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Blender 3D Noob to Pro - Advanced Tutorials

Blender 3D Noob to Pro - Advanced Tutorials

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Published by Ahmad Musaffa
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Published by: Ahmad Musaffa on Mar 03, 2009
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ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - Advanced TutorIaIs/IrInt versIon... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...

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BIender 3D: Noob to Pro - Advanced
Tutor¡aIslPr¡nt vers¡on
Irom WIkIbooks, the open-content textbooks coIIectIon
TabIe of Contents
Advanced Tutor¡aIs
Python Scr¡pt¡ng
¡ntroductIon
£xport scrIpts
¡mport scrIpts
IroceduraI object creatIon
ScrIpts Ior modIIyInq meshes
CreatInq a G!¡ Ior your scrIpt
Advanced An¡mat¡on
¡ntroductIon
GuIded tour.
Armature Object
Armature Object In Object Mode
Armature Object In £dIt Mode
Armature Object In Iose mode
Mesh Object
ConnectIon between Armature and Mesh
£nveIope
Vertex Groups S WeIqht IaInt
Shape Keys
IIp-Sync wIth Shape Keys
ConstraInts
Copy IocatIon
Copy ÐotatIon
Track-To
IIoor
Iocked Track
IoIIow Iath
Stretch-To
¡K SoIver
ActIon
TImeIIne WIndow
¡IO WIndow
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Ðata Type
ChanneI
Curve £dItIon
ÐrIven ¡IO
ActIon WIndow
¡ntroductIon To ActIon Ðata ÐIock
Key £dItIon
ÞIA WIndow
¡ntroductIon To ÞIA £dItor
Key £dItor ¡n the ÞIA
StrIp £dItIon
StrIp's IropertIes (ÞK£Y)
The StrIde Ieature
WorkInq exampIe. Ðob
ÐuIId The ÐIq
ÐeIorm The Mesh
Create A WaIk CycIe
WorkInq exampIe. IIston, Ðod and Crank
Advanced Tutor¡aIs
Next Page: Python Scr¡pt¡ng
Frevious Fcge: Build c skybox
Author. Anthony Gomez (£xtensor) Ðate. March 5, 2005
Short ÐescrIptIon. ÐVK tutorIaI
Ietters In brackets Ie.(z) mean there Is addItIon InIormatIon at the bottom oI the
paqe.
¡ntroduct¡on:
ThIs tutorIaI Is meant to stop aII the ÐVK (ÐeIatIve Vertex Keys) questIons.
W¡ndow ¡ayout:
Set the IeIt haII oI the screen as 3Ð VIew. The other haII Is dIvIded In two. The top Is
ActIon and the bottom Is ¡IO (set to vertex dIspIay).
Sett¡ng your NeutraI Pose
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Make sure you are on the IIrst Irame (a). WIth the cursor over the 3Ð VIew, seIect the mesh
you want to anImate. (mesh In object mode) and press the ¡ key. SeIect Mesh Irom the pop
up menu then ÐeIatIve Keys Irom the next pop up menu. A IIne wIII appear In the ¡IO vIew.
ThIs IIne Is your neutraI pose.
Sett¡ng up your add¡t¡onaI Pose ¡¡nes
Þow, IIqure out how many key Irames you wIII need. ¡I you want to move both eyebrows up
and down then you wIII need 4 addItIonaI ¡IO IInes.
IeIt Ðrow !p IeIt Ðrow Ðown ÐIqht Ðrow !p ÐIqht Ðrow Ðown
Iress the up arrow (cursor key) to move to Iorward 10 Irames. Iress the ¡ key whIIe over
the 3Ð VIew and seIect Mesh. Ðepeat untII you see a totaI oI 5 IInes In the ¡IO wIndow.
Set your Poses
ÐIqht cIIck on the ÞeutraI pose IIne In the ¡IO wIndow. ThIs sets the mesh to the neutraI
pose. Þow ÐIqht cIIck on the next IIne up In the ¡IO wIndow. £nter edIt mode In the 3Ð
VIew and move the vertIces as desIred (In thIs case you wIII be movInq verts to qet the IeIt
Ðrow up pose). Iress Tab to exIt edIt mode. Þow rIqht cIIck your ÞeutraI pose IIne In the
¡IO wIndow. You wIII see your object In Its neutraI state. ÐIqht cIIck the next IIne up and
you shouId see the chanqes you just made to your object. Set up aII your mesh poses
IoIIowInq the above InstructIons.
Name your Poses
Сqht cIIck on the Key names In the ActIon wIndow. Chanqe the name and cIIck OK.
T¡me to An¡mate (b1
CIIck on the arrow next to the SIIders text. ThIs wIII qIve you access to the pose sIIders.
Move to Irame 20 to start your actIon. Move the pose sIIder but reIease the mouse when
set to 0. Þow move 10 Irames Iorward and move the same sIIder to 1.00 (maxImum). !se
thIs method to set up aII your actIons(c). Ðemember to add a 0 vaIue Irame to end the
pose.(d).
Ad]ust your SIow ¡n & Out
¡n the ¡IO VIew seIect Irom the menu to IInd the ¡IO curves. You can qet back to the Iose
IInes by seIectInq Key¡IO Irom the same menu. ÐIqht cIIck the spIIne you want to edIt and
press TAÐ to enter edIt mode. Move the handIes to adjust sIow In/out.(e)
(a) ¡n thIs case movInq to a Irame has nothInq to do wIth anImatIon. ¡t Is done so that your
pose IInes are seperate Irom each other. (b) SeIect your key Irame marker and use the
usuaI commands to move <q> and dupIIcate <d> them. (c) Ðe subtIe by not pushInq the
sIIder aII the way to 1.00. (d) Try overIapInq your poses. (e) When settInq sIIder vaIues they
can sometImes qo Into the neqatIve vaIue. ThIs wIII qIve you weIrd resuIts. AIthouqh
sometImes they can make your anImatIon more InterestInq. To IIx thIs edIt the ¡IO, seIect
the poInt where the IIne dIps beIow zero and press the V key. Ðo the same at the othe end
oI the curve II needed.
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WarnInq! ÐIender has a IImIt to the number oI verts you can use.
CIIck here to read the advanced anImatIon tutorIaI quIded tour.
Next Page: Python Scr¡pt¡ng
Frevious Fcge: Build c skybox
Python Scr¡pt¡ng
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡ngl¡ntroduct¡on
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls
One oI ÐIender's powerIuI Ieatures Is Its Iython AI¡. ThIs aIIows you to InterIace wIth
ÐIender throuqh the Iython proqrammInq Ianquaqe. The Iython InterIace aIIows you to
controI aImost aII aspects oI ÐIender, Ior exampIe you can wrIte Import or export scrIpts Ior
meshes and materIaIs oI varIous Iormats or create proceduraIIy qenerated textures. You can
aIso create compIete anImatIons proceduraIIy and wrIte scrIpts to modIIy exIstInq scenes In
any way you can thInk oI. On top oI aII, you can easIIy create a user InterIace Ior your
scrIpt, transIormInq It Into a qeneraIIy useabIe tooI.
http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/IythonApI.380.0.htmI
http.//www.bIender.orq/moduIes/documentatIon/240IythonÐoc/Index.htmI
http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/IythonScrIpts.3.0.htmI
http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewIorum.php?I=5
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡ngl¡ntroduct¡on
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls
¡ntroductIon
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglExport scr¡pts
Frevious Fcge: Fython Scripting
Ior a qeneraI IntroductIon to python proqrammInq, see.
http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/wIkI/IroqrammInq.Iython
¡ntroduct¡on
Iython Is used In bIender to wrIte pIuqIns as weII as automate tasks. ¡t Is one oI the
easIest proqrammInq Ianquaqes to Iearn.
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglExport scr¡pts
Frevious Fcge: Fython Scripting
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£xport scrIpts
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡ngl¡mport scr¡pts
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Fython Scripting/lntroduction
¡ntroduct¡on
ÐIender Is not just useIuI to create compIete anImatIons, but It's aIso a qreat modeIIer. You
can buIId your compIete 3Ð scene In ÐIender, and then export It to a useIuI Iormat. ¡n Iact,
you can use It Ior much more, Ior exampIe ¡ was usInq It as a IeveI edItor Ior a Ireeware 2Ð
qame someone eIse made. There was a short deadIIne Ior the qame to be IInIshed, and 2
weeks beIore that deadIIne, there stIII was no IeveI edItor Ior It. ¡t had a custom ASC¡¡
IeveI Iormat, consIstInq oI IIsts oI materIaIs, vertIces, trIanqIes and objects. So,
rememberInq the ÐIender Iython exporters, ¡ voIunteered to wrIte an export scrIpt Ior
ÐIender, so It couId be used as IeveI edItor. And It worked out very weII, ÐIender can be
compIeteIy used as IeveI edItor Ior that qame now.
¡n thIs tutorIaI we'II Iearn how to wrIte a sImpIe Iython export scrIpt Ior ÐIender. WIthout
requIrInq prevIous Iython knowIedqe, It wIII expIaIn how to query the objects In your scene,
and how to wrIte them to a IIIe. ¡t wIII aIso demonstrate the useIuIness oI export scrIpts,
by showInq how you can process the data whIIe exportInq, so you can achIeve thInqs that
wouId not work by usInq any other exIstInq Iormat.
So, open ÐIender (2.44 or qreater), make sure the deIauIt scene Is Ioaded, and Iet's beqIn..
F¡nd¡ng out about th¡ngs ¡n a scene
ÐeIore we can export somethInq, we must know what to
export. One way to qet thIs InIormatIon Is the OutIIner wIndow
(SH¡FT-F9). ¡t wIII IIst aII the thInqs currentIy known to
ÐIender. Þow, we want the same InIormatIon Irom a scrIpt.
Open the scrIpts wIndow (qreen snake symboI). CIIck on the
menu tItIed Scr¡pts, and qo to Scr¡pts->System->¡nteract¡ve
ConsoIe.
Þow, you are ready Ior the bIq moment, you are about to
execute the IIrst ÐIender scrIptInq command. Type thIs and hIt
HET1HN (or you couId type Into the scrIpts wIndow Import
ÐIender on the topmost IIne, then these IInes beIow It, precede
aII the 'dIr(x)' IInes wIth prInt and choose IIIe->£xecute).
As a resuIt, you shouId see thIs.
ChanqInq the wIndow type
to the scrIpts wIndow
ì1s1{bpy.da1a.ob]ec1s)
||0b]ec1 "Came:a"], |0b]ec1 "Cube"], |0b]ec1 "Lamp"]]
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Þow, what just happened? The IIne "IIst(bpy.data.objects)" consIsts oI three words,
separated by two dots, The dots just separate dIIIerent thInqs. The IIrst, "bpy", means to
use a IunctIon Irom the bpy moduIe. data Is a sub-moduIe oI ÐIender. And IInaIIy objects Is
an Iterator oI bpy.data. The IIst() IunctIon Is used to Ioop throuqh aII data In
bpy.data.objects and return that as a IIst oI aII avaIIabIe objects. ¡n our case, thIs Is a
Camera, a Cube, and a Iamp.
To qet more InIormatIon about an object, you can use the object name as a key In
bpy.data.objects, and assIqn It to a varIabIe, IIke thIs.
Ðe sure to Import the bpy IIbrary IIrst.
We just assIqned the three objects to three varIabIes, camera, cube and Iamp. To see the
contents oI a varIabIe, type just Its name.
SometImes It's useIuI to use Iython's dIr() IunctIon to qet more InIormatIon about an
object. Ior exampIe
wIII wrIte the names oI aII IunctIons and propertIes oI the object. OuIte a Iot. Ðut don't
worry, soon you wIII know how to use aII oI them. You aIso may want to IInd out the type oI
somethInq, whIch you can do IIke thIs.
¡n thIs case, just typInq "cube" aIready dIspIays the type, but Irom wIthIn an actuaI scrIpt,
you wouId use type(). SomethInq eIse whIch can be useIuI Is vIewInq the documentatIon oI
Iython objects. To do so, use the heIp() IunctIon on a varIabIe or object.
came:a = bpy.da1a.ob]ec1s|"Came:a"]
cube = bpy.da1a.ob]ec1s|"Cube"]
ìamp = bpy.da1a.ob]ec1s|"Lamp"]
1mpo:1 bpy
cube
|0b]ec1 "Cube"]
came:a
|0b]ec1 "Came:a"]
ìamp
|0b]ec1 "Lamp"]
d1:{cube)
1ype{cube)
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ThIs wIII prInt the documentatIon oI the bpy.data.objects IunctIon we used. OI course, an
easIer way to vIew the documentatIon Is the onIIne ITMI heIp. CIIck on HeIp->Python
Scr¡pt¡ng Heference. IopeIuIIy now your browser opens and dIspIays the onIIne
documentatIon oI the ÐIender Iython AI¡. ¡I not, you shouId IInd It aIso here.
http.//www.bIender.orq/documentatIon/244IythonÐoc/Index.htmI
¡n the documentatIon, cIIck on bpy, then on data and you can see more exampIes. !sInq the
documentatIon wIII qet absoIuteIy vItaI whenever you need to do somethInq In a scrIpt not
covered In a tutorIaI. And you wIII need to do so, eIse you wouIdn't want to Iearn scrIptInq
at aII.
Another resource you wIII need, dependInq on how Iar you wIII qo wIth scrIptInq, Is the
Iython reIerence.
http.//docs.python.orq/
Ior thIs tutorIaI, maybe read the "TutorIaI" sectIon In the python docs, but you wIII
understand everythInq wIthout doInq so.
Þow, Iet's try to IInd out more about our cube. Type.
¡t wIII teII us that the cube reaIIy Is a Mesh object In ÐIender. Iook up "type" In the onIIne
docs. SInce the varIabIe cube hoIds an Object, and "type" Is an attrIbute oI that Object, cIIck
on Object. There you IInd Its "type".
Þow that we know that the cube Is a mesh, Iet's IInd out more about the mesh.
£very ÐIender object has data assIqned to It, dependInq on the type. ¡n the case oI a mesh,
the data are oI type Mesh. ¡n the documentatIon, qo to the top aqaIn, and Iook Ior the
Mesh moduIe. ¡t wIII contaIn documentatIon Ior the Mesh type. You can aIso try
to qet an Idea about the avaIIabIe IunctIons and propertIes. Try these.
The IIrst IIne wIII IIst the 8 vertIces oI the cube's mesh. The second IIne wIII IIst Its 6 Iaces.
To qet a member out oI a IIst, you specIIy the Index In square brackets, startInq wIth 0. So.
heìp{bpy.da1a.ob]ec1s)
cube.1ype
mesh = cube.ge10a1a{mesh=1)
d1:{mesh)
mesh.ve:1s
mesh.1aces
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ThIs wIII assIqn the IIrst vertex oI the cube to the varIabIe v. Ðy now, you aIready know how
to use dIr() to qet a IIst oI possIbIy InterestInq thInqs In v, IInd out about Its type wIth
type(), and where to Iook Ior the AI¡ documentatIon. ¡t Is In the moduIe ÐIender/Mesh,
when you cIIck one "MVert" under "CIasses".
ThIs wIII dIspIay the 3Ð coordInates oI the IIrst vertex. Þow, what II we want to know the
coordInates oI aII vertIces? We couId oI course assIqn them aII to a varIabIe, but the reaI
way to do thIs Is usInq a IoopInq constructs. There are numerous ways to do thIs, but one
sImpIe way Iooks IIke thIs.
The for var¡abIe ¡n I¡st: construct assIqns each eIement oI the IIst to the varIabIe In turn,
and then executes the commands aIter the coIon wIth the varIabIe havInq the vaIue oI one
partIcuIar IIst eIement. ¡n a reaI scrIpt, you wIII have much more than a sInqIe command
aIter the coIon - so you wouId wrIte them In the IoIIowInq IInes.
Ðy now, you shouId know enouqh to try yourseII at a reaI scrIpt In the next sectIon.
Creat¡ng a scr¡pt
You can wrIte scrIpts eIther In an externaI text edItor, or In ÐIender's buIIt In text edItor.
The buIItIn text edItor can be hard to use II It doesn't have the standard shortcuts oI your
preIerred text edItor, or II you can't copy/paste between ÐIender and other appIIcatIons -
but eIse, Is quIte usabIe. You reach It over the wIndow seIector, or by pressInq SH¡FT-F10
(SH¡FT-F11 Ior ÐIender 2.41 and up). ¡I you want, you can enabIe IIne numbers and syntax
coIorInq wIth the buttons at the bottom. Create a new scrIpt wIth F¡Ie->New, paste the
beIow code Into It, and save It. Or aIternatIveIy, paste the beIow code Into a IIIe, and open
that IIIe wIth F¡Ie->Open In ÐIender. As name choose somethInq wIth the extenstIon .py,
Ior exampIe wIkIbooks.py. Iut It Into ÐIender's user scrIpts path. !nder unIx based systems,
thIs Is -/.bIender/scrIpts/.
Þotes Ior Mac OS X.
!nder Mac OSX the path Is actuaIIy hIdden In the bIender.app so to know the path you
wouId have to know that the scrIpt IoIder Is actuaIIy hIdden In the bIender.app ItseII.
AssumInq that ÐIender Is In the appIIcatIons dIrectory the path wouId be
"/AppIIcatIons/bIender-2.37a-OSX-10.3-powerpc/bIender.app/Contents/MacOS/.bIender/scrIpts"
¡I you try to open the .app contents Irom the IInder you wIII notIce that .bIender
sectIon oI the path Is not vIsIbIe, whIIe bIender wIII stIII be abIe to navIqate to thIs
IoIder. To see thIs IoIder Irom the OSX termInaI use the Is -a command (IIsts aII
IoIders/IIIes even hIdden) In the MacOS IoIder oI the IIsted path. ¡t Is probabIy a qood
Idea to create an aIIas to the scrIpts IoIder In the
"/AppIIcatIons/bIender-2.37a-OSX-10.3-powerpc" IoIder so that scrIpts can be easIIy
v = mesh.ve:1s|0]
v.co
1o: v 1h mesh.ve:1s. p:1h1 v.co
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manIpuIated throuqh the IInder. ¡ know that Its conIusInq that ÐIender shouId have Its
scrIpt IoIder burIed InsIde the app but It Is necessary to keep the app portabIe and not
requIre an InstaII.
A saIer approach than the one above consIsts In keepInq your scrIpts somewhere In
your home IoIder. there Is no rIsk oI deIetInq your scrIpts when you upqrade your
bIender appIIcatIon, as they are not contaIned wIthIn Its IoIder, wIth thIs scheme. A
method that IoIIows thIs prIncIpIe Is as IoIIows. create a IoIder that wIII contaIn your
scrIpts (or some oI them) InsIde your own home dIrectory, then, Instead oI puttInq your
IIIes dIrectIy In the .../.bIender/scrIpts/ IoIder dIscussed above, sImpIy add a link to
your scrIpt dIrectory In the .../.bIender/scrIpts/ IoIder (Ior Instance wIth the "In -s" !nIx
command, or by doInq "open
/AppIIcatIons/bIender-2.37a-OSX-10.3-powerpc/bIender.app/Contents/MacOS/.bIender/scrIpts/"
ladapted to your versIon oI bIender| and then creatInq a IInk throuqh the IInder, wIth
IIIe->Make AIIas). ÐIender wIII now IInd aII the scrIpts that you put In your home
dIrectory. It wIII IoIIow the IInk you created In Its .../.bIender/scrIpts/ IoIder and qo to
the correspondInq IoIder In your own dIrectory, and IInd aII the python scrIpts you put
there.
!nder WIndows the deIauIt InstaIIatIon It wouId be thIs. "C.\Iroqram IIIes\ÐIender
IoundatIon\ÐIender\.bIender\scrIpts"
Þow, qo back Into the scrIpts wIndow, and In Its menu, cIIck Scr¡pts->1pdate Menus. ¡I
you saved It Into the rIqht path, Irom now on there shouId be an entry "WIkIbooks" In the
IIIe->£xport menu. Try exportInq any scene wIth It. ¡t shouId open the IIIe chooser dIaIoq,
and aIter you seIect a IIIe and press the "£xport" button, wrIte a IIst oI aII objects In the
scene Into It. There wIII be one object per IIne, wIth the type, IoIIowed by a coIon and the
name.
Iow does It work? ¡I you Iook at the scrIpt, you probabIy aIready know. Ðut just In case,
Iet's Iook at the scrIpt IIne by IIne. The IIrst IIne contaIns thIs.
