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Ask Dr Clark
The idea of the “Ask Dr Clark” feature is that lots of people in the cement industry around the world periodically ask Dr Clark for his advice on issues they are currently facing. Through “Ask Dr Clark” anyone is able to ask Dr Clark’s advice on their current issues.

Q: sir in our kiln fine genration is too much in present days. so we are facing inlet presarisation frequently ? A: I am struggling to understand. You kiln is producing fine clinker so you have a lot of dust recirculation from the cooler? That is causing over-pressure in the kiln hood? The production of fine clinker might be associated with heavy recirculation of sulphur within the kiln. • Back to Top Q: Sticky Clinker How to ride off the sticky clinker, Although it is not causing snow formation but the flow of the air through kids of IKN cooler is being effected. Furthermore how to control the cooler exit temperature. Best Regards Nasir A: The "kids" of the IKN grate must be restricted. Inadequate air flow through the grate will lead to more sticky clinker on the grate and also to high cooler exhaust gas temperature. I suspect you will have to stop and clean the "kids" of the IKN grate.

• Back to Top Q: method of raw mix pile avg calculation according to hourly tonnage in excel? A: This requires that the weighted average of each oxide in the pile be calculated after each new sample using the analysis of the sample and the wieght of material added to the pile. The composition to correct the pile to target can then be calculated. • Back to Top Q: effect of flame shape Dear Sir, What is the effect of flame shape on the kiln outlet oxygen and carbon mono oxide. A: It is important to have good mixing of the secondary combustion air and fuel in the main burner flame. If not then it is possible that there will be CO even with kiln inlet oxygen as high as 5%. The momentum of the primary air blown through the burner pipe must be sufficient to produce a short, hot, recirculating flame. The benchmark is that the momentum should be a minimum of 10 Newtons per MW of the burner. • Back to Top Q: what are the factor affecting on the process bag filter fan efficiency? sir , regarding the fan efficiency, what i under stood that by changing stack height , ,changing impeller size or modified impeller , replacing motor with drive(VFD) but not by removing fan damper pressure loss ( if there is a damper ) is it write or wrong? A: Fan efficiency itself will be affected by the impellor design. Fan performance will be affected by the other factors. • Back to Top Q: Preaheter cyclone efficiency, from down to the top cyclone.. sir i know the method for calculating the top cyclone efficency of preheater but my quistion is how to estimate the efficiency of remaing cyclone , i.e from 2cy to bottom cyclone indivisually ? A: This has to be done by reference to the loss on ignition of the material in each cyclone of the preheater making the assumption that no calcination is taking place in the upper stage cyclones. • Back to Top Q: so3 content in fine coal ash why so3 increases in fine coal ash as compared to raw coal ash.IN OUR PLANT KILN FEED RETURN DUST GET MIXED HOT GASES ENTERING IN COAL MILL A: Possibly there is some absorption of SO2 from the preheater exhaust onto the fine coal in the coal mill. A volatile balance of the internal and external cycles needs to be developed to fully explain this. • Back to Top Q: We have the clinker with 1380 litter weight.but still free lime problem. A:

There could be lots of reasons why a hard burnt clinker would have high residual free lime: (i) lime saturation beyond 100%, (ii) heavy recirculation of sulphate, (iii) excess K2O in clinker, etc. Much more detail is required. I recommend a technical audit to understand the problem. • Back to Top Q: what is the technology of raw meal injection in before bypass bag house? now in our plant we will decrease the dust to bypass so we are afraid about chlorine blockage in bags of filter so i hear that the solution is injection of raw meal with bypass gases A: How will you reduce the dust losses through the bypass? Normally that is a good thing to do, but how? I have never heard of injecting raw meal after the bypass gas has been extracted from the kiln. • Back to Top Q: What is the role of V seperator in closed circuit cement mill We are having both V seperator and dynamic seperator in our closed circuited cement mill. we are thinking to remove V sep from circuit . Please let me kow the effect on though put and power consumption. A: The V-separator will be making coarse, static, separation of the material. I would need to see the layout before I could understand the importance of the V-separator. • Back to Top Q: Specific Ratings requirement of various equipment Kindly let me have gas velocities in various part of kiln requiredto maintain efficient preheater,and how to calculate it. Can i calculate with qty of coal dosing & O2 at back end. A: Gas velocity in the gas risers between the preheater stages should be c.18m/s. Lower as the gas exits the kiln to the preheater to minimise recirculation of material from the kiln to the lower stage cyclone. You need to develop a and energy mass balance for each section of the kiln. You can then convert the gas masses passing through each section into volumes. By dividing the volume by the cross-sectional area of the ducts through which the gaas is passing you arrive at the velocity. Certainly the coal dosing and oxygen at the back end of the kiln (and throughout the kiln process) will be part of that mass balance. • Back to Top Q: cement strength development dear sir , our cement 3&7 day comp.strength usually are high (280&350kg/cm2) but 28d is low(440kg/cm2)What could be the reason and what can we do. clinker so3-1.4 , na2o-0.6 ,k2o0.42,mgo-2,c3s-62,c2s-15,c3a-6.9,c4af-11 A: The alkalis and aprticularly the Na2O in your cement are high. It is a well known phenomena that high alkali sulphates in cement leads to higher early strengths but lower 28-day strength. Is it possible to reduce the alkalis by selective quarrying of raw materials or changes in raw mix design? • Back to Top Q: Process of clinker How to produce clinker from rew meal A:

That is done by heating the raw meal to over 1400 C at which temperature the raw minerals in the raw meal are converted into the cement clinker minerals. • Back to Top Q: presention for cement technology i want to presentation of cement technology A: Whitehopleman provides training programmes in many aspects of cement and cement manufacturing technology. Please indicate the location for the training and the number of people and we can send you a draft proposal. • Back to Top Q: Gas cooling before PH Fan Please explain that in which places is better for gas cooling by water spraying for capacity increasing: 1-top cyclone 2-downcomer duct 3- below the feed in the upper stage riser duct? then, please explain how can i calculate needed water(lit/Nm3)? with regards A: Evaporative cooling of the preheater exhaust gas is best applied in the downcomer duct. The amount of water needed depends on the drying requirements in the raw mill and coal mill (if any). Thee amount of water can be calculated by developing a mass and energy balance of the kiln and then varying the amount of water addition. • Back to Top Q: white clinker kiln with natural gas Dear Mr. Clark, During white clinker production with firing natural gas, do we need high secondary air temperature? I have checked some process firing with coal, they have heat exchangers after C1 and heat ambient air to 200-300 C. They use this hot air as secondary/tertiary air. What if we fire natural gas, will we need this heat exchanger or can we directly use ambient (cold) air as combustiona air (secondary/tertiary)? How the combustion and flame will be affected? Thank you very much A: The combustion efficiency of the natural gas will be improved with preheated secondary/tertiary air. However, ambient air could be used with some loss of efficiency. • Back to Top Q: fuel residence time how to fine the fuel (coal) residence time in calciner/flash furnace A: You need to calculate two things: (i) the internal volume of the calciner from the dimensions and refractory thickness, (ii) the stoichiometric volume of the gases in the calciner. Dividing one by the other will give the gas residence time in the calciner. • Back to Top Q: Alkali bypass dust Dear Dr. Clark we are thinking to send the bypass dust to the cooler , is it a good idea and if yes what is the best point in the cooler to inject the dust . knowing that the ratio of the dust to clinker is 1-1.5% and also we have no issue on the level ofalkalis in cement A:

There will be more subtle effects on the cement quality as the amount of soluble alkalis in clinker will be changed and some alkali will be present in the clinker minerals if the alkali:sulphur ratio is high. • Back to Top Q: Please elaborate the causes for ball formation in kiln ? along with remedial steps to eliminate the chances of ball formation in kiln . Ideally the value of Alkali Sulpher ratio of clinker should be as close to 1 as possible . • Back to Top Q: Effect of Sulpher Alkali ratio Hello Dr. Then you can adjust the speed of the cross bars and the airflow through the cooler fans to explore the impact of adjustments on cooler efficiency and find the best settings. or is it to late once it gets to this stage. which can become very hard if the alkali:sulphur ratio is low. I'm about starting a project to optimize our FLS crossbar cooler. You could increase the amount of alkali passing out in the dust by the addition of calcium chloride. • Back to Top Q: crossbar cooler efficiency optimization Dr Clark. high alkali.My asking is if this value decreases (say -4) or or increases (say +4) then what's the effect of produced cement because of this abnormal value? A: The immediate problem is usually on the coating formed in the preheater. It might become difficult to fully combine the clinker if the K2O content is high. • Back to Top . What are the necessary parameters to check. Without more information it is impossible to be more specific. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir. Clark. A: Some of the alkali will be passing out of the kiln in the dust. • Back to Top Q: Can alkali in clinker be reduced Wet kiln. what is the possible effect of ID fan draft on raw meal to clinker factor A: The draft drawn by the preheater induced draft fan can affect the kiln feed to clinker factor because the amount of dust lost from the top stage of the preheater depends on the velocity of the exhaust gas drawn out of the top stage of the preheater. and actions are needed to take? A: You need to develop a mass and energy balance around the cooler. Therefore some or all of that dust could be discarded to reduce the alkali content. Often they are caused by recirculation phenomena in the kiln connected with the adjustment of the main burner. any way of reducing it.I would suggest adding the bypass dust to the clinker conveyor away from the cooler. A: Unfortunately there are multiple possible causes of clinker ball formation in the kiln.

This is generally a bad practice. Material-Fine Pet Coke Operating Capacity-2 TPH Bulk Density -0.Refractory used is in this area is high alumina brick (70%). Liquid phase is 28-29% @ 1450 centigrades. That rising temperature might lead to melt formation and clogging of the preheater. Any help would be greatly appreciated. The pipework dimensions should be such to ensure an air velocity of more than 25 m/s. We are using mixture of pet coke and coal as a fuel. not changed for 3 years. Clark. • Back to Top Q: What is the Minimum volume.2kg of air per kg of fine coal. A: The rule of thumb is that you need a minimum of 0. Using a mixture of pet coke and coal as the fuel is likely to be a contributory factor. SM 2. A: There could be many reasons. • Back to Top Q: How we can increase output ? if kilnis wet based on wet lime sludge A: You make a major upgrade to the dry or semi-dry process or take steps to reduce the kiln feed slurry moisture content. • Back to Top Q: reasons for yellow clinker being produced continously with good clinker. The chemistry of the clinker is not unusual. Velocity of air required to convey the coal to bin and as well as to furnace.Q: Ring formation Dear Dr. Smaller clinker particle size will help to reduce these yellow cores to the clinker granules. It is more likely a process related problem. Clinker LSF is 95-96. A: It is common to have yellow cores to the clinker due to high temperature reduction. • Back to Top Q: What the side effects if the loss of cyclone 5 is very low?Is there any effect on kiln coating and in which area? A: The danger with very low loss on ignition in the lower cyclone of the preheater is that the calcination will be completed in the preheater and then the temperature will rise quickly as the endothermic calcination reaction is no longer absorbing the energy input to the kiln.24-2. We need to convey the crushed coal to silo and also from silo extration to furnace through FK Pump so please advice the volume of air and velocity to be maintained to convey the coal. Fuel ash content is 11-12%. We are facing frequent kiln stoppages due to ring formation in 42-49m away from kiln discharge end. If transporting over a long distance then more.5-1.6. AM 1.6 Cu M/T Max Moisture-2% Particle size-75 Micron with 2 % residue. • Back to Top Q: Setting time and water demand .29.Solution to solve this problem.

in Clinker Cl=. We recently installed a new roller press (close circuit). It also depends on the lime saturation and combination degree. That is more likely caused by high SO3 content due to SO3 volatilisation. That could be caused by poor combustion conditions in the kiln.16 .We have one open circuit mill that we have been using for some time and the water demand and setting time has been o. can the alkali or SO3 be the reason? A: It is unlikely that the problem is caused by alkalis or sulphate. Thanks in advance A: Higher silica content of clinker might lead to harder to grind to clinker due to higher C2S content in clinker. • Back to Top Q: Effect of SM and A/F ratio in raw meal on clinker grinding I would like to know the consequences of increasing/decreasing SM and A/F ratio on the raw meal in the later cement grinding.K2O=.09%. There is not much that can be done as the particle size distribution of the cement willl be different.Sales dept are complaining. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir. What exactly is recarbonation in cement process and where it is likely to happen.7) contributes to form dusty clinker due to the lack of cohesion/low melt viscosity.52. • Back to Top Q: Alkali bypass I newly start working in a plant. The bypass fan provides additional drafting on the kiln which may explain why the production goes down as you close the bypass. we use crude oil as fuel . Sir. There could also be a physical problem preventing the feed flowing freely from the pipe. How do we know that it is happening and the effects of the same on process or production. The average total alkali is 0.K2O=. • Back to Top Q: What is the reason for kiln feed pipe blockage? Our kiln is 4 stage precalciner kiln.1. Na2O=. The kiln feed pipe has been discovered to be blocking regularly now.k.16% while average SO3 is 0. in raw meal Cl = . Na2O =0.85. I have already started reducing the by pass but at the same time the feed is reduced A: With that level of chloride in raw meal there is probably a need for a bypass to avoid chloride clogging of the preheater. Is it possible that a high SM (around 3) increases the clinker hardness by adding silica to the clinker composition? Does a low A/F ratio (around 0. With the same clinker and gypsum the water demand has been higher and the setting time longer. The kiln feed pipe blockages may be caused by chloride. What can we do to shorten the setting time and water demand to what we have on the open circuit mill? A: This is a common problem when switching from open circuit grinding. thus being unable to form big particles?. We are having a . my question is about recarbonation. Low alumina modulus would not be expected to cause dustry clinker. all lines are equipped with bypass system . You can try adjusting the SO3 content of cement.01. is it really necessary to have alkali by pass system with this chemical composition.03 .

