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Time Value Of Money
Time Value Of Money

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1
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY
Himanshu Puri
Faculty, ABS
Amity University, Haryana
What is Time Value?
 We say that money has a time value because that money can
be invested with the expectation of earning a positive rate of
return
 In other words, “a dollar received today is worth more than a
dollar to be received tomorrow”
 That is because today’s dollar can be invested so that we have
more than one dollar tomorrow
The Interest Rate
Obviously, $10,000 today.
You already recognize that there is TIME
VALUE TO MONEY!!
Which would you prefer -- $10,000 today
or $10,000 in 5 years?
Why TIME?
TIME allows you the opportunity to postpone
consumption and earn INTEREST.

Why is TIME such an important element in
your decision?
2
2
The Terminology of Time Value
 Present Value - An amount of money today, or the current
value of a future cash flow
 Future Value - An amount of money at some future time
period
 Period - A length of time (often a year, but can be a month,
week, day, hour, etc.)
 Interest Rate - The compensation paid to a lender (or saver)
for the use of funds expressed as a percentage for a period
(normally expressed as an annual rate)
Timelines
 A timeline is a graphical device used to clarify the timing
of the cash flows for an investment
 Each tick represents one time period
0 1 2 3 4 5
PV FV
Today
Types of Interest
 Compound Interest
Interest paid (earned) on any previous interest
earned, as well as on the principal borrowed
(lent).
Simple Interest
Interest paid (earned) on only the original
amount, or principal, borrowed (lent).
Simple Interest Formula
Formula SI = P
0
(i)(n)
SI: Simple Interest
P
0
: Deposit today (t=0)
i: Interest Rate per Period
n: Number of Time Periods
3
3
Simple Interest Example
SI = P
0
(i)(n)
= $1,000(.07)(2)
= $140
 Assume that you deposit $1,000 in an account
earning 7% simple interest for 2 years. What
is the accumulated interest at the end of the 2nd
year?
Simple Interest (FV)
FV = P
0
+ SI
= $1,000 + $140
= $1,140
 Future Value is the value at some future time of a
present amount of money, or a series of payments,
evaluated at a given interest rate.
 What is the Future Value (FV) of the deposit?
Simple Interest (PV)
The Present Value is simply the $1,000
you originally deposited. That is the
value today!
 Present Value is the current value of a future
amount of money, or a series of payments,
evaluated at a given interest rate.
 What is the Present Value (PV) of the previous
problem?
Calculating the Future Value
 Suppose that you have an extra $100 today that you wish
to invest for one year. If you can earn 10% per year on
your investment, how much will you have in one year?
0 1 2 3 4 5
-100 ?
( ) FV
1
100 1 010 110 = + = .
4
4
Calculating the Future Value (cont.)
 Suppose that at the end of year 1 you decide to extend the
investment for a second year. How much will you have
accumulated at the end of year 2?
0 1 2 3 4 5
-110 ?
( )( )
( )
FV
or
FV
2
2
2
100 1 010 1 010 121
100 1 010 121
= + + =
= + =
. .
.
Generalizing the Future Value
 Recognizing the pattern that is developing, we
can generalize the future value calculations as
follows:
( ) FV PV i
N
N
= + 1
 If you extended the investment for a third
year, you would have:
( ) FV
3
3
100 1 010 13310 = + = . .
Compound Interest
 Note from the example that the future value is increasing at
an increasing rate
 In other words, the amount of interest earned each year is
increasing
 Year 1: $10
 Year 2: $11
 Year 3: $12.10
 The reason for the increase is that each year you are
earning interest on the interest that was earned in previous
years in addition to the interest on the original principle
amount
General Future Value Formula
FV
1
= P
0
(1+i)
1

FV
2
= P
0
(1+i)
2


General Future Value Formula:
FV
n
= P
0
(1+i)
n

or FV
n
= P
0
(FVIF
i,n
) -- See Table 1
etc.
5
5
FV
2
= $1,000 (FVIF
7%,2
)
= $1,000 (1.145)
= $1,145 [Due to Rounding]
Using Future Value Tables
Period 6% 7% 8%
1 1.060 1.070 1.080
2 1.124 1.145 1.166
3 1.191 1.225 1.260
4 1.262 1.311 1.360
5 1.338 1.403 1.469
Story Problem Example
Julie Miller wants to know how large her deposit of
$10,000 today will become at a compound annual
interest rate of 10% for 5 years.
0 1 2 3 4 5
$10,000
FV
5
10%
Story Problem Solution
 Calculation based on Table I:
FV
5
= $10,000 (FVIF
10%, 5
)
= $10,000 (1.611)
= $16,110 [Due to Rounding]
 Calculation based on general formula:
FV
n
= P
0
(1+i)
n

FV
5
= $10,000 (1+ 0.10)
5

= $16,105.10
Calculating the Present Value
 So far, we have seen how to calculate the future
value of an investment
 But we can turn this around to find the amount
that needs to be invested to achieve some
desired future value:
( )
PV
FV
i
N
N
=
+ 1
6
6
Present Value
Assume that you need $1,000 in 2 years. Let’s
examine the process to determine how much you
need to deposit today at a discount rate of 7%
compounded annually.
0 1 2
$1,000
7%
PV
1
PV
0
Present Value
PV
0
= FV
2
/ (1+i)
2
= $1,000 / (1.07)
2
= FV
2