#1BPY
"""
hame. `W1k1books`
Bìehde:. 244
C:oup. `Expo:1`
Tooì11p. `W1k1books sampìe expo:1e:`
"""
1mpo:1 Bìehde:
1mpo:1 bpy
de1 w:11e{11ìehame).
ou1 = 11ìe{11ìehame, "w")
sce= bpy.da1a.scehes.ac11ve
1o: ob 1h sce.ob]ec1s.
ou1.w:11e{ob.1ype + ". " + ob.hame + "\h")
Bìehde:.W1hdow.F1ìeSeìec1o:{w:11e, "Expo:1")
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¡t teIIs ÐIender that thIs Is a ÐIender scrIpt, and thereIore It wIII consIder It when scannInq
Ior scrIpts. Þext sImpIy IoIIows a strInq, encIosed In trIpIe quotatIon marks, so It can span
muItIpIe IInes.
¡t contaIns Iour Items, whIch ÐIender uses to pIace the scrIpt Into Its menus. The name,
qroup (menu IocatIon), and tooItIp, aII encIosed In sInqIe quotes. And the ÐIender versIon
thIs Is Ior.
Ðemember how we saId aII IunctIons Irom the bpy moduIe start wIth "ÐIender."? ¡n the
InteractIve sheII, we couId sImpIy use them, but In a python scrIpt, aII used moduIes must
be decIared wIth an Import statement (II you want to dIrectIy use IunctIons Irom the
ÐIender moduIe In a scrIpt, you can sImpIy repIace the Import statement above wIth "Irom
ÐIender Import *". no "ÐIender." preIIx Is necessary anymore, however, thIs sIows down the
IoadInq oI your scrIpt). So the above sImpIy aIIows us to use the IunctIons Irom the ÐIender
moduIe In our scrIpt.
the bpy moduIe Is new and wIII repIace ÐIender Ior data access.
ThIs deIInes a IunctIon In Iython. The syntax Is def name(parameters1:. ¡n our case, the
name Is "wrIte", and we have one parameter, caIIed "IIIename".
Iere we open a IIIe Ior wrItInq (the "w"), wIth the name passed to the IunctIon (IIIename).
The python IunctIon "IIIe" wIII open the IIIe, and return a reIerence to It, whIch we store In
the varIabIe "out".
These three IInes are our reaI export scrIpt. You aIready know what the IIrst IIne does - IIrst
#1BPY
"""
hame. `W1k1books`
Bìehde:. 244
C:oup. `Expo:1`
Tooì11p. `W1k1books sampìe expo:1e:`
"""
1mpo:1 Bìehde:
1mpo:1 bpy
de1 w:11e{11ìehame).
ou1 = 11ìe{11ìehame, "w")
sce= bpy.da1a.scehes.ac11ve
1o: ob 1h sce.ob]ec1s.
ou1.w:11e{ob.1ype + ". " + ob.hame + "\h")
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we qet the current scene, then qet a IIst oI aII objects In that scene, the Ior Ioop Is
assIqnInq each one In turn to the varIabIe "ob". The second IIne wrItes to the IIIe - IIrst the
type oI the object, then the strInq ". ", then the name oI the object, and IInaIIy a newIIne.
ThIs Is where executIon oI the scrIpt starts. ¡t Is sImpIy a caII oI a ÐIender IunctIon (Iook It
up In the AI¡ docs), whIch opens the IIIe seIector. ¡t wIII dIspIay an "£xport" button, and
when the user cIIcks It, our IunctIon "wrIte" Irom above qets caIIed and Is passed the
seIected IIIename.
ThIs scrIpt Isn't reaIIy very useIuI yet, but It shows the basIcs. You shouId now be abIe to
e.q. aIso IIst aII the materIaIs In the scene. (IInt. They are just IIke objects, try to IInd
them In the AI¡ docs.)
¡n the next sectIon, we wIII Iearn how to export addItIonaI InIormatIon about objects to our
text IIIe.
Export¡ng a Mesh
Our export scrIpt IIsts the type and name oI every object, but that's not very useIuI yet. ¡I
we want to Ioad the exported data In another appIIcatIon, we need more. Iet's try to export
a mesh object In the OÐj Iormat.
The exampIe beIow Is a cube In the OÐj IIIe Iormat.
Iere Is a sImpIe obj export scrIpt that exports a seIected mesh object, used to export the
OÐj IIIe above.
Bìehde:.W1hdow.F1ìeSeìec1o:{w:11e, "Expo:1")
v 1.000000 1.000000 -1.000000
v 1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
v -1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
v -1.000000 1.000000 -1.000000
v 1.000001 1.000000 1.000000
v 0.999999 -1.000000 1.000000
v -1.000000 -1.000000 1.000000
v -1.000000 1.000000 1.000000
1 1 2 3 4
1 5 8 7 6
1 1 5 6 2
1 2 6 7 3
1 3 7 8 4
1 5 1 4 8
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ThIs scrIpt wIII export an OÐj IIIe that can be read by many appIIcatIons. Iet's Iook at
whats qoInq on.
Iere we are qettInq the object you Iast seIected In the current scene. ThIs wIII raIse an
error II there are no seIected objects, but Its an easy way to test a new exporter.
ThIs qets the objects IInked databIock. At the moment we dont know Its a mesh, another
case where error checkInq wouId need to be added.
Iere we wrIte a IIne Ior every vertex, usInq strInq IormattInq to repIace the "%I" on the
IeIt, wIth the 3 vaIues on the rIqht.
¡n the OÐj Iormat each Iace reIerences a number oI vertex IndIces. Ior every Iace we have a
1mpo:1 Bìehde:
de1 w:11e_ob]{11ìepa1h).
ou1 = 11ìe{11ìepa1h, `w`)
sce = bpy.da1a.scehes.ac11ve
ob = sce.ob]ec1s.ac11ve
mesh = ob.ge10a1a{mesh=1)
1o: ve:1 1h mesh.ve:1s.
ou1.w:11e{ `v º1 º1 º1\h` º {ve:1.co.x, ve:1.co.y, ve:1.co.z) )

1o: 1ace 1h mesh.1aces.
ou1.w:11e{`1`)

1o: ve:1 1h 1ace.v.
ou1.w:11e{ ` º1` º {ve:1.1hdex + 1) )
ou1.w:11e{`\h`)
ou1.cìose{)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.F1ìeSeìec1o:{w:11e_ob], "Expo:1")
sce = bpy.da1a.scehes.ac11ve
ob = sce.ob]ec1s.ac11ve
mesh = ob.ge10a1a{mesh=1)
1o: ve:1 1h mesh.ve:1s.
ou1.w:11e{ `v º1 º1 º1\h` º {ve:1.co.x, ve:1.co.y, ve:1.co.z) )
1o: 1ace 1h mesh.1aces.
ou1.w:11e{`1`)

1o: ve:1 1h 1ace.v.
ou1.w:11e{ ` º1` º {ve:1.1hdex + 1) )
ou1.w:11e{`\h`)
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IIne startInq wIth "I", then Ioop throuqh the vertIces In the Iace. just as mesh.verts are a
IIst oI aII the the vertIces In a mesh, Iace.v Is a IIst oI verts In the Iace IImIted to 4 vertIces
maxImum. (where mesh and Iace are arbItrary varIabIe names assIqned to an Mesh amd
MIace objects) £very vertex wrItes Its Index on that same IIne wIth 1 added. ThIs Is
because wIth the OÐj IIIe Iormat the IIrst vertex Is Indexed at 1, whereas wIth Iython and
ÐIender the IIrst Item In a IIst Is 0.
A new IIne Is wrItten so the next Iace wIII start on a new IIne. - In python '\n' represents a
new IIne when wrItten to a IIIe.
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡ngl¡mport scr¡pts
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Fython Scripting/lntroduction
¡mport scrIpts
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglProceduraI ob]ect creat¡on
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Fython Scripting/Export scripts
¡ntroduct¡on
¡mportInq objects Into ÐIender Is not that dIIIerent Irom exportInq. Iowever, there are a
Iew addItIonaI thInqs to take care oI. IIrstIy, aII reIerences to "export" In the header shouId
be chanqed to "Import". SecondIy, Instead oI sImpIy wrItInq out data that ÐIender provIdes
to us, we are responsIbIe Ior qIvInq data to ÐIender and ensurInq that It Is properIy
Iormatted. AIthouqh ÐIender Is IIexIbIe, aIIowInq us to Iqnore thInqs IIke vertex IndIces, we
do need to be careIuI that we do thInqs In a sensIbIe order.
AddItIonaIIy, there Is a bIt oI housekeepInq to deaI wIth. We shouId be In edIt mode whIIe
modIIyInq the mesh data. We aIso need to IInk up our newIy created data to the scene,
aIter It has been properIy constructed, so that ÐIender can see It and maIntaIn It. ThIs
makes It vIsIbIe to the user, as weII as ensurInq that It qets saved aIonq wIth the scene.
¡mport¡ng a Mesh
Iere Is a sImpIe scrIpt that can Import an OÐj IIIe created by the export scrIpt.
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ThIs wIII Ioad an OÐj IIIe Into ÐIender, creatInq a new mesh object. Iet's take a Iook at the
more InterestInq portIons.
Turn on the waIt cursor so the user knows the computer Is ImportInq.
Iere, we create a new mesh databIock. The name Is made Irom the path onIy wIth the
IIIename.
1mpo:1 Bìehde:
de1 1mpo:1_ob]{pa1h).
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Wa11Cu:so:{1)
hame = pa1h.spì11{`\\`)|-1].spì11{`/`)|-1]
mesh = Bìehde:.hhesh.hew{ hame ) # c:ea1e a hew mesh
# pa:se 1he 11ìe
11ìe = opeh{pa1h, `:`)
1o: ì1he 1h 11ìe.:eadì1hes{).
wo:ds = ì1he.spì11{)
11 ìeh{wo:ds) == 0 o: wo:ds|0].s1a:1sw11h{`#`).
pass
eì11 wo:ds|0] == `v`.
x, y, z = 1ìoa1{wo:ds|1]), 1ìoa1{wo:ds|2]), 1ìoa1{wo:ds|3])
mesh.ve:1s.appehd{Bìehde:.hhesh.ve:1{x, y, z))
eì11 wo:ds|0] == `1`.
1aceve:1L1s1 = |]
1o: 1aceTdx 1h wo:ds|1.].
1aceve:1 = mesh.ve:1s|1h1{1aceTdx)-1]
1aceve:1L1s1.appehd{1aceve:1)
hewFace = Bìehde:.hhesh.Face{1aceve:1L1s1)
mesh.addFace{hewFace)

# ì1hk 1he mesh 1o a hew ob]ec1
ob = Bìehde:.0b]ec1.hew{`hesh`, hame) # hesh mus1 be speììed ]us1 1h1s--11 1s a spec111c 1ype
ob.ì1hk{mesh) # 1eìì 1he ob]ec1 1o use 1he mesh we ]us1 made
sch = Bìehde:.Scehe.Ce1Cu::eh1{)
1o: o 1h sch.ge1Ch1ìd:eh{).
o.seì = 0

sch.ì1hk{ob) # ì1hk 1he ob]ec1 1o 1he cu::eh1 scehe
ob.seì= 1
ob.Laye:s = sch.Laye:s
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Wa11Cu:so:{0)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Red:awAìì{)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.F1ìeSeìec1o:{1mpo:1_ob], `Tmpo:1`)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Wa11Cu:so:{1)
hame = pa1h.spì11{`\\`)|-1].spì11{`/`)|-1]
mesh = Bìehde:.hhesh.hew{ hame ) # c:ea1e a hew mesh
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Þext, we create a new object and IInk It to the mesh. ThIs InstantIates the mesh.
IInaIIy, we attach the new object to the current scene, makInq It accessIbIe to the user and
ensurInq that It wIII be saved aIonq wIth the scene. We aIso seIect the new object so that
the user can easIIy modIIy It aIter Import. CopyInq the scenes Iayers ensures that the object
wIII occupy the scenes current vIew Iayers.
Þow the IInIshInq touches. We turn oII the waIt cursor. We aIso redraw the 3Ð wIndow to
ensure that the new object Is InItIaIIy vIsIbIe. ¡I we dIdn't do thIs, the object mIqht not
appear untII the user chanqes the vIewpoInt or Iorces a redraw In some other way.
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglProceduraI ob]ect creat¡on
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IroceduraI object creatIon
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglScr¡pts for mod¡fy¡ng meshes
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Fython Scripting/lmport scripts
bIender tooIs.
- http.//www.makehuman.orq/
- http.//www.qeocItIes.com/bIenderdunqeon/Isystem/
python.
http.///www.aIcyone.com/soItware/Isystem/
other.
- http.//www.devx.com/¡nteI/ArtIcIe/20333/2046 , "IroceduraI 3Ð Content GeneratIon, Iart
2"
- ModeIInqCIoudsShape --antont, Sun, 20 Mar 2005 03.33.07 +0200 repIy
http.//www-evasIon.Imaq.Ir/IubIIcatIons/2004/ÐÞ04/
ob = Bìehde:.0b]ec1.hew{`hesh`, hame)
ob.ì1hk{mesh)
sch = Bìehde:.Scehe.Ce1Cu::eh1{)
sch.ì1hk{ob) # ì1hk 1he ob]ec1 1o 1he cu::eh1 scehe
ob.seì= 1
ob.Laye:s = sch.Laye:s
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Wa11Cu:so:{0)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Red:awAìì{)
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these here vIa.
- http.//studIo.kyperjokkI.II/IIrstAndIast/IroceduraIContentCreatIon
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglScr¡pts for mod¡fy¡ng meshes
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Fython Scripting/lmport scripts
ScrIpts Ior modIIyInq meshes
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglCreat¡ng a G1¡ for your scr¡pt
Frevious Fcge: AdvcncedTutoricls/FythonScripting/Frocedurclobjectcrection
(to be wrItten)
AIso see saItshaker (http.//saItshaker.sourceIorqe.net/) a basIc but IunctIonaI python scrIpt
Ior bIender, paqe IncIudes detaIIs oI how It was made.
http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/pythonscrIpt01en.htm Is a qood one Ior
IearnInq about mesh creatIon.
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslPython Scr¡pt¡nglCreat¡ng a G1¡ for your scr¡pt
Frevious Fcge: AdvcncedTutoricls/FythonScripting/Frocedurclobjectcrection
CreatInq a G!¡ Ior your scrIpt
Next Page: Advanced¸Tutor¡aIslAdvanced¸An¡mat¡onl¡ndex
Frevious Fcge: AdvcncedTutoricls/FythonScripting/Scriptsjormodijyingmeshes
¡t Is very easy to create a G!¡ Ior your scrIpt, and that way make It easy to chanqe aspects
oI It Ior everyone.
The command to create a GraphIcaI !ser ¡nterIace (G!¡) Is.
ThIs command reqIsters the IunctIons.
draw - to draw the G!¡
event - to actIon mouse and key presses
button - to actIon G!¡ button presses
However, th¡s command w¡II NOT work by ¡tseIf III. You IIrst need to deIIne these 3
IunctIons.
IIrst we wIII Import ÐIender's IIbrary oI buIIt In IunctIons.
Bìehde:.0:aw.Reg1s1e:{d:aw,eveh1,bu11oh)
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Next, we w¡II def¡ne the draw funct¡on.
¡nsIde thIs IunctIon we wIII draw the G!¡. Iere Is an exampIe oI a drawInq IunctIon we can
use. ¡t wIII cIear the current wIndow.
And the next command wIII draw a button. Þote that the IIrst number In the command, '1'
IdentIIIes the button as button 1. We wIII reIer to thIs button Iater.
Next, we w¡II def¡ne the event funct¡on. The code oI a key pressed on the keyboard Is
passed Into the IunctIon as the varIabIe evt.
Þow we wIII test to see II the escape key Is pressed.
¡I It Is pressed, exIt the scrIpt, and return Irom the IunctIon.
Next, we w¡II def¡ne the button funct¡on. ThIs IunctIon wIII perIorm an actIon II the
button Is pressed.
Þow test the varIabIe evt whIch hoIds the button number that we prevIousIy IdentIIIed.
¡I It Is pressed, we wIII move the seIected object In the 3d wIndow back to the centre and
redraw the screen.
1mpo:1 Bìehde:
de1 d:aw{).
Bìehde:.BCL.gìCìea:{Bìehde:.BCL.CL_C0L0R_BbFFER_BTT)
Bìehde:.0:aw.Toggìe{"Cìea: o:1g1h",1,10,20,100,20,0,"Tooì11p")
de1 eveh1{ev1,vaì).
11 ev1 == Bìehde:.0:aw.ESCKEY.
Bìehde:.0:aw.Ex11{)
:e1u:h
de1 bu11oh{ev1).
11 ev1 == 1.
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¡astIy, we can create the Graph¡caI 1ser ¡nterface by typInq the command.
That's It !!! To enter the scrIpt yourseII, type the IoIIowInq Into the Text £dItor wIndow In
ÐIender, and then press aIt p to execute the scrIpt. Iere's the entIre scrIpt. £verythInq
aIter the hash # Is a comment and can be IeIt out.
Next Page: Advanced¸Tutor¡aIslAdvanced¸An¡mat¡onl¡ndex
Frevious Fcge: AdvcncedTutoricls/FythonScripting/Scriptsjormodijyingmeshes
Advanced An¡mat¡on
Next Page: Advanced¸Tutor¡aIslAdvanced¸An¡mat¡onl¡ntroduct¡on
Frevious Fcge: AdvcncedTutoricls/FythonScripting/CrectingcGUljoryourscript
Bìehde:.Scehe.Ce1Cu::eh1{).ge1Ac11ve0b]ec1{).ìoc = {0,0,0)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Red:aw{)
Bìehde:.0:aw.Reg1s1e:{d:aw,eveh1,bu11oh)
1mpo:1 Bìehde: # Th1s w1ìì 1mpo:1 1he ì1b:a:y o1 bìehde: 1uhc11ohs we w1ìì use
de1 d:aw{). # 0e11he 1he d:aw 1uhc11oh {wh1ch d:aws you: CbT).
Bìehde:.BCL.gìCìea:{Bìehde:.BCL.CL_C0L0R_BbFFER_BTT) # Th1s cìea:s 1he w1hdow
# Add he:e d:aw1hg commahds 1o d:aw you: CbT, 1o: exampìe.
Bìehde:.0:aw.Toggìe{"Cìea: o:1g1h",1,10,20,100,20,0,"Tooì11p")
# The ì1he ab1ve w1ìì d:aw a 1oggìe bu11oh.
# ho1e 1he 11:s1 humbe:, `1` meahs 1h1s 1s bu11oh humbe: 1

de1 eveh1{ev1,vaì). # 0e11he mouse ahd keyboa:d p:ess eveh1s
11 ev1 == Bìehde:.0:aw.ESCKEY. # Exampìe 11 esc key p:essed
Bìehde:.0:aw.Ex11{) # 1heh ex11 sc:1p1
:e1u:h # :e1u:h 1:om 1he 1uhc11oh
de1 bu11oh{ev1). # 0e11he wha1 1o do 11 a bu11oh 1s p:essed, 1o: exampìe.
11 ev1 == 1. # T1 bu11oh `1` 1s p:essed, se1 ac11ve ob]ec1 1o ceh1:e.
Bìehde:.Scehe.Ce1Cu::eh1{).ge1Ac11ve0b]ec1{).ìoc = {0,0,0)
Bìehde:.W1hdow.Red:aw{) # Th1s w1ìì :ed:aw 1he 3d w1hdow.
# You cah how :uh 1he C:aph1caì bse: Th1e:1ace by 1yp1hg 1he commahd.
Bìehde:.0:aw.Reg1s1e:{d:aw,eveh1,bu11oh)
# Ehd o1 sc:1p1
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ThIs sectIon wIII show you the AnImatIon system as It Is In ÐIender 2.4. Most oI the
Ieatures wIII be expIaIned and some tutorIaIs wIII IoIIow. ¡ assume the user has a qood
understandInq oI ÐIender here.
ThIs text Is based on a presentatIon ¡ dId at the MontreaI ÐIender ConIerence. ¡ hope you'II
IInd It useIuI and InstructIve.
GabrIeI ÐeIoIn aka --GabIo 23.59, 31 October 2005 (!TC)
¡I you wIsh to dIscuss It Iurther. VIsIt us at ÐIenderArtIsts.orq. AnImatIon Workshop 2
(http.//bIenderartIsts.orq/Iorum/showpost?p=507172#511798)
¡ndex
Advanced An¡mat¡on
¡ntroductIon
GuIded tour.