What are those important parameters to monitor before and after taking the feed . • Back to Top Q: reasons for dusty clinker production and steps to get good nodules A: Dusty clinker is caused by low viscosity and surface tension of the liquid phase in the kiln. Does it plays a role in forming heavy coating in burning zone ( 1.25 % Chloride .56 to 1. What is the possible explanation for this. • Back to Top Q: with the increasing of seperator RPM why blaine not increasing A: Perhaps the separator is overloaded? Perhaps the airflow through the separator is inadequate? There could be many reasons.017 (Min 0.0 -1. • Back to Top Q: How to cope with High chloride in Raw mix Sir. Bauxite . We are using Mines Lime stone . Most commonly that arises from high SO3 content in the hot meal. Calcined material .034 ) and in Raw meal average 0. 1.068 ) .25% chloride in hot meal should not cause any preheater blockage problems. Bag house dust being added after CF Silo extraction in homogenizing bin which also a part of Kiln feed . Bag house dust is having 0. That arises from lack of oxygen and reducing burnign conditions at some point in the kiln. Your phenomena sounds as if some fuel is being carried out of the ILC calciner and burning in the upper stages of the preheater. We do not have any B Bypass system installed .20 meter thick ). There is little you can do without a bypass. This kiln is having a SLC I preheater with 6 stages. Regards. How we can get rid of this without By pass system ? .02 %( Min 0. That would consume some oxygen. You need to increase the oxygen content in the kiln and improve the combustion conditions for the fuel. Both the analysers are checked for accuracy with various methods and found working correct.014 to Max 0.030. A: This does not sound like a recarbonation phenomena.003 to Max 0. Dose it promotes poor nodulization ? A: What you describe does not sound unusual. is having 0. We observed that in the Kiln ILC string the o2 level is high at K6 outlet analyser but it is reduced by almost 1% at the same string outlet where as CO formation is in traces only.035 % Chloride . That is where CaO that has already been calcined is carried back up the preheater with the exhaust gas and recombines with the CO2 to reform CaCO3. collected from lower most stage . We checked the stage wise o2 and CO levels and found that from 3rd/ 2nd stage onwards the o2 level goes down and before that the same is increasing from 6th stage onwards. Iron Ore and about 8-12 % Sweetener for our Raw Mix.s operation As a CCR operator. That arises from heavy recirculation of SO3 in the kiln. although that would be unusual. Recently we observed High Chloride in Kiln Feed average 0. • Back to Top Q: Cement Mill. Please guide us.peculiar observation now a days in the preheater of our kiln. Recently we installed analysers at stage 6 outlet of both the strings to see the combustion efficiency. That releases exothermic energy and leads to elevated temperatures in the higher stages of the preheater. It is possible that this is causing the heavy coating the burning zone.

• Back to Top Q: Sir. • Back to Top Q: What will happen to clinker C3S.75m d running in wet process method ? A: I preume you mean low alkali cement? and that you are replacing clay with the iron oxide and silica? if that is all you are doing then there should be no problems.(starting operation) in cement grinding? A: The power drawn by the mill main motor. • Back to Top Q: changing from portland cement production into alkalie resistant cement Dear dr.18 to Al2O3 & 0.e. Why not try rejecting some of the dust from the dust filters? the alkalis should be concentrated there. CaO/ (2. The rejects return weigher. Then solvng those simultaneous equations.65 to Fe2O3 in LSF formula i. what about the probable problems in changing production method from ordinary portland cement to alkalies resistant Portland cement if we add accurate needed amounts of iron oxide and silica especially if our kilns are FLS kilns with 175 m length and 5. full or partial material filling? . Why we multiply with 2. The temperature and pressure profile through the milling system. • Back to Top Q: How 5 or more components raw mix design are calculated ? it is too important for me please answer it to me A: By setting up 5 simultaneous equations with the 4 targets in the raw mix that you want to control. The clinker may be more difficult to combine due to inhomogeneity.8 to Sio2. They are derived from the phase equilibria of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3Fe2O3 system. • Back to Top Q: Preheater cyclone . C3A will reduce.8SiO2+1.foundation loads estimation due to blockage. The power drawn by the elevator.18Al2O3+0. 1.65Fe2O3) A: These are the coefficients in the Lea and Parker formula for the maximum combinable lime in Portland cement clinker. C2S and C3A if SM target was increase? A: C3S and C2S will rise. The microphone on the first chamber of the mill. • Back to Top Q: what are the effects of high LOI of cement on quality? what are the effects of high LOI of cement on quality and what the reasons to control it? A: That depends on whether the high LOI is due to poor combination of the clinker or due to addition of limestone to the cement.

lp27-28 . That will cause heavy recirculation of SO3.4 . sometime we've faced with a phenomenon in the calciner that 10 mm lumps of raw meal falling down to kiln inlet as hail. • Back to Top Q: effect of 1. experts commenting the crystolography of Clinker on account of "Pre-Cooling". Actually in Iran expert people in the filed of cement and kiln burner insist in this sentence that 1.4 . 1.am1. sm2.6 to 1. lsf93-95 .2 we do not find high F. • Back to Top . The SO3 flux also causes snowmen in the cooler. hood temp 9001050c please help me for increase clinker size . Finally my main question is accuracy of this idea that 1. In Clinker microscopic studies. Clark I am Mohammad. why might this be? A: There must be recirculation of gas in the calciner.40).2 A: No. Is it the cooling takes place just after the buring zone until to the kiln discharge or until the sudden Quenching in the 1st compartment of the grate cooler? A: Pre-ccoling iss in the rotary section of the kiln before the clinker falls into the grate cooler. QC & laboratory manager. You need to do computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on the calciner.3 cause riser clogging or bad kiln burning? Dear Dr.Clark. decrease stick of clinker and prevention of snowman and damring formation.snowman and damring. In this situation litter weight remains constant (1350~ 1390) but F.CaO goes from 0. our clinker is small size(30%-less than 3mm and 70%-5 to 15 mm) and soft sticky so that move up with kiln rotation and fall down on burner tip for this reason we have dusty clinker.2 to 1.3-2. from Iran.35 to 2. or it should be assumed that the material is filling the cyclone completely including the cylindrical part also? Thanks. A: For design you should assume filling completely.3 in kiln burning process Does really ALM between 1. it is needed to provide the extra-ordinary live load due to material blockage in the preheater cyclones. • Back to Top Q: Which is the period mentioned for Pre-Cooling of Clinker? Dear Dr.3-1.9 and even more (LSF:95~96 and SIM: 2. Please advise if it is safe enough to assume the material filling in the conical part only.The first question is based on our main problem in the kiln burning when the ALM goes from <1.During the civil design of the preheater building. Most probably there is is lack of oxygen at some part of the kiln and reducing burning conditions. I have some questions in filed of our situation in our factory.2<ALM<1. The high SO3 content of hot meal leads to low viscosity of flux and find clinker.38.CaO. A: This is caused by high concentration of SO3 in hot meal.r90-12% .21.2 to 1. • Back to Top Q: small size sticky clinker and snowman dear sir . • Back to Top Q: raw meal hail stone in ILC-Calciner Dear sir.

such as: the alkali and sulphate content of the clinker. C4AF <1%. A: There are more relevant factors. Strengths higher than grey cement due to higher silicate content. you must make sure the silica sand is ground sufficiently fine in the kiln feed or there will be problems combining the clinker in the kiln. the shell temperatures become normal. However. What is the major factor that affecting setting time? Can higher clinker SM and lower C3A delay the setting time or is there any other major factors which is more relevant.What is this phenomena? A: The kin relies on losing energy by radiation to cool the shell. SM = 4+. C3S = ~60%. certainly.Q: chemical and physical analysis for white cement (LSF. AM = 10+. It is unusual. We also observed frequen form/fall of coating in burning zone. • Back to Top Q: sir what will be the effects of low SM in clinker and on kiln operation.with 28 % liquid. In the kiln there will be more flux (liquid content) and maybe more coating. due to what ambiant temperatire under the shell is almost double than that other areas arround the shell. C3A = ~15%. • Back to Top Q: When Dryer was installed under kiln shell. We have observed kiln shell high temperatures than usual. • Back to Top Q: What is the reason behined fine clinkerisation even with sub bitumenous coal.C2S . C2S = ~20%.SIM -ALM & C3S . We are facing heavy dust recirculation inside the kiln from cooler . or the presence of any fluoride in the clinker. It depends on the dust handling and the composition of the dust. Your drier has compromised the cooling of the kiln shell. When it was brought down.C3A C4AF)? A: LSF = 95%. . • Back to Top Q: Is it possible that the LSF of clinker be more than Kiln feed? A: Yes. even we operate kiln with low lsf 95 % .with sub bitumeneous coal.plz brief me.and if we add sand in raw mix then what are the effects of this sand on kiln and clinker chemistry. shell temperatures shot up? We have installed an RDF dryer under kiln shell. but possible. That is most likely arising from oxygen deficient combustion at some point in the kiln. • Back to Top Q: Hi Dr. sir i am chemist in Arabian yemen cement company. Adding silica sand will raise the silica modulus and lead to more silicates in clinker and higher cement strength.thanks A: Low SM in clinker will lead to low silicate content and lower cement strengths. A: Most probably the problem is caused by high recirculation of sulphate in the kiln.

I m writing from Azerbaijan Nakhcevan Cement Plant. sir our raw mill is 170 TPH VRM and is there any difficulty of raw mill fine grinding of this calcite and gniees dear sir . • Back to Top Q: Significance of Seive Analysis of clinker 1. I have one question to you that.CO3 and in the same bench it has very low T.• Back to Top Q: lime stone is pure cristaline calcite @ 87% T. good evening. here in kenya we are going to instal 3000 TPD clinker unit with 170 TPH VRM for raw mix and is there any difficult to get fine grinding like 212 mic residue up to 2% and 90 mic residue up to 18% with this lime stone pure calcite crystalline and bottom layer is very low phlegmatic or genies with 2 to 16% mgo.5 meters falls down and also majority of the bricks have become thin.KENYA A: There is no reason to suppose that a VRM would not be able to grind this material while a ball mill would. 2 days before 4 of the bricks in15.Significance of Seive Analysis of clinker . Besides any suggestion will be highly appricated at that situation.CO3% as pegmatite or gniees with 16 % MgO . We have dry process kiln with Calciner and territary air length is 50 m and 3. I will be waiting for your kind reply as soon as possible please.2 diameter. So we decided to brick (Magnezite Spinnel Brick) 2. LTD NAIROBI .what it indicates. Please be informed that we are using natural gas as fuel. 2. hope you are fine and doing well. please give me reply at the earliest thanking you RAO .5 and 17. My question is that is it needed to pull inside burner to form coating while feeding or no need burner must start at definite axial position. This can be affected by the recirculation of sulphates in the kiln. Y . Clark. • Back to Top Q: Difference Between Limestone & Shale How to Distinguish between Limestone & Shale with chemical compostion. It's silica content is likely to be around 50-60%. • Back to Top Q: About Brick replacement Dear Mr. Finally what must be heating duration in this process? Best regards Yashar Reply All A: I do not think you should worry about the formation of coating during the warm up period. The CaO content of shale is very low. The duration of the warm-up depends on whether any castable refractories has been installed during the .Explaine Sequential & Sumaltaneous Analysis by WD XRF & How Both they work & Percentage of Elements count 3.what is intensity term in WD XRF & How it measure A: The aprticle size distribution of the clinker can be important because it gives an indication of the viscosity and surface tension of the flux in the kiln. one place we find low cao stone with 56 silica and i came to know that this stone silica should not be good reactive as it formed from calcite washed with water and cao is eliminated. S NATIONAL CEMENT CO. Shale is geologically altered clay so composed of alumino silicate minerals. A: Limestone is a form of calcium carbonate. Pure limestone has 56% CaO.9 meters.4 meters betwen 15. i think that in ball mill we can maintain finesse as we required.

• Back to Top Q: Clinker Alumina Ratio Too low Alumina ratio (< 1. • Back to Top Q: Why First chamber length is smaller than second chamber in ball mill A: Because the first chamber is for crushing the material and the second chamber is for fine grinding.8) how these effect kiln operation? A: The alumina ratio affects the clinkering range in the kiln. The preliminary result from a chinese supplier shows it's possible to generate around 12MW from three kilns excluding selfcomsumption power by the steam Rankine cycle under the conditions of running all mills. I suggest you should contact Kevin Happ at FL Smidth. Its is calculated by 1/(1-Loss on ignition of the kiln feed).000 t/d. Clark. • Back to Top Q: WHPG Dear Dr. and whether we can see the Kalina cycle if we visit any steam power station here because you say the kalina cycle was invented for such uses. We run three calciner kilns as you may know and the total daily capacity is about 11. A: Dear Obong. My asking is what the possible power is by using the Kalina cycle. The amount of ash that involves can then be caculated and the kiln feed chemistry adjusted to give the target clinker composition. • Back to Top Q: How much Coal Ash should be absorbed by 1 ton clinker during clinker production A: That depends on the ash content and calorific value of the coal.3) and Too High Alumina ratio (> 1. • Back to Top Q: what is the ideal clinker factor and how is it calculated theorically. That is the amount and viscosity of the . How does high moisture level contents in fine coal increase kiln exit gases volume? rgds A: It increases the preheater exhaust gas volume as the water evaporates and exits the kiln as water vapour.shutdown. They should be able to take you to see a reference installation. 30 degrees centigrade per hour should be OK up to 1000 degrees centigrade then 50 degrees per hour. You must deliver enough thermal energy to combine the clinker. Really long time no see! I read the article with interest titled as 'WHR on the rise' in ICR JUNE 2012 because our company has pushed ahead with WHPG. A: The raw meal to clinker factor is typically 1. It's time to enjoy an excursion for viewing autumn leaves! Best Regards.55. • Back to Top Q: high fine coal moisture content Sir.

