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Rocks and Minerals
Scott Foresman Science 6.9
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by Marcia K. Miller
Write to tell how each is formed. Unless otherwise acknowledged.. You can sort all of Earth’s rocks by how they were made. Background (Bkgd). Busch. 1900 East Lake Avenue.Vocabulary crystal humus igneous rock metamorphic rock mineral organic matter rock sedimentary rock What did you learn? 1. Winters/Photo Researchers. 10-11 Tony Randazzo Photographs: Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. or transmission in any form by any means. a division of Pearson Education. How can a piece of tile help identify a mineral? Rocks and Minerals 2. Scott Foresman. Why must contaminated soil be cleaned as soon as possible? 4. Printed in the United States of America. Name the three types of rocks. 9 (TL) ©DK Images.R. BR.. Degginger/Color-Pic. Compare and Contrast How are humus and loam alike and different? 5. all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman. All Rights Reserved. 14 ©Breck P. 2 ©E. mechanical. 3 (CR. BR. photocopying. or likewise. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Include details from the book to explain the main traits of each type of rock. Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes ISBN 0-328-13994-7 Copyright © Pearson Education. How do scientistsby the positions of rocks to learn about Earth’s use Marcia K. C. BR) ©DK Images. Bottom (B). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 . Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). Illustration: Title Page: Tony Randazzo . CL. Runk/Grant Heilman Photography. CR) ©DK Images. 8 ©Brian Sytnyk/Masterfile Corporation. write to: Permissions Department. electronic. 4 (TL. Inc. Glenview. (BL) ©Charles D. 5 (BL. Illinois 60025. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. CR) ©DK Images. Left (L). 12 ©Barry L. For information regarding permissions. (BR) ©Charles O’Rear/Corbis. recording. (BC) Natural History Museum/©DK Images. Right (R). Miller history? 3. 6. (TR) Richard M. BCL. Center (C). Inc.
and diamond. nonliving solid that has a specific chemical structure. Minerals are made up of crystals. A crystal is an arrangement of particles with a pattern that repeats. Gold is a valuable mineral. The crust of Earth has more than four thousand kinds of them! Yet only about two dozen are common. Crystals can be large if they form under just the right conditions. Did you ever look closely at sand? If so. Pyrite Beryl The mineral magnetite is magnetic. The shape of a crystal is determined by this repeating pattern. You would need a microscope to see them. coal is not a mineral because it comes from plants that lived long ago. For example. But most crystals are tiny. These rare. You may be familiar with more minerals than you think you are. A substance must fit all parts of this definition to be called a mineral. beautiful minerals are called gems. You may have heard of ruby. you probably saw a mineral called quartz.What are rocks and minerals? Minerals A mineral is a natural. emerald. Selenite 2 3 . Copper is a familiar mineral.
Scientists rank minerals by hardness. The hardness scale goes from 1 (the softest) to 10 (the hardest). Cleavage is also used to identify minerals. diamond is Earth’s hardest known natural substance. which is a red gem. The four mineral samples look different. A mineral may look like metal. But sometimes different samples of the same mineral can have different colors. You can also tell a mineral by the shape of its crystals. A mineral’s streak shows its true color. or even waxy. Mineral Hardness 1 2 3 4 5 You can use color to identify minerals. greasy. corundum forms a ruby. along flat planes. The streak is the mark made when you rub it against a tile. or cleave. Some minerals have special properties. A mineral’s hardness tells how difficult it is to scratch its surface. are magnetic. Luster is how a mineral looks in reflected light.Identifying Minerals Minerals have properties that set them apart. Many minerals tend to split. such as magnetite. Fluorescent minerals show colors under ultraviolet (UV) light. They break into uneven bits instead. For example. They split in patterns that scientists can recognize. but the reddish brown streaks show that all are hematite. It has a hardness of 1. Talc is a very soft mineral. In fact. But when its crystals have some chromium in them. For example. 6 7 8 9 10 diamond quartz gypsum fluorite talc orthoclase calcite topaz corundum apatite 4 5 . pure corundum has no color. Diamond has a hardness of 10. Scientists use some key properties to identify minerals. Other minerals do not split. quartz crystals look like hexagons. A few minerals.
