Norwegian on the Web

Olaf Husby

Short Norwegian Grammar

Norwegian on the Web, NTNU

Short grammar 2

Content
Nouns .......................................................................................................................... 4 General .................................................................................................................... 4 Common nouns .................................................................................................... 4 Proper nouns ........................................................................................................ 4 Gender ................................................................................................................. 4 Conjugation of nouns ........................................................................................... 5 The simple pattern ............................................................................................ 5 System used in this course ............................................................................... 5 Verbs ........................................................................................................................... 6 Verbs - terminology .................................................................................................. 6 Regular verbs ................................................................................................... 7 Irregular verbs................................................................................................... 7 Tenses and forms ............................................................................................. 8 Infinitive ................................................................................................................ 8 Present ................................................................................................................. 8 Preterite ................................................................................................................ 9 Present perfect ..................................................................................................... 9 Preterite perfect .................................................................................................... 9 Present future ....................................................................................................... 9 Preterite future.................................................................................................... 10 Present future perfect ......................................................................................... 10 Preterite future perfect........................................................................................ 10 Auxiliary verbs........................................................................................................ 10 Common auxiliary verbs ..................................................................................... 10 Modal auxiliary verbs.......................................................................................... 11 Adjectives .................................................................................................................. 12 General .................................................................................................................. 12 Agreement .......................................................................................................... 12 Agreement: Attributive form ............................................................................ 12 Agreement: Predicative form .......................................................................... 12 Comparison ........................................................................................................ 13 Comparison between two objects ...................................................................... 13 Adverbs ..................................................................................................................... 14 General .................................................................................................................. 14 Adverbs – adverbial ............................................................................................... 14 Modifying adjectives ....................................................................................... 14 Adverbs - form ................................................................................................ 15 Pronouns ................................................................................................................... 16 General .................................................................................................................. 16 Articles ....................................................................................................................... 18 Demonstratives.......................................................................................................... 19 Determinatives........................................................................................................... 21 Possessives ........................................................................................................... 21

Norwegian on the Web, NTNU

Short grammar 3

Possessive expressions ..................................................................................... 22 Quantifiers.............................................................................................................. 22 Cardinal Numbers .............................................................................................. 22 Ordinal Numbers ................................................................................................ 23 Old an new counting system .............................................................................. 23 Countable/uncountable amounts........................................................................ 23 Countable amounts......................................................................................... 23 Uncountable amounts ..................................................................................... 23 Quantifiers with grammatical agreement ............................................................ 24 Prepositions ............................................................................................................... 25 Conjunctions .............................................................................................................. 26 Subjunctions .............................................................................................................. 27 General .................................................................................................................. 27 Nominal function................................................................................................. 27 Adverbial function ............................................................................................... 27 Adjectival function .............................................................................................. 29 Interjections ............................................................................................................... 30 General .................................................................................................................. 30 Interjections used for answers............................................................................ 30 Greetings ............................................................................................................ 30 Sentences.................................................................................................................. 31 Main clause ............................................................................................................ 31 Subordinate clause ................................................................................................ 32

As the text book grammar is lacking descriptions of some word classes, we would like to present a short review of all word classes in Norwegian.

Nouns are divided in two subgroups. In Norwegian common nouns are written with lower-case letters (except when they occur after a full stop): “student” (student). In general one may say that • • • about 50 per cent of all nouns are of masculine gender about 25 per cent of all nouns are of feminine gender about 25 per cent of all nouns are of neuter gender However. “universitet” (university). as all feminine nouns may be conjugated as masculine nouns. Proper  nouns   These are nouns that name a specific item. states. Proper nouns are written with upper-case letters: “Norge” (Norway). nouns are grouped into three categories according to the noun's gender (kjønn). actions.Norwegian on the Web. and for learners of Norwegian it usually is difficult to guess the gender of a given noun. Gender     In Norwegian. Common  nouns     These are nouns that name general items. “Trondheim” (Trondheim). . often a “one-of-a-kind”. This division is important as nouns are conjugated according to its inherent gender. Gender masculine feminine neuter Norwegian term hankjønn hunkjønn intetkjønn Literal translation “he-gender” “she-gender” “no-gender” In most cases the assignment of gender is arbitrary. 75 per cent of all nouns may use articles for masculine nouns. common and proper nouns. “idé” (idea). things. NTNU Short grammar 4 Nouns     General Nouns are words that name people. and 25 per cent as articles for neuter nouns. “Julie” (Julie). places.

