UMTS Core Network

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

GSM/GPRS Network Architecture
Radio access network BSS GSM/GPRS core network


IP Backbone




V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

3GPP Rel.’99 Network Architecture
Radio access network UTRAN Iub BS UE Uu Iub BS Iur RNC Iu PS Gn
IP Backbone

Core network (GSM/GPRS-based)








V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

Mancuso. BSC => RNC) V. Tinnirello .’99 Network Architecture Rel. I. often also called (user) terminal New air (radio) interface based on WCDMA access technology New RAN architecture (Iur interface is available for soft handover.’99 Radio access network UTRAN Iub BS UE Uu Iub BS Iur RNC RNC 2G => 3G MS => UE (User Equipment).3GPP Rel.

Tinnirello . Mancuso.’99 Network Architecture Changes in the core network: MSC is upgraded to 3G MSC SGSN is upgraded to 3G SGSN GMSC and GGSN remain the same AuC is upgraded (more security features in 3G) SGSN Iu PS Gn IP Backbone Core network (GSM/GPRS-based) PSTN Iu CS MSC VLR GMSC HLR AuC EIR GGSN Internet V.3GPP Rel. I.

4: GERAN (GSM and EDGE Radio Access Network) MGW PS core as in Rel. I. Mancuso.’99 V.3GPP Rel.4 Network Architecture UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) Circuit Switched (CS) core network MSC Server SGW GMSC Server SGW MGW PSTN PSTN New option in Rel. Tinnirello .

4 Network Architecture MSC Server takes care of call control signalling The user connections are set up via MGW (Media GateWay) “Lower layer” protocol conversion in SGW (Signalling GateWay) RANAP / ISUP SS7 MTP IP Sigtran Circuit Switched (CS) network MSC Server SGW MGW core GMSC Server SGW MGW PSTN PSTN PS core as in Rel. Tinnirello .’99 V.3GPP Rel. I. Mancuso.

3GPP Rel.5 Network Architecture
UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) New core network part:

CS core PSTN

GERAN (GSM and EDGE Radio Access Network)

IMS (IP Multimedia System)





PS core

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

3GPP Rel.5 Network Architecture
The IMS can establish multimedia sessions (using IP transport) via PS core between UE and Internet (or another IMS) Call/session control using SIP (Session Initiating Protocol) Interworking with the PSTN may be required for some time ... CS core PSTN

IMS (IP Multimedia System)

Internet / other IMS Internet / other IMS




PS core

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

New Service Concept
Content provider Content provider

Service provider

Service provider

Carrier provider all want to make profit

End user

End user

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

I. Mancuso. so that services provided by different service/content providers can be created and seamlessly integrated into the 3G network (this is the meaning of “open” architecture) OSA means in practice: Service Creation Environment (SCE) API API 3G network API API = Application Programming Interface (Standardised) V.OSA (Open Services Architecture/Access) OSA is being standardised. Tinnirello .

CAMEL = IN technology + global mobility CAMEL Service Environment (CSE) is a logical entity in the subscriber’s home network which processes IN related procedures CSE ≈ SCP in home network V. Mancuso. Tinnirello .CAMEL (2G & 3G) CAMEL (Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) is a set of “IN” (intelligent network) type functions and procedures that make operator-specific IN services available to subscribers who roam outside their home network. I.

I. Tinnirello . PhD V.The IMS The IP Multimedia Subsystem Vincenzo Mancuso. Mancuso.

video and data V. Tinnirello . along with local PSTN networks Cellular Networks The Internet Use packet switching. I. Mancuso. IP The IP Multimedia Subsystem or IMS is the solution to integrate all the services that the internet provides with the cellular and other networks Triple Play: coordination of voice.The IMS The Third generation networks aim to merge two most valuable resources in communication technology.

according to the content and the service offered V. Mancuso. thus developing value-added services Appropriate charging for multimedia sessions.IMS Value-added services ValueIMS also can provide integrated service to the user Third party developed services can be provided by operators. Tinnirello . I.