33%.in this range. can we use magnesite-spinel brick instead of alumina brick?(from view point of technical view) A: Yes. For white cement clinker you must have >4. Conductivity will be higher and therefore the shell temperature during operation.5%.9 alumina ratio. • Back to Top Q: to remove dam-ring Dear Mr. Magnesia spinel refractory will have sufficient refractoriness for this region of the kiln. There is high temp rise within this length (>1100 0C) and soft coating formation is also observed.what will be the bad consequence? A: Probably no adverse consequences. For sulphate resisting clinker you must have <0. A: Most likely this is caused by high sulphate recirculation in the kiln. • Back to Top Q: Rhino Horn on Kiln Burner Tip Sir. and O2 3.if we do not remove rhino horns and continue kiln running with a lot of coating on the burner tip . The burner is likely to be strong enough to carry the rhino horn. And we maintain kiln inlet temp around 970 0C. Clark Excuse me . • Back to Top Q: Kiln riser duct Sir.sometimes we have rhino horns(coating formation) on the burner tip. There is no too high and too low.in our kiln.flux in the kiln. That is most likely caused by the adjustment of the kiln main burner.M. How temp of same region can be maintain ? Regards A: I suspect this design was for a low volatile fuel and the fuel is injected at that point to create a "hot zone" to aid combustion.before transition zone(in the zone 37-50m from kiln outlet) we use high alumina brick(A2O3=70%). • Back to Top Q: running the burner along with rhino horn Dear sir. Our is 5-Stage ILC FLS kiln. With your coal it should not be necessary. • Back to Top Q: range of using magnesite-spinel brick Dear sir. Please tell me . I am working in Cement Plant in Nigeria and Rhino horn at the Burner Tip is a recurrent .5 meters below PC. Dr. PC Coal is introduced in kiln riser 1. • Back to Top Q: what are the possible causes of kiln dusty condition and snowman formation at the cooler inlet. That is also likely to affect the coating behaviour in the kiln. Which ways you suggest to remove the dam-ring in outlet of rotary kiln information ? Thank You A: You can try some water via a lance through the kiln hood.0 alumina ratio. Coal is having V.

We are operating on Gas ( Majorly) and Oil when we experience drop in gas pressure. Dr. • Back to Top Q: kiln shell temperature dear sir.kiln shell temperature in this zone goes to 330-360 deg.after doing new repair on kiln lining and installing new magnesite-spinel bricks on 0-7 meter of kiln length(the first 7 meter near to kiln outlet).is there any relation by means of volume ration between kiln and preheater effective volumes. It needs to be adjusted very carefully to give the required length of burning zone and clinker quality. • Back to Top Q: is there any ration between kiln internal effective volume / preheater cyclone and raiser ducts volume dear sir. is it normal and why we have such a high temperature?(brick is new) A: It is normal. my question is . A: Rhino horn is formed by dust carried back into the kin with the secondary combustion air. • Back to Top Q: What is the effect of high fine coal moisture on clinker production? .Clarck Could you tell me . please explain me thanking you sir A: Certainly.phenomenon. The air loses velocity above the burner and that causes some ofthe dust to settle and build up on top of the burner.Which factors(elements) lead to Dam-Ring formation in the outlet of rotary kiln? A: Usually cooling of the material by the secondary combustion air and dust being carried back into the kin with the secondary combustion air. Until a coating is formed on the lining the shell temperatures are likely to be in the range you are experiencing. The conductivity of magnesia spinel lining is quite high. Normally it is set up by the burner provider. Can you please shed light on this. The volume of the different sections controls the residence time of the gases and the cross-sectional area controls the velocity of the gas flow. • Back to Top Q: Burner tip insertion inside the kiln Could you recommend burner tip insertion inside the kiln on hot condition (Lignite Firing)? and forward/backward from nose ring have any effect on C3S or free CaO A: The length of the burner tip insertion in the kiln is the most important factor governing the mixing of the secondary air into the flame and therefoe the length of the burning zone. Gas from calcination is evolved a certain rate in a cement kiln dependent on the production rate of the kiln. good evening i asked this question in last month also. • Back to Top Q: about dam-ring in the outlet of kiln Dear mr.in the first week after repair.

• Back to Top Q: What are the reasons for the kiln shell corrosion? Dear Dr. • Back to Top Q: ABOUT DAM RING DEAR MR. The question is why the new shell had such a sever corrosion within 18 months? This kiln is not having the By-Pass system.David Clark.5.CaO: 42.MgO:0. The high MgO bricks are used in this zone.2. • Back to Top Q: why and how coatin is formed in cement kiln burning zone why and how coating formation in kiln A: Beacuse the liquid phases in the material in the kiln penetrate the refractory lining until they cool and solidify or freeze. A: Shell corrosion is usually caused by gases within the kiln pentrating the lining to the back-face of the refractories. CEMENT MILL.84. SO3:6. CaO:19.DR. There any volatiles condense against the cold shell causing the corrosion. That causes the material to stick to the lining. Please note one and half year before we replaced the kiln shell at 22mts to 34 mts from the clinker discharge end of the kiln in Jan 2011.A: The volume of exhaust gas from the kiln will be higher due to the coal moisture content. COAL MILL. The replaced portion of the shell is supplied by Sinoma. Coal ash analysis: SiO2:39.8. WHICH ELEMENTS(FACTORS) LEAD TO DAM-RING FORMATION IN THE OUTLET OF ROTARY KILN ? A: It is normally caused by cooling of the clinker by the secondary air as it falls over the nose ring at the outlet of kiln into the cooler. • Back to Top Q: what is the effect of high alumina content of raw meal on kiln bricks? . K2O:0.2.Cl:0.89. Typical Kiln feed chemistry is SiO2:13. If the kiln is induced draft fan limited then that might adversely affect the clinker production. Fe2o3: 2. Fe2O3:8.009.4.31. SO3:0. Coal used 50 MT/H.74.5 but operated at 3.53.16. Kiln Cap. Ash:12. Thanks for your promopt resoponses to our questions.4. In July 2012 we noticed the newly replaced portion of the shell had corrosion of the thickness that varies from 2mm to 12mm.7500TPD. • Back to Top Q: Minimum air requirement WHAT IS THE MINIMUM AIR REQUIREMENT TO LIFT THE DUST PARTICLE IN THE DUCT FOR FLOW? IS IT VARY IN ALL SECTION VIZ RAW MILL. PYROSECTION. Al2O3: 3. I can only think the severe corrosion is due to the quality of the steel of the shell.7. A: Certainly the air flow and velocity requirement to lift the material will be different in different sections of the plant due to differences in the particle size and the temperature of the gases. Al2O3:19.4.10. Coal is the fuel. Na2O: 0.CLARK COULD YOU TELL ME . Also sometimes by clinker dust being carried back into the kiln from the cooler in the secondary air. The Maximum RPM of the kiln is 3.

It is not surprising that they prefer your competitor's cement as it has higher early strength. Our competitor has initial setting time of about 190-220mins but 2-day strength of above 20MPa.what is the effect of high alumina of raw meal on kiln bricks as well as clinker quality? A: There should be no effect on kiln bricks.5N. There is an expert commnet that will increase the F.The setting time average 140mins while 2-day strength is 14MPa. Block makers need early strength development rather than quick setting. In one of our plant.Clark. All attempts to convince the sales team team about this is abortive. • Back to Top Q: Why we set carbonates 77 or 76 per in pile formation ? what happened when we increase the carbonates or decrease in pile like 70 or 80? why we set 80 or 70 per carbonates in pile formation? A: Because that level of carbonate will give you the required amount of CaO in the pile. • Back to Top Q: How best the CBA-Gammametrics installed for raw mix proportioning will help to reduce the . What do you think is the problem? Is setting time not more of theory than reality? A: Setting time is different to early strength development and not necessarily related to early strength development. The clinker mineral composition will be changed with more C3A.CaO in Clinker? Dear Dr. • Back to Top Q: Why the presence of SrO in raw meal increases F. If this is correct. That is not bad for clinker quality. the limestone contains around 0. • Back to Top Q: How to minimize the quantity of bypass without decreasing the chloride in kiln feed? How to minimize the bypass quantity without decreasing the chloride percentage only in the kiln feed or by new methods which minimize the loose in kiln feed? A: The only way is to regularly monitor and model the volatile cycle in the kiln and reduce the bypass opening to achieve a target hot mean chloride content.CaO in Clinker. and (ii) SrO displaces CaO in the clinker mineral structure leaving free. uncombined lime in the clinker. alumina or iron oxide at the raw mill to bring the LSF down to target. • Back to Top Q: Setting time & Strength We produce CEM II 32. If you set higher then you will have to add silica. why the megare amountof SrO increases F.CaO instead fusing into the C3S? A: There are two reasons why SrO increases the free CaO in clinker: (i) the SrO enters solid solution in the C2S inhibiting its combination into C3S. just different. The customers (especially blockmakers) always complain that our cement do not set as fast as that of the competitor but I think they are confusing the early strength with setting time.25% SrO. If you set lower then you will need to add high grade limestone at the raw mill to bring the kiln feed LSF up to target.

what is the reason and solution of red river? A: You should not suffer red rivers in a cross-bar cooler.Isthere any scope to reduce further? A: I presume you mean that the standard deviation of the lime saturation of the raw mill product is 5%? Certainly there is scope to reduce this. The only problems that might arise are if the kaloin is wet and sticky. • Back to Top Q: red river dear sir.There is a plan to form mix bad with proportionated ratio of Clay and Limestone (1:6. Abive 400deg is when the problems start.What do you think about using impact crusher? Best regards A: Impact crushers are normally used for brittle materials. Sand is in the range of 2. The transportation mechanism for the clinker are the cross-bars above the grates. %CaO is 51.0.brick type in the length of 25-35 from kiln outlet is magnesite-spinel and kiln shell temperature in this zone is 340-370 deg. for this kind of brick (usually contain unstable coating). • Back to Top Q: crusher for kaolin Hi sir What is the best crusher for Breaking kaolin? Also in our factory for kaolin Breaking use of jaw crusher & Gyratory crusher. • Back to Top Q: kiln shell cooling dear sir.0% for Fe2O3. However. I suggest that the cross-belt analyser should be installed on the feed of crushed material to the premix bed of limestine and clay. There is one propotial of installing the Gammatrics -CBA at the raw materials belt for their stacking with target quality.most of time we see red river and molten clinker in cooler in different points and mechanical engineers are worry about damage to cooler grates.0% and Lateriate around 2. which is consumed around 12-15%.we have SF-COOLER 4*4. is it beneficial to install the Gamma metrica CBA in between the raw materials proportioning station and to the VRM to minimize the raw meal quality variaiton? At present without CBA the SD of the raw meal is around 5. Kaolin is normally quite soft. as those cross bars are moving above the grates there should be a layer of dead material lying on top of the grates and below the cross-bars so that will offer some protection to the grates from red-hot clinker. The limestone deposite is very uniform.adjuted to the requirement Al2O3)for chevron stacking and bridge type reclaiming to preblend the clay and reduce the variation. The clay has very high variation in SiO2 and also in Al2O3.0 to 54.we want to know if cooler grates are damaged due to this phenomena or grates are protected by af a dead material layer (50mm on grates)above them. 340-370 deg C is not a shell temperature to be concerned about.Clark. In this condition. • Back to Top .0% which is consumed around 80%.quality varition of the raw meal? Dear Dr.is it necessary to start cooling fan to decrease shell temperature or not?what is the bad consequence of shell cooling for magnesite-spinel brick lifetime? A: Shell cooling normally helps to build coating on the refractory lining and therefore there should be no bad consequences for magnesia-spinel brick lifetime.0 to 5.

kiln inclination=3%.90. am-1. A: No.5kg per tonne of clinker produced.ILC system.what reason A: There could be many reasons. • Back to Top Q: kiln speed dear sir.diameter=4. sm-2.8m. Snowmen are caused by the clinker entering the cooler from the kiln continuing to have some melted phases. A: Slow kiln speed can lead to the free lime liberated at the back of the kiln becoming stabilised and more difficult to fully combine into the clinker minerals.2(to reach 12.5 instead of 4. • Back to Top Q: high silica modules what effct in kiln ? A: High silica modulus of kiln feed will render the kiln feed more difficult to combine. 2. • Back to Top Q: I am from ethiopia. in our cement factory there is so many problem but some of them are continuously snowmen formation in grate cooler or around clinker out late area for this what are the main causes for snowmen formation and methods of improving the systems etc.5% and according to fls instruction in feed=270tph(nominal feed). You need to respond to opportunities to increase the feed rate to the kiln.Generally. • Back to Top Q: lsf-92. what are the reason behind there? 1. kiln speed is 4. That then leads to the thermal energy consumption of the kiln rising and the clinker production rate falling. Therefore the . • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir! What should be the refractory consumption (kg/ton clk) for white kiln? A: You would hope it would be less than 0.length=75m. provided that the water is adequately atomised and fully evaporated to cool the cooler exhaust air.5% kiln filling).Q: Effect of water spray on clinker in cooler? We are forced to use >6000m3/hr of water to keep our cooler ESP temp.kiln filling=12. in control.2 for a long time.what will be the bad consequence?in fact we want to know disadvantages of low kiln speed.what are the reasons for formations of more dust particles or blockages of Tertiary air duct and methods of improving A: I have been travelling to Ethiopia regularly over the last few years where I have been monitoring the construction of the Derba Midroc cement factory. in our cement factory the snowmen is within short period of time happened continously in grate cooler. The kiln feed will not increase by itself. The only way to reduce the problem is by control of the alkali cycles within the kiln or operating with a lower secondary air temperature.30 . Will it effect the 1 day strenth of the clinker.26 .our kiln is 4000tpd(fls designing). but kiln feed not increasing .if in this condition we run the kiln with speed 3.