Armature Object
Armature Object In Object Mode
Armature Object In £dIt Mode
Armature Object In Iose mode
Mesh Object
ConnectIon between Armature and Mesh
£nveIope
Vertex Groups S WeIqht IaInt
Shape Key
ConstraInts
Copy IocatIon
Copy ÐotatIon
Track-To
IIoor
Iocked Track
IoIIow Iath
Stretch-To
¡K SoIver
TImeIIne WIndow
¡IO WIndow
Ðata Type
ChanneI
Curve £dItIon
ÐrIven ¡IO
ActIon WIndow
¡ntroductIon To ActIon Ðata ÐIock
Key £dItIon
ÞIA WIndow
¡ntroductIon To ÞIA £dItor
Key £dItor ¡n the ÞIA
StrIp £dItIon
StrIp's IropertIes (ÞK£Y)
The StrIde Ieature
WorkInq exampIe. ÐIrd
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ÐuIId The ÐIq
Add ConstraInts
ÐeIorm The Mesh
Create A IIy CycIe
WorkInq exampIe. Ðob
ÐuIId The ÐIq
Add ConstraInts
ÐeIorm The Mesh
Create Shape Key
Create A WaIk CycIe
Next Page: Advanced¸Tutor¡aIslAdvanced¸An¡mat¡onl¡ntroduct¡on
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¡ntroductIon
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Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/index
WeIcome to the wonderIuI yet compIex worId oI computer anImatIon! Throuqh these paqes
¡ wIII try to show you everythInq oId and new about the new anImatIon system In ÐIender
2.4. Ðut, beIore we qet started, there are some basIc notIons about databIocks you shouId
know. AnImatIon In ÐIender Is based on the Iact that you have somethInq movInq In a
ÐIender scene. Ior exampIe, a baII bouncInq on a IIoor pIane.
-So you have a scene databIock, whIch hoIds some InIo about the scene ItseII, as you can
see In the Ðender button wIndow (I10K£Y). -You popuIate thIs scene wIth varIous objects
(whIch In thIs case reIers to contaIners Ior data, not the actuaI mesh data that shapes the
object ItseII). The onIy qoaI oI an object Is to hoId the whereabouts oI the data you want to
see In your scene. ¡t aIso hoIds the object instcnce's propertIes such as "does It have soIt
body or partIcIe optIons, and do we draw Its name?". Most oI the InIo on an object can be
seen In the Object WIndow (I7K£Y).
An object IInks to aII oI the data you can see In a 3Ð vIew such as mesh, curves, nurbs,
Iatt¡ces, armatures, metadata, the empty property, text, camera and Iamps.
So the baII you just added to the scene Is In Iact a mesh, IInked to an object that Is In turn
IInked to the current scene.
Þow there are aIso data bIocks you can't see In 3Ð vIew, such as mater¡aI, texture, ¡po,
act¡on and ¡mage. ¡nstead, you have a specIaI wIndow In whIch to edIt them. ThIs Is the
Idea behInd the ÐIender InterIace, whereIn each data bIock has a wIndow Ior you to edIt
the data.
So back to thIs bouncInq baII. ¡t's aIso movInq across the pIane! So an ""¡po"" data bIock Is
IInked to the object, teIIInq It where In space the object wIII be at each Irame oI the
anImatIon. ThIs ¡po Is edItabIe In the ¡po wIndow when seIectInq the baII In 3Ð vIew. ¡n
ÐIender, the work you are perIormInq Is aIways on the currentIy actIve (seIected) object and
data.
IookInq at the OOIS (object orIented proqrammInq system) vIew (or SI¡IT-I9K£Y), we can
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qet a qood Idea oI the InternaI data structure.
AqaIn, you are workInq In the scene "Scene", wIth an object "Sphere" IInked to the mesh
data bIock "Sphere" and the ¡po databIock "Ob¡po". Why Is that Important? Ðecause Irom
there, you can start pIayInq wIth the databIocks, IInkInq them aII around your projects to
reuse oId work. Ior exampIe you can create more than one ¡po, and use the one you want,
or teII more than one object to use the same ¡po, or to use the same object In more than
one Scene.
Most oI the IInkInq job can be done In the £dIt button wIndow (I9K£Y). Where you can teII
an object to use another mesh's data bIock Ior ¡po, materIaI, texture or Imaqe. There Is
aIways a IIttIe dropdown menu button Ior you to seIect an aIready-exIstInq data bIock.
Þow, when It comes to anImatIon, you have to understand the way ÐIender handIes data
very weII, because usInq ÐIender Is aIways a matter oI pIuqqInq data bIocks toqether when
workInq wIth ¡pos, actIons and ÞIA objects.
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GuIded tour.
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Iere ¡'II show you aII the stuII you need to know about the InterIace when anImatInq.
Where Is It? Iow does It work? Why use It?
We are qoInq to taIk about.
Armature Object
Mesh Object
ConstraInts
TImeIIne WIndow
¡IO WIndow
ActIon WIndow
ÞIA WIndow
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Armature Object
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The Armature Object In ItseII Is a tooI Ior the anImator to move an object or qroup oI
vertIces In a reIIabIe way. An armature Is made oI bones, whIch can be parented to each
other, or connected to each other. ¡t was buIIt wIth the Idea oI a skeIeton In mInd.
You can add It usInq the SIAC£K£Y In 3ÐvIew and seIectInq Armature. You'II then enter
Into edItmode where you can add or move bones to buIId your deIauIt rIq. An armature has
3 states. You can swItch usInq the dropdown menu In the header oI the 3ÐvIew or use
TAÐK£Y to swItch between £dItmode <-> lObjectmode|Iosemode| and CTÐI-TAÐK£Y to
swItch between Objectmode <-->Iosemode.
Object Mode. Your armature Is IIke any other Object, you can move It around the
scene, scaIe It, rotate It and edIt optIons In the button wIndow.
£dIt Mode. Your armature Is In what we caII rest posItIon, you can modIIy the bones It
contaIns.
Iose Mode. Your armature Is ready to be anImated, each bone can be moved, scaIed or
rotated, constraInts qet appIIed, you can pose your character and anImate the bones'
behavIor over tIme.
Take note that Iose mode Is now a state oI the armature you can swItch on/oII usInq
CTÐI-TAÐK£Y. So when In Iose, you are stIII In object mode (you can seIect another
object, contrary to the edItmode)
Þote. The IoIIowInq 3 paqes oI thIs tutorIaI contaIn screenshots and dIscuss technIques
that are onIy avIaIabIe In ÐIender 2.40a and Iater. ÐeIer to the ÐIender 2.40a reIease notes
(http.//www.bIender.orq/cms/ÐIender240aIpha.598.0.htmI) on Armature draw types and
Armature enveIopes.
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Armature Object In Object Mode
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The Armature Ob]ect
Armature Object Is IIke any other object type.
¡t has a center, a posItIon, a rotatIon and a scaIe Iactor.
¡t can be edIted.
¡t can be IInked to other scenes, and the same armature data can be reused on
muItIpIe objects.
AII anImatIon you do In object mode Is onIy workInq on the object, not the armature's
contents IIke bones.
Try It now. add an armature to your scene. SIAC£K£Y --> Add --> Armature.
When you add a new armature, you'II enter edItmode automatIcaIIy. To swItch between
modes, use the TAÐK£Y or the dropdown menu In the Ieader oI the 3ÐvIew wIndow.
The Ed¡t PaneI When ¡n Ob]ect Mode
ThIs Is how the edIt paneI Iooks aIter you have added a new armature and swItched to
object mode (TAÐK£Y).
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IInk and MaterIaIs paneI.
The AÐ. IIeId Iet you rename your armature ÐatabIock. The dropdown Is a quIck
way to seIect whIch Armature databIock you want to connect to thIs armature.
You can keep more than one versIon Ior the same character. !seIuI when you have
a specIaI move to achIeve In a shot, you can turn on an armature Ior a specIaI
purpose.
The I button Is an optIon to assIqn a Iake user to the Armature. AqaIn II you
have more than one armature Ior your character, It's a qood Idea to turn the Iake
on, because II your armature databIock Is not used (IInked) It's not qoInq to be
saved In your .bIend IIIes. You can aIways do batch Iake-assIqnment oI armatures
by openInq the ÐatabIock browser (SI¡IT-I4K£Y), qo In Armature databIock,
seIect aII the armatures you want to keep, and Iress the IK£Y.
The OÐ. IIeId Is just to Ðename your armature Object to somethInq more cooI and
useIuI than Armature... Armature.001...
Armature paneI.
£dItInq OptIons.
X-AxIs MIrror £dIt. Þot reaIIy useIuI now, It's more oI an edItmode optIon.
ThIs Ieature teIIs ÐIender you want to repIIcate aII oI your bones on one part
oI the Armature to the other. ¡t's a cIean way to just do haII the job ,). The
axIs oI mIrrorInq Is X so IeIt<-->rIqht In IrontvIew (Þ!MIAÐ1K£Y) and the
center Is the center oI the armature object. We wIII see thIs Ieature In detaII
In the next paqe.
X-Ðay. ThIs optIon wIII Iet you see the armature throuqh anythInq In the
scene, soIId or not. ¡t's useIuI to see where your bones are In your character
so you can seIect them.
AutomatIc ¡K Is a Iosemode optIon. ¡t Iets you pose a chaIn oI bones as II the
bone you were hoIdInq was an Ik tarqet. More InIo In Iosemode paqe.
ÐIspIay OptIons. These optIons qIve you the chance to vIsuaIIse your bones In
varIous ways. AIso note that there Is some specIIIc optIons and Ieatures reqardInq
the dIspIay mode you're In.
Octahedron. ThIs Is the deIauIt vIew. ÞothInq excItInq except you have a
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qood Idea oI the roIIInq oI the bones.
StIck. ThIs dIspIay mode Is reaIIy useIuI when you have a Iot oI bones In your
vIew. ¡t Iets you "uncIutter" the screen a bIt. ¡t draws the bones as tIny
stIcks.
Ð-Ðones. ¡t's more a Ieature than a dIspIay mode. ThIs Is onIy useIuI to
vIsuaIIse the eIIect you qet when you actIvate the Ð-bones (ÐezIer-Ðones).
£ach bone acts IIke a curve handIe and Iets you qet extremeIy curvy poses.
ThIs wIII be exposed In the IoIIowInq paqes.
£nveIope. AqaIn It's more a Ieature than a dIspIay mode. Ðut In thIs case the
vIsuaIIsatIon wIII be useIuI to tweak your rIq Iater. £nveIope Iets you easIIy
teII whIch part oI you character thIs bone wIII anImate and It's vIsuaIIy
possIbIe to chanqe the zone oI InIIuence excIusIveIy In thIs dIspIay mode. The
zone Is onIy vIsIbIe In £dItmode or Iosemode thouqh.
Ðraw Axes. To draw the axes on each bone oI the armature when you are In
£dItmode or Iosemode. !seIuI when you want to know where you are and
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whIch axIs to use In a constraInt Ior exampIe. MentaI note. Y Is up, Z Is
depth and X Is sIde, contrary to object Ior whIch Z Is up, Y Is depth and X Is
sIde.
Ðraw names. ThIs Iets you see names oI bones whatever the mode you are
In. ¡t's useIuI aqaIn to edIt your armature, create parent dependencIes or add
constraInts.
Ghost. ThIs optIon Iets you see a qhost oI the armature In Irames behInd and
over the current tIme. ThIs Is onIy workInq when you have an actIon IInked to
the armature, as we wIII see Iater.
Step (Armaturebuttonobj.jpq needs update). ThIs optIon Iets you choose the
Irames IntervaI between qhost Instances.
ÐeIorm optIons.
Vertex Groups S £nveIope. These two toqqIes Iet you choose II you want the
armature to deIorm your character usInq the Vertex Groups and/or the
£nveIopes. We wIII see that Iater.
Ðest posItIon. ThIs wIII brInq the character back to Iactory deIauIt (Item as
£dItmode), and no actIons wIII be appIIed to the armature so you can easIIy
edIt It In the mIddIe oI an anImatIon.
ÐeIay ÐeIorm. ThIs was useIuI beIore as the oId system was very sIow. What
It does Is when you do a manIpuIatIon to the rIq, It waIts untII you IInIsh to
update the vIew. Can stIII be useIuI thouqh.
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Armature Object In £dIt Mode
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Þow you've qot your armature, but It's not much use untII you add some more bones to It.
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ThInk about your body Ior a moment -- you've qot thIs thInq you caII a 'skeIeton', whIch Ior
our purposes correspondInqs more or Iess to an armature object. Your skeIeton consIsts oI a
number oI bones (about 206, to be precIse), but qeneraIIy these are not Independent Irom
each other. ¡I you move your Iemur (the bIt oI your Ieq between your peIvIs and your knee)
then convenIentIy the rest oI your Ieq moves wIth It. ¡n that exampIe, the tIbIa/IIbuIa wouId
probabIy be counted as one bone, wIth the Iemur as theIr 'parent' bone. ¡n thIs way, you
buIId up a hIerarchy oI bones, makInq anImatIon much sImpIer.
£dItInq an Armature Object qIves you the chance to add, move or connect bones toqether.
WhIIst In edIt mode, you wIII see aII oI the bones wIthIn the currentIy seIected Armature.
When you create a new armature In Object mode a sInqIe bone wIII automatIcaIIy be
created Ior you, centered at the cursor posItIon. ÐIender wIII then swItch straIqht to £dIt
mode to aIIow you to add Iurther bones. At thIs poInt we're just deIInInq the deIauIt 'rest'
posItIon oI the bones and specIIyInq how they connect toqether -- you'II have to waIt untII
the next chapter to IInd out how to create specIIIc poses.
Now the bas¡cs about bones
IavInq created and seIected an armature In Object mode, you can add
and modIIy the bones In thIs armature by swItchInq to £dIt mode.
You can add a new bone at cursor posItIon by pressInq SIAC£K£Y
In the 3ÐVIew --> Add --> Ðone.
A bone has two ends. a root (the Iower part) and a tIp (the upper
part). You can seIect and move the tIp or the root IndependentIy
wIth ÐMÐ, or you can seIect the entIre bone by cIIckInq on Its
body.
You can extrude a new bone Irom the seIectIon usInq £K£Y. ThIs
wIII create a bone connected to the orIqInaI one, meanInq the
Ðoot oI the new bone wIII IoIIow the TIp oI the orIqInaI one. You
can aIso CTÐI-IMÐ to extrude a new bone. ¡t wIII extrude to
where you cIIcked.
AIternatIveIy, you can connect two exIstInq bones by seIectInq them one aIter the
other and pressInq CTÐI-IK£Y. You can then choose eIther 'Connected' (the chIId bone
- the one you seIected second - wIII automatIcaIIy be moved so that It touches the
parent) or 'Keep oIIset'.
You can use SI¡IT-ÐK£Y to dupIIcate a bone
!sInq the WK£Y menu, You can subdIvIde your bone or IIIp the name oI the bone
between IeIt-ÐIqht (See ÞamInq conventIon beIow).
You can deIete the bone wIth XK£Y
You can seIect a chaIn oI bones (connected toqether) usInq IK£Y, when you hover your
mouse over a bone.
The ed¡t paneI
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Armature Ðones IaneI
ÐO. thIs IIeId Iets you rename your bone.
"ChIId oI" Ðropdown. Iets you choose whIch bone wIII be the parent oI thIs bone.
¡I a parent Is seIected, there wIII be a smaII button IabeIIed "con", meanInq
connected. SettInq the parent deIInes the reIatIonshIp between your bones. When
one bone has another as Its parent, It wIII do everythInq the parent does, such as
rotate, move and scaIe. A dotted IIne between the parent and chIId wIII appear. ¡I
you seIect Connected, the Ðoot oI the ChIIdren wIII qo stIck to the tIp oI the
parent, qIvInq you a chaIn oI bones IIke the 2 bones In your arm.
Seqm. ¡I you set thIs vaIue to somethInq qreater than 1, It wIII cut your bone Into
severaI IIttIe seqments and deIorm them on a bezIer curve - reIerred to as a
'Ð-Ðone'. You need to create a chaIn oI bones to reaIIy show oII thIs Ieature
thouqh. ¡n the exampIe beIow, the Imaqe on the rIqht has 1 seqment, and the one
on the IeIt has 3 seqments each (these are shown In Object mode to show the
eIIect more cIearIy).
ÐIst. ThIs Is the area oI InIIuence oI the bone. ¡t can be vIsuaIIsed usInq the
£nveIope dIspIay mode. We qeneraIIy don't touch thIs IIeId as there Is an easIer
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and Iaster way to chanqe thIs optIon. Turn £nveIope on and seIect a bone. Then
usInq AIT-S, you can scaIe the zone oI InIIuence. ThIs has the advantaqe that you
can do It on muItIpIe bones sImuItaneousIy, and It works In both edItmode and
posemode.
WeIqht. ThIs specIIIes how stronqIy thIs bone wIII InIIuence the qeometry around
It, reIatIve to the other bones. ¡I two bones crossInq each other, both wIth
enveIope InIIuence, have the same weIqht (IIke 1.1) they wIII InIIuence the
surroundInq qeometry equaIIy. Ðut II you set one to 0.5, the qeometry wIII be
aIIected more sIqnIIIcantIy by the other one, wIth weIqht 1. Ior exampIe, In thIs
Imaqe, 2 bones usInq enveIope InIIuence try to move the same qeometry. The 2 on
the IeIt have the same weIqht, you can see the qeometry dIdn't move. On the
rIqht, one oI the bones has 0.5 so the bone wIth weIqht 1 Is wInnInq the
tuq-oI-war!.
IInqe. ThIs teIIs the bone to remaIn motIonIess In a chaIn. ¡t doesn't copy the
rotatIon and scaIe oI the parent. !seIuI Ior mechanIcaI rIq ¡ wouId say, as you can
anImate the rotatIon oI the hInqe bone wIthout havInq to correct It because the
parent rotated.
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ÐeIorm. ThIs Iets you say II you want the bone to deIorm the qeometry at aII.
SwItchInq It oII Is IIke settInq the weIqht to 0, except It's Iaster thIs way. !seIuI
when usInq a bone as a tarqet or a controIIer, I.e. a bone you just want to use to
controI other bones, but not the qeometry ItseII.
MuIt. to deIorm qeometry you can use vertex qroup and/or £nveIope. The abIIIty
to mIx both oI these methods Is handy Ior usInq one to tweak the other. Ior
exampIe, you mIqht use enveIope everywhere but tweak dIIIIcuIt pIaces manuaIIy
wIth vertex qroup. We'II dIscuss thIs In more detaII Iater on.
IIde. ThIs optIon Iets you hIde the bone. You can use It to hIde the Iess Important
bones when you want to see what you're doInq or Ior when you come to anImate
Iater on. Ior exampIe, when you anImate you don't need to see the entIre chaIn oI
the Ieq, just the controIIers. The vaIues you seIect here appIy to both £dItmode
and Iosemode.
Nam¡ng convent¡on
¡n many cases, rIqs are symmetrIcaI and can be mIrrored In haII. ¡n these cases, It Is heIpIuI
to use a IeIt-rIqht namInq conventIon. ThIs Is not onIy useIuI Ior your own sake, but It qIves
ÐIender a hInt that there Is a paIr oI equIvaIent bones, and enabIes the use oI some very
cooI tooIs that wIII save you some sIqnIIIcant work.
¡t's heIpIuI to name your bones wIth somethInq useIuI teIIInq you what It's there Ior,
such as Ieq, arm, IInqer, back, Ioot, etc.
¡I you qet a bone that has a copy on the other sIde, however, IIke the arm (you have 2
arms rIqht?), then the conventIon Is to caII them arm.IeIt and arm.ÐIqht.
Other aIternatIves are aIso possIbIe, IIke I, I£IT, IeIt, .I, and .IeIt. Anyway, when
you rIq try to keep thIs IeIt-rIqht thInq as accurate as possIbIe, It wIII pay oII Iater on.
You can copy a bone named bIah.I and IIIp It over usInq WK£Y --> IIIp name. So the
bone wIII be bIah.I.001 aIter you copy It, and IIIppInq the name wIII qIve you bIah.Ð.
ÐIender handIIy detects II the .001 versIon aIready exIsts, and Increments the number
Ior you.
ThIs Is an exampIe oI namInq In a sImpIe rIq.
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M¡rror Ed¡t¡ng
Þow we come to the X-AxIs MIrror £dIt Ieature. ThIs handy IIttIe number aIIows you to
deIIne onIy haII oI your character and teII ÐIender to automatIcaIIy repeat the same actIons
on the other sIde. ¡t's cooI, It's sImpIe and It saves a whoIe Iot oI tIme.
We wIII create a IIttIe quy out oI stIcks Ior the occasIon -- don't worry about the qeometry
yet.