The three dots <…> are replacing any noun. NTNU Short grammar 5 Conjugation  of  nouns   The noun is an independent form in singular indefinite. Singular Indefinite Definite en … …-(e)n ei … et … …-a …-(e)t Plural Indefinite …-(e)r …-(e)r … …-(e)r Definite …-(e)ne …-(e)ne …-(e)ne masculine feminine neuter . These patterns will cover most cases in this introductory course. Adding a suffix to the end of the noun makes definite form singular. The simple pattern Singular Indefinite Definite en … …-en ei … et … …-a …-et Plural Indefinite …-er …Definite …-ene masculine feminine neuter System used in this course As there are several exceptions. The suffixes are listed below.Norwegian on the Web. this extended version is presented. Indefinite and definite form plural are made the same way. Two conjugation patterns are presented below. First you find the very basic rules.

“increase” and the irregular verb “skrive” . present) or mode Infinite forms. that is forms that do not express time or mode As in English you will find both regular (“weak”) and irregular (“strong”) verbs. Verb form Imperative Infinitive Present Preterite Perfect participle Present participle Passive voice Structure stem stem + “-e” stem + “-er” stem + ending “-te” stem + ending “-t” stem + “-ende” stem + “-es” Norwegian øk øke øker økte økt økende økes English increase increase increase(s) increased increased increasing is being increased . NTNU Short grammar 6 Verbs   Verbs are words that name what is going on (actions. that is forms that express time (past. The English translation of the new an old terminology (Strandskogen 1995) is shown below. This is demonstrated below using the regular “øke” . The different forms of a verb can be divided into Finite forms. Non-overlapping categories are marked in grey. what exists). Strandskogen (1995) Infinitive Present Past (Imperfect) Perfect Pluperfect Future Future perfect Conditional Conditional perfect Grammatical terminology applied in teaching (2006) English Norwegian Infinitive Infinitiv Present Presens Preterite Preteritum Present perfect Presens perfektum Preterite perfect Preteritum perfektum Present future Presens futurum Preterite future Preteritum futurum Present future perfect Presens futurum perfektum Preterite future perfect Preteritum futurum perfektum Norwegian verbs occur in seven different forms. Regular verbs form preterite (past tense) by adding a suffix to the stem Irregular verbs form preterite without adding a suffix to the stem Norwegian verbs are not conjugated in person and number.terminology In this presentation the new standard terminology is used.Norwegian on the Web. states of being. Norwegian verbs occur in several forms as a result of conjugation. Verbs .“write”.

However. The “-et”-form is regarded as more formal than the “-a”-form. Infinitive å skrive å finne å vinne Present skriver finner vinner Preterite skrev fant vant Present perfect har skrevet har funnet har vunnet English to write to find to win . class å kaste å leke å leve å nå Present -er -er -er -r Preterite -et -a -te -de -dde Present perfect -et -a -t -d -dd English to throw to play to live to reach Irregular verbs Irregular verbs produce preterite by changing the stem vowel. they are produced in slightly different ways. class 3. class 2. class has two patterns. class 4. The present participle form is the adjectival form of the verb. The present perfect participle of irregular verbs in general ends in a “-t”. The present perfect participle in general ends in a “-t”. not as verb. Infinitive 1. Irregular verbs are quite heterogeneous. et økende antall et gråtende barn an increasing number a crying child Regular verbs There are four classes of regular verbs. and is used only as adjective or adverb. Irregular verbs produce preterite by changing the stem vowel. 1. NTNU Verb form Imperative Infinitive Present Preterite Perfect participle Present participle Passive voice Structure stem stem + “-e” stem + “-er” internal change internal change stem + “-ende” stem + “-es” Norwegian skriv skrive skriver skrev skrevet skrivende skrives Short grammar 7 English write write write(s) wrote written writing is being written The verb forms above occur for both regular and irregular verbs. Regular verbs produce preterite and present perfect forms by adding a suffix to the verb.Norwegian on the Web.