/ (1+i)
2
= $873.44
0 1 2
$1,000
7%
PV
0
General Present Value Formula
PV
0
= FV
1
/ (1+i)
1

PV
0
= FV
2
/ (1+i)
2


General Present Value Formula:
PV
0
= FV
n
/ (1+i)
n

or PV
0
= FV
n
(PVIF
i,n
) -- See Table II
etc.
PV
2
= $1,000 (PVIF
7%,2
)
= $1,000 (.873)
= $873 [Due to Rounding]
Using Present Value Tables
Period 6% 7% 8%
1 .943 .935 .926
2 .890 .873 .857
3 .840 .816 .794
4 .792 .763 .735
5 .747 .713 .681
7
7
Story Problem Example
Julie Miller wants to know how large of a deposit
to make so that the money will grow to $10,000 in
5 years at a discount rate of 10%.
0 1 2 3 4 5
$10,000
PV
0
10%
Story Problem Solution
 Calculation based on general formula:
PV
0
= FV
n
/ (1+i)
n

PV
0
= $10,000 / (1+ 0.10)
5

= $6,209.21
 Calculation based on Table I:
PV
0
= $10,000 (PVIF
10%, 5
)
= $10,000 (.621)
= $6,210.00 [Due to Rounding]
Present Value: An Example
 Suppose that your five-year old daughter has just
announced her desire to attend college. After some
research, you determine that you will need about $100,000
on her 18th birthday to pay for four years of college. If
you can earn 8% per year on your investments, how much
do you need to invest today to achieve your goal?
( )
PV = =
100 000
108
769 79
13
,
.
$36, .
Annuities
 An annuity is a series of nominally equal payments equally
spaced in time
 Annuities are very common:
 Rent
 Mortgage payments
 Car payment
 Pension income
 The timeline shows an example of a 5-year, $100 annuity
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
8
8
The Principle of Value Additivity
 How do we find the value (PV or FV) of an annuity?
 First, you must understand the principle of value
additivity:
 The value of any stream of cash flows is equal to the
sum of the values of the components
 In other words, if we can move the cash flows to the
same time period we can simply add them all
together to get the total value
Present Value of an Annuity
 We can use the principle of value additivity to find the
present value of an annuity, by simply summing the present
values of each of the components:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
PV
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
A
t
t
t
N
N
N
=
+
=
+
+
+
+ · · · +
+
=
¿
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
2
2
Example PVA
PVA
3
= $1,000/(1.07)
1
+
$1,000/(1.07)
2
+
$1,000/(1.07)
3

= $934.58 + $873.44 + $816.30
= $2,624.32
$1,000 $1,000 $1,000
0 1 2 3 4
$2,624.32 = PVA
3
7%
$934.58
$873.44
$816.30
Cash flows occur at the end of the period
PVA
n
= R (PVIFA
i%,n
)
PVA
3
= $1,000 (PVIFA
7%,3
)
= $1,000 (2.624) = $2,624
Using Table IV
Period 6% 7% 8%
1 0.943 0.935 0.926
2 1.833 1.808 1.783
3 2.673 2.624 2.577
4 3.465 3.387 3.312
5 4.212 4.100 3.993
9
9
Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)
 Using the example, and assuming a discount rate of 10%
per year, we find that the present value is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
PV
A
= + + + + =
100
110
100
110
100
110
100
110
100
110
379 08
1 2 3 4 5
. . . . .
.
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
62.09
68.30
75.13
82.64
90.91
379.08
The Future Value of an Annuity
 We can also use the principle of value additivity to find the
future value of an annuity, by simply summing the future
values of each of the components:
( ) ( ) ( ) FV Pmt i Pmt i Pmt i Pmt
A t
N t
t
N
N N
N
= + = + + + + · · · +
÷
=
÷ ÷
¿
1 1 1
1
1
1
2
2
Example FVA
FVA
3
= $1,000(1.07)
2
+
$1,000(1.07)
1
+ $1,000(1.07)
0