6 rpm .3-2. Why there is higher limit(Aprox 10%) of MgO in Slag Cement. Please explaine me that. which is dependent on the amount of chloride and sulphate present. However at 0.2% Na2O. Could you please guide me to get the Excel based model of the alkali cycles. if the chemical analyses are correct.3-1.kiln feed is 275tph(nominal capacity)and kiln speed is 3.Clark. However. • Back to Top Q: Slag Cement Vs Portland cement Dear sir. • Back to Top Q: kiln speed dear sir. My suspicion that there is some other problem.34 % to 0. that your demonstrated at Cemtech in Dubai and Jakarta? Dear Dr. That does not explain the decreased productivity.56%. That depends on yhe volatility of the Na2O and K2O. as I demonstrated at Cemtech in Dubai and Jakarta. it is not just a question of calculating.RAY : 90-92 SIM : 2.3 A: Well. It is too complicated for a simple calculation and depends on a model. • Back to Top Q: How to get Excel based model of the alkali cycles.56% total alkali there should be no problems. How calculate or simulate the alkali enrichment in the preheater circulation material? A: It is of course possible to do this with an Excel based model of the alkali cycles.4 LSF CHEMICAL :88-90 SIM :2. A: I have never heard of that difference in the MgO specifications for OPC and slag cement. it seems that you X-ray is reading high on CaO. I presume it is because the slag contains more MgO and that MgO is combined in a mineral with silicate rather . The trass contains 1. while in Ordinary Portland Cement MgO limit is 6% only.4 ALM 1.2% K2O and 3.what will be the bad consequence ? A: How do you calculate the required kiln speed? 3.if we run the kiln in this situation(kiln low speed). Consequently. • Back to Top Q: low liter weight clinker and decrease product LSF X. that you demonstrated at Cemtech in Dubai and Jakarta? A: The only way to gain access to Whitehopleman's Excel based model of the alkali cycles in cement kilns is to retain Whitehopleman as your technical consultants. I can't imagine any bad consequences (although I am normally in favour of high kiln speed). • Back to Top Q: How to calcualate or simulate the alkali enrichment in the preheater when alkali rich material is used as additive? I am substituting Trass for Sand to get silica in the raw mix.thermal energy consumption of the kiln is likely to rise and the clinker production rate may decrease.5 rpm less than required speed for the feed.4 ALM :1.6 rpm sounds OK without knowing more about the kiln. the total alkalies in the raw meal inceases from 0.speed is at least 0.

A: Where will you feed it to the kiln? From where in the kiln does the dust come from? The exhaust gas dust filter? Or the bypass? If from the exhaust gas filter.please answer my question. My question is about the pneumatic conveying of coal through FK pumps The FK pumps for coal conveying is provided with nozzles through which the blower air is entering. Motor used may be with FPR blades and/or air foil bearings. • Back to Top Q: CKD Dear sir. My question is for a stand by system (Common for kiln and calciner) where we have two different volume requirements.So. i want to know want points should i consider in its design A: How will you control the airflow through the different outlets of the manifold? With individual fans you can just run the fans where the kiln shell needs be cooled. other than lost output from .a very bad situation making the kiln uncontrollable.than being present as free MgO (periclase). The volume of transport air for kiln is dropping by around 40% due to change of kiln burner. • Back to Top Q: Dear Dr. • Back to Top Q: Replacement of kiln shell cooling blowers (quantity wise) Dear Sir. I want to replace this 24 blowers with 4(12-15KW)high speed blowers each with header(pipe)and 6 outlet from each header. If we keep the same FK pump with reduced volume what problems are expected and what is the remedial action. AM & what effect in raw mix A: See my answer a few Ask Dr Clark's ago for what they are. A: Your standby FK pump must have sufficient volume for the larger of the two coal transport requirements (probably the calciner). • Back to Top Q: kiln heating-up time after brick repairs dear sir. Too small volume and hence velocity can lead to drop out of the fine coal and pulsing of the fine coal to the burner . but fed continuously with feed from the homogenisation silo then there should be no problem. Too much volume and hence velocity is no problem. so the higher the fuel consumption. • Back to Top Q: what is LSF. SM . I am trying for energy saving project in which 24 blowers of 3 KW each(=72kw)are used for kiln shell cooling. The higher the LSF and SM the more dificult to combine the clinker.some days before i had asked a question about cement klin dust and its impact on clinkarization if it is fed to kiln in un-blended form. But the clinker quality will be better up to 100% lSF. Clark.after a repairs for lining(replacing old bricks in the zone 30-50 m from kiln outlet)if we want to increase heating up time from 24 hours to 72 hours. With your proposed arrangements you will lose the ability to cool a particular part of the kiln shell.what will be the bad consequence? A: There will be no bad consequences from increasing the heating up time.

75x75 m kiln producing 7600-8000 tpd clinker. but we loose heavily on production. • Back to Top Q: making decide to replace or maintain old brick in coating area dear sir. • Back to Top Q: Dear sir by Question is regarding Cement kiln Dust What about it? There are many types of cement kiln dust? What do you want to knoe? A: • Back to Top Q: Dear Dr. The smell might be bad. %Al2O3 and %Fe2O3 multiplies by their respective coefficients. what is better way to do ? A: If you remove the coating them almost certainly you will have to replace the brick.5 %.7 and SM . The SO3 levels measured in the bottom cyclones is below 1. A: Lime saturation factor is the %CaO relative to the maximum %CaO that can be combined with the %SiO2. Is this dryer unit have any effective on kiln coating in burning zone. We are facing the ring formation between 50-54 m from kiln discharge. provided it is not so close that the radiation of heat from the shell is impaired. • Back to Top Q: Dryer unit effect on kiln shell temperature I Want to install a dryer unit under the kiln shell in burning zone area for reducing the moisture of RDF whcih is 40% to 50%. What is your opinion. Alumina modulus is the ration of the %alumina to %iron oxide. A: Silica modulus is the ration of the %silica to the sum of the %alumin and %iron oxide. increasing the silica modulus in the kiln feed etc. It all depends what the shell temperatures are when the kiln is operating. feeding silica sand from kiln inlet.65 to 1. i am using 90% pet coke in the kiln firing. We have a AM of around 1. This creates a lot of nuisance and material starts falling from kiln inlet forcing us to reduce th feed rate. • Back to Top Q: what is LSF meanings .during repairs time in kiln we have problem in making decide to replace old brick that is under coating in the length of 6-25 meters from kiln outlet. Clark my question belongs to ring formation in the kiln I have a 4. • Back to Top Q: what is silica modules & alumina modules give me defination. in this area. A: It should make no difference. If below 400C then no need to replace.the kiln. We try the remedial action like adjusting the burner (Insertion and retraction.we should separate the coating from brick and then measuring old brick thickness or drill a lot of points to get brick thickness that is very hard and dangerous to do.brick is covered by coating and if we want to be sure about old brick thickness or its condition to maintain or replace it .

or combustion air. Is there any change in the tryp of refractories or the length of time the refractories have been in service in this zone of the kiln? • Back to Top Q: Cement is not setting Hi. rings that far back from the discharge of the kiln are very problematic. with an small excess of combustion air and oxygen.e. Let me know how to control the cement setting time and what are the factors involved in the setting time other than gypsum. to burn the fuel in the kiln or precalciner.around 2. In our lab process the setting time shows 100 minutes initial setting time by the addition of 3% gypsum. Dr. More information is needed. You have an initial setting time of 100 minutes using the Vicat needle penetration test? In that case there should be no problem unless the temperature is very low.16 and lsf around 1 in kiln feed. Clark. i. I doubt that this will help. A: Hmmm.12-2. That is a difficult one. What is the remedy for this. We have this problem once in 2-3 months. We came to know through some people that feeding caustic soda with masonary sand in 1:5 ratio through kiln inlet will help removing the ring. Please help me. Pls let me know if u need any further data. I have never heard of the addition of caustic soda with masonry sand to combat kiln rings. The first step is undertake an energy audit to assess the current situation and identify the opportunities for savings. Generating electrical energy from the waste heat flow from the kiln could be one of the opportunities identified by such an energy audit. The excess air in the kiln and the momentum of the main burner will affect sulphur volatility in the kiln. • Back to Top Q: what is the throughput in a ball mill if i feeding say 170tph . Regards. The clinker minerals are all oxides and the cement kiln should be burnt under oxidising conditions.85-3. If there are reducing conditions then the volatility of sulphates in the kiln is increased and this can lead to ring formation and other operational problems.9 % so inherently the alumina is high in the kiln feed. A: Yes. we always 'the cement is not setting' comment from our clients. Which country are you in? • Back to Top Q: Reducing condition in kiln What is reducing condition in the kiln during clinker burning and what is oxidizing condition? How can this condition give impact on ring formation? A: Reducing conditions in the kiln are caused by there not being sufficient oxygen. Is the material in the ring high in sulphate? The SO3 in the bottom cyclones is no problem but it is possible that sulphate spurrite is causing the problem at the 50-54m zone. • Back to Top Q: my guestion i need some data for how to save energy consumption on cement industry which taken hot gases from PH +cooler and by -pass to generated power about 4-16 MW A: There are many ways to save energy in cement manufacturing. The refractory lining also has to be taken into consideration. Our limestone is rich in Alumina aroud 3. Do you feel this will help.

• Back to Top . i. Perhaps the lime saturation of the clinker is more than 100%. • Back to Top Q: kiln feed What are the targets for kiln feed MA. • Back to Top Q: free CaO Dear Dr. Clark is there an estimate of 1% free CaO increase in clinker on its calorific consumption (kcal/kg of clinker)? A: I don't think there is a direct method of calculating that. Ideally the value should be as close to 1 as possible. Perhaps there is variable granulometry of the kiln feed. The kiln feed to clinker factor is this raw meal to clinker to factor plus the dust losses from the top of the preheater. Perhaps there is breakdown of CaSO4 to CaO and SO2 in the burning zone. • Back to Top Q: sir kiln burning temp. So conservation mass means that what goes in must come out. • Back to Top Q: Sulphur-to-alkali ratio Hi Dr. Perhaps the 1450C burning zone temperature is inaccurate. the alkalis and sulphate should be in molar balance. the fuels used to fire the kiln and their ash content. • Back to Top Q: kiln feed to clinker factor & raw mill to kiln feed factor give me process A: The raw meal to clinker factor is given by 1/(1. with appropriate adjustment for the incorporation of the ash from the fuel used to fire the kiln into the clinker. That means the alkali will be present as sulphates. What is the normal used formula for sulphur-to-alkali ratio and what is its preferred control range and why? A: (K2O/94 + Na2O/62 . Perhaps there is variable ash content of the fuel used to fire the kiln.e. We cannot create mass in a ball mill (or any other process).Loss on ignition at 1000C). FL Smidth's method of calculatng the heat of formation of clinker could perhaps be adapted to give an estimate. 1450 but free lime free lime frequently comin what reason A: There could be many reasons.what is the throughput in a ball mill if i feeding say 170tph A: The output of a ball mill equals the feeding rate. There will not be excess sulphate present as calcium sulphate and there will not be excess alkalis which can inhibit combination of the clinker.MS and LPH A: That depends on the clinker composition you want to manufacture.Cl/71)/(SO3/80). It is part of the process of raw mix design.