Tinnirello . Mancuso. I.IMS Service Integration Problem Statement: various networks providing services have a “vertical infrastructure” no horizontal links between networks The challenge: to integrate these networks and to create new applications that would provide service to next generation networks V.

Mancuso. introduction of real time voice/video on Internet The 1st problem is easy: how to transmit voice/video? IP packets RTP (Real-Time Protocol) is a protocol which transports an encoded multimedia stream as pieces. ACC. MPEG4.Component #1: the media transport After many other services. Tinnirello . I. AMR… Several streams (voice+video) can be sent in parallel with the same timestamp The timestamp is used by the receiver to play the voice/video in a regular way for quality Codec RTP UDP IP RTP is the media transport V. with a timestamp on each piece. and sends them using UDP/IP Any encoding is permitted for voice/video with a Codec: MP3.

thanks to an access to this table.Component #2: session initiation The 2nd problem is more difficult: how to initiate the call? how to know the IPaddress of the called phone? It is necessary to have a table which translates a symbolic name “Betty” into an IP address Each time a terminal service is put on. it must notify its presence to update the table So. I. it is possible to make the address resolution : name -> IP address Registration of Betty’s phone and address Registration of John’s phone and address The control of the address table creates a tough competition… V. Tinnirello . Mancuso.

2004 Operators dislike such approaches. This approach is named “Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem”. so they push a way very similar to e-mail: centralization per domain. I. only 1 operator Skype promotes a hyperdecentralized architecture: 1 table per terminal with peer-to-peer update between terminals “The introduction and development of solution like Skype is highly significant as it alters the notion of telecommunications operators by making the process fully electronic“ IDATE . Tinnirello . AOL have designed a calling architecture hypercentralized: 1 table worldwide. V.ART.Why IMS? Solutions to make the address resolutions MSN. Mancuso. Yahoo. IMS.

com tel:+88028112347 Public User Identities V. Tinnirello .com tel:+17324567888 zzeb@tmobile.IMS User Identities Sip:zehan.zeb@newstore. I. m IMS Subscriber Private User Identity Sip:zehan.

User Identity Private identity Issued by home provider Used for AAA Saved on ISIM (not modifiable) Private User Identity 1 Public User Identity 1 Implicitly Registered ID Set 1 Service Profile 1 Public User Identity 2 Service Profile 2 Public identity IMS Normal SIP address (URI or TEL) Subscription Identifies the user publicly User has one or more identities Used for routing Can be grouped into implicit registration sets Public User Identity 3 Implicitly Registered ID Set 2 Public User Identity 4 Service Profile 3 Private User Identity 2 Public User Identity 5 If one of the set is registered then the others are as well At least one is stored on ISIM In case no ISIM is provided » » Public User Identity 6 Implicitly Registered ID Set 3 Service Profile 4 Use a temporary identity derived from USIM during initial registration (derived from IMSI) PIDs are then provided by the S-CSCF in its reply to the registration V. Mancuso. I. Tinnirello .

UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card Used to store data. Tinnirello . I. including authentication information Contains one or more applications SMS Phonebook … SIM GSM Subscriber Identity Module USIM UMTS SIM ISIM IMS SIM Applications are independent SIM. USIM and ISIM can coexist on the same UICC … but SIM cannot be used for IMS access (for security reasons) V. Mancuso.

I. Interactive Gaming V. Music Downloads At Home On the Move In the Office Picture Messaging. News PushPush-2-Talk PushPush-2-View PushPush-2-X SIP IMS IP Network SIP SIP ServiceService-layer ControlControl-layer TransportTransport-layer SIP SIP Voice LocationPresence. Mancuso. MM Messaging IMS is access agnostic.IP Multimedia Subsystem A standard Next-gen network architecture An enabler of new applications SIP Converged Services Rich Communications Video Clips Sports. Tinnirello . Video Interactive Services. cost reducing. and service enhancing IMS gives the customer & carrier choice Streaming Audio. Locationbased Services E-mail IM Games.