I always go to bed at 11 o’clock. å synge Jeg liker å synge Jeg kan synge to sing I like to sing I can sing Present   Present tense may express present actions.Norwegian on the Web. To pluss to er fire. general statements that are independent of time and place. INF = infinitive) Form Imperative Infinitive Present Preterite Present perfect Preterite perfect Present future Preterite future Present future perfect Preterite future perfect Norwegian øk øke øker økte har økt hadde økt vil øke ville øke vil ha økt ville ha økt Example stem stem + “-e” stem + “-er” stem + ending har + PP hadde + PP vil + INF ville + INF vil ha + PP ville ha + PP English increase! increase increase increased have increased had increased will increase would increase will have increased would have increased Infinitive   The infinitive form is the base form of the verb. Jeg legger meg alltid klokka 11 I am reading now. . NTNU Tenses and forms Short grammar 8 Below all forms and tenses of verbs are demonstrated using the regular verb “øke” “increase” (PP = present participle. and repeated actions. They are coming tomorrow. Jeg leser nå. quite often in connection with time phrases that are referring to the future: De kommer i morgen. This form is used together with auxiliary verbs to make complex verb forms. Two plus two is four. Present tense forms of verbs may also be used in statements related to the future. With auxiliary verbs the infinitive marker “å” (to) is not used.

The focus is on the action itself.Norwegian on the Web. Present perfect is formed by using present tense of the auxiliary verb å ha (har) and the past participle of the main verb. Jeg har bodd her i fem år. It is quite common to combine present tense of one of the modal auxiliaries “å ville” → vil or “å skulle” → skal with infinitive of the main verb. I have been living here for five year. They want to leave now. Jeg hadde spist før de kom. and past participle of the main verb. but before another action. Present  perfect   In general one can say that this verb form is used to express actions that took part in the past. NTNU Short grammar 9 Preterite   In general one can say that this verb form is used to express actions that took part at a definite point of time in the past. It can also be used about an action that has continued from the past up to now. It is formed by preterite of “å ha” → hadde.e Present  future   The future may be expressed in several ways. I have read the book. but without referring to a definite point in time. I had breakfast at 10 o’clock. . Det kommer til å regne i dag. “Vil” often expresses an alement of will or wish. “kommer til å” – “am/are/is going to” is the most common expression in oral speech. It is going to rain today. I had been eating before they cam. WHen the action is not planned. The focus is on the consequences of the action. Vi skal sove nå. Jeg spiste frokost klokka 10. Jeg har lest boka. De vil dra nå. We will/shall sleep now.s Preterite  perfect   This tense is expressing an action that went on in the past. “Skal” is used only when the subject has a plan or purpose.

Norwegian on the Web. Preterite  future  perfect   This tense is expressing an action that should have been concluded in the past (but was not) or an action that (doubtfully) will be concluded in the future. å være. Present  future  perfect   This tense is expressing an action that has to be concluded before a certain time in the future. I was about to eat when they came. Jeg skulle ha lest denne boka før kurset starter. I ought to have read this book before the course is starting. It is formed by preterite of “å skulle” → skulle and infinitive of the main verb. I should have read this book before the course started. Jeg skulle ha lest denne boka før kurset startet. Modal auxiliary verbs Common  auxiliary  verbs   Among common auxiliary verbs we find verbs that in combination with ordinary verbs produce complex verb forms. It is formed by present tense of an auxiliary verb + infinitive of “å ha” + past participle of the main verb. . NTNU Short grammar 10 Preterite  future   This tense is expressing an action that was planned or went on in the past. It is formed by preterite of an auxiliary verb + infinitive of “å ha” + past participle of the main verb. Jeg bør ha lest denne boka før kurset starter. Jeg skulle spise da de kom. å få”. The verbs in this group are “å ha. å bli. I should have read this book before the course is starting. but after another action. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are divided into two groups: 1. Common auxiliary verbs 2.

The verbs are “å skulle. å ville. would. Infinitive å skulle å ville å kunne å måtte å burde Present skal vil kan må bør Preterite skulle ville kunne måtte burde Present perfect har skullet har villet har kunnet har måttet burdet English should* would* to be able to to have to ought to* *In English the infinitives “should. .Norwegian on the Web. the modal auxiliary verbs. å kunne. ought to do” never appear with the infinitive marker “to”. NTNU Infinitive å ha å være å bli å få Present har er blir får Preterite hadde var ble fikk Present perfect har hatt har vært har blitt har fått Short grammar 11 English to have to be to become to get Modal  auxiliary  verbs   The second group of auxiliary verbs. contains verbs that express the speaker's attitude towards the utterance he/she is producing. å burde”. å måtte.