= $1,145 + $1,070 + $1,000
= $3,215
$1,000 $1,000 $1,000
0 1 2 3 4
$3,215 = FVA
3
7%
$1,070
$1,145
Cash flows occur at the end of the period
FVA
n
= R (FVIFA
i%,n
)
FVA
3
= $1,000 (FVIFA
7%,3
)
= $1,000 (3.215) = $3,215
Using Table III
Period 6% 7% 8%
1 1.000 1.000 1.000
2 2.060 2.070 2.080
3 3.184 3.215 3.246
4 4.375 4.440 4.506
5 5.637 5.751 5.867
10
10
The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)
 Using the example, and assuming a discount rate of 10%
per year, we find that the future value is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) FV
A
= + + + + = 100 110 100 110 100 110 100 110 100 61051
4 3 2 1
. . . . .
100 100 100 100 100
0 1 2 3 4 5
146.41
133.10
121.00
110.00
}
= 610.51
at year 5
Uneven Cash Flows
 Very often an investment offers a stream of cash
flows which are not either a lump sum or an annuity
 We can find the present or future value of such a
stream by using the principle of value additivity
Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (1)
 Assume that an investment offers the following cash flows.
If your required return is 7%, what is the maximum price
that you would pay for this investment?
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 200 300
( ) ( ) ( )
PV = + + =
100
107
200
107
300
107
51304
1 2 3
. . .
.
Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (2)
 Suppose that you were to deposit the following amounts in
an account paying 5% per year. What would the balance
of the account be at the end of the third year?
0 1 2 3 4 5
300 500 700
( ) ( ) FV= + + = 300 105 500 105 700 155575
2 1
. . , .
11
11
Mixed Flows Example
Julie Miller will receive the set of cash flows
below. What is the Present Value at a discount
rate of 10%.
0 1 2 3 4 5
$600 $600 $400 $400 $100
PV
0
10%
“Piece-At-A-Time”
0 1 2 3 4 5
$600 $600 $400 $400 $100
10%
$545.45
$495.87
$300.53
$273.21
$ 62.09
$1677.15 = PV
0
of the Mixed Flow
Non-annual Compounding
 So far we have assumed that the time period is equal to a
year
 However, there is no reason that a time period can’t be any
other length of time
 We could assume that interest is earned semi-annually,
quarterly, monthly, daily, or any other length of time
 The only change that must be made is to make sure that the
rate of interest is adjusted to the period length
Non-annual Compounding (cont.)
 Suppose that you have $1,000 available for investment.
After investigating the local banks, you have compiled the
following table for comparison. In which bank should you
deposit your funds?
Bank Interest Rate Compounding
First National 10% Annual
Second National 10% Monthly
Third National 10% Daily
12
12
Non-annual Compounding (cont.)
 To solve this problem, you need to determine which bank
will pay you the most interest
 In other words, at which bank will you have the highest
future value?
 To find out, let’s change our basic FV equation slightly:
FV PV
i
m
Nm
= +
|
\

|
.
|
1
In this version of the equation ‘m’ is the number of
compounding periods per year
Non-annual Compounding (cont.)
 We can find the FV for each bank as follows:
( ) FV = = 1 000 110 1100
1
, . ,
FV = +
|
\

|
.
|
= 1 000 1
010
12
1104 71
12
,
.
, .
FV = +
|
\

|
.
|
= 1 000 1
010
365
110516
365
,
.
, .
First National Bank:
Second National Bank:
Third National Bank:
Obviously, you should choose the Third National Bank
Impact of Frequency
Julie Miller has $1,000 to invest for 2 Years at an annual
interest rate of 12%.
Annual FV
2
= 1,000(1+ [.12/1])
(1)(2)

= 1,254.40
Semi FV
2
= 1,000(1+ [.12/2])
(2)(2)

= 1,262.48
Impact of Frequency
Qrtly FV
2
= 1,000(1+ [.12/4])
(4)(2)

= 1,266.77
Monthly FV
2
= 1,000(1+ [.12/12])
(12)(2)

= 1,269.73
Daily FV
2
= 1,000(1+[.12/365])
(365)(2)

= 1,271.20
13
13
Effective Annual
Interest Rate
Effective Annual Interest Rate
The actual rate of interest earned (paid) after
adjusting the nominal rate for factors such as
the number of compounding periods per
year.

(1 + [ i / m ] )
m
- 1
BWs Effective
Annual Interest Rate
Basket Wonders (BW) has a $1,000 CD at the bank.
The interest rate is 6% compounded quarterly for 1
year. What is the Effective Annual Interest Rate
(EAR)?
EAR = ( 1 + 6% / 4 )
4
- 1
= 1.0614 - 1 = .0614 or 6.14%!
Steps to Amortizing a Loan
1. Calculate the payment per period.
2. Determine the interest in Period t.
(Loan Balance at t-1) x (i% / m)
3. Compute principal payment in Period t.
(Payment - Interest from Step 2)
4. Determine ending balance in Period t.
(Balance - principal payment from Step 3)
5. Start again at Step 2 and repeat.
Amortizing a Loan Example
Julie Miller is borrowing $10,000 at a compound
annual interest rate of 12%. Amortize the loan if
annual payments are made for 5 years.
Step 1: Payment
PV
0
= R (PVIFA
i%,n
)
$10,000 = R (PVIFA
12%,5
)
$10,000 = R (3.605)
R = $10,000 / 3.605 = $2,774
14
14
Amortizing a Loan Example
End of
Year
Payment Interest Principal Ending
Balance
0 --- --- --- $10,000
1 $2,774 $1,200 $1,574 8,426
2 2,774 1,011 1,763 6,663
3 2,774 800 1,974 4,689
4 2,774 563 2,211 2,478
5 2,775 297 2,478 0
$13,871 $3,871 $10,000
[Last Payment Slightly Higher Due to Rounding]

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