I.IMS Goals & Tools V. Mancuso. Tinnirello .

no time for standardization of services Mobile/Nomadic internet Create a platform for multimedia services … and their development Exploit/allow mobile packetswitching networks Not a mere circuit-switching replacement V. Mancuso. Tinnirello .IMS goals Combine latest trends in tech Run fast. I.

IMS requirements Support for establishing IP Multimedia Sessions Audio. I. Mancuso. messaging… Support for mechanisms to negotiate QoS distinguish users operators want to control QoS Support for interworking with Internet with packet-switching networks Support for roaming Home and visited network Inter-operators roaming … V. Tinnirello . video.

Mancuso. I. UMTS IP is independent on lower protocol layers V.IMS requirements (cont’d) … Support for user activity control policies imposed by the operator (general policies and per-user policies) accomplish to service agreements Support for fast service creation don’t require service standardization Standardize service capabilities instead Support for multiple access Not only GPRS. Tinnirello .

Protocols in IMS 3GPP reuses protocol developed by other standards development organizations ETSI (European Telecommunications Standard Institute) IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union . Tinnirello . Mancuso.Telecommunications) 3GPP interacts with standards development organizations as for the development of existing and new protocols Protocols RTP for media transport Session control protocols AAA protocols Other V. I.

extend and reuse for service building V. Tinnirello . Mancuso. by IETF.RFC2821) Protocol to establish and manage multimedia session over IP SIP borrows some design principles from SMTP and HTTP Does not differentiate the user-to-network interface from the network-to-network interface (unlike BICC and H.323) It follows the client-server model Text-based protocol Easy to debug. I.Session Control Protocol SIP (Session Initiation Protocol.

: interact with routing entities V. and applications • E. I.: interact with SIP session setup (Authorization and Authentication) • E. environments.AAA protocol: DIAMETER one protocol for many interfaces Authorization What service can be used? Diameter Client Application Diameter Server Application Authentication Are you really who you say you are? Accounting €$£ Session Management Session Management Routing Management Routing Management • DIAMETER – – – – by IETF RFC3588 Evolution of RADIUS Base protocol Diameter applications Connection Management Base Protocol Connection Management Base Protocol • Diameter applications used to customize/extend the base protocol for different interfaces.: interact with the billing subsystem to control accounting • E. Mancuso.g.g. Tinnirello .g.

Mancuso.IMS Architecture V. I. Tinnirello .

Access Independent Applications 3G mobile WLAN WiMAX DSL Fibre Ethernet IMS Platform Internet PSTN IP transport MGW V. PSTN interworking. operator friendly. standardised. Tinnirello . localisation. DIAMETER and COPS controls Supports legal interception. NGN multimedia architecture for mobile and fixed services Based on SIP. etc. I. Mancuso.New services for mobile and fixed networks Open.

Tinnirello . Mancuso.Functions and nodes IMS standardizes functions IMS does NOT standardize nodes The IMS Architecture is a collection of functions linked by standardized interfaces A function can be implemented through one or more nodes Multiple functions can share a node Commonly a function per node V. I.

A standard architecture for service delivery Application Layer Session Control Layer Connectivity Layer AS SIP DIAMETER SIP SIP MGW SIP AS MR F HSS MGCF H. Tinnirello .248 IP Network GGS N PSTN/PLMN CPE V. Mancuso. I.

personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers even when they are roaming in another network or country (the visited network) The only requirement is that they can use IPv6 (also IPv4 in early IMS) and run SIP user agents V. mobile phones..g. all of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP) for packet switching e.. Mancuso. I.Access to IMS The user can connect to an IMS network in variety of ways.g. Tinnirello . IMS terminals can register directly on an IMS network e.

e. WiMAX Other phone systems like plain old telephone service (POTS -. Ethernet Mobile access e. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).Other access examples Fixed access .. GPRS Wireless access e. I. GSM.g... cable modems.g.g. W-CDMA. are supported through gateways V. H. Mancuso.323 and non IMS-compatible VoIP systems. Tinnirello . WLAN.the old analogue telephones) or PSTN. CDMA2000.