indefinite and definite. number and definiteness with the noun. number and definiteness. and agreement is expressed through endings (or suffixes).“house”. number and definiteness. NTNU Short grammar 12 Adjectives   General An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun. “dør” .“door”. Agreement: Attributive form Regular adjectives in attributive form have three different forms depending upon gender. Below you find forms of the adjectives for the three genders in singular and plural. It gives more information about the object that the noun is referring to. For example.Norwegian on the Web. “hus” . Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter English Indefinite en fin bil ei fin dør et fint hus a nice X Singular Definite den fine bilen den fine døra det fine huset the nice X Indefinite to fine biler to fine dører to fine dører two nice Xs Plural Definite de fine bilene de fine dørene de fine husene the nice Xs By removing everything except the suffixes the pattern becomes clear: Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Indefinite -t Singular Definite -e -e -e Indefinite -e -e -e Plural Definite -e -e -e Agreement: Predicative form Regular adjectives in predicative have three different forms depending upon gender.“car”. In this way the noun will appear in several forms. Below you find the adjective form used with the nouns “bil” . Agreement   In Norwegian adjectives agree in gender. an adjective might describe the size or the colour of an object. In general the root of the adjective is stable. .

“nice”.“nicer” and a third one is “finest” . the pattern becomes clearer: Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Indefinite -t Singular Definite -t Plural Definite -e -e -e Indefinite -e -e -e Comparison   Adjectives are used when comparing objects with reference to a certain quality. Form Positive (basic form) Comparative Superlative Root fin fin fin Ending -ere -est Norwegian fin finere finest English nice nicer nicest Some adjectives express the same forms by placing the words “mer” . Form Positive (basic form) Comparative Superlative Root elsket elsket elsket Word Norwegian .elsket mer elsket mest elsket English loved more loved most loved Comparison  between  two  objects   When you compare two objects. and A is bigger than B.“loved – more loved – most loved”.“than”: A er finere enn B.“most” in front of the adjectives: “elsket – mer elsket – mest elsket” .Norwegian on the Web. you can express the relationship by using “enn” . A is nicer than B. NTNU Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter English Singular Indefinite En bil kan være fin Ei dør kan være fin Et hus kan være fint An X can be nice Definite Bilen er fin Døra er fin Huset er fint The X is nice Short grammar 13 Plural Indefinite Biler kan være fine Dører kan være fine Hus kan være fine Xs can be nice Definite Bilene er fine Dørene er fine Husene er fine The Xs are nice By removing everything except the suffixes.“nicest”. One house is “fint” .“more” and “mest” . A and B. . another is “finere” .

I will probably read today. Tor is running very quickly. Manner: Time: Place: Degree: Tor løper fort. . They report how likely it is that the action reported occurred. Jeg må dessverre lese i dag. Tor is running often. Adverbs – adverbial Adverbs constitute a word class. I am not going to read today. Tor is running quickly. one may say that they function as adverbials. like “i skogen” . Tor løper svært fort. Sentence adverbs are connected to the whole sentence. adjectives or quantifiers. Tor løper ute . I am very tired.Norwegian on the Web. to which degree). I am tired. Jeg vil gjerne lese i dag.“in the forest” which is a prepositional phrase expressing where something occurs (in the forest > place) Han bor i skogen. NTNU Short grammar 14 Adverbs   General Adverbs modify verbs. I would really like to read today. Unfortunately I have to read today. verb phrases or sentences. I am extremely tired. Jeg skal kanskje lese i dag. adjectives. I will maybe read today. He is living in the forest. Jeg er veldig trøtt. when. Words belonging to other word classes may also function as adverbials. These adverbs are placed in front of the word they modify: Jeg er trøtt. Modifying adjectives Adverbs of degree are qualifying other adverbs. Jeg er ganske trøtt. where. They describe circumstances related to the action (how. and they report the speaker's attitude to what is being said. Jeg er ekstremt trøtt. Jeg skal sannsynligvis lese i dag. Tor løper ofte. They express conditions related to the whole statement: Jeg skal ikke lese i dag. When one is talking about the function of these words. Tor is running outdoors. Jeg er litt trøtt. I am a little tired. I am quite tired.

Liv løper fortest. Anne is running the quickest. however. Some. Anne is running more quickly than Tor. Anne løper fortere enn Tor. NTNU Adverbs . “fort” “quickly” below. Anne is running quickly. . cf.form Short grammar 15 Most adverbs have one form only. Anne løper fort.Norwegian on the Web. can be conjugated.