Create a new, empty scene. SInce the mIrror edItInq Ieature mIrrors aIonq the X AxIs,
make sure you've qot the Iront vIew seIected (Þ!MIAÐ1K£Y) so that the X AxIs runs
Irom IeIt to rIqht. Add a new armature to the scene (SIAC£, Add|Armature). £nabIe
'Ðraw names' Irom the 'ÐIspIay optIons' sectIon oI the £dItbutton paneI, so we can see
what we're doInq.
Þew enabIe mIrror edItInq by pressInq I9 on the buttons wIndow and cIIckInq the
X-Ax¡s M¡rror button In the Armature paneI under Ed¡t¡ng opt¡ons. You'II aIso need
to use the center oI the armature (IndIcated by a purpIe dot) as the center oI your rIq,
otherwIse the symmetry wIII qo wronq when we come to create the mIrror Imaqe.
Þame the IIrst bone you have "Ðack". You can scaIe It to make the entIre back oI the
quy.
SeIect the tIp oI thIs and extrude a new bone Irom It to do the Iead. Þame It Iead.
SeIect the tIp oI Ðack aqaIn and do SI¡IT-£K£Y to teII bIender you're startInq a
mIrrored chaIn oI bones. ÐIender wIII automatIcaIIy extrude another bone and wIII
create an exact mIrror oI whatever you do. Take note that the name oI both bones are
ÐackI and ÐackÐ. ÐIender aIso trIes to keep to the namInq conventIon.
!nIortunateIy, sInce we extruded Irom the Ðack bone, the names aren't quIte rIqht
anymore.
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To chanqe the names. Start by edItInq one oI the names as Arm. Add the suIIIx to It
(I or Ð). Then hover you mouse over the name IIeId and do CTÐI-CK£Y. You just
copIed the name oI the bone! SeIect the other bone, hover you mouse over the name
IIeId and do CTÐI-VK£Y. ThIs wIII paste the name as-Is. Ðut as there Is aIready a bone
wIth the same name, ÐIender wIII add .001 aIter It. Þo probIem, just qo Into 3ÐvIew
and do WK£Y --> IIIp name. There you have It -- a workInq mIrror aqaIn.
MIrror edItInq works usInq names. ¡I you move a bone named bIahI and there Is a
bone named bIahÐ In the same armature, ÐIender wIII mIrror the move you do to It,
so make sure you IoIIow name conventIon correctIy.
Then we can contInue. extrude an other bone to make the Iower part oI the arm usInq
£K£Y or CTÐI-IMÐ. The new set oI bones shouId be armI.001 armÐ.001.
Then we wIII add the Ieqs. !p tIII now we have aIways worked Irom the tIps oI the
bone. ThIs Is easy as ÐIender understands you want to create chIIdren oI the seIected
bone, but to make the Ieqs you need to extrude Irom the root oI "Ðack". So qo ahead,
seIect the root oI "Ðack" and do SI¡IT-£K£Y to start a paIr oI chaIns. Ðename them to
"Ieq"+suIIIx.
Þow take note that doInq so wIII not parent or connect the new bones to anythInq. We
don't want It to be connected to the tIp oI "Ðack", It wouId Iook sIIIy. Ðut we want It to
IoIIow the body!
The way to qo Is to parent the two Ieqs we just created to the "Ðack" bone. The oId
way (pre 2.40) was to seIect aII bone and seIect the parent manuaIIy In the drop down.
¡n the new versIon, edItmode and posemode have an cctive bone. The actIve bone Is
the Iast bone you seIected. ¡n thIs case we can't work wIth more than 2 bones
seIected. SeIect the chIId (a Ieq) then seIect the parent (Ðack) and Ðo CTÐI-IK£Y. A
menu wIII popup askInq Connected or Keep ojjset. Ior now use Keep ojjset. Ðo thIs Ior
the other Ieq as weII.
It's aIso possIbIe to remove parent easIIy. SeIect any bone you want to remove parent
reIatIon Irom and do AIT-IK£Y. A menu wIII popup askInq II you want to cIear aII or
just to unconnect. OI course you don't need to seIect the parent and/or the chIId Ior
thIs to work sInce any parent reIatIonshIp wIII be cIeared. So II you do that on a bone
whIch Is parent oI 5 bones, then ImmedIateIy aII the chIIdren wIII be parentIess.
£xtrude one more tIme to qet a Ieq wIth 2 bones.
Turn on the StIck dIspIay mode and enjoy your quy made oI stIcks!
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Þow you can qo Into Iosemode and pose your quy as you want.
You can move the entIre quy just by movInq the "Ðack" bone, sInce thIs Is how we buIIt
hIm. ThIs bone Is the hIqhest In the bone hIerarchy, "The daddy oI aII bones", you couId
say!
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Armature Object In Iose mode
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Iosemode Is a very versatIIe pIace where you AnImate your character, create and manaqe
constraInts and appIy your rIq to your character.
Contrary to £dItmode, Iose mode Isn't an obIIqatory mode where you can't do anythInq
eIse. ¡t's now part oI the !¡ IIke any other object. A qood exampIe oI It Is you can be In
posemode and stIII seIect another object.
So What Can You Do?
When you are done buIIdInq your armature, you can qo Into Iosemode to add constraInts
and start creatInq actIons. There are aIso some new tooIs accessIbIe In Iosemode that you
may want to Iook at. You can easIIy qet Into "pose" mode by seIectInq the mode Irom ¡IO
type IIst box In the IeIt portIon oI the Iower screen.
The paneI has chanqed a bIt too.
What's new In the paneIs?.
You can use the AutomatIc ¡K Ieature In the £dItbutton(I9) to pose a chaIn oI
bones IIke It was an Ik chaIn. ¡t's useIuIness Is very IImIted thouqh. ¡t works weII
onIy II there Is no other Ik soIver In the chaIn, and II your chaIn Is IsoIated Irom
the rest oI the rIq.
Ghost. In the armature paneI the qhost optIon Iets you see the actIon IInked to
the armature over tIme. AIso caIIed onIon skInnInq.
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There are two number IIeIds to better tweak the eIIect oI Ð-Ðones. The In/out Is
used to teII the scaIe oI the vIrtuaI handIe oI the bezIer curve. ¡n Is the Ðoot oI
the bone, and Out Is the TIp. The bIqqer the vaIue, the bIqqer the eIIect oI
rotatIon.
There Is now a ConstraInt paneI where you can add a constraInt to a bone, IIke
any other object In the scene. ThIs wIII be shown Iater.
You can pose your rIq usInq GK£Y, SK£Y and ÐK£Y. Þote that II the bone Is part oI a
chaIn It can't be moved (except II It's the IIrst oI the chaIn, movInq aII the chaIn as
they are aII chIIdren), so you rotate the bone Instead.
You can do AIT-SK£Y on one or more bones whIIe In £nveIope dIspIay mode to tweak
the enveIope sIze In reaI tIme whIIe anImatInq. !seIuI when Ior exampIe you move the
hand and some part oI the character Isn't In the InIIuence zone, the resuIt wIII be that
some vertIces wIII stay behInd.
You can do CTÐI-CK£Y to copy stuII Irom a bone to bones. The optIons are IocatIon,
rotatIon, scaIe and constraInt. ConstraInt Is very handy when you wan to copy a
constraInt to other bone. The way It works Is easy.
The WK£Y menu qet some neat optIons too.
SeIect constraInt tarqet. WIII seIect the tarqet oI the bone's constraInt currentIy
seIected.
IIIp name. Yep, you can IIIp name In Iosemode too.
CaIcuIate/CIear path. ThIs Is a vIsuaI way to see the actIon IInked to your
armature. You can seIect just some bones and ask ÐIender to show you the paths
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oI the bones.
You can pose your character and seIect aII bones you want to see IncIuded In the
actIon and press ¡K£Y. You can Insert a key just Ior Ioc, rot or sIze. AvaII wIII add a key
to aII avaIIabIe channeIs In ¡IO wIndow (aII channeIs you prevIousIy added somethInq).
When you Insert key Ior your armature, a new actIon Is created and IInked to the
armature II there was no actIon beIore. You can aIso see the curves oI each seIected
bone oI the armature In the ¡IO wIndow. We wIII see actIon wIndow and ¡IO wIndow
Iater.
You can parent a bone to an externaI object by seIectInq thIs object then seIectInq the
bone In questIon so It's actIve (The armature Is In Iosemode so you can seIect a bone).
Ðo CTÐI-IK£Y. Then when you move the bone the object wIII IoIIow. ThIs kInd oI Iard
reIatIonshIp doesn't IncIude any bendInq at aII. ¡t's useIuI when doInq robot rIqs as you
are just movInq objects around.
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Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Armcture/edit
Mesh Object
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ThIs sectIon wIII expIaIn you how to deIorm your mesh usInq the armature.
There are two ways to teII ÐIender whIch vertex wIII qo wIth whIch bone. Vertex qroup, and
£nveIope.
There Is aIso a tooI useIuI when anImatInq whIch Is part oI the mesh object. the Shape key,
to create a preset deIormatIon. Ior exampIe. deIorm the Iace to Iook IIke a smIIe.
ConnectIon between Armature and Mesh
£nveIope
Vertex Groups S WeIqht IaInt
Shape Key
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ConnectIon between Armature and Mesh
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Iow to teII ÐIender. "use thIs armature to deIorm thIs mesh"
The Armature Mod¡f¡er
ÐIender now has a ModIIIer stack (£dItbutton, I9K£Y). As such, we shouId use It over
exIstInq methods to paIr mesh and armature, as the modIIIer stack Is optImIsed and sImpIe
to use. Þote. You don't need to parent the mesh to the Armature anymore. The onIy case
you couId need to do thIs wouId be anImatInq the Armature object ItseII. Then the mesh
shouId aIso IoIIow the armature. ¡n thIs case seIect mesh, then armature, and do
CTÐI-IK£Y --> Object.
The cIean way to do so Is to qo In the £dItbutton wIndow (I9K£Y) and press "Add modIIIer"
In the ModIIIer paneI, then seIect "armature" In the dropdown menu. Then you'II qet a new
modIIIer "Armature" IIke the prevIous pIcture. There you can chanqe the name by cIIckInq
on the name IIeId, enabIe/dIsabIe the modIIIer when renderInq, enabIe/dIsabIe when
workInq to onIy move the armature (couId qet handy wIth massIve character), and when
edItInq (that's very handy, you can edIt the topoIoqy whIIe It's deIormed). There are aIso
two toqqIes to teII ÐIender what It shouId use to deIorm. Vertex Groups and/or £nveIopes.
You may have notIced these optIons are repeated aIso In the £dItbutton --> Armature paneI,
but as the tooItIp says. these two are used when you use vIrtuaI modIIIer (the oId way) to
keep compatIbIIIty wIth oId IIIes.
IarentInq the mesh to the "armature" wIII create an oId-way IInk, stIII vIsIbIe In the
modIIIer stack, but not very useIuI. The IIrst entry wIth the "make reaI" button Is what
appends II you do a CTÐI-IK£Y to "armature". You shouId not use that kInd oI connectIon
when you see that. Iress "make reaI" to qet a workInq modIIIer.
The OId Way
ThIs way Is not recommended but can stIII be useIuI. When doInq CTÐI-IK£Y to
"armature", you wIII qet a menu IIke thIs.
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Ðon't Create Groups wIII just create a vIrtuaI modIIIer so you can deIorm the mesh
(the "make reaI" button)
Þame Groups Is aImost useIess now as bIender wIII create a qroup Ior you when you
do weIqht paIntInq.
Create Irom CIosest Ðones Is a IunctIon to remember when you want to bake aII your
enveIopes to vertex qroups.
T¡p: Bake enveIope to vertex groups
The workIIow Is very sImpIe. When you are done wIth the enveIope's tweakInq and you
have qotten the best out oI It, deIete the Armature modIIIer and parent the mesh to the
armature. To parent It, qo to object mode, IIrst seIect the mesh and then the armature,
then press CTÐI-IK£Y. SeIect Crecte From Closest Bones.
Ðo AIT-IK£Y and redo the Armature modIIIer. Þow aII the enveIope InIIuence are converted
to Vertex Groups. ThIs way you can Iurther tweak InIIuence zone usInq WeIqht paInt. More
InIo In the IoIIowInq paqesöö.
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£nveIope
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Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Mesh/Amodij
What ¡s EnveIope
£nveIope Is a new vIsuaI tooI to heIp you rIq your characters Iaster and easIer. ¡t can oIten
save you a Iot oI tIme. £ach bone has a specIaI area around It, aIIowInq you to teII ÐIender
what part oI the qeometry wIII IoIIow each bone. ThIs zone Is customIzabIe so you can
move, scaIe and bIend them toqether.
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Ed¡t EnveIope
You can edIt thIs whIte zone In £dItmode or posemode by qoInq In £nveIope dIspIay mode,
seIectInq bones and usInq SK£Y or AIT-SK£Y.
ln Editmode: you can seIect the TIp, the Ðody or the Ðoot and scaIe usInq SK£Y. ThIs area
In the mIddIe wIII assIqn a weIqht oI 1 to aII vertIces contaIned In here. AII vertIces wIth a
weIqht oI 1 wIII compIeteIy IoIIow thIs bone. The whIte transparent area around the center
Is a zone oI InIIuence whIch Ioses power as you qo away Irom the center. ThIs area Is
scaIed when seIectInq the body oI a bone and doInq AIT-SK£Y. ln Fosemode: You can onIy
scaIe the zone oI InIIuence wIth AIT-SK£Y when In £nveIope dIspIay mode. ¡t's reaI tIme,
and Iets you tweak the InIIuence whIIe you anImate. So II you notIce there Is a vertex not
IoIIowInq In the new pose you just dId. just seIect the bone It shouId IoIIow, and scaIe the
zone a bIt untII the vertex qoes back wIth hIs IrIends. £xampIe.
EnveIope Opt¡ons
¡t's possIbIe to enabIe/dIsabIe the use oI £nveIope In the ModIIIer stack usInq the
"£nveIope" toqqIe.
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There are aIso two Important buttons In the Armature Ðones paneI. ÐeIorm and MuIt.
£nabIInq the ÐeIorm button wIII teII ÐIender to deIorm qeometry wIth thIs bone. ¡t's useIuI
because In a more compIex rIq not aII the bones are there to deIorm, some bones are just
there to move other bones.
The MuIt optIon wIII teII ÐIender to muItIpIy the weIqht It qet Irom enveIope (Iet say 0.7)
wIth the weIqht you paInted In weIqht paInt (Iet say 0.5). The resuIt wIII be 0.5*0.7=0.35 so
In Iact you just tweaked the enveIope InIIuence to 0.3 when It was at 0.7. ¡I you don't want
vertIces to be part oI the zone, you can aIways paInt It wIth 0, as 0*(somethInq) wIII aIways
qIve 0. ThIs way you can qIve custom shape to your enveIope. More on weIqht paInt on next
paqe.
¡n thIs exampIe you can see that aII the seIected vertIces are not IoIIowInq the bone. ThIs
Is because ¡ paInted a weIqht oI 0 on them. ¡n weIqht paInt you'II see nothInq. Ðut just the
Iact that they are part oI the qroup wIth a weIqht oI 0 wIII make that possIbIe. ¡I MuIt Is oII
and you have both a vertex qroup and enveIope, ÐIender wIII add vaIue.
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Vertex Groups S WeIqht IaInt
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What Are Vertex Groups?
Vertex qroups are very useIuI. You can use a vertex qroup to.
Group vertIces toqether whIIe you modeI (keep a seIectIon and come back to It Iater).
ÐeIIne whIch vertIces soItbody sImuIatIon aIIects.
ÐeIIne whIch vertIces emIt partIcIes.
ÐeIIne whIch part oI a mesh wIII IoIIow a specIIIc bone.
Vertex qroups are specIIIc to the Mesh object and can be modIIIed In £dItmode.
¡I you have vertIces assIqned to muItIpIe qroups (Ior exampIe, In a character you may have
some vertIces In the "upper arm" vertex qroup that are aIso In the "Iower arm" vertex
qroup), you can assIqn weIqhts to those vertIces to specIIy how much reIatIve InIIuence the
dIIIerent qroups have. A weIqht can ranqe Irom 0 to 1 and Is assIqned when you create the
qroup. Iet's take a peek at the G!¡ oI vertex qroups In the £dItbutton(I9K£Y).
Irom top down.
The dropdown menu Iets you seIect an exIstInq vertex qroup or rename the current
one.
The weIqht numIIeId Iets you choose the weIqht vaIue assIqned when you add vertIces.
You can add a new qroup or deIete the current one.
AssIqn or remove seIected vertIces to/Irom current qroup.
SeIect/deseIect aII vertIces In current qroup.
We¡ght Pa¡nt
As mentIoned above, you may oIten IInd that you have some vertIces that are assIqned to
more than one vertex qroup. Ðy assIqnInq weIqhts, you can specIIy the reIatIve InIIuence
each oI the vertex qroups have. You have two optIons to assIqn weIqhts. 1) manuaIIy
seIectInq each vertex and typInq In a weIqht vaIue, or 2) use weIqht paIntInq to - you
quessed It - paInt weIqhts.
WeIqht paIntInq Iets you paInt weIqht vaIues on the mesh IIke you were paIntInq on a waII
wIth a can oI spray paInt. ¡t Is a Mode oI the 3ÐvIew and Is accessIbIe In the 3ÐvIew's
header In the dropdown menu wIth Objectmode, £dItmode and such. A hotkey Is aIso
avaIIabIe. CTÐI-TAÐK£Y.
¡n WeIqhtpaInt Mode, the IIrst thInq you'II notIce Is the bIue coIor oI the mesh. ÐIender
provIdes an easy way to quIckIy vIsuaIIse the weIqht vaIue oI each vertex. ThIs Is the coIor
spectrum used.
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When you are In WeIqhtpaInt mode you can paInt aII over the mesh as II It was a soIId
object on your desk. The paInt onIy works on vertIces so don't try to paInt In the mIddIe oI
an edqe or a Iace, It wIII never work ,). To heIp you In your task there Is a new paneI In
£dItbutton.
The weIqht sIIder Is just the same thInq as the weIqht numIIeId we saw earIIer In the
vertex qroups button. ¡t's just easIer to work wIth. ¡t's sImpIy the weIqht you want to
appIy to the vertIces. ¡n paIntInq terms, thInk oI thIs as the coIor.
The buttons Irom 0 to 1 are shortcuts Ior weIqht vaIue, to speed up the workIIow.
The opacIty sIIder (and shortcuts) teII ÐIender what Is the percent oI the weIqht vaIue
you want to appIy In one shot. ¡I you set opacIty and weIqht to 1 the vertex wIII turn
red InstantIy. ¡n paIntInq terms, thInk oI thIs as the pressure.
"AII Iaces" teIIs ÐIender II you want to paInt on aII Iaces In the mesh or just the vIsIbIe
one.
"Vertex ÐIst" teII bIender to use vertex dIstance Instead oI Iaces. When actIve, the
paIntInq wIII onIy check II the vertex Is In the brush, then appIy a weIqht vaIue. ¡I It's
oII, aII vertIce part oI the Iaces In the brush wIII receIve weIqht vaIue. TurnInq on
Vertex ÐIst can qIve qood resuIts when you have a Iot oI poIys In your mesh.
"ÞormaIs" wIII appIy vertex normaIs beIore paIntInq. ThIs means ÐIender wIII take
consIderatIon oI the dIrectIon the vertex Is poIntInq when paIntInq. the more It's IacInq
away Irom vIew, the Iess It wIII receIve vaIue.
"Spray" reaIIy makes It IIke sprayInq paInt. WIthout It, a sInqIe cIIck wIII onIy paInt
one vaIue. WIth Spray on, each tIme you move the mouse a a paInt shot wIII be added.
To qet qood eIIect, use IIttIe oppacIty vaIue so the weIqht wIII top Iess Iaster.
"X-mIrror" wIII teII ÐIender to appIy the weIqht paInt on the other qroup II there Is
one. IIke Iand.I --> Iand.Ð. ¡I you paInt the qroup hand.I and there Is a hand.Ð the
paInt wIII be copIed over. Ior thIs to work your qroups must be created, the name oI
the qroups have to IoIIow name's conventIon (IeIt rIqht) and both sIde oI the mesh
need to be IdentIcaI.
"WIre toqqIe" toqqIes the vIsIbIIIty oI wIre whIIe paIntInq. !seIuI to IInd where the
vertIces are (actIvate the edIt mode optIon "Ðraw aII edqes" to see even better).