Best practice for particulates emissions would be <2mg/Nm3. Do yu monitor NOx in the emissions? • Back to Top Q: What are resons of snowman formation? A: Snowman formation in a grate cooler is the result of some liquid content remaining in the clinker after it falls from the kiln into the cooler. • Back to Top Q: Environmental Bench Marking Dear Dr. • Back to Top Q: Cooler efficiency improvement We have cement kiln of 2500TPD with coolex cooler 1054. efficient coolers this has become a more common phenomena. Plant technology supplier is M/s FLS. Kcal / Kg of clinker.Any additional inputs form you are very well. Nox and CO2 are they addressed?? If so how?? 5.What will be the reason. Saudi Arabia. We are continuously observing the stack color as yellow while our chemical analysis shows every thing like sulfur. I need your assistance on the following information being in practice in Europe.mtr 3.Q: white cement like grey cement can we install tretiary air duct from kiln to preheater as in white cement kiln hood gets always posative. We have found that undergrate pressure reduced around 150mmwg in same flow of fans(CFG). What is the annual / daily average (Particulates) dust emissions in Mills in milligrams /Normal cu. Total Fuel spent …. Fugitive dust emissions in quarries are more difficult to quantify. Gaseous emissions like SO2 . How they are controlled??? 4. We have replaced grate plates thoroghly in 2007-08. I am preparing a presentation on Best Practices in Environment. chlorides at normal level. US and other countries. Control is usually by water spraying with added chamicals (not an option for you I realise). With high secondary air temparature from modern. Therefore a tertiary air duct is not normally provided and ambient air preheated through heat exchangers is used to provide the combustion air for the precalciner. What is the annual / daily average (Particulates) dust emissions in Kilns in milligrams /Normal cu. With production of blended cements with <70% clinker in cement it is possible to reduce kWh/t cement to <80 kWh/t. For total thermal energy for firing the kiln 3380 kJ/kg clinker (808 kcal/kg clinker) is reckoned to be best practice. thank you Prasad.Best regards 1. Total Energy spent… Kwh / ton of cement 6.Clark How are you? This is prasad pamarthi from Qassim Cement Co. A: I'm fine. and ofcourse adds value to me.mtr 2. A: Due to the clinker being quenched in water as it falls from a white cement kiln it is difficult to preheat the combustion air for firing the fuels in the kiln by recovering thermal energy from the clinker. Regards A: My suspicion would be that this caused by NOx emissions. • Back to Top Q: Yellow stack Dear Sir. Modern bag filters are able to achieve that from both kilns and mills. There is change in plate design . Fugitive dust emissions generated in Quarry….It is found that secondary air temperature remains approx 100-150 deg low. CFG and RFT sections.

The burning zone temperature seems to be low.75 m dia and 75 m long We face frequent heavy coating builds up at 19 m to 30 m .observed as they are supplying only new design now.45-0. How to remove coating with some adjustment in running kiln A: There is much more data here.Brick installed in this region is Ankral Z1 . Once the coating forms it does not gets remove without stopping plant and physically removing it . Momentum measured was 2160-2200 % m/s . Primary air pressure 22002300 mmwg . Kindly suggest how we can improve secondary air temperature. A: I would need to know what the 600 refers to? The kiln drive motor kW or amps? Also what is the normal operating range? • Back to Top Q: Heavy coating in burning zone 19 mtr to 30 mtr from kiln outlet . Liquid % 27.95 % Alumina Modulus 1.We fire pet coke in Kiln burner and South Africa coal in calciner . • Back to Top Q: cement temprature is high 135 maximum what effect in cement.22 to 1. There seems nothing to be concerned about with the kiln feed chemistry. Oxygen at kiln inlet minimum 3. That cooling should be provided by ambient air sweeping the mill but is also likely to require water injection dependent on the dimension of the mill. The reason is inadequate cooling in the mill. A: My suggestion would be to try reducing the flow of air delivered by the CFG fans.7-27.25 .0 % . • Back to Top Q: sir my kiln feed takn 420 tph but kiln load increase 600 what reason & give me controling method . Duo flex burner setting Axial 100 % . Degree of calcination remains 96-97 % Pet coke resude below 2 % . I do not understand the units for the measured momentum of the primary air? I would want to calculate the momentum in Newtons so would need to mass of both components of the primary air in kg/s and the velocity in m/s. SO3 in clinker is 0. NOx at kiln inlet 1000-1100 ppm . A: The circuit samples for a closed circuit ball mill would be taken to determine the recirculating load and the efficiency of the separator. Ours is FLS kiln SLC type 8000 tpd 4. gie me reason A: At this temperature the gypsum in the cement will be fully dehydrated to anhydraite and there is likely to be coating of the grinding media and loss of grinding efficiency in the mill. I would also be intersted in the hot meal SO3 content and to know whether the kiln is dusty with dust recirculating from cooler to kiln? • Back to Top .50 % . Samples would be taken from the chambers along the axis of the grinding path of the mill to determine the progresion of fineness along the grinding path. • Back to Top Q: give me reason circuit sample & chamber sample collect to mill. but that might just be a calibration issue? How is that measured? NOx and oxygen at kiln inlet seem OK. Burning Zone temp 1300-1350 deg cent . Radial 50 % . clinker SO3 or petcoke fineness. Thank you.

my suspicion would be that heavy coating over such an extended length of the kiln might be caused by dust recirculation from the cooler and that dust being carried back into the kiln with the combustion product gases from the main burner..in my opinion. Over past several days we have had climbing amps close to kick off of 545. at first kiln feed and speed were 275tph . • Back to Top Q: My Dear :some time Free-lime&L. In either case reduced fuel and increased feed sounds to be a better strategy than increasing fuel..if we want to decrease shell temp in this zone by changing on . • Back to Top Q: Grinding without water spray In Raw Mill Grinding without water spray ? A: Some raw mills do operate without water sprays.Q: Heavy coating in burning zone 19 mtr to 30 mtr from kiln outlet A: Presumably this heavy coating is causing you an operational problem? Without more information it is impossible to make a diagnosis.3rpm (4 rpm to 3.kiln shell temperature in 25m(from kiln outlet)is high(415 deg. • Back to Top Q: kiln drive amps. A: The cause must be an increase in the content of liquid phase in the kiln.. However. load our average load on on drive is 350 amps at top and 310sh bottom.what the reason? A: It could be due to variation in the temperature regime in the kiln or variation in the chemistry. complete opposite should be done.. • Back to Top Q: kiln shell temperature dear sir...7M and 54M long.lower fuel and add feed.wt both increase or decrease. That might arise from a change in the kiln feed chemistry or the temperature in the kiln becoming hotter. Increasing fuel is likely to make the situation worse.we wanted to do a change to decrease shell temp in 25 m and we decided to decrease kiln speed 0.we do not have a camera but by looking into load it appears lifting very high (sticky).centigrade)and shell cooling fan in this zone is on.I have observed frequently that when the kiln feed residue is low ie around 7% the clinker fcao rise to above 4% and bulk density high as 1450 g/l A: The first question is why does the kiln feed residue reduce to around 7%? Is this because there has been segregation of the kiln feed and the lime rich fines are being delivered to the kiln? In that case an increase in clinker free lime would be expected as the lime saturation might be so high that the clinker cannot be fully combined. Perhaps the kiln operators increase fuel supply to try to combine the uncombinable feed and hence the clinker density rises due to overburning..7)after 1day we did not get a good result and shell temp did not change.burner type is duoflex and fuel is natural gas and liquid phase was 26-27%.it has been suggested too add fuel. • Back to Top Q: our kiln is of diameter 3.4 rpm.. Your question is not clear. mineralogy or granulometry of the kiln feed.

we know the first stage of clinker cooling is done in the cooling zone inside the kiln.8.If kiln is not running properly with LSF=101-102 % .e.How to defective by visual or by touching the cement sample or any other method to defected cement.Pl refer solution for this 5.if we have an increae in calcite>125 micron from 6% to 10%.1 to the residue of coarse calcite on a 125 micron sieve to estimate the residual free lime after burning at 1400C.So3= 0.4% free lime then there shouldn ´t be any effect on the kiln thermal energy consumption. i. clinker free lime content? I don´t know any formula that would alllow this to be calculated. 2.Difference between Compressive Strength & Setting Time of Cement.how much increase in kcal/kg.3-2.what should we do? A: The only thing you can do is adjust the position of the main burner of the kiln.85 %.we want to know approximately the effect of calcite >125 micron on kcal/kg.1 % to MgO=1.burner position or flame shape. So if you can tolerate +0. what should we do?what about another good options? A: You should make small adjustments to the swirl air setting of the burner to try to shorten the flame and cause coating to form in this region. These limits vary from 4 to 6% in different parts of the world.0 % in Clinker & Residue 212 Mic =3. this can only be done cautiously and is not guaranteed to improve the situation.shall we go to reduce Residue . • Back to Top Q: coarse calcite in kiln feed dear sir. Unfortunately this can only be a carefully controlled trial and error process.clinker. Good luck! • Back to Top Q: What is the effects if mgo is increase in cement ? A: The MgO content in cement is limited in international specifications for cement. 7.1. My Email ID is . If your cement MgO content increases but remains below the specified value in your national standard then you should not expect any adverse effect on cement hydraulic performance. it is possible then pl explain 6. • Back to Top Q: Cement Process & Quality Control 1.we getting high Blaine with high residue in Closed circuit Cement Mill through 45 Mic.5 to 5 % in Kiln Feed.Clinker & Raw Material used for manufacturing of Cement. However. • Back to Top Q: clinker cooling rate dear sir.what is significance of residue through 90 & 212 in raw mill & also for Cement Mill through 45 micron.What is Pyroprocessing in Cement Plant 3.65-0.clinker will we have? A: Presumably you mean for the same degree of combination.What is Rosin Rammler curve & Particle Size Distribution & difference between them. It will be difficult to associate this with changes in clinker quality unles you analyse the clinker microscopically or by XRD.What is Mineralogy & Mineralogy of Cement.Define :Blaine & Residue .difference between Particle Size Distribution & Residue 8. 4. The FL Smidth burnabilty formula applies a coefficient of +0.if we want to increase cooling process in this zone to improve clinker quality. 9.Alkalis=0.

7 to 5 on 200 micron. Analysis of the material at the back end shows very high alakali(around 20%).75*Mgo in numerator. • Back to Top Q: Can low SO3 and Low Alkali lead to cyclone blockage? Our kiln is 4-stage precalciner FLS kiln. Mgo=2. Setting time is the time before a mix of wet mortar or concrete stiffens and can no longer be worked into a mould.82. Residue is the amount retained on a 45 micron sieve.18*Al203+0. Residue on 20 and 212 micron sieve allows the Rosin Rammler particle size distribution to be estimated. There was also increase in SR from 2.5% on 100micron and 2. Al2o3=3. Blaine is the surface area of the cement in cm2/g.8*sio2+1. During our shut down.2%.000) The kiln stopped thereafter.3%.5 to 5% on 212 mmicron sieve is too high.com A: Mineralogy is the mineral content rather than the chemical content. Production are attributing the coatings to low SO3. C3A. That allows the residue at any sieve size to be predicted. • Back to Top Q: LSF FORMULA Dear sir. You can't detect cement defects visually or by touching. You need to grind finer.65*Fe2o3)is it right?or they should add 0. You must have a lot of superfine particles to balance the coarse particles and still give a high Blaine.65 and residue of 13. The coarser. silica fraction stays in the silo and only comes out when you reduce the silo level. so quartz. Pyroprocessing is converting the kiln feed raw mix into clinker by processing in the cement kiln.23% .(The capaciity of the silo is 10. Residue from 14 to 17% on 100micron and 2. Fe203=2.8% on 200micron into our CF silo to 55% level. Residue of 3.90%. I am surprised that you have this build-up with such low alkali and sulphate in the clinker. A: Normally for kiln feed LSF the MgO is not included. we discovered some thick coatings on the preheaters and also some at the feed inlet that could have lead to cyclone blockage if the kiln has not been stopped. It is possibe to have high Blaine and high residue. We could not feed the kiln because of this. C3S.chauhan@ambujacement. However. Average SO3 is low at about 0. Rosin Rammler particle size distribution can be calculated from the residues at two different sieve sizes.42 to 2.1% and total Alkai is also low at about 0. C4AF alkali sulphate minerals for clinker.sio2=12. if we want to announce kiln feed LSF with above analysis what should we say about LSF? LSF=102(without Mgo)or LSF=105(with considering Mgo). but unusual.some plants do not consider Mgo in calculation of LSF and they use the formula LSF=100*cao/ (2. • Back to Top Q: Normal LSF into homo silo.kiln feed is: Cao=42. . low SO3 be the reason? A: Production are right that alkalis and SO3 should be in stoichiometric balance if possible. You need low residues to fully combine the clinker. What do yo think is responsible for this change in the chemistry? A: It is a common problem of segregation in the silo. Can the low alkali. very low LSF from homo silo outlet We milled LSF average of 95%. C2S. SR of 2.37%. limestone for raw materials. When we were recirculating the feed in preparation for kiln start-up.ravik. the LSF of the samples from the ex-silo started decreasing from 96% until it got to 76% and remain constant.7% . Compressive strength is the force required to break a mortar or concrete after a fixed time of curing.

These are the most likely causes of your coarse clinker.why do we have such coarse clinker and what is the effective factors on clinker size ? A: You have a relatively high liquid content in the clinker at the burning zone temperature and a coarse residue on a 200 micron sieve.3-2. A: The top stage cyclone efficiency can be estimated by weighing of the dust loss from the kiln when the raw mill is not running. The higher the residue the coarser is the powder. For the lower stage cyclones you have to rely on measurement of the loss on ignition of the material in each cylone stage. Residue is the amount of the powder retained on a sieve of a particular mesh size. High SO3 content in hot meal. (ii) reduce the fineness of the product. Varying MgO content.5. These are all possibilities.clinker coming out of kiln is coarse(size 100-150 mm)and we have problem in cooling process in SF-COOLER. • Back to Top Q: clinker size dear sir. either it is calciner top or kiln inlet A: Chips of tyres would be better entered into the calciner.2-2.Mgo=2. How much SO3 is there in clinker? Adding some SO3 should reduce the clinker particle size. • Back to Top Q: What is Residue and blaines? what is the difference between them? A: They are both used as a measurement of the fineness of powders.SM=2.5. Blaine is the surface area of the grains of the powder in cm2/g.3-1.kiln feed parameters are as follow: LP=26-27%. Alternatively doping of the dust flow can be used. • Back to Top Q: CYCLONES EFFICIENCY ? what is the method to calculate the efficiency of cyclones specially top cyclone.LSF=9396. Variable residue of coal used to fire the kiln. • Back to Top Q: TYRE DRIVE FUELS? which is best place in pre-heater where tyre pieces entered. The higher the Blaine the finer is the powder.residue on 90 mic=14-16%.8%. • Back to Top Q: Which are the way to increae optput of raw mill (vertical) ? A: There are lots of ways: (i) increase the grinding pressure.• Back to Top Q: Reasons for ball formation in kiln? A: There can be many reasons.AM=1. (iii) .residue on 210 mic=3-4% 65% of total fuel in calciner and 35% in main burner(ILC-4STAGE) most of time .

