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INTRODUCTION Goodwill means the reputation of a Business concern which enables businessmen to earn extra profit, as compared to other concern. Goodwill means various advantages of reputation and connections of a business. Mr. Kohler defines goodwill as “the current value of expected future income in excess or normal return on the investment in net tangible assets:”
NEED FOR VALUATION The need for valuation of goodwill depends on the form of a business organisation. The circumstances in which the goodwill is valued are given below. Form of Business Organisation Sole proprietor Partnership firm Need for valuation Sale of business Conversion into partnership Admission of partner Retirement / Death of partner Change in profit sharing ratio Amalgamation of firm Dissolution on account of sale of business. Conversion into Private / public Limited company. Mergers / Acquisitions of business Transfer of controlling block of shares Sale of Business Conversion of one class of shares into another.
value of Goodwill may differ due to different method used. It can not valued in isolation. Because off Goodwill a firm is able to earn excess profits than the other firms in the same class of business. . 6. 8. 5. 7.CHARACTERISTICS OF GOODWILL : 1. In certain cases it is not transferable. 2. It has value only on going concern basis. 4. 3. It is an intangible or invisible asset. It is either created internally or purchased from outside. It is subject to fluctuation due to internal as well as external factors in value. It’s value is not fixed. Its valuation is attached to the total value of the business.
which was previously written off. 2) When stock exchange quotations not being available. In case of joint stock company the necessity of valuation of goodwill arises in the following circumstances: 1) When the business of the company is taken over by another company. When a new partner is admitted. When a partner retires or dies and 4. 3. 5) When the company is being taken over by the government. wealth tax etc. . 2. Whenever there is change in constitution of the business and partnership deed. 4) When the management wants to write back goodwill. When the firm sells it is business to a company or is amalgamated with another firm. 1. e. shares have to be valued for taxation purpose e. mergers. 3) When large stock of shares of the company have to be bought or sold.NEED FOR VALUATION OF GOODWILL : In case of partnership firm the necessity of valuating goodwill arises in connection with the following. When there is a change in the profit-sharing ratio among the partners. absorptions. amalgamations.g.g.
it is necessary to revalue various Assets as guidelines issued by I. Fixed Assets As.VALUATION OF ASSETS : When Goodwill is be raised / valued. 26 As. 16 As. : Accounting for Taxes on Income (e.) Liabilities As. A. : Depreciation : Fixed Assets : Government Grants Received / receivable for revenue expenses or capital expenditure. 1. As. 6. C. 29 . 28 As. 10. As. 22 liabilities) As. . : Borrowing Cost : Leases (Treatment of various types of lease Assets in the books of lessce lessor. Deferred tax.g. some of these are stated below. assets and : Intangible Assets : Impairment of Assets :Provisions. I. 12. 19 As. Contingent and contingent Assets.
policies. M. P. the profit of the previous year can be considered. a) Simple average profit = Total Profit No.P] Determination of Future maintainable profit under normal circumstances is most important and complicated task: F. Such business profit should be making adjusted to make it acceptable for averaging. P. is subject to evolution of many factors such as capability of company’s management. M. non operating expenses and incomes are not to be considered. Average profit may be simple average or weighted average profit. of years b) When profit shows increasing on depreciating tendency weighted average profit should be calculated. M. Weighted Average profit = Total weighted profits / products Total weights . P. if necessary. general and economical trend etc. For determining F. It is decided on the basis of average post Trading profits subject to certain changes that may have effect on future earning of the business concerns.DETERMINATION OF FUTURE MAINTAINABLE PROFIT [F. future govt. 1) Calculation of past average earnings : In order to calculate F.M.
likely to incurred in future X ii) Income earned in past but not expected to earn.P. Particulars Average Trading profit after tax Add: Income Tax + ⎡ W. P. before Tax Note : Goodwill can be classified Less : Income Tax (Revised) F. political parties etc.A.T. after as i) Purchased Goodwill Tax ii) Internet Goodwill iii) Goodwill due to various associate with Govt. P. iii) Abnormal gain credited to profit & Loss A/c F.Calculation of F. X X X (x ) X X Y (X ) X X / . P. M. x Tax Rate ⎤ ` X X ` ⎥ Income tax rate ⎣ z ⎦ X Average Profit before Tax X Add: Increase in profit in X Future i) Saving in expenses X ii) Additional income likely to earn in future Less : i) Additional Exp. M. M.
means the rate of return that will satisfy an ordinary investor in the industry concerned. It is also depends upon business risk as well as financial risk in the business. = Dividend per equity share in similar Co.NORMAL RATE OF RETURN [N. R. R.] The term N. R. R. R. R. R. Market value per share in similar company Note : N. may adjusted for various changes in the basis satiation related to business concern . N. NRR differs from industry to industry. R.
Non Trading assets such as investments in shares should be excluded.CAPITAL EMPLOYED The goodwill of a business depends on the amount of capital employed also. E.½ of the profit earned during the year. Average Capital employed can be calculated from given Balance Sheet on the particular date. It is the present value of tangible trading assets minus all liabilities. Such as goodwill useless patents and Trade marks should be excluded. Similarly intangible assets. = Closing capital . It is calculated as under: . It is considered desirable to use average capital employed in place of capital employed since capital employed as calculated from the balance sheet will be on a certain date only Average capital employed can be calculated as under : C. = opening capital + closing capital 2 OR = Opening capital × ½ of profit earned during the year or A.