“one”. person singular and plural where “seg” is used. 3. both common nouns and proper nouns.“one”. 2. Person 1. . jeg meg du deg De Dem han hun seg den det Plural Subject Refl. Category Informal Formal Human Nonhuman Masculine Feminine en nouns ei nouns et nouns Singular Subject Refl. “man” .Norwegian on the Web.“each other” The indefinite pronouns are “en” . NTNU Short grammar 16 Pronouns   General Pronouns are words that can replace nouns. 3. Category Informal Formal Human Nonhuman Masculine Feminine en nouns ei nouns et nouns Singular Subject Object jeg meg du deg De Dem han ham hun henne den det den det Plural Subject Object vi oss dere dere De Dem de dem The reflexive pronouns are equal to personal pronouns except for 3. vi oss dere dere De Dem de seg The reciprocal pronoun is “hverandre” . 2. There are several kinds of pronouns: • • • • • Personal pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronoun Indefinite pronouns Interrogative pronouns The personal pronouns have subject and object forms. Person 1.

The most common question words are listed below.Norwegian on the Web. Norwegian hvem hva hvilken.“who” and “hva” . NTNU Short grammar 17 The interrogative pronouns are “hvem” .“what”. hvilket. hvilke hva for en/ei/et hvordan hvorfor når hvor hvor + adjective/adverb/quantifier English who what which (one) which (one) how why when where how + adjective/adverb/quantifier .

neuter) There are three different sets of articles: the indefinite articles (singular indefinite) the definite articles (singular and plural definite) the adjective's definite articles (singular and plural definite) . NTNU Short grammar 18 Articles   Articles are words that indicate whether the noun is in indefinite of definite form. In Norwegian they also reflect the gender of the noun (masculine. Article The indefinite article Number Singular Gender masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masc..Norwegian on the Web. feminine. Norwegian en vegg ei dør et hus veggen døra huset veggene dørene husene den nye veggen den nye døra det nye huset de nye bilene English a wall a door a house the wall the door the house the walls the doors the houses the new wall the new door the new house the new cars The definite article Singular Plural The adjective’s definite article Singular Plural . neut.. fem.

object or idea spoken about is close in time or space. Close denne dette disse this these Far den det de that those Slik “Slik” . det. disse . those” indicate that the person. Denne.“such. “Den.Norwegian on the Web. Number Singular Plural Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter m.“that. f. “Sånn” must be in agreement with the noun's gender and number: Number Gender Norwegian English Masculine sånn such Singular Feminine Plural Neuter sånt sånne .“such. “Sånn” often refers to something which is mentioned or experienced earlier (an action. these” indicate that the person. de” . Some of the demonstratives agree in gender and number with the noun they are connected to.“this.den. an object). det. “Slik” must be in agreement with the noun's gender and number: Number Gender Norwegian English Singular Masculine slik such Plural Feminine Neuter slikt slike Sånn “Sånn” . dette.. object or idea spoken about is distant in time or in space. NTNU Short grammar 19 Demonstratives   Demonstratives are words that direct your attention to certain objects.. this/that kind” is a synonym of “slik”.. n. dette. an object). this/that kind” often refers to something which is mentioned or experiences earlier (an action. others don't. de “Denne. disse” .

myself. We arrived the same day. tea and soda. What is the best? Coffee or tea? Jeg liker begge deler. Begge deler “Begge deler” . Hva er best? Kaffe eller te? I like both. . Jeg liker både kaffe. “Både” is placed before the first part. and “og” before the second: Jeg liker både kaffe og te.Norwegian on the Web.“both of them” refers to two persons or two concrete objects. NTNU Samme Short grammar 20 “Samme” . I have done it myself. yourself” etc. This expression is relating to uncountable objects (mass nouns). Vi kom samme dag. I like both coffee and tea. Selv “Selv” . No direct correspondance *(I like both coffee.“same” is used to indicate something identical related to to context in question. te og brus. that are countable items. Jeg har gjort det selv.) Begge to “Begge to” .“both kinds”. Har du sett Per og Kari? Ja. “Samme” is not conjugated.“self” is an indeclinable demonstrative which function is to emphasize nouns or pronouns. Have you seen Per and Kari? Yes. Its English counterparts are “self. general concepts or actions.. jeg møtte begge to i dag. Både … og “Både … og” .“both … and” connects two or more units of any kind. I met both of them today. it occurs in only one form.