I. Mancuso.IMS functional elements V. Tinnirello .

Infrastructure of SIP Proxies (media do not traverse the IMS.) V. Mancuso. I. Tinnirello ..

Tinnirello . I.IMS Functional Elements Session Management (SIP) Routing Databases Network Interoperability Elements Services and Support Components Charging Components V. Mancuso.

decomposed into: SGW (Signaling Gateway) MGCF (Media Gateway Controller Function) MGW (Media Gateway) Charging collection functions V. Tinnirello .Nodes/Functions in the IMS User databases HSS (Home Subscriber Server) SLF (Subscriber Location Function) SIP servers CSCF (Call/Session Control Function) AS (Application Server) MRF (Media Resource Function) MRFC (MRF Controller) MRFP (MRF Processor) BGCF (Breakout Gateway Control Function) PSTN/CS gateways. I. Mancuso.

Databases (HSS,SLF)
HSS is an evolution of the HLR (Home Location Register) of GSM Contains the user-related subscription data (e.g., location, authorization and authentication information) More than one HSS is possible If #HSS > 1 SLF required SLF maps users’ address to HSSs HSS and SLF use DIAMETER with an IMSspecific diameter application

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

Presence, Location and Profile End-User Identity Private and Public End-User Information Registration Information Service Initiation Information Subscriber Service Profile (SSP) Downloaded to CSCF at Registration

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

More on HSS
HSS is a master user database that supports all the IMS network functions that actually handle communications contains the subscription-related information (user profiles) performs authentication and authorization of the user can provide information about the user's physical location is similar to the GSM Home Location Register (HLR) and Authentication Centre (AUC) together

V. Mancuso, I. Tinnirello

CSCF SIP servers or proxies. Tinnirello . are used to process SIP signaling packets/messages in the IMS P-CSCF (Proxy) I-CSCF (Interrogating) S-CSCF (Server) V. collectively called Call Session Control Function (CSCF). Mancuso. I.

I. (CSCF) Diameter SIP PCSCF ICSCF SIP SIP SCSCF SIP SIP CSCF – Processes SIP Signaling P-CSCF First Point of User Contact (located in the visited domain) Authenticates user May Include Policy Functions S-CSCF Central Node of Control Plane Acts as Registrar for User (located in the home domain) Invokes Application Servers Performs Primary Routing Function I-CSCF Located at Edge of Administrative Domain (contact point for inter-domain messages) Is the Ingress Network Point Defined in DNS Shields Network Topology from External Networks V. Mancuso.Call/Session Control Func. (CSCF) Func. Tinnirello .

no roaming) V. Mancuso. I.IMS Signaling Path (1 domain. Tinnirello .

IMS Signaling Path (4 domain roaming. media goes directly) Sweden User Irish User Sweden User In roaming Irish User In roaming V. Tinnirello . Mancuso. I.

IPSec. Tinnirello .…) Authenticates the user and extend the authentication to other nodes within IMS Compress/decompress SIP messages Generates charging info V. I.CSCF P-CSCF (Proxy) Outbound/Inbound proxy server First server contacted by the user Fixed while registered Security functions (integrity protection. Mancuso.

and does not change for the duration of the registration It sits on the path of all signaling messages. I. Mancuso. and can inspect every message It authenticates the user and establishes an IPsec security association with the IMS terminal Other nodes trust the P-CSCF. Tinnirello . which authorizes media plane resources it also generates charging records V. and do not have to authenticate the user again It can also compress and decompress SIP messages it may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF).P-CSFC details SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal It can be located either in the visited network (in full IMS networks) or in the home network (when the visited network isn't IMS compliant yet) The terminal discovers its P-CSCF with either DHCP or it is assigned in the PDP Context (GPRS) It is assigned to an IMS terminal during registration.