Metamorphic rock forms when pressure. They are usually mixed into rocks. Marble is a metamorphic rock often used for buildings and sculpture. Igneous rock forms when molten rock from inside Earth cools and hardens. Some igneous rocks form below Earth’s surface. It forms in layers. appear only in sedimentary rock. or chemical reactions change one type of rock into another. It also comes from materials that settle out of seawater.Rocks Most minerals are not found in their pure form. Marble is formed from limestone. a sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is a kind of “history book. Sedimentary rock is made up of bits of rocks and minerals. Newer layers sit on top of the older ones. Other igneous rocks form when lava cools on Earth’s surface. Such remains. The oldest rock is at the bottom. known as fossils. Limestone is a sedimentary rock is made up of the shells of tiny sea animals. Metamorphic rock can be made from sedimentary rock or from igneous rock. heat. They appear only after the rocks above them wear away.” Past events can be found in each of its layers. Some evidence is the remains of dead animals or plants. A rock is a solid natural material made up of one or more minerals. Sedimentary Rock Igneous Rock Metamorphic Rock 6 7 .
These processes can take millions of years. Study the diagram of the rock cycle to see all the ways that rocks can form and change. they break down.Rocks are always changing in a pattern called the rock cycle. Any type of rock can change into any other type in any order. The rock cycle does not always follow the same pattern. Or they can sink deep into Earth and melt to form new igneous rocks. Rock Cycle Igneous rock Sediments Sedimentary rock Magma Metamorphic rock 8 9 . Igneous rocks may also be buried and crushed to form metamorphic rocks. and their particles may form sedimentary rocks. igneous rocks may erode. For example. Over time. The minerals in them get recycled to form new rocks.
But it does not show how long ago each event took place. minerals may replace the animal’s shell or bones. They use this fact to compare the age of each layer and the materials in it. Scientists have learned how long ago these organisms lived. The canyon formed 5 million years ago when the Colorado River cut through many layers of sedimentary rock. It is almost 1. When fossils form underwater. The Grand Canyon is one place that shows Earth’s history very clearly. such as bones. Because so many layers of rock are exposed. They can make a giant hole called a crater. Barringer Meteor Crater is a huge bowl-like pit in the Arizona desert. 10 11 .Clues to the Past Every rock tells a story. or wood. Trilobites are ancient relatives of insects. Suppose you find a rock that has tiny shells in it.6 kilometers wide and about 180 meters deep. The crater formed when a giant rock hit Earth between twenty thousand and fifty thousand years ago. shells. Scientists know that the deepest layers are the oldest. they know that the rock around it is from that period of time. You can see the hard outer skeleton. Finding these fossils in a rock can help scientists figure out the age of the rock. These parts are slow to rot away. Trilobites had three body segments. Scientists can learn much about Earth’s history by studying rocks. Fossils Fossils are made when animal or plant remains are covered in mud. Most fossils are formed from hard parts. Many fossils were made from organisms that no longer exist. For example. today visitors to the Grand Canyon can see more years of rock history than anywhere else on Earth. Space Rocks Some rocks fall from space and land on Earth. When scientists find a trilobite fossil. Sedimentary rocks hold a lot of information. Each layer holds clues about events that took place long ago. This method allows scientists to put past events in time order. trilobites were ocean animals that lived about 500 million years ago. This means that the area where the rock formed was once an ancient sea. Rocks offer clues to the past. You may also see fossils of burrows and footprints.
Organic matter is any substance that is made of living things or the remains of living things. air. Animals need plants for food. The second layer is the subsoil. and plants grow in the particles. Soil forms in three layers. First small bits of rock collect on the surface. Subsoil has less organic matter than topsoil. Most of the living things in soil are found in the topsoil. or high heat. More soil forms. Plants get water and minerals from soil. fungi. Rainwater and the chemicals it carries can also break down rock. along with the air and water. Humus forms from rotted plant and animal remains. are the nonliving parts that make up soil. They break down the rock some more. The first layer is the topsoil. Larger plants appear. bacteria. This is the beginning of soil. covers the topsoil. Layers form. 12 13 .Why is soil important to living things? Forming Soil Soil is made up of weathered rock. Almost all land organisms need soil to live. The third and lowest layer is called parent rock. fungi. and other organic matter. small animals. drought. and bacteria live in the soil. Over time. Topsoil is a mixture of small bits of rock. Humus has important nutrients that plants need. This causes subsoil to have a lighter color. and the remains of living things. New soil begins when rock starts to break down. Mature soil is home to many living things. called weathering. Air and water fill the spaces between the bits of rock. This process. You have read about the rock cycle. humus. can be caused by physical changes such as frost. Rocks are also part of the process that forms soil. It is rich in organic matter and holds many plant roots. When these organisms die. Minerals carried away from the topsoil build up in the subsoil. Insects. water. Humus is the dark brown soil. Rainwater sinks into the topsoil and washes minerals into the second layer. Tiny plants start to grow. This layer has very little organic matter. Rock bits get smaller and smaller as they weather. such as dead leaves and twigs. they rot. Loose organic matter. These tiny bits of rock.
