a. b. c. d. e. An oblique, triangular stance with one foot forward and the other to the rear, body facing about 45o. Frontal area is reduced and vital spots are turned away from the opponent. Knees are slightly flexed, especially the front knee. Balance is maintained and centered on the lower abdomen (the tanden, or "one point"). Mobility is maintained in all directions, ready to perform any of the basic footwork patterns.

Ideally Aikido has no stance: a natural body posture called shizen-tai is best. For training purposes, however, we usually employ a stance based on that use in Japanese swordsmanship. There are both right and left basic stances in a few variations. There are also two possible relationships between your stance and that of your partner. THREE BASIC VERSIONS OF HANMI no KAMAE There are several forms of HANMI stance. BASIC AIKIDO STANCE The three most commonly used in Aikido are shown at the right. All embody the principle of triangularity call "Sankaku ho". Stance 3 is known as "Ura Sankaku". All examples are shown in OPEN AIKIDO STANCE Right Oblique Stance, known as MIGI-HANMI or MIGI-GAMAE.

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1. Matching stances, known as: AI-HANMI or AI-GAMAE Both partners assume the same HANMI-GAMAE, i.e. both in HIDARI-HANMI or both in MIGI-HANMI. In this case, their stances are the same and fit together. This relationship is basic to OMOTE-WAZA, which are "frontal techniques" that enter toward the front of your AITE (training partner). HANMI NO KAMAE is basic to all Aikido movements. OMOTE WAZA 2. Opposing Stances, known as: GYAKU-HANMI or GYAKU-GAMAE Each training partner assumes a different HANMI-GAMAE, i.e. you are in HIDARI-HANMI while your AITE takes up MIGIHANMI. In this case, the points of your triangular stances oppose each other. This relationship is basic to URA-WAZA; "rear techniques" that enter into the SHIKAKU, or "BLIND SPOT", behind the shoulder of your training partner.


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There are three types of footwork: IRIMI (Enter), TENKAN (Turn), and TENTAI (Pivot)

1. ELEMENTS OF IRIMI - Irimi-Isshoku (One-step Entry)
a. Triangular stance b. c. d. e. Note: The principle of Irimi-Isshoku implies that you must reach the blind spot behind your partner in a Each type is performed as one step. single motion. In these diagrams, foot movements Enter to the "Blind Spot", shikaku are numbered; 1, 2, 3.... However, each type of Both feet must move during each step! stepping illustrated is nonetheless a single step. For example, ayumi-ashi is considered one step wherein Get off the Line of Attack both feet move. This principle is important for getting off the line of attack. This long, straight arrow in the following diagrams represents this attacking movement of your site.

Compiled, Edited, & Created by snazir77

Okuri-ashi (Transport Step Entry) Front foot moves first. & Created by snazir77 . Foot to heel Cross-step in front Cross-step behind All move from rear foot but stance will remain the same Compiled. Tsugi-ashi (Shuffle Step Entry) 1b. Ayumi-ashi (Walking Step Entry) 1c. stance unchanged. Edited. stance changes.THREE WAYS TO PERFORM IRIMI 1a. Rear foot moves first.

& Created by snazir77 . Get off the Line of Attack e.Enten no Ri (Principle of Spherical Rotation) a. ELEMENTS OF TENTAI Compiled. Triangular stance d. Triangular stance c. Revolving center b. Pivot on balls of feet with knees flexed to move center of gravity d. Fixed center b. Complete body change (tai-no-henko) 3. Edited. ELEMENTS OF TENKAN Enten no Ri (Principle of Spherical Rotation) a. get off the Line of Attack e. As usual. Revolving radius c. Complete body change (tai-no-henko) 2.

ELEMENTS OF TE-SABAKI (HANDWORK PATTERNS) a. THE FIVE BASIC HANDWORK PATTERNS (TE-GATANA NO SOSA) In Aikido. & Created by snazir77 . Uchi Mawashi Inside Rotation (lead with the little finger) Compiled. We form this "hand-blade" by holding our fingers open and extended so that the heel of the palm and bottom of the arm are elongated while the top of the arm remains relatively relaxed. Head erect over relaxed neck and shoulders Open the hands and extend fingers as if lightly holding a large ball with both hands The natural curve of arms is maintained during movement Move up from the thumb and down from the little finger Get off the Line of Attack 2. Edited. 1. Sometimes the basic te-sabaki are referred to as the te-gatana no sosa. d. b. Soto-Gaeshi Outside Reverse (lead with the thumb) 2.FIVE BASIC HANDWORK 1. Soto-Mawashi Outside Rotation (lead with the little finger) 3. the katana. c. e. In this manner the natural curve of the arm resembles the shape of a Japanese sword. the hand is often referred to as the "te-gatana" (literally the "hand sword").TE-SABAKI . or "the use of the hand-blade".