I. Mancuso. Tinnirello .PDF for QoS in IMS (intermediary between the application-level QOS and applicationthe 3G network-level QoS) networkQoS) V.

Tinnirello . Mancuso. I.CSCF I-CSCF (Interrogating) SIP proxy at the edge of a domain Advertised by DNS Interface to HSS and SLF for routing purposes Optional: encryption of sensitive information about the domain (THIG: topology hiding inter-network gateway) V.

Mancuso.I-CSCF details It is another SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain Its IP address is published in the DNS of the domain remote servers can find it. registering) for SIP packets to this domain The I-CSCF queries the HSS using DIAMETER to retrieve the user location then it routes the SIP request to its assigned S-CSCF Up to Release 6 it can also be used to hide the internal network from the outside world (encrypting part of the SIP message) in which case it's called a THIG (Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway) From Release 7 onwards this "entry point" function is removed from the ICSCF and is now part of the IBCF (Interconnection Border Control Function) which is also a firewall and a nat. V. and use it as a forwarding point (e. I.g. Tinnirello .

. Tinnirello . to download the user’s profile) V. I. Mancuso.g.CSCF S-CSCF (Server) SIP server with session control functions SIP registrar (maintains a mapping between user location and public user identity) SIP routing PEP Always located in the home network Interfaced with the HSS (e.

Mancuso. V.S-CSCF details It is the central node of the signaling plane SIP server + session control It is always located in the home network It uses DIAMETER to the HSS to download and upload user profiles All necessary information is loaded from the HSS. typically using Electronic Numbering (ENUM) lookups There can be multiple S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons It's the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user. when it's queried by the I-CSCF. I. Tinnirello . in order to provide their services It provides routing services. It handles SIP registrations bind the user location and the SIP address It sits on the path of all signaling messages. and can inspect every message It decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded.

Mancuso. Tinnirello .g.Application Server (AS) AS AS AS Diameter SIP Contains Call Related Application Logic Facilitates a Service Creation Environment Queried by S-CSCF in Real Time to Execute Logic Filters can be applied at S-CSCF in order to inspect the SIP messages and decide whether involve or not the AS Generally Specialized for Each Service May Provide Gateway to Legacy Applications (e. AIN) Can Behave as a SIP Proxy or Terminal (and in this case receive the media!) V. I.

V. I. Tinnirello . Mancuso. it can query the HSS with the DIAMETER Sh interface (for a SIP-AS) or the Mobile Application Part (MAP) interface (for IM-SSF).AS Three different AS types SIP AS native IMS application server OSA-SCS (Open Service Access – Service Capability Server) Interface to Open Service Application (AS) framework application server (developed by 3GPP for UMTS) IM-SSF (IP Multimedia Service Switching Function) Reuse/interface with CAMEL (GSM) Gateway for GSM Service Control Function An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network If located in the home network.

Mancuso. find a taxi) V. I.g. Tinnirello .AS as a SIP Proxy (e.

Mancuso. web server: receive media data!) V. Tinnirello . I.AS as a SIP Terminal (e.g.

the AS) (method=INVITE) AND (P-Asserted-Identity = boss@vodafone.Example of Filter Rule (at S-CSCF) S- User A wants to divert all calls from boss to an answering machine (i.e. Tinnirello . I. AND (Session Case = Terminating) ->message is addressed to AS V.