X Tangible capital employed at the end of the year. Less Average capital employed ` XX (X )X (X) XX Note: Half of profit earned should be deducted only when profit was not withdrawn. : Half of the profit earned during the year.g. non trade X investment. debentures loans. ii) Goodwill and fictitious assets shown in the balance sheet should be excluded. e. Note : Capital employed represents the fair value of Net Tangible Trading Assets used in the business for earning the profits. differed revenue expenditure) Less: Third parties liabilities payable recorded as well as unrecorded. iii) Unproductive assets should be excluded. fictitious assets.ASSETS SIDE APPROACH ` All tangible trading Assets at revised X value Otherwise at book value recorded as will as X unrecorded assets (except goodwill. . X current liabilities provisions etc. i) Non trade investment should be excluded.
viii)Works men compensation fund is liability to the extent actual amount payable. ix) Liabilities relating to non-trade assets should be excluded .iv) Assets should taken at fair value to the business. v) External recorded or unrecorded liabilities should considered at amount payable. vii) Works men profit shearing fund is liability. premium payable on redemption of debentures etc] vi) Debenture redemption fund is not a liability.e. [i.
It is adjusted owners fund (share holders fund).capital) Add: Reserves and surplus (accumulated profits) Add : Revaluation OR Profits Less : i) Revaluation loss X ii) Fictitious assets X iii) Non Trading Assets X Trading capital employed at the end of the year Less : Half of the profit earned should be deducted only if profit was not withdrawn Average capital employed xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx (xx) xxxx .LIABILITY SIDE APPROACH Liability side approach may be adopted for deciding average capital employed. It can be calculated as under: ` Paid up share capital (equity + Preference share.
• NO. P. of years purchase. • NO. Goodwill = Average adjusted Trade net profit X no. pays to the vendor the amount of goodwill.METHODS OF VALUATION OF GOODWILL • NO. OF YEARS PURCHASED METHOD Under this method net profit of past few years is worked out. after adjusting non-recurring factors as well as expected future events which were not there in the past are also considered. M.P.M. OF YEARS PURCHASE OF SALES OR GROSS FEES Under this method the purchaser usually professional firms. Goodwill = F. Goodwill is valued either by adding the profit of post three years or by considering average trade net profit. OF YEARS OF PURCHASE OF FUTURE Under this method the profits which are likely to be earned in future over the certain period of time are first estimated. The period for gross fees received or net sales are settled by agreement between buyer and vendor. This method is very simple and suitable for valuation of goodwill of professional firms.) past profits over the years. calculated on the basis of net sales or fees received during the particular period. of years purchase. . x No. To arrive at Future Maintainable Profits (F.
M. Normal profit = Average Capital Employed × NRR 100 . It is decided on the basis of average capital employed and normal rate of return expected by the investors on capital employed. Normal Profit It is average profit earned by the similar concern in the industry. M. Super profit is excess of F. over normal profit. P. Super Profit = F. – Normal profit.• SUPER PROFIT METHOD In this case the future maintainable profits of the firm are compared with the normal profits of the firm super profit is the excess OR the profit earned by firm over the normal profit earned by the concern. P.
the more difficult it in future to maintain. of years of purchase will differ from industry to industry and from firm to firm. This method tries to find out the amount of capital required for earning the super profit. . It is based on assumption that the greater amount OR super profit. 2) Capitalization of super profit Under this method the amount of super profit is capitalized at the normal rate of return. R. R. If the super profit is greater more possibility of competition and therefore is difficult to maintain the same over the many years. Goodwill = super profit N.METHODS OF VALUATION OF GOODWILL UNDER SUPER PROFIT 1) Purchase OR Super Profit Method Goodwill = Super profit x no. × 100 3) Sliding scale of valuation of super profit This method is the variation of the purchased method. of years purchase under this method the no.
000 x 1) Goodwill ` 4) Annuity method of Super Profit 75.000 Annuity takes into consideration time value money. of years purchase. 25. E. descending order from the first division.In this method the super profit is divided in two or three divisions / slide each of this is multiplied by different no. 25.000 x 2) Third Rs.50. Goodwill = Super Profit x Reference to annuity table . Payment of Goodwill is made immediately for Super Profit likely to be earned in future.000 1. Goodwill in this case is the discounted value of the Super Profit. 25. If super profit is estimated Rs.000 x 3) Second Rs.000 goodwill be calculated as under: ` First Rs.000 say three years purchases (25.000 50.g.000 for two years purchases (25.000 25. 75.000 one years purchases (25.
M. Capitalised value of F. Step 3: Net tangible Trading Assets Total Tangible Trading Assets x Less : Third parties liabilities payable (x) -----------Net Tangible Trading Assets x Step 4: Goodwill = Capitalized value of F. M. P. Note : The value of Goodwill remains the same in case of capitalization of super profit or capitalization of F.M. over net tangible trading assets. .Net Tangible Trading Assets.R. goodwill is the excess of capitalize & value of F.R.5) Capitalisation of F. = F. M. P. P. M. method Under this method. Step 1: Step 2: Find out F. P. P. P. M. M.P. × 100 N. . Following are the steps to taken for valuating Goodwill under this method.
VALUATION OF SHARES AND BUSINESS .
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