5 m/sec.we want to know if we continue to run the kiln with this condition(lower meal pipe clogged).materials go into calciner by 2 meal pipes. (iv) ventilation of the separator with ambient air and control of that. Velocity above the roller is 3. The feed diverted down the lower pipe is intended to absorb the thermal energy in the gases rising out of the kiln. A: The temperature distribution in the calciner will have been changed. (iv) installation of a cement cooler on the fines from the separator.diameter of each pipe is equal with the diameter of inlet pipe to dividing gate. Velocity at outlet of atox mill is 17 m/sec against the standard 10 m/sec.cl has been increased about 5% but outlet gas temperatures from cyclones did not increased(even decreased about 10-20 deg).we have calciner type ILC-4 Stage. two pipes are separated by a dividing gate.we want to know the reason. (v) installation of a cooler on the rejects from the separator. • Back to Top Q: How to increase the atox mill (Vertical roller mill) output for coal grinding? We have the atox mill 27. If we increase the value upto standard we can increase the TPH or not? Dam ring height is 115 mm and nozzle ring gap is 45 mm.when we missed one of the two inlet meal pipe that goes into calciner(lower pipe connected to calciner reduction zone clogged). We maintaining atox DP 390 mmwg but as per calculation we can maintain DP upto 520 mmwg. We have inclined nozzle at 45 deg. • Back to Top Q: sir. • Back to Top Q: calciner firing dear sir.and we had to pass materials from only upper meal pipe and continue kiln running. A: Certainly you need the gas velocity through the mill body to lift the fines to and through the separator. If there is no adverse affect on the precalciner exit CO or temperature then probably you can continue to run like this with no bad consequence. how to reduce opc cement temperature ? A: There are lots of ways: (i) ventilation of the mill by ambient air and control of that.fuel consumption in calciner and then kcal/kg. This is not being so absorbed before the feed and fuel enters the calciner. But the velocity at the mill outlet is high? How can the velocity be low above the rollers and high at the mill outlet? What is the temperature profile across the mill? • Back to Top .one of two goes into lower part of calciner near to gas burners (15-30% of materials)and the other meal pipe goes into upper part of calciner near to tertiary air duct.from cyclone 3 . (ii) water injection into the mill. & nozzle velocity comes around 95 m/sec. (iii) clinker stock control to not feed the mill with hot clinker. etc.what will be the bad consequence? A: You will change the temperature profile in the calciner.96 m/sec against design 4. • Back to Top Q: meal pipe clogging dear sir.5 for coal grinding and output was 56 TPH but it was designed for 72 TPH.lower meal pipe was clogged 1 week ago. since 10 days ago.reduce the particle size distribution of the raw feed.

How do one start to investigate/analyse the phenomena. • Back to Top Q: Andesite Hi my friends What Andesite is?and how affects on kiln feed and burning condition? Best regards A: Andesite is an extrusive.An answer to a previous question relates the problem to syngenite formation during alkali cycles in the kiln. Presently Stone is crushed and screened before adding. • Back to Top . Syngenite would imply that the K2O is in excess of the SO3. what is the reason behind this & how we can control this? What is the reason behind the high Kiln torque? A: There can be lots of reasons for this. Presently we are adding 15% of Silicious stone (CaO 25-30%) in Cement Mill along with Clinker. Is there any possibility to increase it further as present comp. It is necessary to check the composition for other oxides to ensure there are no adverse affects. • Back to Top Q: Syngenite formation in portland cement We experience hardening/lump formation in bagged cement within 3 weeks. igneous rock. I suspect the second is your problem. and (ii) the "stickiness" of the material in the kiln and its tendency to "climb" up the kiln wall with the rotation of the kiln. Process) ? We have the problem in kiln.What should one look-out for? A: You need to calculate the alkali to sulphate molar ratio of your clinker. only estimate it. This can change suddenly with varying temperature in the kiln or chemistry of the kiln feed. As the torque rises and falls suddenly it is most likely process related. electrical. It would not normally be a cement raw material but the silica would combine with lime in the same was as clay minerals or silica sand. • Back to Top Q: Stone adding at finish grinding Sir. the torque of kiln suddenely rises and then drop down suddenely. It can have silica content from 40 to 70%. There are two process related factors that affect the kiln torque: (i) the amount of material in the kiln.Q: How many reason behind the increasing in kiln torque (including mechanical. strength is much above than minimum requirement. We found strength (3d. The torque is the force that must be applied by the kiln drive motor to turn the kiln. Regards A: That sounds as if it is working very well. As the amount of liquid phase varies with temperature the "stickiness" of the material varies.7d &28d) is very satisfactory and setting time of cement is maintained as require. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir! How can we calculate the dust load at kiln inlet? A: You cannot calculate this.

If you push the burner into the kiln then you will dramatically increase the length of the flame and the burning zone. • Back to Top Q: Low C3S clinker production Hi. We have recently changed our Kiln Feed LSF to make it higher in order to increase the C3S. The heat consumption is very high for our 5 stage pre heater. We are struggling with low C3S(50-54) clinker while the free lime is relative (1. coating formation or dust recirculation from the cooler. 2-push the burner forward(10-20 cm) to make flame far from the section. It is not uncommon to have shell temperatures this high in the burning zone of a cement kiln lined with magnesia spinel refractories. which option is correct to do. Is it still 20 %.we want to know for decreasing kiln shell temp in this section and brick protection . 3-pull the burner backward to extent burning zone toward kiln outlet and then make coating in this section. We have decreased the fine coal residue to below 10% on a 90 micron.kiln shell temperature in the section 2-3 m from kiln outlet is high(370-390 degree centigrade) and brick type is magnesite-spinel. but it is just worsening the situation.Q: By Pass System Dear sir.please help us quickly. • Back to Top Q: hot spot on kiln shell dear sir.centigrade.3-2%). 1-kiln shell cooling fan installation . A: I need to know how you are determining the C3S content of the clinker.we have duoflex burner and our fuel is natural gas . If you do do this then you must do it cautiously. Is it by the Bogue calculation or by microscopy or X-ray diffraction? • Back to Top Q: burner movement . A: 370 to 390 degrees C is high. During running our contractor close the 5 chamber of bypass bag house and keep the suction of fan same as before. if you have another idea. Our plant is designed with 20% bypass system. if we increase the coal usage more we are struggling with sulphur volitilization in the lower stages which leads to cyclone blockages.in the first 6 meter of kiln length(0-6 m)we use magnesit-spinel brick. • Back to Top Q: kiln shell temperature dear sir. A: I need more information.what should we do to decrease this temperature?are we allowable to install cooling fan in this zone(cooling zone) ?can we push the burner forward to make flame far from the hot point? A: You can apply a shell cooling fan.sometimes in the near of outlet zone(2-4 m). Can you from the discussion maybe offer some help. but not dramatically so.we are in urgent condition and I hope to receive your answer as soon as possible.kiln shell temperature goes up to 380-400 deg. That might have an adverse affect on clinker quality. You mean the speed of the fan was kept the same with 5 chambers of the bypass baghouse closed? You need to ask your contractor why they did that.

(feel free to dissect this area into Preheater/kiln/cooler). • Cement Milling. See the tabs on this website. • Alternative fuels. • Coal Milling. backwards or forwards.dear sir. The position and length of the the burning zone will be significantly changed by any burner position adjustments. It can be done.is it right that burner position adjustment(pushing forward or backward)should be done only during kiln stop and when the kiln is running we are not allowable to move the burner inside or outside because it may damage to refractories and bricks. Can raw meal fineness(212) influenced formation of snowman? A: Only indirectly. • Back to Top Q: For Preheater Immersion tube Dear Sir. • Bulk Loading. increase the recirculating material in the preheater and the preheater exit gas temperature and may significantly increase the thermal energy consumption of the kiln. • Back to Top Q: OEE% bench mark figures Can you advise me of the OEE% bench mark figures you might use for the following areas over a 12 month period: • Quarrying.Our ID fan max pressure is 750 mm wc but we are able to get only around 400mm wc my question is how I can increase the pressure drop in the system I am thinking that suppose if I reduced the length of dip tube in lower stage kindly suggest at what extent the pressure drop will improve else have any adverse effect in the system. but they are rare components on cement raw materials or fuels. I do not understand your strategy. but this must be done very cautiously. The position of the burner can be adjusted while the kiln is running. • Back to Top Q: what is the essential raw materials to produce white cement A: Raw materials which give the required CaO. • Bagging & Palletising. Thanks. A: Why do you want to increase the pressure drop? I understand that the fan can handle a greater pressure drop but why try to increase the restriction to drawing exhaust gases out of the preheater? Shortening the dip tubes will reduce the pressure drop. • Clinker Production. A: No. SiO2 and Al2O3 content with the minimum of Fe2O3 contamination. but only in gradual steps observing the effects of each small change for a number of hours before making the next one. A: The way to obtain access to such benchmarking key performance indicators is to subscribe to Whitehopleman's benchmarking service. • Back to Top . No other first row transition elements can be tolerated. • Raw Milling. This will not be the primary cause of snowman formation in a cement kiln clinker cooler. Keith. We have 5 stage suspension preheater system with all lower stage cyclones are old conventional cyclones(High pressure drop) & top new stages are low pressure drop cyclones. • Back to Top Q: Finess of raw meal influenced snow man Hi Dr Clarck.

Fan curves are specific to fans.Q: what are techniques used for removing heat in cement grinding? how to prevent cement setting in grinding process of cement? A: The temperature of cement grinding mills is controlled by a combination of ventilation of the mill by ambient air and water injection into the mill to achieve evaporative cooling. There should be no tendency for the cement to set in the grinding process of cement. It must be measured. The density of preheater exit gases depends on their composition in addition to their temperature.SM. I suggest that the enrol of the CemNet Cement Manufacturing Technology course. among other factors. SM and AM targets are variables within those simultaneous equations. not to kilns of a given daily capacity. • Back to Top Q: how to calculate the dust content in preheater out let gases? what are the methods and equipments use to calculate the dust content in preheater outlet gases i. the temperature of the exhaust gases and the pressure drop which must be overcome by the fan. You need to develop a mass and energy balance around the gas conditioning tower. You can divert the dust out of the system and weigh it or you can use tracer and dilution techniques. SM and AM targets involves setting up and solving 4 simultaneous equations. • Back to Top Q: water reqiurement in conditioning tower ? how to calculate the water and the amount of steam produce in conditioning tower ? A: That depends on the mass and temperature of the gases entering the gas conditioning tower and the temperature required of the gas exiting the gas conditioning tower. • Back to Top . The requirement for water injection depends on the dimensions of the mill and the temperature of the clinker ground in the mill. and AM for the mix design? A: Proportioning 4 raw material components to LSF. The LSF. • Back to Top Q: how to calculate the capacity of id and vent fan interms of Nm3/hr what are fan curves of 2500tpd capacity of clinker A: This requires stoichiometric calculations based on the composition and quantity of fuel used to fire the kiln plus the carbonate content of the kiln feed.e outlet of cyclone 1A and 1B kindly send me details about the calculation of dust content and as well as density of preheater out let gases at operating conditions 350deg C and -60mbar A: This cannot be calculated. • Back to Top Q: Raw mix design of 4 components How 4 components raw mix design are calculated and what are the LSF. the excess air in the exhaust gases.

its changes and trend is very important to control the kiln. what is the reson preheater coating high alkalie. As the resistance to turning the kiln rises so the force required rises and the kiln drive motor will draw more kW.is it necessary for operators to have kiln torque as a different parameter than KW or they mean the same?what is advantages of torque rather than KW to be monitored and controlled by operators? how should we calculate kiln torque?is it KW/rpm? A: It is not necessary to have kiln torque in addition to kiln drive motor kW. • Back to Top Q: how to calculate gypsum requirement / feed rate n cement mill? how to calculate gypsum requirement / feed rate n cement mill? A: This cannot be caalculated.so3 any other A: The alkali to sulphate stoichiomentric ratio as well as the levels of alkalis and sulphates can the cause of coating in the preheater of a cement kiln. They are essentially the same thing.with having kw. kW drawn by the drive motor and the rotational speed of the kiln. Torque is the force required to turn the kiln at a given rotational speed. It is dependent on the C3A content of the clinker and the hydraulic reactivity of that C3A. You need to conduct optimum sulphate trials to determine the optimum gypsum addition rate to cement.for kiln operators in CCR. Ideally the alkalis and sulphates in the hot meal should be in stoichiometric balance. There will be a relationship between the torque.sometimes in the point of 40 m from kiln outlet (with brick 70% alumina)kiln shell temperature is between 340-380 deg. • Back to Top .cel(because of low thickness of brick in this point)and we want to improve coating formation on the high alumina brick by using shell cooling fan in this zone and protecting kiln shell and then increasing brick life time. As the preheater cyclone collection efficiency rises so the dust loading to the preheater induced draft fan will fall. is this a good decision or not?what is disadvantages? A: Yes. this sounds like a good strategy. • Back to Top Q: kiln shell cooling by cooling fan dear sir. The chloride content of the hot meal must also be taken into account. Application of a shell cooling fan should help protect the kiln shell and promote coating formation. • Back to Top Q: sir. • Back to Top Q: diffrence between kiln motor (KW)and kiln torque dear sir. kiln KW is monitored.Q: relation between dedusting cyclone efficiency & dust loading to kiln exhaust fan A: There is an inverse relationship between preheater cyclone collection efficiency and dust loading to the preheater induced draft fan.