Tinnirello . Mancuso. I.Multimedia Resource Function (MRF) SIP MRFC MS MS Offers Services Such as Conferencing MRFC – SIP User Interface toward S-CSCF MRFP – Controls the Media Server (MS) V.

media trans-coding) and playing of tones and announcements.MRF The MRF (Media Resource Function) provides a source of media in the home network It provides media related functions such as media manipulation (e.248 interface The MRFP is a media plane node that implements all media-related functions V.g. I. Each MRF is further divided into Media Resource Function Controller (MRFC) – signaling plane Media Resource Function Processor (MRFP) – media plane The MRFC acts as a SIP User Agent to the S-CSCF. voice stream mixing. Mancuso. and controls the MRFP with a H. Tinnirello .

Multiparty Calls (MRF as a special AS) REFER: Ask other to join V. I. Mancuso. Tinnirello .

I. Tinnirello . Mancuso.Multiparty Call V.

Mancuso.Multiparty Call V. Tinnirello . I.

BGCF The Breakout Gateway Control Function is a SIP server that includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers used when calling from the IMS to a phone in a circuit switched network e. Mancuso. I.. IMS to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or to Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) BGCF routes to the appropriate (remote) circuit switching domain BGCF selects the (local) PSTN/CS gateway V.g. Tinnirello .

Mancuso. I.248 TDM MGW BGCF – Routes to Gateway Based Upon Telephone Number MGCF – Controlling Function for SGW and MGW SGW – Provides Signaling Conversion Between SIP and ISUP MGW – Provides Conversion between RTP and TDM V. Tinnirello .PSTN Gateway SGW SIP ISUP SIP SIP BGCF MGCF H.

248 control of MGW P-CSCF UA/UE SIP I-CSCF SIP S-CSCF SIP MRFC MS MS SIP SIP BGCF SIP MGCF ISUP H.Home Network .248 SS7 TDM PSTN Call Session Control Function • SIP registration • SIP session setup SIP RTP MGW Proxy CSCF • 1st contact point for UA • QoS • Routes to S-CSCF Visited Network Serving CSCF • Registrar • Session control • Application Interface Interrogating CSCF • Entry point for incoming calls • Determines S-CSCF for Subscribers • Hides network topology Breakout Gateway Control Function • Selects network (MGCF or other BGCF) in which PSTN/ PLMN breakout is to occur V. Mancuso. Tinnirello .g. I. conference) Domain Name Server Home Network DNS ENUM HSS Diameter SIP SIP AS AS AS SIP UA/UE P-CSCF Media Gateway Control Function • Interfaces to PSTN/PLMN by • Converting SIP <-> ISUP • Interworking RTP to circuit • H.Functional Elements Home Subscriber Server • Centralized DB • HLR successor • User profile • Filter criteria (sent to S-CSCF) • Which applications • Which conditions Application Servers • Push-to-talk • Instant messaging • Telephony AS • 3rd party or IMS Vendor Media Resource Function Controller • Pooling of Media servers (e.

Mancuso.248 SS7 TDM PSTN RTP Home Network MGW Proxy/Serving CSCF •Manages call origination •Selects destination network • Routes to I-CSCF Interrogating CSCF V. I. Tinnirello • Entry point for incoming calls • Determines S-CSCF for Subscribers • Hides network topology .Network-toNetwork-to-Network Connectivity SIP RTP UA/UE Access SIP SIP DNS ENUM HSS Diameter AS AS AS SIP P-CSCF SIP SIP SIP RTP Visited Network Backbone Packet Network P/S-CSCF P/SSIP I-CSCF SIP S-CSCF SIP MRFC MS MS SIP BGCF SIP MGCF ISUP H.

Tinnirello . I. Mancuso.Home and Visited Networks Inherited from 2G. 3G Most of IMS nodes and functions are located in the Home network P-SCFC can be either in the home or visited network If GPRS access P-CSCF in the same network of the GGSN simplifies the operator’s management allows roaming to non-IMS GPRS CANs (Connectivity Access networks) Drawback: trombone effect when GGSN is in the home network (GGSN is in the media plane) In a long term perspective the P-CSCF will be located in the visited network Media servers can be out of both V.

Tinnirello . I. Mancuso.IMS architecture Examples V.

