi lng tnh khng vt qu 50 kg/tu hoc
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- Hng ha trong nhm tng thch C, D v E, nu khi lng tnh khng vt qu 10
kg/tu.
- Nhng vt liu trong nhm tng thch G khc vi nhng yu cu cht xp c bit
vi nhm ny, nu tng khi lng tnh khng vt qu 10 kg/tu.
- Nhng vt liu trong nhm tng thch B, nu tng khi lng tnh khng vt qu
10 kg/tu.
Hng nguy him loi 1 c th c chuyn ch trn tu khch vi s lng nhiu hn
gii hn trn nu c cc bin php m bo an ton c bit c duyt bi c quan
chuyn mn c thm quyn.
Cc vt liu thuc nhm tng thch N ch c th c chuyn ch trn tu khch nu
trng lng tnh tng cng khng vt qu 50 kg/tu v khng c cc cht n khc thuc
loi 1.4 hay nhm tng thch S cng c chuyn ch trn tu.
Hng nguy him loi 1 c th chuyn ch trn tu khch c lit k trong danh mc
hng nguy him (Dangerous Goods List), chng c cht xp theo quy nh cho theo
bng di y.
Nhm Mu, cht n Nhm tng thch
A B C D E F G H J K L N S
1.1 d c e e e e c e - c - c - -
1.2 d - e e e e c e c c c c - -
1.3 d - - e - - c e c c c c - -
1.4 d - b b b b c b - - - - - a
1.5 d - - - e - - - - - - - - -
1.6 d - - - - - - - - - - - e -
Bng 5.1: Yu cu cht xp hng nguy him loi 1
Cc ch ci A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, N, S ch nhm tng thch. Nhm
tng thch c phn chia v m t trong chng 2.1, cc mc 2.1.2.2 v 2.1.2.3 ca
IMDG Code.
ngha ca cc ch ci a, b, c, d, e c gii thch nh sau:
a: p dng cho tu hng, c th xp trn boong hoc xp di hm.
b: p dng cho tu hng, c th xp trn boong hoc xp di hm, nhng ch c
xp trong kho cha.
c: B cm.
d: Theo ch nh ca c quan chuyn mn c thm quyn ca Quc gia lin quan.
e: Xp trong Container hoc tng t, ch xp trn boong.
5.3.2.4 Qui nh v phn b hng nguy him trn tu-Bng phn cch hng nguy him:
Khi c nhiu loi hng nguy him c vn chuyn trn cng mt tu, Thuyn trng
phi tham kho v tun th mt cch nghim ngt nhng yu cu v phn cch hng
nguy him theo IMDG Code (Chng 7.2: Phn cch hng nguy him).
c thng tin v phn cch hng nguy him, c th tham kho bng phn cch hng
nguy him (Segregation table) v qua phn b hng nguy him ph hp, m bo an
ton trong qu trnh xp d, vn chuyn.
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
129 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
Loi TN HNG
Cht
n
Nhm II
Cht
lng
d
bt
la
Cht
rn
d
bt
la
Cht
t
chy
Cht
to
kh
d
chy
khi
gp
nc
Oxy ho
Cht c
v gy
nhim
bnh
Cht
phng
x
Cht n mn
Cc
hng
nguy
him
khc
Kh
nn
ho
lng
Kh
nn
p
sut
cao
Cht
Oxy
ha
Cht
Peoxit
hu
c
Kim
tnh
Oxy
ho
1 Cht n 2 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 - 2 2 2 -
2
Kh nn ho lng 2 - 2 1 1 1 1 2 - 1 - 1 -
Kh nn p sut cao 0 - 2 1 2 1 2 5 - 2 1 2 -
3 Cht lng d bt la 5 2 2 1 2 2 2 5 - 2 1 2 -
4
Cht rn d bt la 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 - 2 1 2 -
Cht t chy 5 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 - 2 1 2 -
Cht to kh d chy khi gp nc 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 - 2 1 2 -
5
Cht Oxy ha 5 1 2 2 2 2 5 2 - 1 2 2 -
Cht Peoxit Hu c 5 2 5 5 3 3 3 2 - 2 2 2 -
6 Cht c v gy nhim bnh - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 Cht phng x 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 - 2 2 -
8
Cht n mn kim tnh 2 - 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 - 2 - -
Cht n mn oxy ho-g 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 - 2 - -
9 Cc hng nguy him khc - - - - - - - - - - - - -
K hiu:
0 Cm xp chung mt tu
1 Khong cch gia hai l hng ln hn 3 m
2 Phi xp cch nhau mt vch ngn
3- Cch nhau mt vch ngn kn nc (khc khoang)
4 Xp cch nhau mt khoang hoc mt hm
5 Xp cch nhau hai khoang hoc hai tng hm
- Tu tng trng hp c th p dng mt trong nm trng hp
Bng 5.2: Bng phn cch hng nguy him
Xp d v bo qun hng ho
130 B mn Lut Hng hi Khoa iu khin tu bin
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Captain Peter Roberts, BSc, FNI
"Watchkeeping Safety and Cargo Management in Port"
The Nautical Institute 1995.
2. International Code For The Safe Carriage Of Grain In Bulk-IMO.
3. Code Of Safe Practice For Ship Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes-IMO.
4. Code Of Safe Practice For Solid Bulk Cargoes-2001 edition with MSC/Circ.
908/IMO.
5. Code Of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing-IMO.
6. Oil Tanker Handling Principles- The Japan Tanker Owner's Association.
7. Captain C. Baptist
"Tanker Handbook For Deck Officer".
Glasgow Brown, Son & Ferguson, Ltd, 4-10 Darnley Street- 1993.
8. Tiu Vn Kinh
"Hng dn nghip v hng hi-tp II"
Nh xut bn Giao thng vn ti, H ni-1991.
9. William E. George
Stability and Trim for the ships Officer
Cornell Maritime Press
10.Captain charles L. Sauerbier, USNR
Marine cargo operation
John Wiley & Sons NewYork, N.Y
11. Note on cargo works - VMR
12. Originally by Captain R.E. Thomas, Extra Master Re-written and completely
revised by captain O.O Thomas, F.I.C.T., Master Marine and John agnew, Master Marine
Thomas stowage The properties and stowage of cargo
Glasgow- Brown, son & Ferguson, Ltd., Nautical Publishers
13. Captain L.G TAYLOR Extra Master
Cargo works The care, Handling and carriage of cargo transport
Brown, son & Ferguson, Ltd., Nautical publisher