p 2. 1. The reflexive possessive pronouns are: Owner Object owned . The other possessives have only one form. p. p. 2. person singular. 3. 4. express who owns an object direct your attention towards an object inform about the amount of objects inform about the noun's gender (possessives) (demonstratives) (quantifiers) (articles) A number of determinatives inflect according to the noun’s gender and number. 3. Possessives Norwegian possessives do not behave in a uniform way. Masculine min din Feminine mi di hans hennes dens dets vår deres deres vårt våre Neuter mitt ditt mine dine Object owned Singular Plural Plur.Norwegian on the Web... p 2. p. They may 1. 3. 2. 1. person plural). 3. There is a particular set of possessive pronouns (so-called reflexive possessives) in Norwegian that is used when the subject of the sentence is in the third person (both singular and plural) and this subject possesses an item. Owner Number Person Sing. The form of some possessives relates to the gender and number of the possessed item (1. p. NTNU Short grammar 21 Determinatives   Determinatives give a more detailed description of nouns and noun phrases. which consequently is used for all genders and for singular and plural objects.

Masculine min din sin vår deres sin si sitt Feminine mi di si Neuter mitt ditt sitt vårt Short grammar 22 Plural Plur. 3. mine dine sine våre sine Possessive  expressions   There are several grammatical constructions used to denote possession in Norwegian. p. p. As in English the noun which refers to the owned object is in indefinite form in the first case (“Johns bror”) and definite form in the second (“broren til John”). Dette er John sin bror.10 0 null 1 en 2 to 3 tre 4 fire 5 fem 6 seks 7 sju 8 åtte 9 ni 10 ti 10 . This is the brother of John.Norwegian on the Web. You will find the so-called “s-genitive”. 1. 1. Dette er broren til John. “John’s brother”) and “owned object + owner” (cf. 3.100 20 tjue 20 tjue 21 tjueen 30 tretti 22 tjueto 40 førti 23 tjuetre 50 femti 24 tjuefire 60 seksti 25 tjuefem 70 sytti 26 tjueseks 80 åtti 27 tjuesju 90 nitti 28 tjueåtte 100 hundre 29 tjueni 1000 tusen 30 tretti 1000000 million .30 20 . Quantifiers Cardinal  Numbers   0 .20 10 ti 11 elleve 12 tolv 13 tretten 14 fjorten 15 femten 16 seksten 17 sytten 18 atten 19 nitten 20 tjue 20 . There are two structures: “owner+ owned object” (cf. This is John’s brother. p. NTNU Singular Number Person Sing. Date er Johns bror. p 2. “the brother of John”). This is John’s brother. as well as several prepositional expressions. p 2. p. the “sin-genitive”.

none Uncountable amounts Quantifier Norwegian English mye a lot of noe some litt a little ikke noe no. As the new system has not replaced the old one yet. you will hear numbers expressed in both ways. and for 30 – “tretti” is replaced by “tyve” and “tredve”. respectively. In addition the word for 20 – “tjue”. Among these you can find. none Examples Expression English Jeg har mye sukker I have a lot of sugar Jeg har noe sukker I have some sugar Jeg har litt sukker I have a little sugar Jeg har ikke noe sukker I have no sugar Examples Norwegian English Jeg har mange bøker I have many books Jeg har noen bøker I have some books Jeg har noen bøker I have few books Jeg har ingen bøker I have no books . Countable amounts Quantifier Norwegian English mange many noen some få few ingen no.Norwegian on the Web. In the old system it is opposite. Countable/uncountable  amounts   There are different quantifiers for countable and uncountable amounts. NTNU Short grammar 23 Ordinal  Numbers   0 -10 1 første 2 andre 3 tredje 4 fjerde 5 femte 6 sjette 7 sjuende 8 åttende 9 niende 10 tiende 11-20 11 ellevte 12 tolvte 13 trettende 14 fjortende 15 femtende 16 sekstende 17 syttende 18 attende 19 nittende 20 tjuende 21-31 21 tjueførste 22 tjueandre 23 tjuetredje 24 tjuefjerde 25 tjuefemte 26 tjuesjette 27 tjuesjuende 28 tjueåttende 29 tjueniende 30 trettiende 31 trettiførste Old  an  new  counting  system   In the new system units of ten are mentioned before single units.

Masculine mang en all noen ikke noen ingen enhver hver Singular Feminine mang ei Plural Neuter mangt et alt noe ikke noe intet ethvert hvert mange alle noen ikke noen ingen English many a all some no one no one each every .Norwegian on the Web. NTNU Short grammar 24 Quantifiers  with  grammatical  agreement   There are some quantifiers that have to agree in number and/or gender with the noun that it is connected to.