So tropical topsoil is thin. Soils from the forests of the eastern United States have lots of dark brown humus. On the other hand. Most soils are a mix of clay. Weathering happens faster where there are heavy rains and high temperatures. Weathering is slow in the desert. Soils with more organic matter are darker. The rain that does fall dries quickly. • Silt soils have medium-sized grains. Tropical soils have little humus. reddish soils come from rocks that are rich in iron. Landforms also affect the soil on them. Not much grows in it. But clay soils can get waterlogged in heavy rains. • Clay soils are fine-grained. silt.Kinds of Soils Did you ever dig a hole in the ground? If so. They mix the soil as they move through it. silt. They also affect its makeup. • Loam is a type of soil that mixes clay. They hold water poorly. Factors That Affect Soil Climate is a key factor that affects the soil in an area. They also break down organic matter. This is because much of the soil has worn away from their slopes. and sand. Mountains usually have thin layers of topsoil. Earthworms help the soil. • Sandy soils are large-grained. It rains a lot in tropical climates. This is the best kind of soil for plants. For example. Heavy rains wash minerals from the topsoil into the subsoil. Clay soils hold water very well. The type of soil that forms also depends on the parent rock below it. Soil color depends on the organic matter it contains. desert areas get little rain. you know that soil can look and feel different. and sand in nearly equal parts. They have little organic matter. Flat land usually has a thick layer of topsoil. so they are much lighter in color. sand loam humus 14 15 . They drain fairly well. Minerals in rainwater collect on the soil. The minerals in the rock can affect how it weathers.
1900 East Lake Avenue. Printed in the United States of America.Vocabulary Glossary crystal crystal humus humus an arrangement of particles with a pattern that repeats the dark-colored organic part of soil formed from rotted plant and animal remains type of rock formed when molten rock cools and hardens type of rock formed when pressure. You can sort all of Earth’s rocks by how they were made. Inc. photocopying. all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman. BR) ©DK Images. organic matter rock sedimentary rock Illustration: Title Page: Tony Randazzo . Write to tell how each is formed. Inc. (BC) Natural History Museum/©DK Images. Why must contaminated soil be cleaned as soon as possible? 4. Glenview. 4 (TL.. 8 ©Brian Sytnyk/Masterfile Corporation. 14 ©Breck P. Right (R). write to: Permissions Department. recording. Left (L). or transmission in any form by any means. Busch. Unless otherwise acknowledged. Inc. Include details from the book to explain the main traits of each type of rock. 10-11 Tony Randazzo Photographs: Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. 12 ©Barry L. heat. Scott Foresman. CR) ©DK Images. or likewise. 6. BR. (BR) ©Charles O’Rear/Corbis. For information regarding permissions. storage in a retrieval system. BR. or chemical reactions change one type of rock into another a natural. CR) ©DK Images. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 16 . CL. How can a piece of tile help identify a mineral? 2.. Bottom (B). This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. a division of Pearson Education. C. 5 (BL. nonliving solid that has a specific chemical structure any substance made of living things or the remains of living things a solid natural material made of one or more minerals type of rock made when bits of rocks and minerals settle in layers and harden What did you learn? 1. electronic. Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes ISBN 0-328-13994-7 Copyright © Pearson Education. Illinois 60025. 2 ©E. mechanical. How do scientists use the positions of rocks to learn about Earth’s history? 3. Runk/Grant Heilman Photography. Center (C). Background (Bkgd). (BL) ©Charles D. Compare and Contrast How are humus and loam alike and different? igneous rock metamorphic rock igneous rock mineral organic matter rock metamorphic rock sedimentary rock mineral 5. BCL. All Rights Reserved. 3 (CR. Degginger/Color-Pic. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. 9 (TL) ©DK Images.R. Winters/Photo Researchers. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). (TR) Richard M. Name the three types of rocks.
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