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"MIx"/"Add"/"Sub"/"MuI"/"IIIter" Is how you want to appIy the paInt based on what Is
aIready there. MIxInq wIII do a mean Irom brute weIqht vaIue and current weIqht
vaIue, "Add"/"Sub" wIII dIrectIy add or subtract vaIue, "MuI" wIII muItIpIy (exponentIaI
paIntInq) and "IIIter" wIII paInt based on aIpha vaIue.
Vertex Groups and Armatures
So what use are vertex qroups In rIqqInq? You can specIIy what vertIces wIII move when a
bone moves. When you want to paInt a mesh Ior an armature, do the IoIIowInq.
Make sure the Mesh has an Armature modIIIer.
SeIect the armature and enabIe Armature Iosemode (CTÐI-TAÐK£Y).
SeIect the mesh and enter WeIqhtpaInt mode (CTÐI-TAÐK£Y).
SeIect the bone you want to paInt Ior wIth ÐMÐ.
IaInt the parts you want that bone to aIIect.
You'II notIce that, II there Is no qroup created when you IIrst paInt, ÐIender wIII create a
qroup Ior you, and qIve It the same name as the seIected bone. ThIs Is Important, because
when the "Vert. Groups" toqqIe Is on In the Armature modIIIer, ÐIender wIII try to match
bones wIth Vertex Groups based on the same names.
What happens when we try to bIend qroups toqether? See thIs sImpIe exampIe oI 2 bones
tryInq to bend a tube.
The Groups are paInted so the body oI each bone Is In red and the zone between the two
bones are qraduaIIy qoInq Irom 1 to 0. ThIs wIII bend nIceIy. ¡I, Ior a specIaI reason, you
want a sIde to react dIIIerentIy, you can aIways move the bone whIIe paIntInq and try the
new modIIIcatIon you just dId. Ðy the way, havInq SubsurI on whIIe paIntInq can be very cpu
expensIve. ¡t's a qood Idea to turn It oII.
1s¡ng We¡ght Pa¡nt¡ng w¡th Armatures
Armatures are used Ior many purposes, but one common use Is to deIorm a mesh wIth an
armature. ThIs exampIe wIII demonstrate how weIqht paIntInq can Improve
armature-deIormed meshes.
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¡n thIs exampIe, we have two objects, each has an armature modIIIer appIIed. The one on
the IeIt Is qoInq to be the "beIore" and the one on the rIqht wIII be the "aIter".
Ior the object on the IeIt, take a Iook at the vertex qroups as InItIaIIy assIqned (Irom IeIt to
rIqht. Ðone1, Ðone2, Ðone3, and Ðone4). These same vertex qroups were assIqned Ior the
object on the rIqht.
¡mportant: A bone In an armature wIII onIy act upon those vertIces that are In a vertex
qroup wIth exactIy the same name as the bone.
¡n ÐIender 2.37 and prevIous, thIs was the OÞIY way to qet a bone to deIorm a mesh.
¡n ÐIender 2.40 and on, seIectInq the "£nveIope" button In the armature modIIIer wIII
aIIow bones to deIorm even II you haven't assIqned any vertex qroups yet.
¡I you enter WeIqht IaInt mode (CTÐI-TAÐ wIth object seIected) rIqht aIter assIqnInq the
vertex qroups, you can see that the vertex qroups as assIqned aII have a weIqht oI 1.0.
The two objects In thIs exampIe.
Vertex qroup assIqnments Ior each oI the two objects.
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OK. both objects have vertex qroups assIqned and they have armature modIIIers. Iet's qrab
a bone (seIect the Armature, CTÐI-TAÐ to enter Iose Mode, seIect Ðone4, GK£Y to qrab,
and move) to deIorm the mesh. We haven't made the objects dIIIerent Irom each other, so
aIter movInq theIr armatures In the same way . . there's stIII no dIIIerence. That's qood.
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Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Mesh/env
Shape Keys
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslAdvanced An¡mat¡onlGu¡ded tourlMeshlShapelSync
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Mesh/vg
Shape Key?
Shape keys are modIIIcatIons oI the orIqInaI mesh that you can anImate and mIx wIth each
other. IrevIousIy caIIed ÐeIatIve Vertex Keys (ÐVK), one oI theIr major uses Is to create
IacIaI expressIons.
¡nItIaI weIqhts Ior the vertex qroups assIqned above.
Armatures deIormInq objects. beIore
weIqht paIntInq
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The Idea behInd Shape keys Is sImpIe. The basIc, undeIormed mesh you start wIth Is the
"Bas¡s" shape. You can add a varIety oI dIIIerent versIons oI thIs shape and store each one
as a Shape Key Ior use In an anImatIon (other soItware sometImes reIers to these as
"morph tarqets"). You can't add or deIete vertIces as Shape Keys onIy store the posItIons oI
vertIces and not the creatIon/deIetIon oI them.
Ok, to start out, take a pIane. ¡'II add a new shape to It and move a vertex away.
When ¡ pIay wIth the InIIucence thIs key have over the basIc shape, the resuIt wIII be as
IoIIows (0.5 In thIs exampIe).
¡I ¡ pIay wIth the sIIder Irom 0 to 1, ÐIender wIII qraduaIIy appIy the Key 1 shape wIth a
constantIy varyInq amount oI deIormatIon. So Irom 0 to 1, It wIII sIIde Irom the basIs shape
to the Key 1 shape. The movement oI the vertIces Is IInear Irom start posItIon to end
posItIon and you can even set an InIIuence qreater than 1 or Iower than 0 and ÐIender wIII
extrapoIate the movements oI the vertIces reIatIve to the basIs shape (marked as a dotted
IIne above). ThIs Ieature aIIows you to set qeneraI shapes such as a smIIe and then
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exaqqerate the shape wIthout needInq to remake It.
The G1¡
Shape Keys step-by-step
Iere's a hand-heId waIk-throuqh oI how shape keys are used.
Start wIth the deIauIt cube or a more InterestInq mesh oI your choIce.
1. SeIect your object In Ob]ect mode. Go to F9 Ed¡t¡ng wIndow. IInd and seIect the
"Shapes" paneI. Iress the "Add Shape key" button. ThIs adds a key caIIed "Bas¡s" and thIs
stores the "bcsic" mesh In Its undeIormed state. Make sure the "HeIat¡ve" button Is
pressed (shouId be deIauIt).
2. Iress the "Add Shape key" button aqaIn. ¡t now says "Key 1" and you have a sIIder and
some other settInqs. Go Into Ed¡t Mode, qrab a vertex and move It. Ex¡t Ed¡t Mode. The
mesh returns to normaI but you've just added a reaI Shape key and ÐIender has stored It.
3. Ðepeat step 2 Ior as many dIIIerent shapes as you IIke. You can rename the keys to
whatever you want. ÞormaIIy you create each new shape by IIrst seIectInq the "ÐasIs" key
but II you seIect an exIstInq key Irom the IIst and ImmedIateIy press "Add Shape Key" then
enter £dIt Mode, the mesh wIII aIready be deIormed. ThIs Is useIuI Ior makInq sImIIar but
unIque keys.
1s¡ng Shape Keys
1. StartInq on Irame 1, seIect each key one by one Irom the pop-up IIst (or go to the Action
Window, press the sliders button cnd select the Keys jrom the list there) and cIIck on the
sIIder and move the sIIder Iorward then back to zero. SometImes just cIIckInq on the sIIder
at the zero poInt Is enouqh to set the key.
2. Move Iorward ten Irames, seIect Key 1 Irom the IIst and move the sIIder to 1.00. You'II
see your object deIorm. Move more Irames and sIIde another key. And so on and so on. You
can move them Iorwards and/or backwards as you move throuqh the Irames and they'II just
add toqether II they have to. £ach tIme you move the sIIder, you set a keyIrame Ior that
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Shape Key.
Setting Shcpe Keys
¡MPOHTANT NOTE:
You shouId add shape keys to a IInIshed mesh. Ðon't work on a mIrrored mesh or a partIaIIy
IInIshed modeI. AddInq qeometry (vertIces, Iaces, Ioops, joInInq etc...) can resuIt In the Ioss
oI the shape keys or to unpredIcatabIe resuIts. Þot aIways, but probabIy when you Ieast
expect It. There are scrIpts avaIIabIe to make some oI these thInqs possIbIe.
That's the basIcs. Þote that shapes wIII constantIy transIorm between keys so II you set a
key at Irame 1 to zero and at Irame 10 you set the sIIder to 1 then at Irame 5 the sIIder
wIII be at 0.5 - whIch you may or may not want. ¡I you want It to hoId shape Ior a whIIe
beIore chanqInq (e.g. stcying ct zero until jrcme 7), you'II need to set a key at the
beqInnInq and end oI the tIme Irame you want It to stay the same (So you would set it c
zero ct the stcrt, then zero cgcin ct jrcme 7 then to one ct jrcme 10). You can aIso edIt the
¡IO curves (use Shcpes pop-up) to reaIIy mess wIth the transIormatIons.
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslAdvanced An¡mat¡onlGu¡ded tourlMeshlShapelSync
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Mesh/vg
IIp-Sync wIth Shape Keys
Next Page: Advanced Tutor¡aIslAdvanced An¡mat¡onlGu¡ded tourlConstl¡ndex
Frevious Fcge: Advcnced Tutoricls/Advcnced Animction/Guided tour/Mesh/Shcpe
¡¡p-Sync w¡th Shape Keys
Iere ¡ wIII attempt to expIaIn my recent deaIInqs wIth usInq ÐIender Shape Keys to
produce convIncInq IIp-sync (IIp-synchronIsatIon, Ie. "speech") Ior sImpIe, humanoId
characters.
ThIs Is aImed at peopIe wIth an understandInq oI ÐIender IundamentaIs IIke vertex Ioops,
Iace Ioops, sequencer and oI course, ÐIender's new Shape Key system. ¡I these terms mean
nothInq to you, then you may weII struqqIe to keep up. ¡I you're IamIIIar wIth them then ¡
hope thIs tutorIaI wIII prove to be a breeze and your characters wIII be speakInq so IIuentIy
you'II have troubIe shuttInq them up!
Other IIp-sync tutorIaIs, II you can IInd them, recommend usInq other soItware IIke
MaqpIe, Iapaqayo and others but whIIe ¡'ve no doubt they provIde a vaIuabIe servIce and
maybe make syncInq easIer, ¡ wIII be usInq onIy ÐIender Ior thIs tutorIaI. ¡ haven't trIed
usInq IIp-sync soItware yet so ¡ can't reaIIy say II It's easIer or not.
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You wIII IInd IInks to InterestInq audIo IIIes you can use Ior testInq anImatIon and IIp-sync
near the bottom oI the paqe.
The hard work f¡rst
Sett¡ng up for ¡¡p-Sync
IIrst, set up your ÐIender screen so you have everythInq you need Ior thIs project. You'II
need a Iront 3Ð WIndow, an ActIon WIndow, the Ðuttons WIndow (showInq £dItInq - I9 -
paneIs) and a TImeIIne WIndow. ¡I you've qot the room, a SIde-vIew 3Ð WIndow wouId be
handy too.
The basIc sound unIts are caIIed phonemes and the mouth shapes we use to represent
these phonemes Ior IIp-sync are caIIed v¡semes (or sometimes, phoneme shcpes) and there
are many reIerences Ior these around the web. One oI the most popuIar vIseme sets was
created by Ieqendary anImator Ireston ÐIaIr and these are qreat Ior cartoon-styIe
characters. Other vIsemes are aImed at more-reaIIst, humanoId characters. The shapes you
choose depend on the styIe oI your modeI. (l'll try to provide some usejul links lcter)
Scmple viseme shcpes.
The IIrst and most dIIIIcuIt step In qood IIp-sync Is makInq the shape keys Ior these
vIsemes. Iow weII these are made uItImateIy determInes the success oI the anImatIon and
It Is worth spendInq tIme qettInq them rIqht, aIthouqh they can be modIIIed and tweaked
Iater. So choose your IavourIte set oI vIsemes (or even look in c mirror cnd use your own
jcce cs c rejerence) and start settInq your keys. A modeI wIth qood topoIogy - especIaIIy
weII Iormed edge Ioops around the mouth area - wIII be a bIq heIp here!
What on Earth are topoIogy and edge Ioops?I?I
TopoIoqy reIers to the way your 3Ð mesh deIInes the object, In thIs case your character's
head. £dqe Ioops reIers to the IIow oI consecutIve edqes around the character's major
Ieatures. TypIcaIIy, qood edqe Ioops IIow around the eyes and around the mouth In a
somewhat deIormed, "cIrcuIar" manner. SeIectInq and deIormInq a sInqIe Ioop oI edqes and
vertIces surroundInq a IacIaI Ieature Is much quIcker than havInq to IndIvIduaIIy seIect a Iot
oI edqes that don't IIow naturaIIy around that Ieature. SImIIarIy, deIormInq a sInqIe Ioop or
coIIectIon oI reIated, nested Ioops Is much easIer and quIcker than tryInq to deIorm a
seemInqIy random set oI edqes. You can easIIy see these Ioops In the character screenshots
above. The serIes oI edqes surroundInq the mouth sImpIy stretch Irom wIde eIIIpses to
aImost cIrcuIar to create a useIuI varIety oI mouth shapes. The Iaces deIIned by paIred edqe
Ioops are reIerred to as face Ioops. The cIose-up Imaqe beIow shows seIected Iace Ioops.
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There are many tutorIaIs on the web about these topIcs so II you need more InIormatIon
beIore proceedInq then a quIck search Is probabIy a qood Idea.
Sett¡ng the bas¡c v¡seme shape keys
IIrst, seIect your undeIormed mesh and create your basIs key. Go to Ed¡t¡ng (I9) wIndow
and qo to the "Shapes" paneI. Iress the "Add Shape Key" button. £nter and exIt edIt mode
to set the basIs key. Then create your IIrst key Key 1 and name It "M". £nter edIt mode
and II your character's mouth Isn't aIready cIosed (some people mcke them thct wcy) then
cIose It by careIuIIy seIectInq the Iaces and Ioops around the mouth. You wIII usuaIIy use
SIze-Z pIus a bIt oI qrabbInq and shIItInq to achIeve thIs. Ðon't Iorqet to IncIude the Iaces
on the InsIde oI the IIps or the deIormatIon wIII be unpIeasant. When you're happy wIth the
shape, exIt £dIt mode and there you have It. You character can now say "Mmmmmm"
whenever you IIke. Test It by movInq the Shape Key sIIder back and Iorth but make sure to
Ieave It at zero beIore makInq more keys. (lj you mcde your chcrccter with c closed mouth
then you ccn just cdd the new "M" key then enter cnd exit edit mode to set it.)
Selecting jcce loops
Ior most new keys, you wIII seIect the basIs key IIrst then press "Add Shape Key" then
make the requIred shape Irom scratch In edIt mode. Iowever, some mouth shapes are very
sImIIar, IIke "OI and OOO" or "££ and SS" and It wouId be easIer II you couId start wIth
somethInq cIose to what you want rather than shIItInq everythInq Irom scratch every tIme.
IuckIIy, ÐIender aIIows you to do just thIs. Once you've made your "££" key, Ior exampIe,
you can seIect It and ImmedIateIy press "Add Shape Key" then enter edIt mode and the
mouth wIII aIready be deIormed and you onIy need to make subtIe chanqes to It to make
your "S" shape.
Hemember that the keys you make are for sounds, not Ietters.
¡n qeneraI, you'II need shape keys Ior the IoIIowInq sounds
M, B, P
EEE (long "E" sound cs in "Sheep")
Err (As in "Ecrth", "Fur", Long-er" - clso covers phonemes like "H" in "Hello")
Eye, Ay (As in "Fly" cnd "Stcy")
¡ (Short "l" cs in "it", "Fit")
Oh (As in "Slow")
OOO, W (As in "Moo" cnd "Went")
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Y, Ch, j ("You, Chew, ]clopy")
F, V
These can oIten be used In combInatIon wIth each other and wIth jaw bone rotatIons and
tonque actIons to aIso produce other sounds IIke "S", "Ð", "T", "Th" and a short "O" as In
"Iot" - or these can aIso be specIIIcaIIy made wIth theIr own shapes. ThIs decIsIon depends
IarqeIy on your character. Start wIth the essentIaIs and make others II you need them.
NOTE: ¡ use one jawbone In my current character and thIs Is aIso used to controI the mouth
shapes. ¡t doesn't drIve the shapes but It moves the bottom teeth and tonque (which ccn
clso be controlled sepcrctely) and the Iaces that make up the chIn part oI the character
mesh. Ior some vIsemes, ¡ move the jawbone Into a IoqIcaI posItIon beIore addInq the
shape key. Ior exampIe. ¡ open the jaw Ior the "OI" key and cIose It Ior the "M" key. Iater,
when anImatInq, the jawbone Is anImated aIonq wIth the Shapes Ior a very convIncInq
resuIt.
Using jcwbone with shcpes
¡oad the aud¡o
Once aII your vIseme shapes are set the tIme comes to qet your character to speak.
(Normclly you would cnimcte the body jirst cnd lecve the lip-sync till necr the end).
¡I you haven't aIready done so, Ioad your audIo IIIe Into a ÐIender V¡deo Sequencer
W¡ndow and posItIon It where you want It. CurrentIy, ÐIender onIy supports 16 bIt wav
Iormat audIo IIIes so you may need some edItInq or conversIon soItware to process the IIIe
II It Isn't In thIs Iormat. "AudacIty" Is a qood, open-source (Iree) edItor that wIII suIt thIs
purpose and much more.
Blender Video Sequence Editor Window showing locded Audio Strip
Go to the Scene WIndow (I10) and press the "Sound bIock buttons" button --(In the three
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buttons near the Irame counter. ¡t Iooks IIke an audIo wave)--. Iress the "Sync" and
"Scrub" buttons. The "Sync" button makes the pIayback In the 3Ð wIndow cIoseIy match
the audIo when you press AIt-A (it does this by dropping imcge jrcmes ij necesscry cnd it
generclly provides only c rough guide oj how things mctch-up). The "Scrub" button Is
Important Ior IIp-sync as It means that whenever you chanqe Irames, ÐIender pIays the
audIo at that poInt (Currently in some Blender builds you hcve to press Alt-A ct lecst once
to get this jecture to stcrt working).
Blender Soundblock Fcnel
SeIect your character and your Shape Keys shouId be IIsted In the Act¡on W¡ndow, In the
order In whIch you made them (l don't think they ccn be shujjled). You wIII see a smaII
trIanqIe button IabeIIed "SI¡ders" at the top oI the IIst - press It to show the sIIders Ior
each shape. ¡I you draq the mouse back and Iorth In thIs wIndow, you shouId hear the audIo
pIay as you cross Irames. ThIs Is how you wIII IdentIIy the maIn vIseme/phoneme key
Irames.
Shcpe Key Sliders
Gett¡ng down and d¡rty
ÐeIore you beqIn your IIp-sync, you obvIousIy need to know what your character says. ¡t
mIqht be worthwhIIe wrItInq It down and even speakInq It over and over, In tIme wIth the
audIo, to qet a IeeIInq Ior the sounds you'II be deaIInq wIth. Some sounds are what ¡'II caII
"key sounds" and others are aImost dead, non-descrIpt "In-between" sounds that IIII In the
qaps between the key sounds. ObvIous key sounds are those where the IIps cIose and those
where they are tIqhtIy pursed or wIde and round, other key sounds can dIIIer wIth every
pIece oI audIo. Ðon't make assumptIons about the shapes you'II use based on the words you
know are there. What you are anImatInq are the actuaI sounds - not Ietters or words (Keith
Lcngo hcs much to scy cbout this on his website cnd l recommend recding it)
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The T¡meI¡ne W¡ndow
Go to the T¡meI¡ne W¡ndow. ThIs wIndow seems to have been IarqeIy overIooked In
prevIous documentatIon yet It provIdes the basIcs Ior tImed anImatIon pIus a Iew other
qoodIes to make your anImatIon IIIe a IIttIe easIer. Iere you can turn auto-keyInq on and
oII at wIII (you'd normclly go to the hidden Lser Preferences window which is c pcin cnd
ecsy to jorget), navIqate Irames, pIay and pause the anImatIon In the 3Ð wIndow, turn
AudIo Sync on and oII, set the start and end Irames Ior the anImatIon and set frame
markers. ThIs Iast Ieature Is the key to our project.