Below most of the Norwegian prepositions are listed with the most basic translation. They often form phrases that describe a relationship of time or space.Norwegian on the Web. av bak blant etter for før for … siden foran forbi fra mellom mot nedenfor om omkring ovenfor over overfor på of behind among after for before ago in front of past. Depending on the context in which the preposition is used. the translation to English will change. by from between towards below about around above over opposite on gjennom hos i i løpet av igjennom imellom imot innen langs på grunn av på tross av rundt siden til til tross for under uten ved ved siden av through with. NTNU Short grammar 25 Prepositions   Prepositions are words that show the relation of a noun (or pronoun) to some other word in a sentence. by (person) in during through between towards within along because of in spite of around since to in spite of under without by. at besides .

and they went . consequently Norwegian både … og enten … eller verken … eller English both … and either … or neither … nor As a general rule one can say that conjunctions require identical structures on each side: pronoun and pronoun noun and noun pronoun and noun adjective and adjective sentence and sentence du og jeg Tor og broren hans du og broren din rød og blå Jeg kom. og de gikk you and I Tor and his brother you and your brother red and blue I came. phrases and sentences on the same syntactic level. Norwegian og men eller for så English and but or because so. NTNU Short grammar 26 Conjunctions     Conjunctions connect words. Below is a list of Norwegian conjunctions.Norwegian on the Web.

there are two different sentence structures in Norwegian. She asked if they would come to us. They came as I left. As described in the chapter dealing with Sentences. I left. adjectival. When they arrived. gikk jeg. De kom etter at jeg hadde gått. Come before 2 o’clock. They came before it got dark. Kom innen klokka 2. Subjunctions may be divided into three classes depending on the function of the subordinate clause in the main clause: Nominal. if Han sa at bussen stopper her. They came while I was there. before Da de kom. Adverbial  function   Time da når mens idet etter at før innen when when while as after before within. The will come when they have time. De kommer når de har tid. adverbial. . The main differences are: • • • Subordinate clauses are introduced by subjunctions Subordinate clauses have an invariable word order Subordinate clauses have the sentence adverbial placed in front of the finite verb The use of a subordinate clause is a signal that the subordinate sentence structure must be used. Nominal  function   at om that whether. NTNU Short grammar 27 Subjunctions   General Subjunctions are introducing subordinate clauses. Hun spurte om de ville komme til oss. They came after I had left. De kom idet jeg gikk. He said that the bus will stop here. De kom før det ble mørkt. one for main clauses and one for subordinate clauses.Norwegian on the Web. De kom mens jeg var der.

Reason fordi siden because since. dess flinkere blir jeg. tar vi taxi. NTNU Condition hvis dersom if if Short grammar 28 De kommer hvis de har tid. He walked is if he was drunk. They came even though it was raining. Jeg kastet den så du skulle bli fornøyd. Have a cup of coffee so you wake up. Han gikk som om han var full.Norwegian on the Web. Jo mer jeg studerer. Consequence slik at så so that so Jeg sier det tydelig slik at du skal forstå. They came even though it was raining. De kom til tross for at det regnet. we will take a taxi. I got rid of it so that you should be pleased. Admission. The more I study. De kom enda det regnet. the better I get. Ta en kopp kaffe så du våkner. She was crying because she was hungry. as Hun gråt fordi hun var sulten. They will come if they have time. . Siden det er mørkt. til tross for at in spite of Purpose for at så in order to so that Jeg gjorde det for at du skulle bli glad. Since it is dark. contradiction selv om enda even though even though De kom selv om det regnet. I will say it clearly so that you will understand. They came in spite of it was raining. I did it in order to make you happy. De kommer dersom de har tid. I will do it as she did it. Comparison slik som som om jo … dess as as if the … the Jeg skal gjøre det slik som hun gjorde det. They will come if they have time.

var dårlig. Frukten. Frukten som var norsk. It was I who did it. Jeg møtte mannen som vi så forrige uke. The fruit. I met the man whom we saw last week. var dårlig. NTNU Short grammar 29 Adjectival  function   som who whom which that Det var jeg som gjorde det. was bad. was bad. .Norwegian on the Web. The fruit that was Norwegian. which was Norwegian. som var norsk.