LSF or any other A: The reason for snowman formation in a clinker grate cooler is the high temperature of the secondary combustion air drawn from the cooler into the kiln and some liquid phases remaining in the clinker that falls from the kiln into the cooler. is it possible that CaO % 57 in High grade lime stone (Its LSF aprox 1050) A: The maximum CaO content in pure limestone (calcium carbonate) is 56%. what is reason of high residue of kilnfeed compparion of rawmeal residue ? Our rawmeal residue is 5. • Back to Top Q: Sir. • Back to Top Q: how will differenciate in total moiture and inherent moisture of coal what is difference in surface and total moisture. This is sophisticated technology and you need to be able to monitor the real mineralogy of the clinker produced. and/or (ii) the sampling of the raw meal and the kiln feed. • Back to Top Q: COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH dear sir.0 and kilnfeed residue is 10 to 12 A: This can only be explained with reference to two possibilities: (i) the handling of the dust lost from the preheater. .what are another ways to increase considerably initial compressive of cement? A: The best way would be to mineralise the clinker ccombination by the addition of calcium fluoride and calcium sulphate to the kiln feed.0 to 6. Inherent water is not lost to any great extent in cooal grinding.is it possible that some CaO also present in any ( CaCO3)lime stone deposition so we can get 57% CaO in Lime stone analysis A: It is possible that some CaO be present in combination with other species than carbonate in a raw material and therefore for the CaO content to be greater than 56%. • Back to Top Q: Sweetner grade (High Grade ) Lime stone Sir. A: The way to differentiate between sruface and inherent water in coal is to measure and plot the coal dewatering curve.what is the reson cooller snowman formed due to heigh sio2.mgo. • Back to Top Q: Sweetner grade lime stone (High grade limestone ) Dear sir.we need to increase initial compressive of cement(2 days compressive) and we can do that by increasing LSF or blain and these changes are costly[more fuel consumption in kiln(LSF) or less production capacity in cement mill(BLAIN)]. That allows more C3S to be combined in the clinker without the attendant increase in kiln thermal energy consumption. Pls tell me. did inherent moisture get lost during coal grinding.Q: sir.CaO% in lime stone now I want to know that .. in my previous question I asked you max. This would no longer be a pure limestone.

1. What's the meaning of Water of "5.. Petcoke will be lower and coal lower still in terms of MJ/kg. Bag house and other equipments in cement industries? A: Differential pressure is the difference between the pressure at the inlet and outlet of an item of equipment.1. What's the purpose the us government revised the specification like this? For the reduction of CO2 emission? I really thank you for your help up to now! Best Regards.1.5 ? Does it mean grinding aids? 5.cellcious and stop in 300 deg.1 Portland Cement Clinker 5.1 Water or Calcium Sulfate" ? 2. • Back to Top Q: The ingredients in ASTM C150. I presume the reference to water or calcium sulphate is saying that the calcium sulphate addition might be gypsum with 2 molecules of water of crystallisation.1. etc. You must then observe the effect and widen the range if necessary. I have some questions on ASTM C150/C150m-11 Standard Specification for Portland Cement revised in April 1. It is related to the flow of gas through the equipment and the resistance to that flow presented by the equipment. The short answer is I don't knnow exactly. What's the maximum addition rate ? Not more than 10 %? 4. There are several ingredients specified in Item 5.4 ? 3. Natural gas calorific value would be in heat content per unit volume rather than weight therefore not directly comparable.. I don't know the motives of ASTM or the US Government but this seems to be a move towards EN197 CEM I cements.3 Limestone (not more than 5 %) 5. What's the meaning of 5.• Back to Top Q: kiln shell cooling fan dear sir.3 and 5.4 Inorganic Processing additions (not more than 5 %) 5.what will be the problem on refractory lining? A: That sounds a good range to start with. Heavy fuel oil and LPFO would have similar calorific values. I think inorganic processing additions are pfa. • Back to Top Q: Differential pressures 1.1.2 Water or Calcium Sulfate 5. what is differential pressure and can we control it? 2. gbs. I do not know what AGO is. • Back to Top Q: calorific value Among the following fuels which one has d higher calorific value.1.320 deg. so the same as limestone. Mills b. including the gypsum.1. A: Dear Obong. 2011. I think organic processing additions are grinding aids and organic quality improvers. Ingredient of the specification. 5. 1 coal 2 petcoke 3 natural gas 4 AGO 5 LPFO 6 HFO and others A: Calorific value is the heat content per unit weight or volume of the fuel. As far as I I am aware the total additions are 10%. We monitor the differential pressure to monitor the flow and the .. What's the meaning of Processing additions ? What's the difference between 5.1.1. why do we measures differential pressures for a.1. Dear Dr.5 Organic Processing additions (not more than 1 %) 5. Clark.we want to know in what temperature of kiln shell in burning zone we should start shell cooling fan to help coating formation?if we want to start shell cooling fan in temp.6 Air-entraining addition Would you be more specific about the following aspects? 1.

The rotation of the seperator is between 43 to 170 and it work always in 115-120 RPM and the blaine is 2900-3100 in opc. If we substitute natural gypsum with synthetic gypsum and the only difference is the pH of the synthetic gypsum is very low (between 1 . • Back to Top Q: How much quantity of wtwe required to reduced temp.The efficiency of this seperator is good or Bad? 2. What is concrete workability and what is the best way to measure workability in laboratory beside slump test? A: Workability is a combination of the ease of placing concrete in a mould and the consistency of the concrete. • Back to Top Q: Cement mill seperator Hi sir We have a closed circuit cement mill and documentary of the seperator is SKS-Z3500/290/4*3200 .Bahrampour A: 65-70% separator efficiency is mid-range. Besides slump you can get some indication of workability from the flow of standard mortar measured on a flow table and the water demand of the mortar to achieve a certain flow. You need to develop a mass and energy balance for the gas conditioning tower. The relationship will not be perfect as other factors such as the cement mill configuration and clinker grindability will affect both Blaine and residue. A: That depends on the mass of the exhaust gas whose temperature you want to reduce. The efficiency of the seperator is between 65-70% . the tendency of the concrete to segregate into its constituent fractions.(over screen 90mic) AT first: 1.change in the resistance to that flow. This is one of the most difficult quality parameters to control requiring that the gypsum addition to cement be matched to the amount and reactivity of the C3A in clinker and the temperature regime in the cement be closely controlled. neither good not bad.e by blinding of baghouse are build-up of material within the equipment.e. The seperator included of dynamic and static separator The static seperator have 100 blades (50blades in up and50blade in down). from 320 oC to 250 oC in GCT. i. will it affect the quality of cement produced? . • Back to Top Q: What is the difference between fineness in blaine and in residue? Can we correlate both together? A: You can expect there to be an inverse relationship between Blaine and residue. That is why both should ideally be monitored and controlled.How I can improve the efficiency By the change of the distance between the blades in statitcs seperator?(in now The distance is 8-16 cm) Best regard M. • Back to Top Q: Dr.3). It is related with the quantity and the reactivity of the C3A component of the clinker and the amount and mineral form of the calcium sulphate in the cement. • Back to Top Q: Dr. How are you assessing separator efficiency? You will have to conduct trials with different setting of the separator blades and remeasuring the separator efficiency. As Blaine rises so residue at a particular sieve size should fall. i.

Can you be more specific about your comments on mechanical complexities? You said the rollers.i. Considerations of heat conduction. This must absolutely be avoided. riding tyre and the kiln inlet housing would be for the wider diameter. high so l. does the load of kiln drive system will be lowered under the same production rate? Thank you.can we still used the clinker for cement grinding?If can.Bahrampour A: I do not know of any universal method to calculate the temperature differential between the kiln shell and riding tyre. The tyre heats up much more slowly than the shell due to its greater mass and being reliant on heat transfer from the shell. • Back to Top Q: Kiln shell and tyre temperature Hi sir How we can calculate alowed degree diffrential between the tyre and kilnshell?and how much it should be? Best regard M. or the extent of the wider diameter section of the kiln. Dear Dr. The ambient conditions in terms of temperature and ventilation. The acidity of the gypsum will react with that calcium hydroxide. • Back to Top Q: Concerning my last question on the reduction of kiln diameter. I would expect this synthetic gypsum to affect the quality of the cement produced. A: I don't know how many support roller stations there are. convection and radiation. in which case mechanical changes would be needed if you go to a narrower diameter. result high or low A: If the temperature in the preheater bottom stage or precalciner is higher then the degree of calcination of the feed would be expected to be higher. The difference between the temperatures will also be a function of the time of the measurement during the kiln operating campaign. What does it mean? And if we reduce the diameter of kiln feed end. This calculation would involve many considerations such as the design of the tyre. A: Yes. The clearance between . I don't expect there would be any increased load on the kiln drive motor. The hydration of cement produces calcium hydroxide as one of the reaction products.Purity content is almost similar for both. • Back to Top Q: If we stored clinker at open stockpile where it was vulnerable to prehydration due to rain and humidity. This is the danger time when the differential expansion of the shell and tyre might case a constriction of the shell within the tyre. tyre pads and shell. During the initial warm-up of the kiln the differential will be the greatest. Clark.o. You should control the fineness of grinding to a residue target rather than a surface area target. therefore the loss on ignition would be expected to be lower. • Back to Top Q: Sir 5 th cyclone sample temp. what is the best control parameter to monitor its addition so that cement quality is maintain A: You can still use the clinker with a controlled addition rate to the cement mill. My thoughts were that one of the support rollers and riding tyres would be for the wider section. Perhaps 10 or 15% maximum.

All I assumed is the Higher the Blaine's or Fineness the likelihood of the drop in production ( Is this theory correct?).4)m from kiln feed end is 5. A: I would not expect any negative process impact. There were no changes with kiln shell.shell and tyre must be closely monitored during warm-up. We're planning to replace the kiln shell of the first(5.. There will be mechanical complexities: the rollers and riding tyre will be for the wider diameter. The capacity was 3300 t/d and the length of the kiln shell was 61 meters. What techniques can be applied to Increase the fineness without corresponding reduction in Production Output?. the second section of (9.8 m.. If necessary sullpementary heating should be applied to the tyre.0m diameter) and the second conical section because of some damages(deformation).8 m of diameter. The first section of (0 .0)m is 4. if the gap begins to close then the rate of heating of the kiln or the tyre must be brought into line. • Back to Top Q: Concerning the kiln shell diameter. At this time. how about replacing those sections with same diameter(4. Dear Dr. • Back to Top Q: Relationship between Fineness (Blaines) and TPH Sir. the third section of (12. The kiln was Polysius AT type with 5 staged-preheater and a planetary cooler. The best way to increase fineness with no loss of output would be use grinding aids. To achieve greater fineness you need to complete more grinding work per unit of product so the output of the mill goes down. there is an inverse relationship between increasing Blaine and the mill throughput in tonnes per hour.12.4 . The volume loading of the kiln would remain within the normal range for SLC kilns with IKN cooler. • Back to Top . The amount of grinding work and the throughput rate of the mill are related to the change in fineness that must be achieved.0 to 4.4 -61.4)m is conical type and the diameter reduced from 5. If the lime saturation of the clinker is greater than 100% then there will be free CaO irrespective of the temperature in the kiln. If you have a finer feed to the mill then less grinding work is required. Also if there are coarse particles of calcium carbonate or silica in the kiln feed. Concerning the diameter of kiln shell. We increased the kiln capacity to 4300t/d in 1999 by several modifications of a new SLC calciner(MFC) and a IKN clinker cooler. I want to ask precisely if there is any formula to Calculate the relationship between fineness and Ton per hour of Cement production. There could also be other more complex reasons such as reducing conditions due to the kiln main burner. Clark Is it possible to have high temperatures in the kiln and also high f. I will appreciate your prompt response to these questions. • Back to Top Q: high free CaO Dear Dr.Clark. A: Yes.9. Thank you . The kiln inlet housing and seal will be for the wider diameter. but the most likely is too high lime saturation.8m) as the third section ? Can you expect any negative impact when we do that ? Best Regards. If these are already being used then some precrushing of the feed to the mill in a hammer mill or roll press.CaO? A: Yes.0m of diameter.