¡n recent ÐIender reIeases,the audIo "Scrub" Ieature works In most wIndows. As you scrub
throuqh the audIo, IIsten Ior where the key sounds occur. As you hIt a key sound, scrub back
and Iorth to IInd where that sound commences. ¡n the TImeIIne WIndow, press "M" to set a
Irame marker at thIs Irame. The marker can be IabeIIed by pressInq CTÐI-M In the
TImeIIne WIndow whIIe the marker Is seIected (yellow). £nter a sensIbIe name Ior the
marker that IndIcates what the marker Is Ior (like the phoneme sound cnd/or which word it
stcrts or ends). Markers are seIectabIe and moveabIe and can be deIeted just IIke other
ÐIender Items.
NOTE: ÐependInq on the speed oI your system, you may IInd you qet more pIeasInq audIo
scrubbInq and better 3Ð wIndow pIayback II you turn oII subsurI Ior your modeI and hIde
any unImportant parts oI the scene on dIIIerent Iayers. The Iewer thInqs ÐIender has to
caIcuIate as you scrub or pIay-back, the Iaster It can draw the Irames to maIntaIn sync wIth
the audIo.
Turn ojj these buttons to discble subsurj setting in 3D window
Blender Timeline Window
Scrub throuqh the whoIe audIo - or sectIons oI It In a Ionq pIece - markInq and IabeIIInq aII
the key sounds.
Sett¡ng the keys
Þow you have everythInq you need Ior your IIrst IIp-sync pass. Start at the IIrst Irame and
cIIck once on aII your Shape Key sI¡ders In the ActIon WIndow to set them aII to zero.
Move throuqh the Irames Irom start to IInIsh settInq shape keys where you marked the key
sounds In the TImeIIne WIndow. ¡I your character has a jaw bone and tonque bone(s), you
wIII need to set these where requIred as you qo.
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TroubIe ¡n parad¡se? A qu¡ck Iesson ¡n handI¡ng Shape Keys
¡I you haven't set shape keys beIore you mIqht notIce one InterestInq dIIemma - they have
qreat memorIes! Once you set a sIIder to any vaIue, It stays at that vaIue untII you set
another vaIue somewhere. The shapes chanqe In a IInear IashIon between keys. At IIrst,
thIs appears to be a probIem II you want to key "MOO" because aIter you set the "M" key
sIIder to 1 (one), It wIII stay there, makInq It ImpossIbIe to qet your character to say "OO"
whIIe hIs IIps are tryInq to stay shut. So, you have to set the "M" sIIder on the "M" sound,
then as the audIo qoes Into the "OO" sound, you must set the "M" sIIder back to zero and
then set the "OO" sIIder to Its IuII vaIue.
ThIs Introduces another probIem. AIter you set the "OO" key, your "M" sound Is messed up
because the mouth Is now aIso beInq aIIected by the "OO" shape that IoIIows It. So, you
must make sure the "OO" sound Is set to zero when you want the IIps cIosed In the "M"
posItIon.
¡n generaI, you'II f¡nd yourseIf sett¡ng each shape 3 t¡mes
once to determIne where you want the mouth to beqIn movInq to thIs shape (slider set
to zero)
once to set the sIIder at the desIred IeveI Ior thIs phoneme
and once more to end thIs shape and move Into the next one (slider set to zero)
The scme principle cpplies to the jcw bone cnd tongue - 3 keys to ecch move.
Setting multiple shcpe keys
As you qet more comIortabIe wIth thIs procedure, you'II IInd you can Ieave some shapes set
Ionqer or adjust them to dIIIerent IeveIs as they can provIde some InterestInq mouth shapes
when combIned wIth other shapes.
Sett¡ng the ¡n-between sounds
Once the key sounds are properIy set, you shouId be abIe to scrub sIowIy throuqh the ActIon
WIndow and watch your character speak In tIme wIth the audIo. ¡t won't be perIect but It's
a start. To IIx hIs speech ImpedIment, you now have to IIII In the sounds between the key
sounds. MostIy these wIII be duII voweI sounds ("err, uh, ch") and sIIence. These shapes are
set In exactIy the same way but here you'II have to reaIIy watch the 3Ð vIew as you set the
sIIders. Try combInatIons oI sIIders IIke "££" and "OI" to qet the perIect shape Ior each
IndIvIduaI sound. You have to be quIded by your character. Ðoes he Iook IIke he's sayInq the
sound you're hearInq? (Remember thct excctly whct's being scid is not importcnt - it's only
the sound thct mctters). Test each sound as you set It by scrubbInq a Iew Irames over and
over and watchInq your character mouth the sounds.
AII that's IeIt, hopeIuIIy, Is some poIIshInq and tweakInq. ¡I It's not perIect then don't
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despaIr. IIke other areas oI anImatIon, It can take a whIIe to qet a IeeIInq Ior IIp-sync and
as the tooIs and workIIow become more IamIIIar you can pay more attentIon to the
Important work.
Putt¡ng ¡t aII together
Once you're reasonabIy happy, It's tIme to combIne the audIo and vIdeo and watch the
resuIt. SInce ÐIender can't do muxInq (combIned audIo/vIdeo) you'II need to composIte It
wIth the edItInq soItware oI your choIce (OSX users can use recent versIons oI IMovIe,
vIrtuaIÐub Is oIten recommended Ior WIndows users and AvIdemux2 Is oIten recommended
Ior IInux users.).
What ÐIender can do Is provIde a fuIIy synced versIon oI the audIo IIIe the same Ienqth as
the anImatIon - even addInq sIIence at the start and end II need be to maIntaIn the
synchronIsatIon. To make thIs synced audIo IIIe, qo back to the "Sound bIock buttons" paneI
and press "M¡XDOWN". ThIs saves a .wav IIIe usInq the IIIename and IocatIon you entered
In your output box (you did didn't you?) pIus a Irame count (something like
'speech.cvi00010400.wcv'). Then save your anImatIon by pressInq the "AN¡M" button.
CombIne the audIo and vIdeo In your vIdeo edItor and export a muxed IIIe. You may IInd
when you pIay It back that the mouth seems to be just sIIqhtIy out oI sync. ThIs Is Ior two
reasons. sound traveIs much sIower than IIqht, so we see the IIps move beIore the sound
reaches our ears, and the Iaq Is more the Iurther away the person Is (and the more
exaqqerated theIr expressIons as they shout). The second reason Is the way the braIn
processes Iaces and expressIons and mIxes It wIth sounds heard to comprehend speech.
ThIs comprehensIon phenomenon Is bareIy understood and Is a common chaIIenqe In
anImatIon, and some physIoIoqIsts thInk our braIns read IIps and IacIaI expressIon as a way
oI settInq up to understand the context oI sounds receIved and comprehendInq the meanInq
behInd Ianquaqe. To soIve It, you can qo back Into ÐIender, seIect the audIo In the
Sequencer WIndow and move It one or two Irames backward (jrcme one to jrcme two or
three - mcybe thct's jorwcrds?) then press "M¡XÐOWÞ" aqaIn to create a new .wav IIIe
wIth a spIIt second oI sIIence at the start. ÐemIx thIs wIth your vIdeo and watch the
resuIts.
Irom here on It's aII a matter oI testInq and tweakInq untII you're happy!
Aud¡o F¡Ies
You can IInd some InterestInq audIo IIIes seIected Ior anImators at l1|
(http.//www.anImatIonmeat.com/practIce/practIce.htmI) anImatIonmeat. These IIIes come
compIete wIth a pre-marked phoneme sheet.
P.S.
One IInaI note. Watch how the pros do thIs. When actors are doInq voIce overs Ior major
reIeases theIr actIons are recorded and even Inteqrated Into the IInaI anImatIon. ¡I you have
a dIqItaI camera, you may aIso try recordInq your own mouth perIormInq your dIaIoque and
aproxImatInq Its posItIons to your anImatIon. ThIs can qIve you a qreat vIsuaI reIerence,
possIbIy Irames Ior Irames II your Irame rates match, and save you tIme.
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ConstraInts
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The Constra¡nt
A constraInt Is what makes everythInq easIer, maqIc, automatIc, customIsed (add more
words here) In a rIq. ¡t teIIs a bone or an object to do somethInq specIaI based on the
posItIon oI another object, and the posItIon oI the constraIned object ItseII. There are many
constraInt types Ior you to pIay wIth. Most wIII work everywhere but, the ¡K soIver wIII onIy
be avaIIabIe In the Armature £dItmode or Iosemode.
There are no strIct ruIes to IoIIow Ior when to use constraInts. As Ionq as they save you
tIme and make everythInq work by ItseII. A constraInt shouId never be "tIme-consumInq" or
dIIIIcuIt to use. ThInk about the anImator who Is qoInq to work wIth thIs rIq (It couId be
you!). So, do everythInq In a smart way.
¡t's possIbIe to copy constraInts Irom one object/bone to a bunch oI objects/bones. A useIuI
thInq to know when doInq a repetItIve task IIke rIqqInq aII the IInqers oI a hand. just seIect
aII bones/objects that you want to qIve a copy oI the constraInt, and then seIect the
bone/object contaInInq the constraInts. Iress CTH¡-CKEY In 3ÐVIew, and seIect Object
ConstraInts Irom the popup menu. The Idea behInd thIs Is to copy the constraInts oI the
actIve object to the seIectIon.
When workInq on an armature In Iosemode, the bones wIII chanqe coIor II they contaIn a
constraInt. Green Ior aImost aII, except Ior the ¡K constraInt, whIch turns the bone YeIIow.
The Constra¡nt PaneI
You can add a ConstraInt to an object or a bone by qoInq In Object button wIndow(F7) Ior
objects and bones. Iook Ior a ConstraInt paneI IIke thIs (note, It's usuaIIy empty).
The paneI aIso appears In £dItbutton(F9) when you are In Armature £dItmode or
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Iosemode. So what you qet.
A button to add a new ConstraInt. The choIce you have Is IIsted down thIs paqe.
When you add a new ConstraInt, A bIock qet added In the stack. The !¡ Is aImost the
same as the ModIIIer Stack. £ach bIock represent an entry. You can deIete It wIth "X",
move It up or down In the stack, CIose or open It.
ConstraInts are caIcuIated Irom IIrst to Iast. So II you have two ConstraInts workInq
on the same channeI, Iet say IocatIon, The Iast one wIII most probabIy wIn the chance
to move the object. Ðut...
Most oI the constraInts have InIIuence sIIder to teII how much It InIIuence on the
stack. ¡I the Iast constraInt have an InIIuence oI 0.5 It wIII mIx the resuIt wIth the one
beIore.
You can anImate the InIIuence oI the ConstraInt by movInq the tIme, chanqInq the
¡nIIuence and addInq a key wIth the "key" button. The "show" button wIII brInq the
correct curve In the ¡IO wIndow Ior you to edIt It.
You can chanqe the name oI the ConstraInt by cIIckInq on the name when the
constraInt Is open.
Ðy CIIckInq on the whIte jacket oI the ConstraInt you seIect whIch one Is actIve Ior
edItIon, same as "show" button.
¡I most oI the ConstraInt you can enter the name oI the Object you want to work wIth
as a tarqet or reIerence. Ior a bone, you need to enter In whIch Armature object It Is,
then an other IIeId Ior the bone name wIII appear. When IIIIInq those IIeIds, remember
you can use autocompIetIon usInq TAB.
The Constra¡nt ¡ndex
Copy IocatIon
Copy ÐotatIon
Track-To
IIoor
Iocked Track
IoIIow Iath
Stretch-To
¡K SoIver
ActIon
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Copy IocatIon
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Copy ¡ocat¡on
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The Copy IocatIon constraInt does as the name states. It wIII copy the IocatIon oI the
tarqet to the source (constraIned object). Iess ¡nIIuence wIII draq the constraIned object
Iess and Iess to the tarqet.
¡I It's an armature, a new IIeId wIII appear to Iet you teII whIch bone wIII be the tarqet.
Ðon't Iorqet TAÐK£Y compIetIon whIIe wrItInq the name oI your object/bone!
You can teII ÐIender to work onIy on the seIected axIs. Many uses are possIbIe .)
The Constra¡nt PaneI
The Tarqet IIeId wIII Iet you seIect whIch Object the constraInt hoIder wIII IoIIow.
Where To 1se ¡t
Most oI the tIme thIs IIttIe constraInt Is useIuI to stIck objects to one another. Ðy pIayInq
wIth the ¡nIIuence you can teII when It wIII work, when It wIII remaIn motIonIess.
A qood use oI It Is to ask a character to pIck up somethInq. Ðy havInq a bone or empty Ior
each sIde oI the reIeatIonshIp (hand <-> qIass), as the hand approaches the qIass, you can
aIIqn the two emptIes and IIre the constraInt up (1.00) to stIck them toqether. You add
another chIId-bone In the mIddIe oI the hand to teII where the qIass wIII be. Thus movInq
the hand wIII move the qIass. On the sIde oI the qIass just add an empty and make It parent
oI the qIass. Add a copy IocatIon to the empty poIntInq to the bone In the hand we just dId.
There you qo. OI course when the hand rotates the qIass wIII not. Ior that you wIII need to
add a Copy ÐotatIon ConstraInt.
ÐeIore ÐIender 2.40, the above method was a qood way oI IakInq parent reIatIonshIp
wIthout rotatIon. Ðut now we have the hInqe optIon whIch does the same.
Create thIs kInd oI trackInq devIce usInq the X Y Z toqqIe button
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lIInk to the ÐIend
(http.//satIshqoda.com/bIender/projects/TrackInqÐevIce/Ieb0406trackInqÐevIce.bIend) |
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Copy ÐotatIon
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Copy Hotat¡on
ThIs constraInt copIes the rotatIon oI the tarqet. As sImpIe as that. ¡t can be an object or a
bone. As you can see In the exampIe, onIy the rotatIon qets copIed.
The Constra¡nt PaneI
You have 3 buttons to seIect whIch axIs qet copIed over.
Where To 1se ¡t
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Can be used wIth Copy IocatIon to Iake parent reIatIonshIp. As you can key the InIIuence
you can make a character pIckup somethInq and hoIdInq It In hIs hands. Check the .bIend
Ior the hand-qIass scene.
(?)IInk to the ÐIend(?)
You can aIso use thIs to aIIqn a pIane wIth a 2Ð eIIect on It to the camera at aII tImes. ThIs
works better than poIntInq It at the camera In some cases, such as a rInq oI atmospherIc
haIo around a pIanet, where you don't want It dIsappear behInd the pIanet.
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Track-To
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Track-To
The Track-To constraInt Iets you InIIuence the ÐotatIon oI the constraIned object by makInq
It track a tarqet wIth one oI the constraIned object's axIs.
The Constra¡nt PaneI
You can enter the name oI the tarqet you want to track.
The can seIect whIch axIs Is qoInq to track the tarqet.
You can seIect whIch axIs Is qoInq to stay up.
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Where To 1se ¡t
A qood exampIe oI use Is the make a camera track an object. The settInq to use on a
camera Is track. -Z and up. Y. You can turn AxIs drawInq In objectbutton wIndow to heIp you
choose the qood axIs.
Another exampIe wIth armature wouId be the eyes oI a character.
(?)IInk to the ÐIend(?)
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IIoor
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!sInq the IIoor constraInt wIII keep a bone Irom passInq throuqh an object Irom a qIven
dIrectIon. ¡t Is useIuI when makInq IIoors oI course but aIso when makInq waIIs and other
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Items whIch are obstacIes Ior the armateur.
There Is aIso an oIIset vaIue whIch Is very useIuI when say Ior exampIe you have a Ioot
where the mesh stretches down beIow the actuaI tIp oI the armature you can then use the
oIIset to make the bone stop beIore It actuaIIy reaches the obstacIe object.
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Iocked Track ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/Iocked Track
IoIIow Iath Þext paqe. Stretch-To
Iocked Track
FoIIow path
¡maqe.¡e cons
The Constra¡nt PaneI
¡maqe.IaneI
Where To 1se ¡t
¡maqe.£xampIe
(?)IInk to the ÐIend(?)
Þext paqe. Stretch-To
Iocked Track
Stretch-To Þext paqe. ¡K SoIver
IoIIow Iath
Stretch-To
¡maqe.¡e cons
The Constra¡nt PaneI
¡maqe.IaneI
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Where To 1se ¡t
¡maqe.£xampIe
(?)IInk to the ÐIend(?)
Þext paqe. ¡K SoIver
IoIIow Iath
¡K SoIver Þext paqe. ActIon
IrevIous paqe. Stretch-To
The ¡K soIver
The ¡K soIver constraInt Is a wonderIuI tooI Ior aII anImators. ¡K stand Ior "¡nverse
KInematIc" and Is the opposIte oI IK (Iorward KInematIc, Ðuh!).
IK. You have a dependancy to the root oI the chaIn. ¡n ÐIender, a IK chaIn Is a chaIn oI
bones connected toqether. You have to anImate the bones rotatIon one by one to qet It
anImated. ¡t takes Ionqer, but qIves you entIre controI over the rIq.
¡K. Ðoth ends are roots. AII bones In the chaIn are tryInq to rotate to keep both ends
on tarqets. Þow thIs ConstraInt qot most oI the attentIon durrInq AnImatIon
reIactorInq, hopeIuIIy we have a Iot oI toys to pIay wIth now.
The ¡K soIver has a specIaI shortcut ¡n Posemode to be added easIIy to a bone. ¡I you
seIect a bone and press 'CTH¡-¡KEY', You qet a IIttIe menu askInq Ior more InIo on the
new constraInt, the tarqet. to a new empty object or wIthout tarqet. ¡t's now possIbIe to
work wIthout tarqet. Thouqh you have Iess Ireedom (no rot Ieature, dIIIIcuIt parent
reIatIonshIp).
You can aIso seIect the tarqet and then the ¡K constraInt hoIder and press CTH¡-¡KEY.
WIth thIs way oI seIectInq ensure that your tarqet Is seIected, but the bone you want to
appIy the constraInt to Is actIve (the Iast one seIected). The menu wIII then Iet you add a
constraInt to the current bone wIth a tarqet. ¡I the tarqet wouId ItseII be part oI the ¡K
chaIn, you qet an error messaqe - so make sure the tarqet bone Is not connected to the
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bone you want to add the constraInt to.
¡t's aIso possIbIe to remove aII ¡K constraInts Irom seIected objects or bones wIth
'A¡T-¡KEY'.
O. ctrI+I doesn't seem to do anythInq
A. £Ither the 3Ð WIndow Is out oI Iocus (r-cIIck In empty space to soIve) or you're not In
Iose Mode (ctrI-tab, seIected bone wIII be maqenta In coIor)
The Constra¡nt PaneI
You can rename the constraInt.
You can seIect whIch Object or bone wIII be the tarqet. Ðon't Iorqet Tab compIetIon.
The Ðot button Iet you teII ÐIender to use the rotatIon oI the tarqet to InIIuence the
rest oI the chaIn.
The TIp button Iets you teII ÐIender whIch part oI the bone Is the tarqet, the TIp or
the Ðoot. ¡t's InterestInq to use tIp, because thIs way the Ðone hoIdInq the ¡K
constraInt can be used to deIorm qeometry.
Ien Iets you teII ÐIender the Ienqth oI the chaIn the ¡K soIver wIII try to rotate. ¡I set
to 0, the entIre chaIn wIII enter In the constraInt. ¡I Ior exampIe the Ien Is 4, onIy the 4
Iast bones oI the chaIn wIII try to touch the tarqet.
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AIso ¡I you set Ien to 0 and your chaIn's root Is a chIId oI another bone, The ¡K soIver
wIII reach and rotate aII the bones untII It qets to the end oI the parent reIatIonshIp. ¡I
aII the bones are IInked up to a master root, then aII other sub-branchs wIII be
aIIected. ¡I there Is another ¡K tarqet In other sub-branchs oI the rIq, ÐIender wIII try
to mIx them. ThIs concept oI muItIpIe ¡K tarqets In a rIq Is caIIed Tree ¡K and can be
used to qet compIeteIy automated anImatIons. Ior exampIe IIke a doII. II you puII one
hand, aII the body wIII IoIIow. ¡n the 3Ð-vIew you'II see a yeIIow IIne Irom the ¡K soIver
to the root oI the chaIn It covers. ThIs IIne appears when you seIect the bone
contaInInq the ¡K soIver.
IosW and ÐotW Iet you teII ÐIender II thIs ¡K soIver wIII InIIuence the IInaI resuIt
more oI Iess In the case oI a Tree ¡K setup. WIth these optIons It's possIbIe to use an
¡K soIver just Ior IocatIon and an other one just Ior rotatIon.
ToIerance and IteratIons are perIormance and precIsIon optIons. ¡K soIvInq Is done In
more than one pass, the more passes you caIcuIate, the more accurate resuIts you qet.