Edited. you may finish by grasping your thumb) (Usually accompanied by Irimi-tenkan footwork) Compiled.4. Oh-Mawashi Giant Rotation (up with the thumb. & Created by snazir77 . down with the little finger) (In drills. Uchi-Gaeshi Inside Reverse (lead with the thumb) 5.

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& Created by snazir77 Sankyo third immobilization Yonkyo fourth immobilization .BASIC IMMOBILIZATIONS Ikkyo first immobilization Nikkyo second immobilization Compiled. Edited.

Edited. & Created by snazir77 .Gokyu fifth immobilization Rokyo sixth immobilization Compiled.

Edited. Ki Taiso (health exercises) These exercises are designed to realign the body and gently increase blood supply to muscles with a specific movement. Rotate the Trunk 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Perform Twice Bend the Trunk Laterally 1-2 3-4 5-7 7-8 Perform Twice Compiled. & Created by snazir77 .Aikido Exercises The exercises at the beginning of the lesson are designed to warm the muscles. thereby increasing strength and flexibility. enhance flexibility and co-ordination whilst mimicking the basic movements of Aikido.

Edited. & Created by snazir77 .Bend the Trunk 1-2 3-4 5-8 7-8 Perform Twice Shoulder Blade Exercise 1-2 3-4 5-9 7-8 Perform Twice Lateral Neck Rotation 1-2 3-4 5-10 7-8 Perform Twice Compiled.

Edited. & Created by snazir77 .Forward & Back Neck Rotation 1-2 3-4 5-11 7-8 Perform Twice Left & Right Neck Rotation 1-2 3-4 5-12 7-8 Perform Twice Flexing the Knees 1-2 3-4 5-13 7-8 Perform Twice Compiled.

Edited.Stretching the Knees 1-2 3-4 5-14 7-8 Perform Twice Rotating the Arm 1-2 3-4 5-15 7-8 Perform Twice Rotate both Arms 1-2 3-4 5-16 7-8 Perform Twice Compiled. & Created by snazir77 .

Rotate Arms & Bend Knees 1-2 3-4 5-17 7-8 Perform Twice Stretching Once the muscles have warmed up it is safe to gently stretch them. Edited. Forward Count 1-2-3-4-5 Perform Twice Left & Right Count 1-2-3-4-5 Perform Twice Compiled. & Created by snazir77 .

Edited.Forward Count 1-2-3-4-5 Perform Twice Forward Count 1-2-3-4-5 Perform Twice Back Stretch Left/Right & Back to Centre Count 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4. & Created by snazir77 . Compiled.

Many people incorrectly stretch ‘to warm up’ the muscles. It also increases the risk of damaging muscle tissue when moving into full exercise or technique. & Created by snazir77 . Edited. Stretching cold stiff muscles can result in overstretching and tends to damage ligaments and tendons. Compiled.

The large movements increase the heart rate and further encourage blood supply to the muscles. Hitori Waza are single. partners. Forward arm "draws sword.Hitori Waza (Single Person Techniques) These exercises are a precursor to practicing Aikido techniques with a partner. Compiled." the left foot steps forward in position of next exercise. On "4. Waza = techniques.person techniques to develop balance and coordination and to pattern the basic movements of Aikido technique. They are being the building blocks of good technique and final set of exercises to warm the muscles and prepare the body for Aikido practice. Edited." Let arms swing out horizontally while turning. Count 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 Udefuri Chuyaku Waza Swing arms from side to side while stepping and turning 180 degrees. Translation Note: Hitori = one person. & Created by snazir77 Left Count Right Count 1 2 . Udefuri Waza Swing arms from side to side without moving shoulders. Perform 4 times. Kumi = a pair.

switch feet. Edited. left-right-left-right. 4 sets. 2 sets. Compiled.Sayu Waza Swing arms to side. Perform 4 times Left Count Right Count 1-2 3-4 Ushiro Ukemi Waza Sit down and roll backwards-forwards. left-right-left-right. 4 sets. & Created by snazir77 . Perform 4 times Left Count Right Count 1-2 3-4 Sayu Chuyaku Waza Swing arms to side as well as sideways step-hop-step.

Perform 4 times Compiled. Edited. & Created by snazir77 Count 1-2 Turn 1800 3-4 . right. Ikkyo Waza Throw ball up in air. right-left-right. Repeat around the mat. Change hammi between "4-1.Zenpo Kaiten Waza Roll forward and stand up. Left." Left Count Right Count 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 Zengo Waza Same as Ikkyo but turn 180 degrees between "2-3/4-5/6-7".

2 sets. Step left. turn right in 8 directions. Zenshin Koshin Waza Backward-forward step-hop-step.Happo Waza Similar to Ikkyo. & Created by snazir77 . Edited. Left Count Right Count 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 Compiled. Speed up on second set. left-right.

right.Funekogi Waza Rowing exercise. Change hammi between "4-1. Perform Twice Left Count Right Count 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 Compiled. thus stretching the left wrist. lay the outside of the left hand in the palm of the right hand. Edited. & Created by snazir77 . Left." Left Count Right Count 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 1-2 1-2 1-2 3-4 Nikkyo Waza With hands down. Bring both hands up and both elbows down.