CaO.23 LSF SM AM C3S C2S C3A C4AF 97.34 2. You do not want the ascending gases to rise through the feed chute so you need some sort of air seal. At higher Blaine (4000 cm2/g) I expect that the strength from a closed circuit mill would be higher.05 2.35 1.. Whether the strength will be higher or lower depends on the Blaine. The alkalis are not high.14 Sieve Blain F. . Fe3O3.38 55. from intensity of kiln feed? Best regard A: I presume you mean the intensify of the fluorescent X-radiation from a kiln feed sample in X-ray fluorescense spectrometer.95 2. • Back to Top Q: why the cement stick on the silo wall and the bulk trucks wall why the cement stick on the silo wall and the bulk trucks wall. Better to control the fineness of grinding of the coal to ensure there are no large particles that can cause choking of the coal channel. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir! What are the effects.the dust loss from the preheater) by the kiln feed rate to the preheater.17 11. Read that for further explanation. The problem is most likely delayed hydration of the gypsum in the cement.04 3. • Back to Top Q: how we calculate the efficency of preheater top stages A: The efficiency of the preheater top stage is calculated by dividing (1 . our cement analysis is SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 K2O Na2O 20. if we increase the coal channel area of burner pipe a little to avoid chocking? A: You will change the injection velocity of the coal.92 7.Q: Is a rotary airlock / air seal required before feeding to v-separator? Pls explain.content of the kiln feed is correlated with the X-ray intensity. Al2O3. • Back to Top Q: What is the difference in particle size distribution and strength between product from open circuit grinding (product coming out from mill will straight away drive into silo without go through separator for material separation) and closed circuit grinding A: The particle size distribution will be wider with open circuit grinding than with closed circuit grinding at equivalent Blaine.l 9 2950 1 A: The analysis of your cement is probably irrelevant. This means there will also be less super-fines at the equivalent Blaine.48 0. These are calibrated so that the SiO2. A: A V-separator relies on the feed falling through gases ascending through the separator. At low Blaine (3000 cm2/g) I expect that the strength from an open circuit mill would be as high or even higher as a closed circuit mill. etc.13 0.49 5. The separator has the effect of sending coarse grains back to the mill for regrinding.01 11. • Back to Top Q: Intensity of kiln feed Hi sir How we can get the analyze of material . I will post my article "Hornblower's first command".67 64.

Can quenching process affect the density of the clinker? A: I presume this a white cement kiln? That is where the clinker is likely to be quenched in water..• Back to Top Q: effect of high L. . what do you think is the effect of the high L.I value to concrete strength. The clinker structure is often shattered by the quenching and some prehydration will occur. etc.O. the quality of the bricks installation.5N) have L. free CaO will hydrate quickly and boost the heat of hydration. interruptions in the warming up procedure. the quality of the bricks. It is performance based. the application of fuel and temperature control during the warming up procedure. The EN197 standard makes the composition of the cement irrelevant.I of the cement to be less than 5%. If some % (<2%) of free CaO can help to produce in heat of hydration when cement is used in below 0C ? A: Yes. our limestone cement (Class 42. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir.I of 7. Both these will affect the density of the clinker.5N.O. you are guaranteeing that it will meet 42. i.5N.I cement of concrete Sir. the customer also wants the L.. Could you pls explain me the effect of residue in this problem sir? We are maintaining a residue of 8 to 9% on 90mic. • Back to Top Q: cenent application in sub-zero temp. It is impossible to say without a full analysis of the causes of the failure. or how can we over come this problem sir? Thanks in advance A: White cement kiln feed is difficult to combine due to the lack of iron oxide to form flux in the kiln. In our Rotary Kiln Burning zone bricks got burnt almost 70% in thickness with in a week period of bricks installation. An alternative would be to add a fluxing/mineralising agent such as calcium fluoride. We got one customer in need of cement of class 42. Finer grinding might solve your problem. Therefore it is common practice to grind the kiln feed to a low residue of less than 5% on a 90 micron sieve. that alone would not be sufficient to make the use of the cement assured in sub-zero temperatures. We are facing frequent kiln flushing and dusty kiln condition in white cement plant.5N. the chemistry of the feed. • Back to Top Q: Hi Dr.e. Certainly the quenching can affect the density of the clinker. So we are trying to find the problem.O. A: There will be no effect if your cement complies with class 42.O. However.5%. The higher the 90 micron residue the harder it becomes to combine the clinker.we request you to kindly give your opinion that the reason for failure of bricks A: There could be many reasons: the warming up procedure. • Back to Top Q: Effect of RawMeal residue !! Hello sir.

faisal ejaz A: The main chemical reactions are the calcination of the calcium carbonate and the subsequent combination of the liberated free lime with the acid oxides to form the clinker minerals. There are too many unknowns. Temperature in excess of 850 degrees C is required for the calcination to take place at rapid rate. Therefore you cannot calculate the collection efficiency without considering the dust loss. we divert the raw mill discharge air slide bag filter material to intermediate bin of C. You should be able to estimate the dust loss from the indicated kiln feed rate and the changes in the kiln feed and clinker inventories over time. intermediate bin material on process and quality of clinker? Sir.• Back to Top Q: Dear sir plz tell me how we can control coal mill reject if we use petcoke and low quality coal. • Back to Top Q: What is effect of C.thx faisal ejaz A: I presume you mean the coarse rejects that fall from the table of a vertical roller mill.F. silo. Thax faisal ejaz A: Because the differential pressure across the mill is a function of the gas flow through the mill and the amount of material being lifted through the mill. • Back to Top Q: Dear sir plz tell me main chemical reactions in kiln and also how they took place. • Back to Top Q: How to calculate the preheater top cyclone efficiency without considering dust loss A: Dust loss is fundamentally an inverse function of the top stage cyclone collection efficiency. this cause any effect on the quality of kiln feed. • Back to Top Q: How to calculate the clinker bed height in cooler? A: You cannot readily calculate the clinker bed height in the cooler.thax. These two are also related.F. The only way to control these rejects is by adjustments of the nozzle ring and dam ring height. Over 1400 degrees C with the formation of liquid phase is required for the final combination to form C3S. The differential pressure gives an indication of the loading on the mill. • Back to Top Q: How to calulate flame length? A: There is no simple formula to calculate flame length that I am aware of. We add our ESP and GCT material to the CF silo . • Back to Top Q: Dear sir why we use differential pressure in raw mill.

So the LOI of the kiln feed reduces as the feed passess down the preheater tower and into the kiln as first combined water is lost and then CO2 is lost as calcination takes place. provided that the same procedures are followed all of the time. • Back to Top . usually ammonia based. Due to addition of raw mill bag filter material to the intermediate bin cause any serious effect on quality of kiln feed. Faisal ejaz A: LOI is loss on ignition. This also sometimes referred to as "blue haze". A sample is placed in a furnace at 1000 degrees C and the loss in weight is measured. Sufficient thermal energy must be applied through the main burner to maintain the full combintion of the clinker in the kiln. If not the material can flush through. Occasionally it can be a cloud (or plume) of crystallising salts. Pls help me to understand about flushing and which cases happend it? What is disadvantage of this phenomenton? Thanks much! A: Flushing in a cement kiln is when uncombined material rushes down the kiln into the burning zone and the cooler. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir. Any combined water will be lost and also any CO2 remaining in uncalcined calcium carbonate.intermediate bin. Dear Mr. What is happening with recirculating ESP. • Back to Top Q: Dear sir what is plume and where it works. That depends on the type of burner and the adjustment possibilities. • Back to Top Q: WHAT IS FLUSHING PHENOMENON IN CLINKER KILN. please give me idea about how we reduce the rejection in vertical(atox)coal mill Thanks A: The only adjustments you can make are the height of the dam ring or the length of the raw coal delivery chute into the mill. atmospheric air. In a cement kiln an ash ring would be dealt with by adjustments of the main burner. • Back to Top Q: How to deal with ash ring formation in lime kiln? A: Whitehopleman are specialists in cement rather than lime. This is feasible as process point of view? A: There should be no problem provided that this is done all the time. Most commonly it is a cloud (or plume) or water droplets as the water vapour in the exhaust gases condenses on meeting the cold. • Back to Top Q: Dear Dr clarke what is LOI and how it works thanks. or out of the kiln slightly. The boundaries of the mass balance are the feeders to the raw mill and the clinker discharge from the cooler. GCT and raw mill airslide bag filter dust is irrelevant. A: A plume is a cloud of material appearing as the exhaust gases from the process exit to atmosphere. The coarsest adjustment would be to move the burner in to.

Is it possible to reduce or optimize this scenerio? A: Oxygen enrichment of the combustion air leads to reduction in the volume of nitrogen and also a hotter flame. A: Certainly dust will be entrained into the fine coal. what is the remedy to be adopted in the manufacturing plant A: Many cement companies use cement sacks including a plastic membrane between the layers of paper. The only way is adjust the amount of coal burnt to match the inventory of the coal.Q: Dear sir. clinker cooler fans) A: The dust load in the gas will affect the power drawn by a fan. This can only be reduced by control of the alkali cycle in the cement kiln. • Back to Top Q: Info: Sir. • Back to Top Q: dear sir.The lsf of kiln feed will be greater or less than the raw meal lsf & why? if i m using return dust into silo? A: Because the top stage cyclone of the preheater acts as a separator.inside kiln burners. The volume and pressure for a particular rotational speed should remain constant. Will it affect the air volume or pressure conveyed by a particular forced draft fans (for example. Is it correct to calculate the qty of dust on the basis of C. what is Rhino Horn? Please submit papers in this case A: Rhino horn is the accumulation of clinker dust on top of the main burner of the kiln.Booking the coal as per flow meter reading of fine coal will lead to stock imbalance How dust qty mixed with coal could be worked out.V difference of raw coal & fine coal. as we know the nitrogen in air reduces the temperature in the combustion reaction. • Back to Top Q: If there\'s an increase of dust load (kq/m^3) at a specific air density of certain ambient T & P. Normally the finest particles are preferentially limestone and therefore the LSF of the dust is higher than the raw . That is why the calorific value and ash content of the fine coal should always be used when assessing the energy consumption of the kiln. • Back to Top Q: Info: How to calculat the actual coal consumption for clinker production as during grinding of coal meal dust coming with hot dust from preheater get mixed with fine coal. The coarsest particles pass down the preheater to the kiln. • Back to Top Q: Info: cement is getting lump in bags within two months. The finest particles are not collected and become the dust. Sometimes lumps are formed due to the presence of syngenite in the cement. There is no straight-forward way of measuring the amount of dust in the fine coal as some volatiles will also be lost during drying.

C and we get outlet tempe. how finely the fuel is ground.45 . At the same clinker output the degree of filling and specific loading of the kiln woould increase. You will increase the thermal load on the refractory lining in the burning zone as the cross-sectional area of the kiln will be reduced. • Back to Top Q: Our kilns is 4. we face so many a times coating ring formation problem at 22 to 28 meter .34 . .55. Recarbonation can occur to some extent by long-term storage of the clinker. Normally about 1/3 of the total mill length. 70 deg C. Clinker analysis in general . Of course the clinker output might reduce.09 We use mostly South Africa A grade 100 % in kiln and A Grade B grade coal 40:60 % in calciner . MgO 1.How can we come out of problem ? A: The alumina modulus is low. • Back to Top Q: We have ball mill for coal grinding.We have kiln with diameter 4.degree of filling etc. SO3 0. K2O 0. the settings of the kiln main burner. though we keep liquid in close watch we face heavy ring or coating formation in burning zone . A: It is possible. we maintain the coal mill inlet temperature around 500 deg. As the kiln feed is the combination of the raw mill product and the dust it's LSF is higher than the raw mill product. I want to change the bricks thickness for whole kiln to 250MM.5 .mill product.8 M and we are using 220 MM thickness bricks.0.28 . I suggest that you increase the volume of hot gas drawn through the coal mill to improve the drying capacity.34 and Na2O . • Back to Top Q: Can the rate of quenching of the clinker affect the LOI of the cement? Will the LOI of the cement be affected by the milling stage due to the temperature? Could there be recarbonation? A: Certainly the cement milling temperature can affect the loss on ignition as the degree of gypsum dehydration will be affected by the milling temperature. Awaiting for your valuable reply? (Ali) A: Normally the length of the first chamber of ball mill is designed such that around 10kW of the mill motor is drawn by the media in the first chamber of the mill. please let me know in cement mill (ball mill/tube mill)the length of 1st chamber is less than 2nd chamber.0.75 dia x 75 m length . LSF 89-90 Liquid 26 +/. Moisture of coal reduced from 12 % to 7 % this is feasible to maintain the coal mill inlet tempearature around 530 deg C? A: The coal mill inlet temperature is already high at 500 degrees C. etc. SM 2. Is it possible or not with operation point of view like load .05 . Raising that should reduce the coating tendency. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir.. • Back to Top Q: Dear Sir. Beyond that there are many other considerations such as the ash content of the fuel. although it would be an unusual thing to do. AM 1.

• Back to Top Q: Hi Dr. Clark I'm an Engineering student currently developing a proyect in a cement company and I was wondering if you could help me. You need to calculate the gas flow through the mill from the amount of fuel oil burnt and it's ultimate analysis. Once you have the mass balance then you calculate the energy balance by multiplying the mass flows by their specific heats at the operating temperatures and the energy absorbed to dry the raw material. • Back to Top Ask Dr Clark • Ask a question • View Questions Latest Projects • • • • • • • • Project Services Systems Technical Audits Training Raw Materials Raw Grinding Cement Milling Pyroprocessing Ask Dr Clark Catergories Site Map • • • • • • Home Benchmarking Technical Audits Project Services Systems Training Contact Station House . The mill is an Atox 30 with a hot gas generator with Fuel Oil Nr 6 as fuel. I really need some help with heat and mass balances from the heat generator to the chimney. I need to make a heat and mass balance in a VRM. Raw material feed is up to 100 ton/h and between 6% and 12% humidity. Thanks A: The first step is to construct the mass balance.

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