The toIerance Is the dIstance Irom the ¡K soIver to the tarqet you can accept. ¡I
ÐIender manaqes to pIace the tarqet near enouqh, It wIII stop doInq IteratIons. The
¡teratIons vaIue Is a hard IImIt you set to IImIt the tIme bIender can reach on each ¡K
soIver per Irame. Try to set It to a very Iow vaIue to know why ÐIender needs more
than one pass ,).
You can set the qeneraI InIIuence thIs constraInt wIII have over bones, and It's
anImatabIe.
Where To 1se ¡t
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¡n any chaIn oI bones you don't want to anImate by hand but you want both ends to be at
precIse IocatIon. The best exampIe Is a Ieq. The Ieq Is connected to the body and to the
Ioot. You don't need to anImate the 2 bones In the Ieqs, just pIace the body and the Ioot,
the Ieq wIII IoIIow automaqIcaIIy.
Degree Of Freedom
ÐOI are now possIbIe to set Ior bones In a ¡k chaIn. ThIs way you can set what wIII bIock
where. ThIs Is very useIuI when doInq a mechanIcaI rIq as you can IImIt the move or better,
Iock compIeteIy an axIs.
There you can set a IImIt on each axIs, or compIeteIy Iock It.
Þo IImIt qIves It compIete Ireedom (whIch Is the same as lmIn.0 max.360| or lmIn.0
max.0|).
The stIIIness Iet you teII ÐIender II there Is an axIs more dIIIIcuIt to rotate than the
rest. ¡I aII bone have a stIIIness oI 1 on X and you try to curve that chaIn In a way that
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aII bones need to turn on X to IoIIow the tarqet, the SoIvInq wIII IInd reaIIy weIrd
poses to stIII touch the tarqet wIthout rotatInq on X.
Þext paqe. ActIon
IrevIous paqe. Stretch-To
ActIon ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ActIon
TImeIIne WIndow Þext paqe. ¡IO WIndow
IrevIous paqe. ¡K SoIver
Þext paqe. ¡IO WIndow
IrevIous paqe. ¡K SoIver
¡IO WIndow Þext paqe. Ðata Type
IrevIous paqe. TImeIIne WIndow
Þext paqe. Ðata Type
IrevIous paqe. TImeIIne WIndow
Ðata Type Þext paqe. ChanneI
IrevIous paqe. ¡IO WIndow
Þext paqe. ChanneI
IrevIous paqe. ¡IO WIndow
ChanneI ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ChanneI
Curve £dItIon ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/Curve £dItIon
ÐrIven ¡IO ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ÐrIven ¡IO
ActIon WIndow ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ActIon WIndow
¡ntroductIon To ActIon Ðata ÐIock ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/¡ntroductIon To ActIon Ðata
ÐIock
Key £dItIon ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/Key £dItIon
ÞIA WIndow
(about th¡s pIacehoIder1
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SInce there has been nothInq wrItten on thIs paqe Ior a whIIe, ¡ asked Ior some basIc
InIormatIon on another Iorum. ¡'II just quote what ¡ Iearned Irom that Iorum, and thIs can
be massaqed Into a reaI paqe oI documentatIon over tIme. ¡ won't attrIbute the IndIvIduaI
varIous quotes, but thank you aII Ior heIpInq out. Ðemember, AÞYOÞ£ can edIt a WIkI, so
create an account and make thIs thInq better.
The N¡A W¡ndow
Forum Notes
WaIkthrough
WIth no ActIons seIected, both the ActIon £dItor and the ÞIA £dItor appear empty. Iere,
the ÞIA £dItor wIndow does IIst one Object caIIed -Empty because that object Is not an
armature but It has some ¡IO curves attached.
T1`s qu11e easy ahd maybe 1ha1`s why 1he:e`s ho spec111c 1u1o:1aì.
Le1`s say you wah1 1o make 1wo ac11ohs, AC.h11 ahd AC.K1ck.
S1a:1 w11h pose1hg h11 ahd ah Ac11oh w1ìì au1oma11caììy be c:ea1ed
1h 1he Ac11oh Ed11o: cohs1s11hg o1 aìì 1he Bohes 1ha1 use Ac11oh TP0`s.
Tha1`s dohe so :e1u:h 1o F:ame 1 wh1ch w1ìì be you: de1auì1 S1ahce o1 AC.h11.
how, 1h 1he Ac11oh Ed11o:, cì1ck 1he X {deìe1e) hex1 1o AC.h11 ahd 1he
da1abìock mehu w1ìì d1sappea:. {T1 you Add hew 1hs1ead o1 deìe11hg 1heh 11
w1ìì copy seìec1ed bohes 1o 1he hew ac11oh ahd you doh`1 aìways wah1 1ha1).
T1 you wah1 a hew de1auì1 pose 1o: AC.K1ck, 1heh Pose 11 o: 1he same s1ahce
w1ìì be used as was 1he de1auì1 1h AC.h11. Pose ahd Key1:ame you: K1ck
ac11oh ahd hame 11.
0ve: 1h 1he hLA Ed11o: you cah how use Sh111-A 1o add hLA-S1:1ps o1 you:
Ac11ohs, C:ab ahd Scaìe 1hem ahd use 1he T:ahs1o:m P:ope:11es 1ab 1o 1hpu1
how 1hey Bìehd.
T1 you seìec1 ah Ac11oh w11h 1he d:opdowh mehu, a1 11:s1 11s hame w1ìì appea: 1h 1he hLA w1hdow
aìohg w11h 11s keys. To make 1h1s Ac11oh 1h1o ah hLA s1:1p, po1h1 a1 1he Ac11oh`s hame 1h 1he
hLA ahd p:ess CKEY.
Cìose ahy opeh Ac11ohs by cì1ck1hg 1he sca:y X 1h 1he Ac11oh Ed11o:. T1
you doh`1 do 1h1s, ohìy 1h1s ac11oh w1ìì pìay. how 1h 1he hLA ed11o:,
pìay 1he ah1ma11oh.
T1 you see ahy keys {d1amohds) 1h 1he hLA w1hdow, 1hs1ead o1 s1:1ps
{:ec1ahgìes), you`:e s11ìì ed111hg ah ac11oh. T1`s so much eas1e: 11 you
have bo1h 1he Ac11oh ahd hLA w1hdows opeh so you cah see whe1he: ah Ac11oh
1s opeh o: ho1. {Ed11ed by C038 23 Feb 2006)
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SeIect an ActIon you've aIready made. Iere, an Armature named Yu¡ has bones InvoIved In
a one-Irame actIon caIIed -AtEase.
Convert the IIsted ActIon to an ÞIA StrIp In the ÞIA £dItor by pressInq the CK£Y wIth the
mouse hoverInq over the ActIon to be converted. Þo chanqe In the ActIon £dItor, It Is stIII
avaIIabIe as an ActIon.
Once converted, note the chanqes In the ÞIA £dItor. The ActIon Icon appears next to the
Armature's name. . ThIs Is actuaIIy a button thouqh It does not Iook IIke It, and you
can toqqIe It between the ActIon and ÞIA StrIps Icon by cIIckInq on It. .
More soon.
¡ntroductIon To ÞIA £dItor
N¡A (Non-¡¡near An¡mat¡on1
WARN¡NG-This pcge cssumes the recder to understcnd the lFO window cnd the Action
Editor window, cs well cs rigging c chcrccter with cn crmcture object. This tutoricl will
mcke little sense without this previous knowledge.
¡maqIne thIs--yourseII, sIttInq at your computer Iate at nIqht, beatInq away at a huqe
empty actIon wIndow
nIa wIndow wIth actIon
actIon wIndow wIth actIon
nIa wIndow convertInq to a strIp
nIa wIndow aIter conversIon
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bIender anImatIon. You dIdn't thInk It wouId take as Ionq as It dId, but you Iost your
composure starInq Into the junqIe oI coIorIuI ¡IO IInes, IIttIe whIte and yeIIow ActIon
dIamonds, and that annoyInq qreen current Irame IIne. You know that the ÞIA wIndow
wouId heIp you make sense oI It aII, but you are aIraId oI openInq that Iandora's Ðox
because oI the probIems that wIII IoIIow It. Þever Iear, Ior thIs tutorIaI wIII cIean up aII
those probIems and revoIutIonIze the way you bIend Ior the rest oI your IIIe.
Sett¡ng up the Scene
¡t wIII be easIer Ior you II you start wIth a smaII demo IIIe than II you qo straIqht Ior the bIq
prIze. GIve a character or other armature-rIqqed object a Iew S£IAÐAT£ actIons (remember
to name them somethInq dIstInct, IIke "WaIk" or "Ðun" as you aIways shouId wIth
everything). Ior your own sanIty, you wIII want to have a path or an ¡IO that correIates
wIth the actIons In questIon. AII oI the bIender screenshots ¡ wIII be usInq come Irom a IIIe
wIth a very basIc stIck person, rIqqed wIth an armature skeIeton. Ie has two actIons, a
normaI waIk cycIe, and then another, hunched over one, as II to pass beneath a Iow ceIIInq.
¡I you use thIs Idea In your own test IIIe (and ¡ thorouqhIy recommend It) do yourseII a Iavor
and qIve them both the same strIde Ienqth! GIve thIs quy an ¡IO or a path to IoIIow that
keeps hIs Ieet Irom sIIppInq, and make sure that It has a IInear InterpoIatIon mode. The
rest oI the scene consIsts oI a IIoor-pIane and an arch to smaII Ior hIm to waIk under (hence
the crouchInq waIk). IIace thIs arch exactIy one waIkcycIe away Ior now, we wIII move It
around Iater.
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Add¡ng Act¡on Str¡ps
Þow, he moves Iorwards as you scroII throuqh the Irames, but how do we qet hIm to waIk
Iorward, duck, and waIk under the arch, too? IIrst oI aII, you need to seIect the armature
object and create a IInk to the normaI waIk. Ðy pressInq the up or rIqht arrows, or pressInq
"aIt+a", you shouId be abIe to see hIm waIk up to the arch, stop waIkInq, but keep sIIdInq
throuqh, wIth hIs head stIckInq out the top. As rIdIcuIous as thIs seems, rIqht now,
however, you are on the rIqht track. SpIIt your wIndow now and open the ÞIA wIndow wIth
.
At IIrst qIance, thIs wIndow Iooks aImost IdentIcaI to the actIon wIndow we aII know and
Iove. ThIs Is not totaIy oII oI the mark. The ÞIA wIndow Is, In essence, an abbrIevIated
versIon oI the actIon and ¡IO wIndows.
You see a space wIth the name oI your armature (named "Armature" In my demo) and In
that row you see a Iew key dIamonds. These show the Ipo you have put on the person. ¡
made It so the ¡IO extended on Iorever, usInq the IIrst ten Irames as a quIde. ¡n a subset
beneath the armature object, you see the name oI an actIon. The buIIet next to It means
that the armature Is currentIy IInked to that object. ¡n that row, you see key dIamonds, and
those correIate wIth the keys you put Into the actIon In questIon. ¡I you swItch actIons In
the actIon wIndow, you see that the ÞIA wIndow aIso chanqes. Ðut how do you qet It to
keep the IIrst and pIay the second Iater?
Go to the IIrst Irame you want hIm to waIk In (most IIkeIy number one) and pIace your
cursor In the ÞIA wIndow. Iress "shIIt+a" to see a dropdown menu. IIck the name oI the
IIrst waIk cycIe. You shouId see a new subset space appear, wIth the name oI the IIrst waIk
In It. ThIs space shouId be occupIed by an actIon strIp. Two coIors oI actIon strIps are
yeIIow and pInk, yeIIow meanInq seIected and pInk meanInq deseIected, just IIke ¡IO
vertIces. ThIs strIp takes up the amount oI Irames the waIk dId. The ÞIA wIndow has now
saved your IIrst actIon. Þow to toqqIe to the next actIon, move the Irame IIne to the end oI
the IIrst strIp, then press "shIIt+a" aqaIn, thIs tIme cIIckInq the other actIon on the
Compìe1e 1he scehe be1o:e go1hg oh 1o 1he hex1 s1ep.
Th1s 1s wha1 you shouìd see 1h 1he hLA w1hdow.
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dropdown menu.
Gett¡ng the Str¡ps to PIay
Þow, as cooI as thIs seems so Iar, II you press "aIt+a", you wIII be dIsappoInted and
conIused. The anImatIon wIII onIy pIay one oI the actIons. ThIs Is a sImpIe probIem to IIx. ¡I
you Iook careIuIIy, you wIII see that the armature Is stIII IInked to the actIon It pIayed. ThIs
data Is overrIdInq any other data Irom the ÞIA wIndow. Iress the "X" In the actIon wIndow
rIqht next to the name oI the actIon. Iress "aIt+a" aqaIn. ¡t works!
ThIs Is, however, a jerky and Instantaneous swItch Irom one actIon to the other. MakInq It
Iess weIrd Is easy. Iress the "Þ" key wIth your cursor In the ÞIA wIndow. You wIII see a
smaII box wIth a bunch oI IunctIons In It (thIs wIII be expIaIned In detaII on Iater paqes).
ThIs IIttIe box Is the IIIebIood oI the ÞIA In bIender. ¡t contaIns aII the tooIs you wIII need
to be abIe to run thIs Ieature smoothIy. ¡ wIII IIIustrate a Iew oI them rIqht know, but most
others wIII be shown In the sectIon on thIs wIndow.
Make sure you have hIqhIIqhted the second actIon strIp, and Iook at the space where It
says "ÐIendIn". The number there Is the number oI Irames bIender wIII use to smooth the
transItIons in to the hIqhIIqhted actIon. ÐependInq on how Iast your character Is waIkInq,
you may need to chanqe the number a bIt, but ¡ set my "bIendIn" Ior seven. Whatever
number you used, however, move the second strIp bcck that same amount oI Irames. The
wedqe on the end oI the actIon strIp shouId end as the other strIp ends.
The :esuì1.
The P:ope:11es w1hdow.
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ConcIus¡on
You now have the necessary skIIIs to compIete much more InvoIved and compIex
anImatIons. You can, however, Increase thIs even more by contInuInq to read the other ÞIA
tutorIaIs In thIs wIkIbook.
Good Iuck!
Key £dItor ¡n the ÞIA ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/Key £dItor ¡n the ÞIA
StrIp £dItIon ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/StrIp £dItIon
StrIp's IropertIes (ÞK£Y) ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/StrIp's IropertIes (ÞK£Y)
The StrIde Ieature At the moment, the best documentatIon Ior ÐIender StrIde Ieatures can
be Iound here. ÐIender StrIde TutorIaI
(http.//www.teIuspIanet.net/pubIIc/kuqyeIka/bIender/tutorIaIs/strIde/strIde.htmI)
whIch takes on where the OIIIcIaI ÐIender StrIde Iaqe
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/AdvancedStrIdesuppor.720.0.htmI) takes oII. Good Iuck!
WorkInq exampIe. Ðob
Next Fcge: Build The Rig
Frevious Fcge: Fly
Because of my ¡nvoIvement w¡th BSoD, th¡s tutor¡aI ¡s not under deveIopment at th¡s
t¡me. ¡nstead, go here:
http.//medIawIkI.bIender.orq/Index.php?tItIe=ÐSoÐ/¡ntroductIontoÐIqqInq
¡n thIs tutorIaI, we are qoInq to be constructInq a IuIIy IunctIonaI, humanoId character, wIth
a compIete rIq, and we are qoInq to anImate hIm perIormInq a waIk cycIe.
Gett¡ng Started
The hLA soìu11oh.
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bob.bIend had an Incorrect IInk and has been taken oII untII Iurther notIce or someone eIse
suppIIes a modeI.
ÐuIId the ÐIq
ÐeIorm the Mesh
Create a WaIk CycIe
ÐuIId The ÐIq
Next Fcge: Dejorm the Mesh
Frevious Fcge: Working Excmple: Bob
Th¡s page ¡s ¡nact¡ve due to my work for the BSoD
¡I you thInk you aIready know what a rIq Is, then you probabIy need to read the deIInItIon oI
"rIq" and "rIqqInq" beIore we qet started. ¡t's Important to note that an armature Is not a
rIq, but a rIq can be an armature. AssIqnInq a mesh to be deIormed by an armature Is not
rIqqInq.
A rIq shouId aIways be desIqned Ior the types oI anImatIons your character Is qoInq to be
perIormInq. OnIy make your rIq as compIex as It needs to be to aIIow Ior the types oI
actIons you need.
To make everythInq wIth the armature easy to deaI wIth, we're qoInq to make our
character In the crucIIIx pose. ¡I he's not, you wIII have headaches tryInq to deaI wIth bone
roII anqIes. Once ÐIender can easIIy aIIow the user to roII the bone to aIIqn wIth a roII
tarqet, then ¡'II edIt thIs tutorIaI Ior that. Ðut In the meantIme, we wIII use vertIcaI Ieqs
and horIzontaI arms. We wIII buIId the Ieqs Irom the sIde vIew and arms Irom the top vIew.
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Center the cursor (shIIt+c) and add an armature. ¡n Ob]ect
Mode, press aIt+r to cIear the rotatIon. You have to have a
bone Ior the hIp, and It needs to stIck out oI hIs Iront or hIs
back, so take your pIck, because they both Iook bad. Ðon't
poInt the bone upward at some odd anqIe, we need to be abIe
to roII the hIps easIIy, and to that end, we wIII pIace the bone
horIzontaIIy.
¡n Iront vIew, pIace the cursor and add a bone. ¡MAGE
¡n sIde vIew, move poInts and extrude them untII your chaIn
Iooks IIke thIs. Þote the sIIqht bend In the knee. ThIs Is very
Important! ¡MAGE
Snap your cursor to the root oI thIs chaIn (shIIt+s) and add a
bone. Þow seIect the poInts at the hIp joInt and the ankIe joInt,
and snap the cursor to the seIectIon. ¡MAGE
SeIect the tIp oI the newest bone and snap It to the cursor.
¡MAGE
Þow qIve these bones some names. ¡t's a qood Idea to use the
same names ¡ do to avoId conIusIon, sInce ¡ wIII reIer to the
bones by name. SeIect upperIeq.I and then shIIt+seIect Ieq.I,
and press ctrI+p to make upperIeq.I the chIId oI Ieq.I. Ðo thIs aqaIn, but make Ieq.I the
chIId oI hIp. ¡MAGE
¡n Iront vIew, center your cursor and seIect
pIvot poInt
ÐeIorm The Mesh ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ÐeIorm The Mesh
Create A WaIk CycIe ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/Create A WaIk CycIe
WorkInq exampIe. IIston, Ðod and Crank {{.ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to
Iro/AdvancedAnImatIon/exampIe/IIston%2CÐodandCrank}}
GN1 Free Documentat¡on ¡¡cense
VersIon 1.2, Þovember 2002
0. PHEAMB¡E
Copy:1gh1 {C) 2000,2001,2002 F:ee So11wa:e Fouhda11oh, Thc.
51 F:ahkì1h S1, F111h Fìoo:, Bos1oh, hA 02110-1301 bSA
Eve:yohe 1s pe:m111ed 1o copy ahd d1s1:1bu1e ve:ba11m cop1es
o1 1h1s ì1cehse documeh1, bu1 chahg1hg 11 1s ho1 aììowed.
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The purpose oI thIs IIcense Is to make a manuaI, textbook, or other IunctIonaI and useIuI
document "Iree" In the sense oI Ireedom. to assure everyone the eIIectIve Ireedom to copy
and redIstrIbute It, wIth or wIthout modIIyInq It, eIther commercIaIIy or noncommercIaIIy.
SecondarIIy, thIs IIcense preserves Ior the author and pubIIsher a way to qet credIt Ior theIr
work, whIIe not beInq consIdered responsIbIe Ior modIIIcatIons made by others.
ThIs IIcense Is a kInd oI "copyIeIt", whIch means that derIvatIve works oI the document
must themseIves be Iree In the same sense. ¡t compIements the GÞ! GeneraI IubIIc
IIcense, whIch Is a copyIeIt IIcense desIqned Ior Iree soItware.
We have desIqned thIs IIcense In order to use It Ior manuaIs Ior Iree soItware, because Iree
soItware needs Iree documentatIon. a Iree proqram shouId come wIth manuaIs provIdInq
the same Ireedoms that the soItware does. Ðut thIs IIcense Is not IImIted to soItware
manuaIs, It can be used Ior any textuaI work, reqardIess oI subject matter or whether It Is
pubIIshed as a prInted book. We recommend thIs IIcense prIncIpaIIy Ior works whose
purpose Is InstructIon or reIerence.
1. APP¡¡CAB¡¡¡TY AND DEF¡N¡T¡ONS
ThIs IIcense appIIes to any manuaI or other work, In any medIum, that contaIns a notIce
pIaced by the copyrIqht hoIder sayInq It can be dIstrIbuted under the terms oI thIs IIcense.