I. enterprises) with calling services including registration being a mediation SIP2DIAMETER HSS When the phones get connected they register their name/IP to the HSS SIP S-CSCF SIP Changes the SIP message replacing “Betty” by its IP address found in the HSS V. Mancuso.John is calling Betty Introducing the HSS and the S-CSCF SThe HSS is the table user/address The S-CSCF is a SIP proxy which works on messages to provide users (consumers. Tinnirello .

Tinnirello . the S-CSCF routes SIP messages to: The network of Betty. Instant Messaging. fleet…) AS S-CSCF Changes the SIP message replacing “taxi” by the IP address of the nearest available taxi V. I. if different The applications such as: Push-To-Talk. a SIP proxy application server … nearest Taxi application (location. Advance Call Control. Mancuso.John is calling a taxi to meet Betty Introducing the Application Server (AS) In addition to the basic name/address translation. Voice/video mailbox. nearest Taxi… running on AS.

The MRFC adjusts the SIP messages in order to orient the RTP flow to the MRFP (a RTP proxy). I.John’s and Betty’s phones do not support a common voice encoding Introducing the MRFC and MRFP Intercepting the SIP “invite” message. Tinnirello MRFP RTP (codec: AMR) . Mancuso. H248 Megaco SIP RTP (codec: G729) V. for trans-coding S-CSCF MRFC MGCP. the S-CSCF/AS detects a non compatibility between the codecs of the phones : it forwards it to the MRFC (a SIP proxy).

g. offer segmentation) So it introduces. Tinnirello S-CSCF (consumers) I-CSCF S-CSCF (enterprises) Home Network .. Mancuso.g. I-CSCF IThe P-CSCF is the 1st SIP proxy seen by the terminal It controls the bearer plan via COPS protocol It adjusts the SIP message (e. compression) and forwards it to the I-CSCF of the home network The operator may have several S-CSCFs (e. I..During its travel John is calling Betty The operator has made a segmentation of its services offer Introducing the P-CSCF. the I-CSCF SIP proxy as the entry point of its network also used as the entry point for calls from other operators Visited Network HSS … P-CSCF V.

Mancuso. an adaptation is necessary.John is calling Betty who has a legacy phone Introducing the MGCF and the MGW At the border of the IMS network with the phone network. Tinnirello . The MGCF handles the control for the 2 worlds and drives the MGW (Media gateway) … controls circuits and MGW much like a VoIP softswitch MGCF Legacy Call control (SS7) SIP … RTP Phone transmission Internet H248 MGCP. I. Megaco MGW PSTN/PLMN network V.

SCF C C PDF SIP / SDP SIP / SDP SIP / SDP P. I.IMS Communication Focus Roaming IMS Mobile Users Serving Network A Serving Network B Access Network A Service Platform A (ASA ) Service Platform B (ASB) Access Network B P.Path IP Backbone Network GGSN SGSN UEB Sessionlevel(SIP/SDP signalling ) Bearer level(PDPcontext activation / modification / Release) Interaction betweensession andbearer level(COPS) I-CSCF (between P-CSCF and S-CSCF) not shown for simplicity PDP Context V. Tinnirello .com Gm Go Go SIP/SDP SGSN GGSN UEA PDP Context Data.SCF C D PDF S -CSCF A S -CSCF B Gm SIP/SDP inviting uey@homeb. Mancuso.

A Typical Example of an IMS Call Network X AS S-CSCF S-CSCF HSS HSS I-CSCF I-CSCF Network Y AS P-CSCF P-CSCF SGSN GRX DSL/Cable Modem Network Z (UMTS/GPRS) GGSN DSLAM/CMTS RNC User A User B V. Mancuso. Tinnirello . I.

Tinnirello . I.The Signaling Plane V. Mancuso.

Tinnirello . I.SIP functionality SIP’s main goal is to deliver a session descriptor to a user at his/her/its location A session descriptor contains the information needed for a remote user to join the session IP address and port Codecs … SDP (Session Description Protocol) A (possible) text-based way to describe the media session V. Mancuso.