NTNU Short grammar 30 Interjections   General Interjections are emotional expressions of feelings. sensations and so on. Do you have a brother? Yes. I have. Greetings   These words are common when you meet someone: Hei! Morn! God dag! Hallo! Hi! Good morning! Hello! Hello! . Interjections  used  for  answers   Ja “Ja” is an affirmative answer to a positive question Har du en bror? Ja. Har du ikke en bror? Nei. I don't. those that are taboo words and those that are not. det har jeg. Don't you have a brother? No. motions. I don't. det har jeg. Do you have a brother? No. Interjections can be divided into two groups. Nei “Nei” is a negative answer to a question Har du en bror? Nei. Jo “Jo” is an affirmative answer to a negative question Har du ikke en bror? Jo. Don't you have a brother? Yes.Norwegian on the Web. I have.

gerund). main clauses and subordinate clauses. Main clauses have a loose word order as any part of speech can be placed in front of the sentence. which do not indicate tempus (infinitive.Norwegian on the Web. This rule is labelled the “V2 rule”. . the adverbials in the end of the sentence can be moved to the front of the sentence as in English: YesterdayA IS borrowedV the bookO In cases like these the V2-rule is active. Subordinate clauses. the finite verb (V) must occur as the second part (2). which indicates tempus (imperative. There are two verb forms: Finite. past tense) and infinite. However. past participle. place. It is the finite verb that is occupying the second place of the sentence. however. manner are normally placed in the end: JegS lånteV bokaO i gårA IS borrowedV the bookO yesterdayA However. present tense. NTNU Short grammar 31 Sentences   There are two kinds of sentences in Norwegian. Word order Main clause Subordinate clause Loose Fixed V2 Yes No Placement of sentence adverbial After the finite verb Before the finite verb Main clause The basic word order in main clauses is SVO: Subject + Verb + Object (below as subscript S V O) JegS lånteV bokaO IS borrowedV the bookO Adverbials of time. have a fixed word order as the part of speech cannot move around. This rule says that in a Norwegian main clause the verb always is occupying the second place as in I gårA lånteV jegS bokaO YesterdayA IS borrowedV the bookO In principle any sentence element may be moved to the front of the sentence (loose word order) as long as the verb is occupying the second place (V2 rule). The sentence adverbials are in general placed after the verb. These two clause types have different properties.

Vil han ikke møte deg i byen i dag. Even though the sentences may appear as complex. Now he will not meet you in town. Subordinate clause In subordinate clauses the word order is fixed as the front field is occupied by the subjunction. the structure is strictly governed by the V2 rule. Nå vil han ikke møte deg i byen. (In main clauses it is placed behind). NTNU Short grammar 32 Negation words (“ikke” – “not” and so on) are in general placed just behind the finite verbs. In yes/no questions (3) the first place is empty so the verb is still in the second place. 2. hvis” “that.Norwegian on the Web. . if” and so on. Subordinate clauses are introduced by subjunctions like “at. 3. He will not meet you in town now. who. i byen. Han vil ikke møte deg i byen nå. The word order of Norwegian main clauses may be presented in this somewhat simplified pattern: Open Any part Finite verb Present/ Past tense Subject (If not in initial position) Sentence Infinite Objects adverbial verb (negation) Infinitive Direct Participles Indirect Adverbials Time Place Manner Because of this a Norwegian main clause can appear in different forms: Open Han Nå Finite verb vil vil Vil Subject han han Sentence adverbial (negation) ikke ikke ikke Infinite verb møte møte møte Objects deg deg deg Adverbials i byen nå. while in English it may occur on second place (1) or third place (2). i byen nå? 1. Subjunction Subject Sentence Finite adverbial verb (negation) Present/ Past tense Infinite verb Objects Adverbials Time Place Manner Infinitive Direct Participles Indirect Observe that the sentence adverbial (negation for instance) is placed in front of the finite verb in subordinate clauses. som. Will he not meet you in town now? Here you can observe that in Norwegian the finite verb occurs in second position (sentence 1. 2).

Subjunction Subject Negation Finite (sentence verb adverbial) ikke kan Infinite verb kjøpe Objects Adverbials at han mat i dag .Norwegian on the Web. NTNU Short grammar 33 The difference between the structure of a main clause and a subordinate clause can be illustrated the following way: Main clause: Subordinate clause: HanS kanV ikke kjøpe matO i dagA He cannot buy food today (Tor sier) at hanS ikke kanV kjøpe matO i dagA (Tor says) that he cannot buy food today Below the sentences are fitted into the two different structures: Main clause: Han kan ikke kjøpe mat I dag Open Finite verb kan Subject Negation Infinite (sentence verb adverbial) ikke kjøpe Objects Adverbials Han - mat i dag Subordinate clause: (Tor sier) at han ikke kan kjøpe mat I dag.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.