Such a notIce qrants a worId-wIde, royaIty-Iree IIcense, unIImIted In duratIon, to use that
work under the condItIons stated hereIn. The "Ðocument", beIow, reIers to any such manuaI
or work. Any member oI the pubIIc Is a IIcensee, and Is addressed as "you". You accept the
IIcense II you copy, modIIy or dIstrIbute the work In a way requIrInq permIssIon under
copyrIqht Iaw.
A "ModIIIed VersIon" oI the Ðocument means any work contaInInq the Ðocument or a
portIon oI It, eIther copIed verbatIm, or wIth modIIIcatIons and/or transIated Into another
Ianquaqe.
A "Secondary SectIon" Is a named appendIx or a Iront-matter sectIon oI the Ðocument that
deaIs excIusIveIy wIth the reIatIonshIp oI the pubIIshers or authors oI the Ðocument to the
Ðocument's overaII subject (or to reIated matters) and contaIns nothInq that couId IaII
dIrectIy wIthIn that overaII subject. (Thus, II the Ðocument Is In part a textbook oI
mathematIcs, a Secondary SectIon may not expIaIn any mathematIcs.) The reIatIonshIp
couId be a matter oI hIstorIcaI connectIon wIth the subject or wIth reIated matters, or oI
IeqaI, commercIaI, phIIosophIcaI, ethIcaI or poIItIcaI posItIon reqardInq them.
The "¡nvarIant SectIons" are certaIn Secondary SectIons whose tItIes are desIqnated, as
beInq those oI ¡nvarIant SectIons, In the notIce that says that the Ðocument Is reIeased
under thIs IIcense. ¡I a sectIon does not IIt the above deIInItIon oI Secondary then It Is not
aIIowed to be desIqnated as ¡nvarIant. The Ðocument may contaIn zero ¡nvarIant SectIons.
¡I the Ðocument does not IdentIIy any ¡nvarIant SectIons then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certaIn short passaqes oI text that are IIsted, as Iront-Cover Texts or
Ðack-Cover Texts, In the notIce that says that the Ðocument Is reIeased under thIs IIcense.
A Iront-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Ðack-Cover Text may be at most 25
words.
A "Transparent" copy oI the Ðocument means a machIne-readabIe copy, represented In a
Iormat whose specIIIcatIon Is avaIIabIe to the qeneraI pubIIc, that Is suItabIe Ior revIsInq
the document straIqhtIorwardIy wIth qenerIc text edItors or (Ior Imaqes composed oI pIxeIs)
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qenerIc paInt proqrams or (Ior drawInqs) some wIdeIy avaIIabIe drawInq edItor, and that Is
suItabIe Ior Input to text Iormatters or Ior automatIc transIatIon to a varIety oI Iormats
suItabIe Ior Input to text Iormatters. A copy made In an otherwIse Transparent IIIe Iormat
whose markup, or absence oI markup, has been arranqed to thwart or dIscouraqe
subsequent modIIIcatIon by readers Is not Transparent. An Imaqe Iormat Is not Transparent
II used Ior any substantIaI amount oI text. A copy that Is not "Transparent" Is caIIed
"Opaque".
£xampIes oI suItabIe Iormats Ior Transparent copIes IncIude pIaIn ASC¡¡ wIthout markup,
TexInIo Input Iormat, IaTeX Input Iormat, SGMI or XMI usInq a pubIIcIy avaIIabIe ÐTÐ,
and standard-conIormInq sImpIe ITMI, IostScrIpt or IÐI desIqned Ior human
modIIIcatIon. £xampIes oI transparent Imaqe Iormats IncIude IÞG, XCI and jIG. Opaque
Iormats IncIude proprIetary Iormats that can be read and edIted onIy by proprIetary word
processors, SGMI or XMI Ior whIch the ÐTÐ and/or processInq tooIs are not qeneraIIy
avaIIabIe, and the machIne-qenerated ITMI, IostScrIpt or IÐI produced by some word
processors Ior output purposes onIy.
The "TItIe Iaqe" means, Ior a prInted book, the tItIe paqe ItseII, pIus such IoIIowInq paqes
as are needed to hoId, IeqIbIy, the materIaI thIs IIcense requIres to appear In the tItIe
paqe. Ior works In Iormats whIch do not have any tItIe paqe as such, "TItIe Iaqe" means
the text near the most promInent appearance oI the work's tItIe, precedInq the beqInnInq oI
the body oI the text.
A sectIon "£ntItIed XYZ" means a named subunIt oI the Ðocument whose tItIe eIther Is
precIseIy XYZ or contaIns XYZ In parentheses IoIIowInq text that transIates XYZ In another
Ianquaqe. (Iere XYZ stands Ior a specIIIc sectIon name mentIoned beIow, such as
"AcknowIedqements", "ÐedIcatIons", "£ndorsements", or "IIstory".) To "Ireserve the TItIe"
oI such a sectIon when you modIIy the Ðocument means that It remaIns a sectIon "£ntItIed
XYZ" accordInq to thIs deIInItIon.
The Ðocument may IncIude Warranty ÐIscIaImers next to the notIce whIch states that thIs
IIcense appIIes to the Ðocument. These Warranty ÐIscIaImers are consIdered to be
IncIuded by reIerence In thIs IIcense, but onIy as reqards dIscIaImInq warrantIes. any other
ImpIIcatIon that these Warranty ÐIscIaImers may have Is voId and has no eIIect on the
meanInq oI thIs IIcense.
2. VEHBAT¡M COPY¡NG
You may copy and dIstrIbute the Ðocument In any medIum, eIther commercIaIIy or
noncommercIaIIy, provIded that thIs IIcense, the copyrIqht notIces, and the IIcense notIce
sayInq thIs IIcense appIIes to the Ðocument are reproduced In aII copIes, and that you add
no other condItIons whatsoever to those oI thIs IIcense. You may not use technIcaI
measures to obstruct or controI the readInq or Iurther copyInq oI the copIes you make or
dIstrIbute. Iowever, you may accept compensatIon In exchanqe Ior copIes. ¡I you dIstrIbute
a Iarqe enouqh number oI copIes you must aIso IoIIow the condItIons In sectIon 3.
You may aIso Iend copIes, under the same condItIons stated above, and you may pubIIcIy
dIspIay copIes.
3. COPY¡NG ¡N O1ANT¡TY
¡I you pubIIsh prInted copIes (or copIes In medIa that commonIy have prInted covers) oI the
Ðocument, numberInq more than 100, and the Ðocument's IIcense notIce requIres Cover
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Texts, you must encIose the copIes In covers that carry, cIearIy and IeqIbIy, aII these Cover
Texts. Iront-Cover Texts on the Iront cover, and Ðack-Cover Texts on the back cover. Ðoth
covers must aIso cIearIy and IeqIbIy IdentIIy you as the pubIIsher oI these copIes. The Iront
cover must present the IuII tItIe wIth aII words oI the tItIe equaIIy promInent and vIsIbIe.
You may add other materIaI on the covers In addItIon. CopyInq wIth chanqes IImIted to the
covers, as Ionq as they preserve the tItIe oI the Ðocument and satIsIy these condItIons, can
be treated as verbatIm copyInq In other respects.
¡I the requIred texts Ior eIther cover are too voIumInous to IIt IeqIbIy, you shouId put the
IIrst ones IIsted (as many as IIt reasonabIy) on the actuaI cover, and contInue the rest onto
adjacent paqes.
¡I you pubIIsh or dIstrIbute Opaque copIes oI the Ðocument numberInq more than 100, you
must eIther IncIude a machIne-readabIe Transparent copy aIonq wIth each Opaque copy, or
state In or wIth each Opaque copy a computer-network IocatIon Irom whIch the qeneraI
network-usInq pubIIc has access to downIoad usInq pubIIc-standard network protocoIs a
compIete Transparent copy oI the Ðocument, Iree oI added materIaI. ¡I you use the Iatter
optIon, you must take reasonabIy prudent steps, when you beqIn dIstrIbutIon oI Opaque
copIes In quantIty, to ensure that thIs Transparent copy wIII remaIn thus accessIbIe at the
stated IocatIon untII at Ieast one year aIter the Iast tIme you dIstrIbute an Opaque copy
(dIrectIy or throuqh your aqents or retaIIers) oI that edItIon to the pubIIc.
¡t Is requested, but not requIred, that you contact the authors oI the Ðocument weII beIore
redIstrIbutInq any Iarqe number oI copIes, to qIve them a chance to provIde you wIth an
updated versIon oI the Ðocument.
4. MOD¡F¡CAT¡ONS
You may copy and dIstrIbute a ModIIIed VersIon oI the Ðocument under the condItIons oI
sectIons 2 and 3 above, provIded that you reIease the ModIIIed VersIon under precIseIy thIs
IIcense, wIth the ModIIIed VersIon IIIIInq the roIe oI the Ðocument, thus IIcensInq
dIstrIbutIon and modIIIcatIon oI the ModIIIed VersIon to whoever possesses a copy oI It. ¡n
addItIon, you must do these thInqs In the ModIIIed VersIon.
A. !se In the TItIe Iaqe (and on the covers, II any) a tItIe dIstInct Irom that oI the
Ðocument, and Irom those oI prevIous versIons (whIch shouId, II there were any, be
IIsted In the IIstory sectIon oI the Ðocument). You may use the same tItIe as a
prevIous versIon II the orIqInaI pubIIsher oI that versIon qIves permIssIon.
B. IIst on the TItIe Iaqe, as authors, one or more persons or entItIes responsIbIe Ior
authorshIp oI the modIIIcatIons In the ModIIIed VersIon, toqether wIth at Ieast IIve oI
the prIncIpaI authors oI the Ðocument (aII oI Its prIncIpaI authors, II It has Iewer than
IIve), unIess they reIease you Irom thIs requIrement.
C. State on the TItIe paqe the name oI the pubIIsher oI the ModIIIed VersIon, as the
pubIIsher.
D. Ireserve aII the copyrIqht notIces oI the Ðocument.
E. Add an approprIate copyrIqht notIce Ior your modIIIcatIons adjacent to the other
copyrIqht notIces.
F. ¡ncIude, ImmedIateIy aIter the copyrIqht notIces, a IIcense notIce qIvInq the pubIIc
permIssIon to use the ModIIIed VersIon under the terms oI thIs IIcense, In the Iorm
shown In the Addendum beIow.
G. Ireserve In that IIcense notIce the IuII IIsts oI ¡nvarIant SectIons and requIred
Cover Texts qIven In the Ðocument's IIcense notIce.
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H. ¡ncIude an unaItered copy oI thIs IIcense.
¡. Ireserve the sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory", Ireserve Its TItIe, and add to It an Item
statInq at Ieast the tItIe, year, new authors, and pubIIsher oI the ModIIIed VersIon as
qIven on the TItIe Iaqe. ¡I there Is no sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory" In the Ðocument,
create one statInq the tItIe, year, authors, and pubIIsher oI the Ðocument as qIven on
Its TItIe Iaqe, then add an Item descrIbInq the ModIIIed VersIon as stated In the
prevIous sentence.
j. Ireserve the network IocatIon, II any, qIven In the Ðocument Ior pubIIc access to a
Transparent copy oI the Ðocument, and IIkewIse the network IocatIons qIven In the
Ðocument Ior prevIous versIons It was based on. These may be pIaced In the "IIstory"
sectIon. You may omIt a network IocatIon Ior a work that was pubIIshed at Ieast Iour
years beIore the Ðocument ItseII, or II the orIqInaI pubIIsher oI the versIon It reIers to
qIves permIssIon.
K. Ior any sectIon £ntItIed "AcknowIedqements" or "ÐedIcatIons", Ireserve the TItIe
oI the sectIon, and preserve In the sectIon aII the substance and tone oI each oI the
contrIbutor acknowIedqements and/or dedIcatIons qIven thereIn.
¡. Ireserve aII the ¡nvarIant SectIons oI the Ðocument, unaItered In theIr text and In
theIr tItIes. SectIon numbers or the equIvaIent are not consIdered part oI the sectIon
tItIes.
M. ÐeIete any sectIon £ntItIed "£ndorsements". Such a sectIon may not be IncIuded In
the ModIIIed VersIon.
N. Ðo not retItIe any exIstInq sectIon to be £ntItIed "£ndorsements" or to conIIIct In
tItIe wIth any ¡nvarIant SectIon.
O. Ireserve any Warranty ÐIscIaImers.
¡I the ModIIIed VersIon IncIudes new Iront-matter sectIons or appendIces that quaIIIy as
Secondary SectIons and contaIn no materIaI copIed Irom the Ðocument, you may at your
optIon desIqnate some or aII oI these sectIons as InvarIant. To do thIs, add theIr tItIes to
the IIst oI ¡nvarIant SectIons In the ModIIIed VersIon's IIcense notIce. These tItIes must be
dIstInct Irom any other sectIon tItIes.
You may add a sectIon £ntItIed "£ndorsements", provIded It contaIns nothInq but
endorsements oI your ModIIIed VersIon by varIous partIes--Ior exampIe, statements oI peer
revIew or that the text has been approved by an orqanIzatIon as the authorItatIve deIInItIon
oI a standard.
You may add a passaqe oI up to IIve words as a Iront-Cover Text, and a passaqe oI up to 25
words as a Ðack-Cover Text, to the end oI the IIst oI Cover Texts In the ModIIIed VersIon.
OnIy one passaqe oI Iront-Cover Text and one oI Ðack-Cover Text may be added by (or
throuqh arranqements made by) any one entIty. ¡I the Ðocument aIready IncIudes a cover
text Ior the same cover, prevIousIy added by you or by arranqement made by the same
entIty you are actInq on behaII oI, you may not add another, but you may repIace the oId
one, on expIIcIt permIssIon Irom the prevIous pubIIsher that added the oId one.
The author(s) and pubIIsher(s) oI the Ðocument do not by thIs IIcense qIve permIssIon to
use theIr names Ior pubIIcIty Ior or to assert or ImpIy endorsement oI any ModIIIed VersIon.
5. COMB¡N¡NG DOC1MENTS
You may combIne the Ðocument wIth other documents reIeased under thIs IIcense, under
the terms deIIned In sectIon 4 above Ior modIIIed versIons, provIded that you IncIude In the
combInatIon aII oI the ¡nvarIant SectIons oI aII oI the orIqInaI documents, unmodIIIed, and
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IIst them aII as ¡nvarIant SectIons oI your combIned work In Its IIcense notIce, and that you
preserve aII theIr Warranty ÐIscIaImers.
The combIned work need onIy contaIn one copy oI thIs IIcense, and muItIpIe IdentIcaI
¡nvarIant SectIons may be repIaced wIth a sInqIe copy. ¡I there are muItIpIe ¡nvarIant
SectIons wIth the same name but dIIIerent contents, make the tItIe oI each such sectIon
unIque by addInq at the end oI It, In parentheses, the name oI the orIqInaI author or
pubIIsher oI that sectIon II known, or eIse a unIque number. Make the same adjustment to
the sectIon tItIes In the IIst oI ¡nvarIant SectIons In the IIcense notIce oI the combIned
work.
¡n the combInatIon, you must combIne any sectIons £ntItIed "IIstory" In the varIous
orIqInaI documents, IormInq one sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory", IIkewIse combIne any sectIons
£ntItIed "AcknowIedqements", and any sectIons £ntItIed "ÐedIcatIons". You must deIete aII
sectIons £ntItIed "£ndorsements."
6. CO¡¡ECT¡ONS OF DOC1MENTS
You may make a coIIectIon consIstInq oI the Ðocument and other documents reIeased under
thIs IIcense, and repIace the IndIvIduaI copIes oI thIs IIcense In the varIous documents
wIth a sInqIe copy that Is IncIuded In the coIIectIon, provIded that you IoIIow the ruIes oI
thIs IIcense Ior verbatIm copyInq oI each oI the documents In aII other respects.
You may extract a sInqIe document Irom such a coIIectIon, and dIstrIbute It IndIvIduaIIy
under thIs IIcense, provIded you Insert a copy oI thIs IIcense Into the extracted document,
and IoIIow thIs IIcense In aII other respects reqardInq verbatIm copyInq oI that document.
7. AGGHEGAT¡ON W¡TH ¡NDEPENDENT WOHKS
A compIIatIon oI the Ðocument or Its derIvatIves wIth other separate and Independent
documents or works, In or on a voIume oI a storaqe or dIstrIbutIon medIum, Is caIIed an
"aqqreqate" II the copyrIqht resuItInq Irom the compIIatIon Is not used to IImIt the IeqaI
rIqhts oI the compIIatIon's users beyond what the IndIvIduaI works permIt. When the
Ðocument Is IncIuded In an aqqreqate, thIs IIcense does not appIy to the other works In the
aqqreqate whIch are not themseIves derIvatIve works oI the Ðocument.
¡I the Cover Text requIrement oI sectIon 3 Is appIIcabIe to these copIes oI the Ðocument,
then II the Ðocument Is Iess than one haII oI the entIre aqqreqate, the Ðocument's Cover
Texts may be pIaced on covers that bracket the Ðocument wIthIn the aqqreqate, or the
eIectronIc equIvaIent oI covers II the Ðocument Is In eIectronIc Iorm. OtherwIse they must
appear on prInted covers that bracket the whoIe aqqreqate.
8. THANS¡AT¡ON
TransIatIon Is consIdered a kInd oI modIIIcatIon, so you may dIstrIbute transIatIons oI the
Ðocument under the terms oI sectIon 4. ÐepIacInq ¡nvarIant SectIons wIth transIatIons
requIres specIaI permIssIon Irom theIr copyrIqht hoIders, but you may IncIude transIatIons
oI some or aII ¡nvarIant SectIons In addItIon to the orIqInaI versIons oI these ¡nvarIant
SectIons. You may IncIude a transIatIon oI thIs IIcense, and aII the IIcense notIces In the
Ðocument, and any Warranty ÐIscIaImers, provIded that you aIso IncIude the orIqInaI
£nqIIsh versIon oI thIs IIcense and the orIqInaI versIons oI those notIces and dIscIaImers. ¡n
case oI a dIsaqreement between the transIatIon and the orIqInaI versIon oI thIs IIcense or a
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notIce or dIscIaImer, the orIqInaI versIon wIII prevaII.
¡I a sectIon In the Ðocument Is £ntItIed "AcknowIedqements", "ÐedIcatIons", or "IIstory",
the requIrement (sectIon 4) to Ireserve Its TItIe (sectIon 1) wIII typIcaIIy requIre chanqInq
the actuaI tItIe.
9. TEHM¡NAT¡ON
You may not copy, modIIy, subIIcense, or dIstrIbute the Ðocument except as expressIy
provIded Ior under thIs IIcense. Any other attempt to copy, modIIy, subIIcense or dIstrIbute
the Ðocument Is voId, and wIII automatIcaIIy termInate your rIqhts under thIs IIcense.
Iowever, partIes who have receIved copIes, or rIqhts, Irom you under thIs IIcense wIII not
have theIr IIcenses termInated so Ionq as such partIes remaIn In IuII compIIance.
10. F1T1HE HEV¡S¡ONS OF TH¡S ¡¡CENSE
The Iree SoItware IoundatIon may pubIIsh new, revIsed versIons oI the GÞ! Iree
ÐocumentatIon IIcense Irom tIme to tIme. Such new versIons wIII be sImIIar In spIrIt to the
present versIon, but may dIIIer In detaII to address new probIems or concerns. See
http.//www.qnu.orq/copyIeIt/.
£ach versIon oI the IIcense Is qIven a dIstInquIshInq versIon number. ¡I the Ðocument
specIIIes that a partIcuIar numbered versIon oI thIs IIcense "or any Iater versIon" appIIes to
It, you have the optIon oI IoIIowInq the terms and condItIons eIther oI that specIIIed versIon
or oI any Iater versIon that has been pubIIshed (not as a draIt) by the Iree SoItware
IoundatIon. ¡I the Ðocument does not specIIy a versIon number oI thIs IIcense, you may
choose any versIon ever pubIIshed (not as a draIt) by the Iree SoItware IoundatIon.
ÐetrIeved Irom
"http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/wIkI/ÐIender3Ð.ÞoobtoIro-AdvancedTutorIaIs/IrIntversIon"
ThIs paqe was Iast modIIIed 08.18, 12 AprII 2007.
AII text Is avaIIabIe under the terms oI the GÞ! Iree ÐocumentatIon IIcense (see
Copyr¡ghts Ior detaIIs).
WIkIbooks® Is a reqIstered trademark oI the WIkImedIa IoundatIon, ¡nc.

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