Place right hand on top and let fingers wrap around left hand. & Created by snazir77 Perform Twice Left Hand on Top Right Hand on Top 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 . and put right thumb between the knuckles of the left little and ring finger. 4 sets. thus stretching the left wrist. Wrap fingers of right hand around thumb of left hand. Perform Twice Left Count Right Count 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 Kaho Tekubi Kosa Waza Swing arms and cross in front of One-Point. Bring both hands elbows down. Edited. Perform Twice Left Count Right Count 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 Kotegaeshi Waza With hands up. Stretch left hand forward. alternating with one hand on top of the other. Compiled. left-right-left-right. lay the outside of the left hand in the palm of the right hand.Sankyo Waza Hold left hand out as if to see what time it is.

& Created by snazir77Left Perform Four Times Count Right Count 1-2 3-4 . 4 sets. change feet between "2-3. alternating with one hand on top of the other.Joho Tekubi Kosa Waza Swing arms and cross in front of face. Edited. move up to rabbit ears. 4 sets. 4 sets. step forward and "brush off" hanger-on with hip movement. Perform Four Times Left Count Right Count 1-2 3-4 Ushiro Tekubi Tori Zenshin Waza (forward) Arms at side. left-right-left-right. left-right-left-right. Perform Twice Left Hand on Top Right Hand on Top 1-2-3-4 1-2-3-4 Ushiro Tori Waza Open jacket. step forward and bow." Compiled.

Edited. 4 sets." Perform Four Times Left Count Right Count 1-2 3-4 Another very important exercise that you will sometimes practice during Hitori Waza is the following exercise: Tenkan Waza Tenkan = turning movement. especially turning the body 180° Compiled. move up to rabbit ears. & Created by snazir77 . step backward and bow.Ushiro Tekubi Tori Koshin Waza (backward) Arms at side. change feet between "2-3.

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The right arm moves up and down.. read on." Expel all air and cease to exhale until the very last clap. climb up long stairs. the in-out cycle lasts between 30 and 60+ seconds. and to lead the energy of the attack in circles back to the attacker. and hold a suzu (misogi bell) in your right hand. The most important technique in Aikido is to not be there when the attack arrives. The bell should make one single noise on the down stroke. Edited. . This requires Ki. Ki breathing is described in detail in "Ki In Daily Life" by Koichi Tohei. you must be in the center of the circle in order to control the movements. (Adjust number for amount of strain. it is time for Ki breathing. Everything in Aikido is done in big circles .) Keep this rhythm until you get where you are going. You sit seiza. Breathing is the most important of all because if you do not breath. All techniques are combinations of circles. or otherwise do some strenuous activity. The underlined syllables mark the down stroke. Even when doing the smallest movement. when you walk down the stairs again. At the last exhale. you breathe in through the nose all the way down to your One-Point and cease to inhale. 30 degrees to the right). As you march. The strokes make up the rhythm for the chant. • Ki Breathing After class. thus signaling "this is the last one. and kinetic energy into a graceful dance. breathe out for 5 steps. you exhale through the throat to the sound of "Haaaa" to the end of the Universe and cease to exhale. & the accents shift The tempo and Created by snazir77 throughout the exercise. When Sensei claps the hyoshigi (wooden clappers). as if cutting with bokken. When Sensei claps again. then breathe in for 5 steps. be it a punch. in a zig-zag pattern. when heart and lungs have returned to their normal rate of operation. • Cadence Breathing Suzuki Sensei told us at a summer camp about the allied soldiers in the Far East jungles. kick. Depending on the participants. • Misogi Breathing Misogi breathing requires the proper seating. but along the direction of the right leg (appr. You sit seiza. The right arm is to be relaxed. Compiled. The Basic Movements in Aikido are: • • to move out of the way of the attack. like a bokken. or it will HURT the next day.the motion that requires the least amount of energy expenditure.. not like buckshot on a tin roof. Reserve your talking 'til you're done the walking! Also. Sensei claps repeatedly. The bell is held lightly. and the proper beating. as in Ki breathing. centrifugal force. you turn purple and fall over. For more on the subject. blade or bullet. you may want to walk diagonally. but with it's body down.Basic Aikido One could say that O'Sensei translated Newton's principles of gravity.

TO-HO-KA-MI-E-MI-TA-ME. i.e. 2 beats to the chant. & Created by snazir77 .e.e. Edited. i. The actual duration of the whole exercise varies. Compiled.. then finally TOHOKAMI-EMITAME. then TO-HO-KAMI-EMI-TAME... per recommendations of Suzuki Sensei. but expect between 20 and 60 minutes. 5 beats to the chant. i. 8 beats to the chant.

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