SDP version user subject Start time G711µ-law Stream directio n H.261 codec Media-level user IP Session-level V. Mancuso. I. Tinnirello .

but no message delivery V. and always uses the information on the registrar (through a location server) to route the calls Forking proxy Parallel or serial forking in the message routing Redirect server For routing. Tinnirello . Mancuso.SIP entities Registrar User Agent SIP endpoints handled by users (also automatically. based on userdefined rules) Proxy server SIP routers Usually is co-located with the registrar. I.

g. I. Mancuso.: INVITE SIP/2. Tinnirello .SIP transactions Transaction structure A request from the client Zero or more provisional responses from the server A final response from the server Each message begins with a start line Request line (in a request) Method Request URI Protocol version e.0 180 Ringing Protocol version Status Human code code Start line One or more headers (name:value) ---------EMPTY LINE --------Message body (OPTIONAL) SIP message format V.: SIP/2.g.0 Status line (in an answer) e.

Tinnirello .SIP methods ACK BYE CANCEL INFO INVITE NOTIFY OPTIONS PRACK PUBLISH REGISTER ack the final response for INVITE terminate a session cancel a pending request transport PSTN telephony signaling establish a session notify a UA about a particular event queries a server about capabilities ack for provisional response upload UA’s info to a server map the current URI and location with the public URI SUBSCRIBE request to be notified about an event UPDATE update session characteristics MESSAGE instant message in the message body REFER instruct a server to send a request V. Mancuso. I.

. Mancuso.g. RFC 3261 (redefinition of SIP) RFC 3665 and 3666 (Best Current Practice) V. no difference with the public Internet In practice. I.SIP in the IMS In principle. Tinnirello . IMS imposes some constraints Wireless access Security QoS Roaming 3GPP/IETF defines a profile of utilization of SIP in the IMS environment E.

Tinnirello . I.Prerequisites TwoTwo-phase registration Offline subscription Login to the IP access net DHCP or Lower level mechanism Online registration Inbound/Outbound Fixed Proxy V. Mancuso.

Tinnirello .Entering the IP Connectivity Access Network The access to GPRS includes the assignment of servers and IP address V. I. Mancuso.

PDF Context Activation/De-Activation Activation/DeA PDP context is “pre-setup” for the SIP signaling Different PDP contexts are then activated for the media flows (e.g. Mancuso. I. all PDP contexts are deactivated V. according to the agreed codec) When the session ends. Tinnirello .

Tinnirello ..P-CSCF discovery The IMS terminal has to discover the IP address of the P-CSCF The procedure can be stand alone (DHCP+DNS) integrated with the access to the IP (e. with the PDP context) V.g. Mancuso. I.

Tinnirello . I. the user is challenged to show its identity this require two SIP REGISTER messages V. Mancuso.IMSIMS-level registration The user requests authorization to use the IMS The IMS authenticate and eventually authorize the user SIP REGISTER is mandatory DIAMETER is used by the CSCF to contact the HSS For security reasons.

DL User Auth vector Challenge the User authentication vector included DL User Profile V. MAA: Multiledia Auth.Req SAR:Server Assignment Req. UAR: User Auth. •If not. Tinnirello . Req MAR:Multimedia Auth. I-CSCF will choose based on capabilities notified by HSS in the UAA UAA: User Auth.Ans SAA:Server Assignment Ans. I. Ans. Mancuso.IMSIMS-level registration Without authentication •The HSS tells the I-CSCF whether a S-CSCF was already allocated to the user.

I. Mancuso.Basic Session Setup V. Tinnirello .

Tinnirello .Session setup Many nodes and many messages involved in the setup Different planes/layers •media •signaling •CAN •core V. I. Mancuso.

Mancuso. Tinnirello .Session setup (cont’ed) (cont’ed) V. I.

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